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All the tools you will ever need for Life Data Analysis, and more...
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1 Weibull++ 6 Training Guide
1.1 About this Training Guide
This training guide is intended to provide you with many examples of Weibull++ 6. This training guide begins with step-by-step examples and then proceeds into more advanced examples and questions. At any time during the training, please feel free to ask the instructor(s) any questions you might have.
1.2 Weibull++ 6 Documentation
Like all of ReliaSoft's standard software products, Weibull++ 6 is shipped with detailed printed documentation on the product (Weibull++ 6 User's Guide) and the underlying principles and theory (ReliaSoft's Life Data Analysis Reference). This training guide is intended to be a supplement to those references.
1.3 Contacting ReliaSoft
ReliaSoft can be reached at: ReliaSoft Corporation ReliaSoft Plaza 115 South Sherwood Village Drive Tucson, AZ 85710 USA Phone: +1.520.886.0366 Fax: +1.520.886.0399 E-mail: Support@ReliaSoft.com For up-to-date product information, visit our Web site at: http://www.ReliaSoft.com
flexible and completely integrated work center designed around the Data Folio. non-parametric analysis and analysis of variance. complete. which is similar to Excel® Worksheets and Quattro Pro® Sheets. 2. right censored or suspended. . This section presents a brief summary of these features.1 Intuitive Work Environment ReliaSoft's Weibull++ 6 builds upon the strength of its predecessors and takes a quantum leap forward in features.e. 2. edit and manipulate data. Each Data Folio can contain up to 256 data sheets with over 16. First Steps. interval censored and multiply censored data) and enter the data individually or in groups of observations.2 Features Summary The examples included in this training guide have been designed to introduce you to the features available in Weibull++ Version 6. These utilities perform degradation analysis. Weibull++ includes all the tools and options you will need for life data analysis and provides support for all major life data types. create plots and perform analyses. Within the Data Folio. left censored. warranty analysis. If you are already familiar with Weibull++'s features. Each utility can be saved with the Data Folio so you can view and alter the data at any time and easily share your analysis with colleagues--all included in a single file. you can proceed to Chapter 3.2 Advanced Features Weibull++ 6 offers four new utilities that let you perform even more advanced analyses on your data. power and flexibility to deliver the new standard in life data analysis.000 data rows per sheet and can easily interface with other Microsoft Windows applications. Weibull++ 6's interface is an intelligent. You can easily analyze data from all censoring schemes (i. you can enter.
In addition. which allows you to view up to six different plots at a time in a single window. Weibull++ 6 offers Kaplan-Meier as an alternative ranking method.3. The Non-Parametric Analysis utility allows you to perform non-parametric data analysis using KaplanMeier. RS Draw has an improved and easier-to-use interface and offers a new custom arrow tool. The utility also helps you determine whether a change in output is due to a change in input or due to random error. ReliaSoft Draw. simple actuarial or standard actuarial techniques. Option to shade the upper and lower confidence bounds area on probability plots. allows you to take complete graphical control of all plots and graphics you create and to annotate and enhance any aspect of the plot.com . In Version 6. Likelihood Ratio Contour Plots for comparing different data sets. lognormal.3. In Version 6. Option to set and show the target reliability on plots.1 Analysis Methods Weibull ++ 6 now offers an additional life distribution. the graphing and plotting capabilities in Version 6 are even better! New features include: • • • • • Side-by-Side Plots tool. an integrated metafile graphics editor. This utility even gives you a summary of the generated forecast results.2 Plots and Graphics Always a strength of Weibull++. The Warranty Analysis utility allows you to quickly and easily convert shipping and warranty return data for a product into times-to-failure and suspension data. 2. 2. in addition to the Weibull. the Report Work Center has been redesigned and expanded and now provides the following: 4 http://Weibull. normal. Weibull++ 6 is also packed with enhancements to standard Weibull++ features that make analyzing data even easier. you can now use the competing failure modes analysis option to assign a separate distribution to each failure mode identified in your data set. 2. this utility also creates a plot of the analysis. You can generate report templates with fields that return results from linked data sheets. generalized gamma. Also.3 Additional Enhancements In addition to many new utilities. exponential and mixed Weibull distribution options. With the new version of Weibull++. You can also transfer the data to the Weibull++ Data Folio for further analysis. which can help you visualize the results.ReliaSoft.3 Custom Analyses and Reports ReliaSoft's Report Work Center allows you to streamline and automate report creation. allowing you to create a report of your analysis. You can calculate the reliability of a product at specific time periods and then generate non-parametric reliability vs. rank regression on Y and maximum likelihood estimation analysis methods. • • • 2. In addition to the rank regression on X.Features Summary Weibull++ 6 • The Degradation Analysis utility allows you to extrapolate the failure times of a product based on its performance over a period of time. time plots. you also have the ability to treat grouped data as individual data in rank regression.3. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) utility gives you a method to identify the cause and source(s) of variability during a process. Option to represent suspension data points on plots as well as the number in a group for grouped data. You can analyze the extrapolated failure times as times-to-failure data and transfer the data into the current Data Folio.
2. cell references and over 140 builtin functions. Ability to include tables with embedded fields.4 Quick Analysis Tools The Quick Calculation Pad (QCP) provides a quick and easy method for you to obtain results for frequently asked reliability questions. The Function Wizard includes multiple functions that return additional results from any referenced data set. You can also change the shape and location of any of the toolbars and customize the icons displayed in each toolbar. you can now keep the QCP open while you return to the current Data Folio to make modifications or change data sets and then continue to perform QCP calculations. Not only can you set many options within Weibull++ yourself. This allows you to be productive immediately. but Version 6 also offers three pre-set configuration settings. which is now easier to use and more automated. which now has an improved interface in Version 6. with complete in-cell formula support. all you need to analyze a complete data set is to type your data into the Data Entry Spreadsheet and click a single button to get the parameters and a probability plot.com 5 . In addition to data sheets and plot sheets. These are the Simple. Weibull++ Data Folios include general spreadsheets that can be used just like an Excel worksheet. In addition. The Non-Linear Equation Fit Solver allows you to quickly and easily solve user-defined equations using an iterative process.Features Summary Weibull++ 6 • • • Ability to reference fields from multiple data sets in a single report. you can be up and running from the moment Weibull++ 6 is installed.ReliaSoft. ReliaSoft's Weibull++ comes with complete and detailed on-line help files as well as a multitude of example files and guides designed to get you up and http://Weibull. ReliaSoft's new advanced Function Wizard can be used with the General Spreadsheet and Report Work Center to generate a variety of calculated results. The Function Wizard in Weibull++ 6 is now capable of nesting these functions. Option to automatically insert plots into the reports.5 User Customization In addition to these new utilities and enhancements.3. you can set which tools and options you want displayed in the Data Folio's Control Panel. Weibull++'s Design of Reliability Tests (DRT) tool. Weibull++ 6 also offers an array of customization options. You can hide or display any of the panels or toolbars. without the normal downtime you would expect when learning a new software application. 2. which allows you to combine multiple functions to create a composite function that meets your particular requirements. as well as the given tips and wizards. depending on the level of data analysis you are performing and your familiarity with the application. helps you to determine the appropriate sample size. It's that easy! In addition. the DRT includes carpet plots for better visualization of the results. 2. the solver fits data to any user-defined function and can automatically detect the parameters of the equation and provide plotted outputs of the results. With Weibull++ 6. which allow you to configure the application to meet your particular needs. In Version 6. For example. Intermediate and Expert settings. so you don't have to spend time looking them up in tables.4 Easy to Use Using the familiar Windows interface. including reliability or probability of failure for a specific mission time or specified time range. Weibull++'s Quick Statistical Reference (QSR) tool. test duration or any other variable related to a reliability demonstration test. returns a variety of statistical values such as Median Ranks and Polynomial Interpolation Funtion values. Each setting has an effect on your data analysis options and the tools that are displayed in the application. New and improved for Version 6. You can also use the Function Wizard to insert plot graphics into your reports and analyses.3.
