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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Hazards of Oil Polluttion Foreign Students Aparts from pollution coming from oil spills and intentional discharges cause by routine shipboards operation. Marine environment and shipboard personnel are both exposed to the hazard of damage and injuries, respectively. Charging associated with the carriage of oil.
The Hazards are described as follow: Fire Hazard It is not the oil itself that burns, but the vapors given off. If oil ignites, the vapor is given off by the liquid that burns. When vapor rises quickly, the vapor burns if there is sufficient air supply. Fire may cause severe injuries to shipboard personnel. It may also scatter on water surfaces where vapors are present and damage the marine organisms and structure. Explosion Hazard Carriage of oil exposes the ship to the possibility of explosion when appropriate safety measures are not undertaken. Explosion is the fire of a vapor air mixture. The mixture of vapor and air is only explosive within certain limits, which are called the lower explosive limit (LEL) or lower flammable limit (UFL). When explosion occurs, personnel on board the ship can be injured seriously. Explosion also destructs and sometimes destroys marine species living in the immediate vicinity of the watered areas where explosion occurred. Poisoning and Intoxication hazard Poisoning and intoxication risk are present when the vessel carries crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (HS). Middle East crude oils contain hydrogen sulfide (HS), white many other light products can cause intoxication when accidentically released. Shipboard personnel are in danger of direct physical contact in times of accident. They can be poisoned and intoxicated by inhalation and direct exposure. Living organisms in the immediate marine environment can be also seriously harmed. Some chemicals or substances kill fishes and other aquatic animals and organisms.
such as water surface where birds dive or swim are contaminated during oil spills can also cause the drowning of water fowls and other animals. which are the cheapest food of poor folks are oftentimes the most affected species. Personnel working in the areas are endangered. birds and other aquatic animals dwindled in number. EFFECTS OF OIL POLLUTION The effects of heavy and refined oil are the same. apart from the edible portion of the produce being tainted by dispersed oil and soluble components . Lighter products such as petrol or gasoline do stay in time marine environment for longer time. the accident can seriously damage living organism and manmade structure within the immediate areas of explosion because of the accidental release of oil into water. The following are the effects of oil spills: Elogical effects Physical and chemical changes in habitat One important ecological effect of oil spills especially then the accident happened close to the coastal areas. The explosion could result in fatalities. However.Electrostatic Charging When pumped through a pipeline at great speed. Aquaculture facilities could also be damaged by floating oil. They have tendencies to evaporate quickly. Again. is the physical and chemical changes to the habitat. They remain in the marine environment for considerable period of time and can be seen. Oil spills change aquatic habitat. . Cultured shellfishes. Caged fish and shellfish as well as cultured mollusks stand a high risk of being contaminated by soluble or dispersed oil fractions following an oil spill. People living in affected areas noted that fishes. oil may become charged and this could cause an explosion in a non-inerted tank. Due to incident of human poisoning from eating contaminated is longer present and despite clearance from the government authority. they could also create serious harm to marine environment. The impact of floating and sunken oil on fishing and aquaculture facilities is by fouling gear could contaminate the fish and aquaculture and produce and render them unsuitable as food. Aquatic habitats.
thereby decreasing their population. Bioaccumulation is the ability of an organism to concentrate an element to a level higher than the of its environment. The reproduction process of adult fishes is slow. Which inhabit near the shore can recover in a few weeks. Generally. Tainting may be encountered for a period from a few days to several months. . Fish could be tainted within a few hours of exposure to water with concentration of certain hydrocarbon level. salt beds. wherein oil penetrated the course sands of beaches through the tidal water. which later on affected their growth and reproduction capabilities. Larger sizes of marine species such as juvenile fishes are rarely seen in the areas affected by oil. This may also cause early deaths of organisms. For inter-tidal or benthic organism. Bioaccumulation factor is a quantitative way to express bioaccumulation. 1988). persist for many years (IMO Manual on Oil Pollution. Fishes. However. Fishes accumulate oily odors or flavors. Tainting of seafood is an unwelcome consequence of oil spills edible fraction of water is enriched in the components that can cause tainting. those resistant to oil normally undergo dramatic increase in population but there are fluctuations in the areas that are directly affected by oil pollution.There are also many reported cases. Damages to marshy areas or mangroves. Many studies have been reported on bioaccumulation of pertroleum-derived materials in marine organisms. This penetration affected the biota (plants and animals in the area) due to smothering or fouling especially during the early stages of oil spills in the water. These incidents led to edible of marine organisms. long exposure to oil also contaminated them. which used to inhabit the mangroves disappeared. recovery or restoration to normal condition of water and marine life is fast in the water. Recovery takes place many years later in the heavily impacted areas. when conditions return to normal. crustaceans and mollusks. on the other hand. these odors and flavors go off. With regard to fish. Bioaccumulation and Training Effects Another dangerous effects of oil spill in the ecology is the bioaccumulation and tainting. Repopulation is slow while some showed increments only in the second year. Tainting is ability of a product to be taken up an organism. which affects the taste or smell of seafood. even after a year of contamination. these go into their tissues. Plankton population (the small aquatic organisms and the basis of marine life). If organism survived the lethal or deadly effects of oil these organisms are contaminated these by the oil distances arising from in take activities. Oil even went mangroves. sheltered tidal flats and mud. When the organisms take in these oil substances.