Minimum system requirements are a Pentium class processor with 32 MB RAM. Windows 2000 and Windows XP and takes full advantage of the features available in these platforms. Complete and detailed printed documentation and an accompanying Life Data Analysis reference book are also included.ReliaSoft.5 System Requirements Weibull++ is compiled and designed for Windows 98. Windows NT. Windows Me.com .Features Summary Weibull++ 6 running quickly. SVGA display and at least 35 MB of hard disk space. 6 http://Weibull. 2.
Windows 2000 and Windows XP. the Weibull++ internal screens and commands are identical regardless of which operating system you are using. . To start Weibull++.3 First Steps 3.1 Starting Weibull++ 6 Weibull++ 6 has been designed to work with Windows 98. from Start select Programs. and this manual is equally applicable. Windows Me. ReliaSoft Office. The figures used in this manual are all from Windows 98. Windows NT. However. Weibull++ and then Weibull++ 6.
To verify that your application is configured with Expert settings or to change the settings selection to Expert. You will be prompted to choose a setting when you first run Weibull++ 6. The MDI serves as the container for all of the Data Folios you will use to analyze your data. 3.com . you can always change or modify the setting within the application at any point from the User Setup. Depending on the level of data analysis you are performing and your familiarity with the application.ReliaSoft. The Data Folio. Intermediate or Expert settings.2 Multiple Document Interface The Multiple Document Interface (MDI) is the main window and "manager" for Weibull++.4 Weibull++ Configuration Settings Weibull++ 6 provides many powerful features and several customization options that allow you to manage Weibull++'s features in a way that most completely and efficiently meets your particular needs. you may choose to configure the application with the Simple.3 Getting Help in the Weibull++ Environment ReliaSoft's Weibull++ includes complete on-line help documentation.000 data rows per sheet. The appearance of the MDI will vary depending on the window(s) currently open and on the configuration settings that you have established. Closing the MDI has the same effect as terminating the program. on your data analysis options and on the tools that are displayed on the MDI toolbars and on the Folio Control Panel. is very much like an Excel Workbook. manages the different active windows and keeps track of each data set. The Folio works very much like a folder within a filing cabinet where the MDI is the filing cabinet. This help can be obtained at any time by pressing F1 or by selecting Contents from the Help menu. To make customization as simple as possible. Each setting has an effect on how you create a new Data Entry Spreadsheet. The MDI remains open until you close the program.First Steps Weibull++ 6 3. The Expert setting is used for the examples contained in this training manual. Weibull++ gives you the option of working with one of three different pre-set configurations for the application. However. The Folio contains all the data. Data entry is performed within a Data Folio. Each Folio can contain up to 256 sheets with over 16. 3. do the following: 8 http://Weibull. The next figure shows the MDI of Weibull++ Version 6 with the Expert configuration settings established. or Folio. plots and spreadsheets associated with a particular file name.
In the User Setup window. the General page. • • http://Weibull. • If the red Expert button on the right side of the window is selected. will be those associated with the Expert configuration. A window will appear explaining that you need to re-start the application in order for the change to take effect. Click OK to close the Default Settings window and OK to close the User Setup window. When you re-start the application. the tools that are displayed on the MDI toolbars and on the Folio Control Panel.ReliaSoft.com 9 . as well as some analysis and other settings. Shut down the application by selecting Exit from the File menu. click the Modify Default Presets button. click OK to return to the MDI. then the appropriate default configuration has already been set on your computer. A window like the one shown next will appear. click the Expert button in the Default Settings window and then click OK. • From the first page of the User Setup window. You are ready to proceed with the examples in this guide.First Steps Weibull++ 6 • Select User Setup from the File menu to open Weibull++'s User Setup window. Click OK. If the Expert configuration is not currently selected for your application.
com . the Data Type Expert feature allows you to quickly and easily select the appropriate data type. use the Data Folio page of the User Setup to indicate this preference. The data set is non-grouped and you have exact times-to-failure. If you prefer to use this window to create Data Entry Spreadsheets. Weibull++ always remembers your preference. • You will create a Data Entry Spreadsheet within the new Data Folio with times-to-failure data without suspensions. Select Yes. The next window asks if you have any suspended units in your data set. For users who are familiar with the format of the Data Type Expert from Weibull++ 5. • • 10 http://Weibull. The Data Type Wizard allows you to move step-by-step through a series of questions designed to determine the type of Data Entry Spreadsheet that will be appropriate for your data.5. If you are unsure of the data type to be entered. use the Data Sheet Wizard. 46. If you are an experienced user and know the data type to be used. The second window asks whether you will be entering times-to-failure/suspension data or freeform data. or by selecting New from the File menu.5 Weibull++. this window is also available. 123. I am entering times-to-failure data and click NEXT >. The Data Type Expert allows you to use buttons to select whether you will enter Time-to-Failure and Suspensions data or Freeform data.First Steps Weibull++ 6 3. The Data Type Wizard window will appear like the one shown next. Select No and click NEXT >. you can click the Data Type Expert button in the upper right corner of the window.ReliaSoft. If you already know what type of data you are dealing with. Do the following: • Open a new Folio by clicking the New icon.1 A Quick Overview Example This section presents you with a very simple example and guides you through the solution. A Familiarization 3.0. 105 and 150 hr. The test case for this example: Six units were reliability tested and the following times-to-failure were observed: 64. Click NEXT > to proceed to the second window in the Data Type Wizard. 83. which helps you select the type of Data Entry Spreadsheet you want to create in your Folio.
http://Weibull. Enter the data in the first column of the Data Entry Spreadsheet under Time Failed. In this case.First Steps Weibull++ 6 • • • • The next window asks if you want to enter the data in groups. The Data Type Wizard has now determined the type of data you will be entering in the Data Entry Spreadsheet. The default distribution is the 2-parameter Weibull distribution. Note that the times-to-failure do not need to be sorted. select No. as shown next (leave the Subset ID column blank for now). The next window asks you if the data are given in intervals. We assume that you have not changed any of the default settings. Also. each entry will be unique and click NEXT >. The Data Entry Spreadsheet is where all the data are entered in the Folio. • The next step is to select a distribution and parameter estimation method to calculate the parameters. You can check this by looking at the Parameter Estimation Method and Regression Method boxes at the bottom of the Main page of the Control Panel. Select No. Therefore.com 11 . the failure times are given as exact times.ReliaSoft. the Data Entry Spreadsheet will appear. the application will automatically do this for you. • The default parameter estimation method is Rank Regression on X (RRX) and the regression method will be standard regression (SRM). notice that the 2-parameter option has been selected under Parameters/Type. You can verify this on the Main page of the Data Folio Control Panel by noticing that the Weibull button is RED and is therefore selected. I have exact times and click NEXT >. as shown next. Click Finish to generate the Folio. Once the Folio has been generated.
First Steps Weibull++ 6 • You can also verify this by clicking the Set Analysis page index tab and noticing that Rank Regression on X (RRX) is selected and Use RS Regression Method is not selected. or by selecting Plot Probability from the Data menu. The Data Entry Spreadsheet with its parameters calculated is shown next. which is located just below the Parameters/Type options. If you click the Plot icon before the parameters have been calculated. • or by selecting Calculate Parameters from the Data menu. you can calculate the parameters by clicking the Calculate icon. 1. RRY or MLE) by clicking the Parameter Estimation Method Box and between regression methods by clicking the Regression Method Box. • Plot the data by clicking the Plot icon. Once the distribution.1 Now return to the Main page of the Folio Control Panel by clicking the Main page index tab. the application will automatically calculate the parameters and then plot the data. 12 http://Weibull.ReliaSoft. Besides choosing an option from the Set Analysis page. The results will appear in the Results Area.com . you can switch between parameter estimation methods (RRX. number of parameters and parameter estimation method have been selected.
You will now be looking at the MDI without any Folios open. number of parameters. save the data file as 1stStep. The values of the parameters for the data set are located in the bottom left corner of the plot.First Steps Weibull++ 6 You will now have a window with the Weibull probability plot on your screen. To do this. In the Save Data to a Weibull Folio window. close the Folio by clicking the close button (X) in the upper right corner of the Folio or by selecting Close from the File menu.RW6 after the filename.rw6. ranking method and the number of failures and suspensions. Weibull++ will do this for you if you do not provide a file extension. enter 1stStep for the filename and press OK. • After saving the file.ReliaSoft. parameter estimation method. as shown next. You can toggle the option to display the legend and results on the plot by selecting/de-selecting Show Results and Legends from the Plot Options menu. The plot appears within the Plot Sheet. as shown next.com 13 . A legend that presents information about the data being plotted is displayed in the upper right corner of the plot. • At this time. or select Save from the File menu. You do not have to include . click the Save icon. regression method. This includes the distribution. http://Weibull.
34. Four other units were still operating. 75.1 General Examples 4. 4. • The Data Type Expert will appear. either reset the default configuration setting to Expert or click the Reset Registry Settings button on the General page of the User Setup. after 120 hr.1 Example 1 Ten identical units were reliability tested at the same application and operation stress levels. click the Data Type Expert button in the upper right corner of the window to open the Data Type Expert. Six of these units failed during the test after operating for the following times.e.1. Determine the parameters of the Weibull pdf that represents this data set and create the Probability and pdf plots. Weibull++ configuration settings are presented in detail in Chapter 3. If you have changed any of your settings. right censored or suspended.4 Step-by-Step Examples Please note that these examples use the default registry settings that are associated with the Expert setting. i. If the Data Type Wizard opens instead. Solution • Create a new Data Folio by selecting New from the File menu or by clicking the New icon. T j : 16. 93 and 120. . 53.
If you enter a positive time value. as shown next. Enter the state of the unit when it was removed from the test. Make sure that RRX is displayed in the Parameter 1. You do not have to enter the state (F or S) capitalized.com . Enter the times-tofailure in the Time to F or S column. Make sure that Weibull is selected. • Enter the data in the Data Entry Spreadsheet.ReliaSoft. in the State F or S column.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Select the Times to Failure and the with Right Censored Data (Suspensions) options. the application will automatically do this for you. Weibull++ provides a shortcut for entering right censored data. F for failure and S for suspension (right censored). 16 http://Weibull.1 • The 2-parameter Weibull distribution and Rank Regression on X (RRX) will be used to calculate the parameters. the state is automatically assigned an S for suspended. If you enter a negative time value. the state is automatically assigned an F for a failure. then click OK to open a Data Folio with the appropriate Data Entry Spreadsheet..
ReliaSoft. • • If you switched to the Set Analysis page of the Folio Control Panel to change the parameter estimation method. If RRX is not displayed.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 Estimation Method box. or by selecting Calculate Parameters from the Data menu. return to the Main page by clicking the Main page index tab. switch to the Set Analysis page and select Rank Regression on X (RRX). Calculate the parameters by clicking the Calculate icon. The results will appear in the Results area.com 17 . as shown next. http://Weibull.
Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Plot the data by clicking the Plot icon. 144. 18 http://Weibull.2097 T f ( T ) = --------------------. the 2-parameter Weibull pdf representing this data set can be written as: β T .ReliaSoft. 144. Q(T).3631 • 1.3631 144. The Weibull Probability plot for this data set is shown next. γ . or by selecting Plot Probability from the Data menu.3631 e You can also plot the Weibull pdf by selecting Pdf Plot from the Special Plot Type drop-down menu located on the Plot Sheet Control Panel. If the straight line does indeed represent the points. Note that the plotted line represents the unreliability.2097 – --------------------. η β e 1. as in this case. η η or T β – 1 – -. --------------------. If desired.f ( T ) = -.2097 T - 0. -. then the location parameter. which is defined as: Q(T) = 1 – R(T) where R(T) is the reliability.com . is zero.
1.50. n 2 are degrees of freedom) http://Weibull.ReliaSoft.F Q . The Quick Statistical Reference is presented in detail in Chapter 18 of the User's Guide. This will demonstrate two of the built-in functions contained in the Quick Statistical Reference. • Now save this Folio as Example1. Solution • From the theoretical rank equation.com 19 . 4.2 Example 2 Determine the Median Rank value for the sixth failure from a sample size of 10.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 The pdf plot is shown next.rw6 and then close the Folio. with Q = 0. where Q is the probability of failure: 1 MR = ----------------------------------------------------N – j + 1 1 + -------------------.n2 j For this example: N = 10 (sample size) j = 6 (failure) n 1 = 2 ( 10 – 6 + 1 ) = 10 And: n 2 = 2 × 6 = 12 ( n 1.n1 .