altered liver function. including the type of oil spilled. affects the food chain in the ecosystem. while general aerobic bacteria (GAB) are aerobic. Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestions. The port loses income from berthing and loading discharging operations. bathing and diving in the sea areas are prohibited. Most birds affected by an oil spill die unless there is human intervention. Because oil floats on top of water. Commercial activities such as tourism and ports usually resume in much lesser time. up the structure of the plumage of birds. the temperature of the water (affecting evaporation and biodegradation). . Commercial vessels are not allowed to call the ports where pollutants are still present. CLEAN UP AND RECOVERY Clean up recovery from an oil is difficult and depends upon many factors. There are three kinds of oil-consuming bacteria. Oil coats the fur of sea otters and seals. It also impairs birds flight abilities to forage and escape from predators. Small fishermen whose economic sustenance depends on fishing zones close to the coasts are prohibited from fishing. reducing its insulating ability. However. and so making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. This. marine transportation port services and harbor activities. less sunlight penetrates into the water. This and the limited foraging ability quickly causes dehydration and metabolic imbalances. and digestive tract irritation. causing kidney damage. these commercial and economic activities are only temporary. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria are anaerobic. fishing. birds typically ingest oil that covers their feathers. and the types of shorelines and beaches involved. Other industries are affected. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS The oil penetrates. Hormonal balance alteration including changes in luteinizing protein can also result in some birds exposed to petroleum. such as tourism. as well as decreasing the fauna populations. Tourist cannot be accommodated to the coastal areas where beaches are polluted. and their biomass will tend to replace other populations in the food chain. As they attempt to preen. Marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds. limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. These bacteria occur naturally and will act to remove oil from an ecosystem.Social and \Economics Effects The social and economic utilization of the beaches and seas are deeply affected by oil spill because boating. reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia.
forming gel-like agglomerations. Kentucky) is being used by BP in granular form as well as in Marine and Sheen Booms on Dauphin Island. sheen is eliminated within minutes. Solidifiers have been proven to be relatively non-toxic to aquatic and wild life and have proven to suppress harmful vapors commonly associated with hydrocarbons such as Benzene. Dredging: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water.I Agent Solutions of Louisville.Methods for cleaning up include: Bioremediation: use of microorganisms or biological agents to break down or remove oil. But it can only be done in low. pre-existing. containing no bacteria. Whether applied on land or on water. or burned as a low ash fuel. Skimming: requires calm waters Solidifying: solidifiers are composed of dry hydrophobic polymers that both absorb and absorb. may cause less harm and may degrade more easily. with EPA tests showing 98% of alkanes biodegraded in 28 days. Methyl. Usually. Those specific bacteria break down the hydrocarbons into the water and carbon dioxide. due to the invasive nature of facilitated methods of remediation. By over spraying sheen with bioremediation accelerator. MS to aid in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill cleanup. natural attenuation of oil may be most appropriate . Dispersants acts as detergents. Xylene. Vacuum and centrifuge: oil can be sucked up along with the water. which chemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons. making the process more efficient. particularly in ecologically sensitive areas. clustering around oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water. hydrocarbonconsuming bacteria. including soluble such as phenols and BTEX. Watch and wait: in some cases. the nutrient-rich emulsion creates a bloom of local. AL and Fort Morgan. The reaction time for solidification of oil is controlled by the surf area or size of the polymer as well as the viscosity of the oil. if done properly.I Agent (manufactured by C. This improves the surface aesthetically. Undetectable levels of hydrocarbons can be obtained in produced water and manageable water columns. recycled as an additive in asphalt or rubber products. They clean up oil spills by changing the physical state of spilled oil from liquid to a semi-solid or a rubber-like materials that floats on water. Recent research indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals. Acetone and Naphtha. and then a centrifuge can be used to separate the oil from the water allowing a tanker to be filled with near pure oil. hydrophobic chemical. The bioremediation accelerator acts as a herding agent in water and on the surface. Bioremediation Accelerator: Oleaphilic. But the dispersed oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral. Some solidifier product manufactures claim the solidified oil can be disposed of in landfills. floating molecules to the surface of the water. Smaller oil droplets. scattered by currents. Solidifiers are insoluble in water. and can cause air pollution. and aromatics being biodegraded 200 times faster than in nature they also sometimes use the hydrofireboom to clean the oil up by taking it away from most of the oil and burning it. indigenous. Controlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water. and mobilizes the oil. Ethyl. the water is returned to the sea. A solidifier called a C. but allowing small amount of oil to go back as well. therefore the removal of the solidified oil is easy and the oil will not leach out. This issue is hampered the use of centrifuge due to a United States regulation limiting the amount .
treehugger.treehugger.edu/ ^ Less Than 1% of Oil-Soaked Birds Survive : TreeHugger . GlobalTwitcher. N. Stromberg.php.com. Magellanic Penguin .com/files/2010/06/less-1-percent-oil-soaked-birdssurvive.com.retrieved 2010-06-09.com www.google.wikipedia. SOURCE www.//seeps.geol. www.ucsb.of oil in water returned to the sea. . ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008).com ^http. ed.http://www.
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