5483 5 -. The results are shown next.× 0.50 .Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 Therefore: 1 MR = ---------------------------------------- 5 F 1 + -.ReliaSoft.9886 1+ 6 Therefore: MR( % ) = 54.9886 Consequently: 1 MR = ---------------------------------.12 6 • The value of F needs to be determined.50 . or by selecting More Tools then Quick Statistical Reference from the Tools menu.83 % 20 http://Weibull.10 . n 2 and Q in the appropriate text boxes and then click Calculate.= 0. Select Inverse F-Distribution Values as the Function Option.0. The value of F was found to be: F 0. The value of F can be calculated using the Inverse F-Distribution function. Open the Quick Statistical Reference by clicking its icon located on the General Tools toolbar. Input the values for n 1 .com . This can be done using the Quick Statistical Reference (QSR).12 = 0.10 .
http://Weibull. starting the mission at T = 0? Solution There are several methods of solution for this problem. or by selecting Open from the File menu. • Open Example1. For this example. let's obtain the information from within the application. Select Median Ranks as the Function Option and input the appropriate values for the sample size and order number (j).ReliaSoft. Click Calculate to obtain the result.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Another method to calculate the Median Ranks is to use the Median Ranks function directly. as shown next. This can be done using ReliaSoft Draw (RS Draw).rw6 by clicking the Open icon. It is possible to extract the information from a plot within Weibull++ or from a printed copy. The first and more laborious method is to extract the information directly from the plot. 4.3 Example 3 What is the unreliability of the units in Example 1 for a mission duration of 226 hr.com 21 .8306 % • Close the Quick Statistical Reference by clicking the Close button. The value of MR was found to be: MR( % ) = 54.1.
com . read off the value of the y-coordinate. click the RS Draw icon. • • Click Open to open the file. First. While viewing the probability plot. or select ReliaSoft Draw from the Tools menu. the probability plot is needed to answer this question.rw6. When the x-coordinate reads approximately 226. however. You may not be able to obtain the value of the unreliability at exactly 226 hr. Next. located on the Plot Sheet Control Panel.ReliaSoft.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Select Example1. select the Auto Refresh option. The x-coordinate (time) is displayed on the left and the y-coordinate (unreliability) is displayed on the right. RS Draw can automatically track the position of the mouse cursor and translate the coordinates for you. The position of the cursor is indicated by the Position Indicator located in the lower right corner of the RS Draw window. select Probability-Weibull from the Special Plot Type drop-down menu. The pdf plot will be displayed. The Data Folio you created in Example 1 will appear like the one shown next. 22 http://Weibull. • Click the Plot of Data 1 page index tab to open the plot of the data. Obtain the unreliability at T = 226 hr by placing the cursor at the intersection of the plotted line and T = 226. RS Draw is presented in detail in Chapter 12 of the User's Guide. as shown next.
Prob. The second method involves the use of the Quick Calculation Pad (QCP). Open the Quick Calculation Pad by clicking its icon located on the Folio Control Panel's Main page. Then. The position of the cursor at the intersection of the plotted line and T = 226 is shown below. Calculations under Options for Calculations. http://Weibull. the unreliability Q(T). When the QCP appears. select Results as Probability of Failure.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 This is one of the disadvantages of reading the value off the plot.ReliaSoft.82 = 0. The value of the y-coordinate from the Position Indicator. a good estimate of the probability of failure (unreliability) at 226 hr is 82%. The Quick Calculation Pad is presented in detail in Chapter 22 of the User's Guide.com 23 . • Under Results Option. The reliability is then: R ( T ) = 1 – Q ( T ) = 1 – 0. is such that Q ( T ) ≅ 82 %.18 or 18 % • • Close the RS Draw window by clicking the close button and return to the Data Entry Spreadsheet by clicking the Data 1 page index tab. select Std. do the following: • On the Basic Calculations page. or by selecting Quick Calculation Pad from the Tools menu.
using the QCP obviously is more accurate and easier to use. select Std. select Results as Reliability. 30hr ) = -------------------------------------. or by selecting Quick Calculation Pad from the Tools menu.1. 4. • Under Results Option. 24 http://Weibull. type 226 for the Mission End Time.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Under Required Input From User. However. Prob. what is the reliability for a mission duration of t = 30 hr. R(T + t) R ( T. what is the warranty time for a reliability of 85%? Solution The functions used to find the reliability are shown below.ReliaSoft.4 Example 4 Using Example1. t ) = ------------------R(T) ˆ ˆ R ( 30hr + 30hr ) R ( 60hr ) ˆ R ( 30hr.rw6. Calculations.= -------------------ˆ ˆ R ( 30hr ) R ( 30hr ) • Open the Quick Calculation Pad by clicking its icon located on the Folio Control Panel's Main page. starting the mission at T = 30 hr? Also. The QCP returns a result of Q ( T ) = 0.8209 ≅ 82 %. Click Calculate to obtain the results shown below. Do the following: • On the Basic Calculations page.rw6 open. This agrees with the result found using the plot. • Close the QCP by clicking Close but leave Example1.com .
enter a Mission End Time = 30 and click Calculate to obtain the reliability at t =30 hr.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Enter a Mission End Time = 60. ˆ R ( 60 – hr ) = 0.com 25 . ˆ R ( 30hr ) = 0. Click Calculate to obtain the results shown below.7077 • Again using the QCP.ReliaSoft.8612 http://Weibull.
Divide the reliability at 60 hr by the reliability at 30 hr and you will obtain the reliability for this example.
0.7077 ˆ R ( 30hr, 30hr ) = --------------- = 0.8218 0.8612 ˆ R ( 30hr, 30hr ) = 82.18 %
The reliability is 82.18%. However, the Quick Calculation Pad can provide this result directly and more efficiently. The Std. Prob. Calculations are based on a starting mission time, T, equal to zero. This example had a starting mission time equal to T = 30 hr. A starting mission time greater than zero can be accounted for using Conditional Calculations. • Do the following: • Select Conditional Calculations under Options for Calculations. • Enter a Mission Start Time = 30 and the Mission Additional Time = 30. • Click Calculate to obtain the result. as shown next.
The reliability is equal to 82.18%. This is the same result found previously. The second part of this example involves determining the warranty time for a reliability of 85%. • Do the following: • On the Basic Calculations page, select Warranty (Time) Information. • Enter a Required Reliability = 0.85.
• Click Calculate to obtain the results.
The time required for a reliability of 85% is equal to 32.1482. • Close the QCP by clicking Close. Close the Folio but do not save your changes.
4.2 3-Parameter Weibull Analysis
The 3-parameter option calculates the correct γ and adjusts the points by this value, such that they fall on a straight line, and then plots both the adjusted and the unadjusted points.
4.2.1 Example 5
Ten identical units, N = 10, were reliability tested at the same application and operation stress levels. Six of these units failed during the test after operating for the following times, T j : 46, 64, 83, 105, 123 and 150. The four other units were suspended after operating for 150 hr. Using the 3-parameter Weibull distribution and Rank Regression on X (RRX), find the parameters of the Weibull pdf that represents these data points. Solution • Open a new Folio by clicking the New icon,
or by selecting New from the File menu. Use the Data Type Expert, Data Type Wizard or Quick Data Type Set window to create a Data Entry Spreadsheet that can be used to analyze the data for this example.
Enter the data as you did previously in Example 1. The Data Entry Spreadsheet with the entered data is shown next.
Select the Weibull distribution and the 3-parameter option under Parameters/Type, as shown next.
Check the Parameter Estimation Method box to see if RRX is displayed. If RRX is not displayed, go to the Set Analysis page of the Data Folio Control Panel and select Rank Regression on X (RRX) or click the Parameter Estimation Method box until RRX is displayed. Return to the Data Folio Control Panel Main page if you are not already there. • Calculate the parameters by clicking the Calculate icon,
or by selecting Calculate Parameters from the Data menu.
The calculated parameters are shown next.
Plot the data by clicking the Plot icon,
or by selecting Plot Probability from the Data menu.
you must add the value of γ to the x-axis value found at (T . simply open a new Folio by clicking the New icon. Note that the original data points. 30 http://Weibull. If two lines do not appear on the plot by default.γ ). • Save the Folio as Example5. select to display both the adjusted for Gamma and unadjusted for Gamma Weibull 3P points and lines from the Show Points and Show Plot Line submenus under the Plot Options menu. to obtain the time (T) required for a given unreliability level using the straight line.com . 2. plotted along the curved line.2 Also note. Data Type Wizard or Quick Data Type Set window to create a Data Entry Spreadsheet that can be used to analyze grouped data with times-tofailure (no censoring).ReliaSoft.3 Grouped Data Analysis To use Weibull++ 6 to analyze grouped data. or by selecting New from the File menu. that the x-axis for the plot is T .92 hr to yield the straight line. Therefore. as shown next.γ . were adjusted by γ = 30. 4. one adjusted for Gamma and one not adjusted for Gamma.rw6 and then close the Folio.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 The plot of the data will appear. Use the Data Type Expert.
200 and 300 hr respectively. ten units failed by 100 hr.3. The available parameter estimation methods as they apply to grouped data are discussed next.2.com 31 . respectively.ReliaSoft. 4.e. the 20th rank position out of 30 and the 30th rank position out of 30.1 Entering Grouped Data Grouped data are entered similarly to individual data.000 hr. or the 10th rank position out of 30. 5 failed at 800 hr and 5 failed at 1. you need to specify the number of units in each group within the Number in State column. the 20th and the 30th.3.2. the three plotted points will be the end point of each group. However. (This procedure is identical to standard procedures for using grouped data in rank regression and is equivalent to saying what is the probability of the 10th failure out of a sample size of 30. Weibull++ plots the data point corresponding to the highest rank position in each group. http://Weibull. One failed at 200 hr.000 hr reliability test. each failing at 100. i. Every 200 hr. 4 failed at 600 hr. were put through a 1. it is recommended that you enter the data as interval data. 4. each individual time is explicitly used in the calculation of the parameters. another ten units failed between 100 and 200 hr and another ten failed between 200 hr and 300 hr.3 Example 6 Seventeen units. if there is uncertainty as to the exact times at which the units failed.2 Analyzing Grouped Data The results you get with grouped data will vary depending on the analysis method you use. however. 2 failed at 400 hr.1 Using Rank Regression When using Rank Regression (Least Squares).2 Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation When using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE).3.) 4. given three groups of ten units.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 4. Find the parameters of the 2-parameter Weibull pdf representing this data set using Rank Regression on X and Maximum Likelihood Estimation.3. N = 17. the number of units that failed were counted. 4. thus there is no difference in the entry of a group of ten units failing at 100 hr and 10 individual entries of 100 hr.3. In other words.
The Parameter Estimation Method Box will toggle from RRX to RRY and then to MLE. Click the Calculate icon to calculate the parameters. Return to the Main page. You can also go to the Set Analysis page and select Maximum Likelihood (MLE). The next figure displays the results.com . 3.ReliaSoft. the Use all data if grouped option should not be selected on the Set Analysis page of the Data Folio Control Panel. Switch to MLE by clicking the Parameter Estimation Method Box twice. 32 http://Weibull. Click the Calculate icon to calculate the parameters. For this example. • Now calculate the parameters using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE). • As you can see. The results are shown next. the results found using RRX and MLE are very different.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 Solution • Using the previously entered grouped data. select Rank Regression on X (RRX) as the parameter estimation method.3 RRX will be displayed within the Parameter Estimation Method box.
five units failed at 200 hr. three units failed at 300 hr. as shown next. Use the 2-parameter exponential distribution and Rank Regression on X as the parameter estimation method to calculate the parameters.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Save the Folio as Example6. N = 20.4. Time plot. Solution • Open a new Folio.com 33 . Enter the data into the appropriate Data Entry Spreadsheet and select Exponential as the distribution to be used.1 Example 7 Twenty units. 4. • Obtain the Failure Rate vs.4 Looking At Other Distributions and Functions 4. one unit failed at 500 hr and two units failed at 600 hr. • Obtain the pdf plot. were reliability tested with the following times-to-failure: seven units failed at 100 hr.rw6 and then close it. two units failed at 400 hr. • Obtain the Reliability vs. http://Weibull. • Obtain the Exponential Probability plot. Time plot. Do the following: • Enter the data.ReliaSoft.
34 http://Weibull. The calculated parameters are shown next. • Plot the data.com .Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Select the 2-parameter option and Rank Regression on X as the parameter estimation method. The Exponential Probability plot is shown below. Calculate the parameters by clicking the Calculate icon.ReliaSoft.
Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Obtain the Reliability vs.com 35 . Time plot by selecting Reliability vs Time from the Special Plot Type dropdown menu. • Select Pdf Plot from the Special Plot Type menu to obtain the pdf plot.ReliaSoft. http://Weibull. as shown next. Time plot is shown next. The Reliability vs.
2 Example 8 Six units were tested to failure and the following times-to-failure were observed: 11. If the Auto Refresh option is not selected.825. 12.ReliaSoft. press Enter if the Auto Refresh option is selected.550 and 14.125.080. enter the new value within the appropriate input box. Time plot is shown next.com .260.rw6 and close the Folio.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Select Failure Rate vs Time from the Special Plot Type menu to obtain the Failure Rate vs. click the Refresh icon. Time plot. • • To re-activate the automatic scaling. 12. 12. 36 http://Weibull. de-select the Automatic Scaling option below the scaling boxes to disable the automatic scaling. • First. Do the following: • Determine the parameters for the data using the normal distribution and Rank Regression on X as the parameter estimation method. This will activate the X and Y scaling boxes. 4.670 hr. Assume the data are normally distributed. Next. Save the Folio as Example7. The Failure Rate vs. • You can change the scaling of the plots using the X and Y scaling boxes located on the Plot Sheet Control Panel. select the Automatic Scaling option and refresh the plot. 13. After typing the new value.4. The plot will be redrawn to the new scale settings.
• Create the Normal Probability plot by clicking the Plot icon. • Next. as shown next.ReliaSoft.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Obtain the Normal Probability plot for the data with 90%. 2-sided Time (Type 1) confidence bounds. Enter the data into the appropriate Data Entry Spreadsheet. plot the confidence bounds by selecting Confidence Bounds and then Show Confidence Bounds from the Plot Options menu. The Confidence Bounds window will appear. Solution • Open a new Folio. • Obtain the pdf plot. Calculate the parameters. Under Sides. http://Weibull. Select Normal as the distribution and set RRX as the parameter estimation method. The next figure displays the results.com 37 . The Probability plot is shown next.
Finally. The Confidence Level set at (in%) will be set at 90%. The Probability plot with confidence bounds is shown next. simply type 90 in the text box. select Time (Type I). click OK. If it is not. 38 http://Weibull. The plot legend now contains information about the confidence bounds that have been plotted.ReliaSoft.com .Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 select Two Sided and under Type.
• You can use the Std. as well as the two-sided 90% confidence bounds on this reliability. The pdf plot is shown next.rw6 and return to the Data Entry Spreadsheet by clicking the Data 1 page index tab. as well as the two-sided 90% confidence bounds on this MTBF.ReliaSoft. or by selecting Quick Calculation Pad from the Tools menu. 4.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Plot the pdf plot. Calculations to solve the first part of this question. do the following: • Determine the reliability for a mission of 11. This Folio will be used for the next example. • Save the Folio as Example8.com 39 . Select Std. since reliability is the answer required. Open the QCP by clicking its icon located on the Folio Control Panel's Main page. • Determine the MTBF.4. Prob.3 Example 9 Using the data and results from the previous example. Prob. http://Weibull. Calculations and Results as Reliability.000 hr. Solution • You can easily obtain these results using the Quick Calculation Pad.
click the Confidence Bounds tab. 40 http://Weibull. Finally. Select Show Confidence Bounds and more options will become available. as shown next.com .Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Since confidence bounds are also required.ReliaSoft. Select Two Sided and type . click Calculate to obtain the results as shown below.90 for the Confidence Level. Enter 11000 for the Mission End Time. • Return to the Basic Calculations page of the QCP.
ReliaSoft. incremented by 1. http://Weibull. • Exit the QCP by clicking Close. Click Calculate. obtain tabulated values for the failure rate for ten different mission end times.com 41 .000 hr. Select Mean Life.000 hr. The mission end times are 1. The results are shown next. The General Spreadsheet is very similar to an Excel Spreadsheet.90.000 to 10.4 Example 10 Using the data from Example 8. Solution • You can easily accomplish this via the use of the Function Wizard within the General Spreadsheet. You can input formulas and edit the cells in the same manner.4. The Confidence Level is already set at 0. but leave the Folio open. 4.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • You can solve the second part of this problem using the Mean Life calculation option.
42 http://Weibull.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • To insert a General Spreadsheet.com . select Insert General Spreadsheet from the Folio menu. open the Function Wizard by clicking its icon located on the Spreadsheet Tools toolbar. as shown next.ReliaSoft. The Folio will look like the figure below. The Function Wizard is presented in detail in Chapter 25 of the User's Guide. Scroll down through the list of functions and select Failure Rates for range of times. or by selecting Function Wizard from the Tools menu. Note that the functions are in alphabetical order. • Next.
• Click OK to place the table into the General Spreadsheet. Start T. as shown next. http://Weibull.com 43 . The CL will remain at 0. End T and 1000 for the Iter..ReliaSoft. Incr. as shown next.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • In the available input boxes. 10000 for the Iter. or by selecting Save from the File menu. • Save the Folio by clicking the Save icon. enter 1000 for the Iter.9. Then close the Folio.
com .48 63.24 52. select the Times to Failure.32 63. within the Data Type Expert.4.12 19.40 39.12 19. with Interval and Left Censored Data and with Grouped Observations buttons. • The Log-Likelihood Function surface plot can be obtained by clicking the 3D Plot icon located on the Folio Control Panel's Main page.64 35.64 35.40 39. The next figure shows the data entered and the parameters calculated.5 Example 11 Consider the interval data given below. For example. Number in State 5 16 12 18 18 2 6 17 73 Last Inspected 0 6. or by selecting ReliaSoft 3D (LK Function) from the Tools menu.92 29.24 52.48 Determine the parameters of the 2-parameter Weibull distribution using Maximum Likelihood Estimation and obtain the 3D Log-Likelihood Function surface plot.48 State F F F F F F F F S State End Time 6.32 63. with Right Censored Data (Suspensions). The data represent the inspection times of 167 identical parts in a machine and the number of them found cracked at the end of each inspection time.72 45.92 29.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 4.ReliaSoft.72 45. 44 http://Weibull. Solution • Enter the data in the appropriate Data Entry Spreadsheet.
Save the Folio as Example11.com 45 . Close the 3D Plot by clicking the Close icon located on the toolbar. hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse around to rotate the plot.ReliaSoft.rw6 and then close the Folio. Then. • • http://Weibull. while pressing the CTRL key. • To rotate the plot. first click the plot.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 The next figure shows the 3D Log-Likelihood Function surface plot. Note that the peak of the surface is at the center of the beta-eta plane.
it was decided to run an accelerated test for this product. • Estimate the parameters for the Eyring model.com . testing under these conditions is not time-wise feasible. starting the mission at T = 0 and at the operating temperature (323K)? Solution • Enter the data into the appropriate data sheet.000 hr. The calculated parameters for the combined data are shown next.ReliaSoft.6 Example 12 A new product was reliability tested. • What is the reliability of the unit for a mission duration of 9. hr Do the following: • Determine the parameters of the 2-parameter Weibull distribution at each stress level using Rank Regression on X. A table of the data obtained from the test for three different operating stress levels is given below. K 393K 3850 4340 4760 5320 5740 6160 6580 7140 7980 8960 408K 3300 3720 4080 4560 4920 5280 5640 6120 6840 7680 423K 2750 3100 3400 3800 4100 4400 4700 5100 5700 6400 Times-to-failure. enter the corresponding temperatures for each time-to-failure.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 4. The operating temperature for this product is 323K (50°C) and temperature is the only acceleration variable. Since the life of this product under operating conditions is expected to be more than 15.4. 46 http://Weibull. Stress Level.000 hr. In the Subset ID column. For this reason.
ReliaSoft. You can change the heading of the Subset ID column. row headings and page index tabs in the same manner. The Batch Auto Run uses the Subset IDs to extract the data. The following window will appear. Batch Auto Run is presented in detail in Chapter 24 of the User's Guide. as shown above.com 47 . or by selecting Batch Auto Run from the Data menu. A window that allows you to change the heading will appear. Not all of the data that are applicable for this example appear in the next figure. http://Weibull. Type Temperature in K (Use is 323K) and click OK. Open the Batch Auto Run by clicking its icon. as there are more than twenty rows of data. by double-clicking the heading.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 Be sure to enter all of the data shown in the preceding table. • Use the Batch Auto Run feature to break down the original data into three different data sets based on the different operating temperatures. You can edit any of the available column headings.
The three stress levels now appear under Selected Subset IDs. • Click OK to proceed through the Batch Auto Run process. shown next. You will not have to initiate the calculation of the parameters yourself. The Set Action Preferences for Processing page. The Batch Auto Run process will be applied to all three Subset IDs. 48 http://Weibull. so click Select All Available> or double-click each Subset ID individually. allows you to customize the Batch Auto Run process.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • The three operating stress levels are listed under Available Subset IDs. This indicates that the parameters will automatically be calculated when extracted into the Data Entry Spreadsheets.com .ReliaSoft. The Calculate Parameters for Selected Subsets option will already be selected.
See the figure below for details. Open the Non-Linear http://Weibull.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • When the Batch Auto Run is complete. Notice that the parameters have already been calculated for each Subset ID. • The parameters of the Eyring model can be estimated using the Non-Linear Equation Fit Solver.com 49 . You will be on the 423K1 page. Enter the parameters corresponding to each stress level into the General Spreadsheet. Each new page index tab represents a particular Subset ID and the number of times the Subset ID has been through the Batch Auto Run process. Highlight the cells containing the stress and eta values (it is assumed that beta remains constant at each stress level. the Data Folio will look like the one shown next. which is the case for this data set). as shown next. You will notice that three new page index tabs labeled 393K1. Click the appropriate page index tabs to view the other Data Entry Spreadsheets.ReliaSoft. 408K1 and 423K1 will appear in the Data Folio. • Insert a General Spreadsheet into the Folio. Copy the data to the Clipboard.
The Non-Linear Equation Fit Solver is presented in detail in Chapter 32 of the User's Guide.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 Equation Fit Solver by selecting Non-Linear Equation Fit Solver from the More Tools submenu under the Tools menu.ReliaSoft. • • Place the cursor into the first cell in the X column on the right side of the window and paste the data that you copied from the General Spreadsheet. Create an equation for the Eyring model by typing Eyring Acceleration Model in the Equation Name box and typing the following equation in the y(x)= box: ( 1 ⁄ X )∗ exp ( – ( ( A – ( B ⁄ X ) ) ) ) 50 http://Weibull.com .
• Enter the values for the Initial guess. http://Weibull.com 51 . The window will look like the figure shown next. The equations in the Equation Template can be re-used at a later time in other analyses.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Click Add to Template so that the equation for the Eyring acceleration model that you just created can be added to the Equation Template. The values A and B are the parameters to be solved for. as shown in the next figure.ReliaSoft. Is less than… and Is greater than… columns for the parameters of the Eyring model.
you can calculate the value of eta ( η ) for any temperature (stress level). and select Define Name from the Edit menu. In other words. particularly in this case for the operating temperature of 323K. This allows you to input these values into a formula without having to input the actual value.com . The standard deviation for each parameter appears within the SDEV column. Save the file as a ReliaSoft NLF (*. Using the solution of the parameters for the Eyring model. define the contents of the cells that contain the values of A and B as named variables. click the cell containing the solution of A. • The values for A and B are given within the Value column. Type a name for the cell being 52 http://Weibull. as in the figure shown next.ReliaSoft. The results are shown next.nlf) file and then copy the solutions for the parameters of the Eyring model. You can then paste the data into the General Spreadsheet. define the parameters.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Click Calculate. A window like the one shown next will appear. To do this. as variables. in this case cell E11. • To aid in the process of calculating eta at different stress levels. A and B.
You can carry this formula down to C32 by selecting cell C20 and moving the cursor over the bottom right corner of the cell. click Add.8499. for cell C20. create a table like the one in the figure below to calculate the value of eta for a range of temperatures (323K-443K). Using the Eyring model and the defined parameters. enter the following formula: =(1/B20)*exp(-(A-(B/B20))) and press Enter. Just type the Variable Name within the formula.com 53 . Type A for parameter A. Type the formula as it applies to the current structure of your General Spreadsheet. The final part of this example involves estimating the reliability of the product at the operating stress level (323K) for 9000 hr of operation. Release the mouse button after cell C32 has become highlighted. You can refer to the defined cell by its Variable Name. http://Weibull. Click and drag the cursor down to cell C32. Type B for the name. The Weibull distribution was used to calculate the values of the parameters eta and beta.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 defined in the Variable Name box. The cursor will become a small crosshair. The contents of the cell have now been defined. A and B. The value of eta at a stress level of 323K is 17933. • • After typing the name.ReliaSoft. For example. Follow a similar process to define a name for the cell containing the solution of B.
This involves inserting a $ in front of the column letter and the row number. In the next figure.ReliaSoft. the values of beta and eta are located within cells B36 and B37.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 The Weibull reliability function is given by: R(T) = e • T – -.com . Carry the formula down to B50. enter the following formula: =exp(-((A41/$B$37)^$B$36)).6979%. When referencing the cells containing the values of beta and eta within the formula to calculate the reliability.000 hr is 94.rw6 and close the Folio. these two cells must be referenced using the following format: $B$36 and $B$37. η β Create a table of reliabilities for a range of different end times (1000-10000 hr) within the General Spreadsheet using the Weibull reliability function. respectively. you must refer to these cells as an absolute reference. The reliability at 9. 54 http://Weibull. In cell B41. • Save the Folio as Example12. The reliability has now been calculated for all of the end times in question. When typing the formula for the Weibull reliability function.
A table of the times-to-failure for each mode is given below. Solution • Open a new Folio to enter the data given.4.3 Mode 2 Times-to-Failure. hr 2 3 12 15 16 16.7 Example 13 ACME company manufactures widgets.4 15 16 20 35 50 53 75 80 106 147 157 175 183 233 262 358. hr 10 12 25 56 80 106 108 147 150 170 180 181 Mode 3 Times-to-Failure. Conduct a simple criticality analysis (FMECA) for this widget. 60% and 35%. There are three failure modes for a particular widget. hr 2.ReliaSoft. Mode 1 Times-to-Failure.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 4. respectively. given that the probability of total loss due to each mode is 100%. Enter the data for each mode into a different Data Entry Spreadsheet. and the mission time is 10 hr.com 55 .5 20 Determine the parameters using the 2-parameter Weibull distribution and Rank Regression on X. Insert additional data sheets into the existing Folio by selecting Insert Data Sheet from http://Weibull.3 3.
For example. The Folio with the calculated parameters is shown next. respectively. • Complete the table as follows: • Use the Function Wizard to insert the number of failures for each mode into the Number of Failures column.ReliaSoft.com . The formatting is there to show what is possible with the General Spreadsheet.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 the Folio menu. Format your table the best you can. • Insert a General Spreadsheet into the Folio and construct a table as shown below. place the cursor in the Number of Failures for Mode 1 cell (B4 in the example shown) and click the Function Wizard icon. Name each data sheet as Mode 1. 56 http://Weibull. Mode 2 and Mode 3. The specific formatting shown below is not as important as the procedures involved in solving the example.
For example. Use a formula to compute this for each cell. Use a similar procedure to insert the total number of failures into the Mode 2 and Mode 3 rows. as shown next. changing the Data Source selection to the appropriate Data Entry Spreadsheet. For example: =sum(B4+B6+B8) • The Failure Mode Frequency Ratio is equal to the total number of failures for each mode divided by the total number of failures for all three modes combined. Click OK to insert the value into the General Spreadsheet at the location of the cursor.ReliaSoft. • In the Totals row. Select Probability of Failure from the list of available functions.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 or select Function Wizard from the Tools menu to open the Function Wizard. place the cursor into the Unreliability for Mode 1 cell and open the Function Wizard.com 57 . • Use the Function Wizard to insert the Unreliability (also called Probability of Failure) at T = 10 hr for each mode into the Unreliability column. Mode 2 = 60% and Mode 3 = 35%. type 10 in the Mission End T input box and verify that Mode 1 is http://Weibull. Select Total Number of Failures from the list of available functions and verify that Mode 1 is selected in the Data Source box. use a formula to compute the sum of the values in the Number of Failures column. For example: =b4/b10 • The Probability of Total Loss Due to this Mode was stated earlier for each mode: Mode 1 = 100%.
• Click OK to insert the value into the General Spreadsheet at the location of the cursor.rw6 and close the Folio.com . changing the Data Source selection to the appropriate Data Entry Spreadsheet. 58 http://Weibull. For example: =c4*d4*e4 • The results of the analysis are shown below. Again. Use a similar procedure to insert the Unreliability into the Mode 2 and Mode 3 rows. use a formula in the spreadsheet to calculate this value.ReliaSoft.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 selected in the Data Source box and None is selected in the Show Confidence box. • The Criticality for each mode is equal to the Failure Mode Frequency Ratio times the Probability of Total Loss Due to this Mode times the Unreliability. as shown next. • Save the Folio as Example13.
5. When you create a new Degradation base data set. The Control Panel. allows you to select a degradation model. The Degradation Analysis window will open with a Data sheet and a Control Panel.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 4.ReliaSoft. it will automatically attach itself to the current Data Entry Spreadsheet so you can access it at any time.com 59 . For this example.000 cycles for crack length. select Create a new Degradation base data set for this sheet and click OK. select Exponential for the Degradation Model and type 30 for the Critical Degradation. located on the right side of the window. In the Control Panel. you can either click the tab or right-click and select Open Attachment from the menu. The test units were cyclically stressed and inspected every 100. To open the existing Degradation base data set file. http://Weibull. suspension time and the critical degradation for the analysis.1 Example 14 Five turbine blades were tested for crack propagation. Following is a table of the test results: Cycles (x1000) 100 200 300 400 500 Unit A 15mm 20mm 22mm 26mm 29mm Unit B 10mm 15mm 20mm 25mm 30mm Unit C 17mm 25mm 26mm 27mm 33mm Unit D 12mm 16mm 17mm 20mm 26mm Unit E 10mm 15mm 20mm 26mm 33mm Using Weibull++ 6's Degradation Analysis utility and Quick Calculation Pad. Solution • • Create a new Data Folio. or by selecting Degradation Analysis from the Tools menu. The attachment of this data set will be indicated by a red tab that will appear in the Utility Attachment area of the Data Folio Control Panel's Main Page. • When you first activate Degradation Analysis. determine the B10 life for the blades using degradation analysis with an exponential model for the extrapolation. There is no suspension time for this example. Activate the Degradation Analysis utility by clicking the Degradation Analysis icon. Failure is defined as a crack of length 30mm or greater.5 Examples Using Additional Reliability Analysis Utilities 4. the Open Degradation Analysis window will appear.
the utility will create two new sheets. shows the parameters for the degradation model for each of the units.com . the Output Parameters sheet contains the parameter values for each unit. • Once you have entered the data in the Data sheet and made the specifications in the Control Panel.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • On the Data sheet. which can be accessed by clicking its tab. or select Calculate from the Tools menu. • When you click Calculate. click the Calculate icon on the toolbar.ReliaSoft. as shown next. 60 http://Weibull. enter the data from the test results. For this example. The Output Parameters sheet. The Data sheet will look similar to the one shown next.
select to show all the units on the plot by clicking Select All.com 61 .Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • You can plot the data from the degradation analysis by clicking the Plot icon on the toolbar. or by selecting Plot from the Tools menu. On the Control Panel located on the right side of the Plot sheet. refresh the plot by clicking the Refresh Plot icon. • Next. • The results from the degradation analysis will be shown graphically on the Plot sheet. http://Weibull.ReliaSoft.
com . which returns the time-to-failure data for each of the units.5 350 437. was also created when you calculated the data set.5 175 262. or by selecting Transfer Weibull Data to Folio from the Tools menu. • Next.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Your plot will look similar to the one shown next. Degradation vs Time 40 30 20 10 0 0 87.5 700 Time Data a Exponential Fit a Data b Exponential Fit b Data c Exponential Fit c Data d Exponential Fit d Data e Exponential Fit e Critical Degradation • The Output Raw Data sheet. 62 http://Weibull.5 525 612. transfer the data from this sheet to the Data Folio by clicking the icon on the toolbar.ReliaSoft. Go to the Output Raw Data sheet by clicking its tab.
To analyze the data in the Data Folio.5559. the B10 life is calculated to be 392. Perform a calculation using BX information. The Data Folio will look similar to the one shown next.com 63 . Enter 10 for the BX% information.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • The data from Degradation Analysis will be transferred to the Data Folio. select a two-parameter Weibull distribution and MLE estimation method and click Calculate.918 cycles. • Activate the Quick Calculation Pad.ReliaSoft. http://Weibull. Click Calculate. The results are shown next. Using the Degradation Analysis utility and the QCP. The calculated results are beta = 8.0552 and eta = 519.
64 http://Weibull. Following is a table for shipments in June. Activate Warranty Analysis by clicking the Warranty Analysis icon on the toolbar.com . Solution • • Create a Data Entry Spreadsheet for times-to-failure data. 3 2 - Months June July Aug. it will use the analysis settings of the linked Folio and automatically attach itself to the current Data Entry Spreadsheet so you can access it at any time.5. In this window. • When you first activate Warranty Analysis. Predict the number of products from each of the three shipment periods that will be returned under warranty in October. type 3 for the number of periods and click the Update icon on the Control Panel. • Notice that the Warranty Data Input sheet now reflects the specified number of sales periods.ReliaSoft. July and August and the warranty returns through September: Returns Aug. For this example. the Open Warranty Analysis window will appear. allows you to select the number of sales periods you want to analyze. 5 4 4 Using Weibull++ 6's Warranty Analysis utility. located on the right side of the window. The Control Panel. When you create a new Warranty base data set. Do the following: • • Shipments 100 140 150 July 3 - Sept. select Create a new Warranty base data set for this sheet.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 4. or by selecting Warranty Analysis from the Tools menu. The attachment of this data set will be indicated by a yellow tab that will appear in the Utility Attachment area of the Data Folio Control Panel's Main Page. In the Folio Control Panel. convert this information to life data and determine the parameters for a 2-parameter Weibull distribution. select the 2parameter Weibull distribution with MLE and median ranks using the standard regression method.2 Example 15 A company keeps track of its shipments and warranty returns on a month-by-month basis. The Warranty Analysis window will open with a Data sheet and the Control Panel.
The data will be placed in the Weibull++ Data sheet.com 65 . or select Create Weibull Data from the Tools menu.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • In the Warranty Data Input sheet. as shown next. indicated by the corresponding tab. http://Weibull. type the data from the shipments and returns table. as shown next. • To convert this data set to times-to-failure data. The Returns columns are the columns located to the right of the Sales column. click the Create Weibull Data icon on the toolbar.ReliaSoft. You only need to type data in the white cells. Type the number of shipments in the Sales column and the number of returns in the Returns columns.
View the Forecast Output sheet.com . click Yes. a window may appear warning you that when you generate the forecast.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • From the Weibull++ Data sheet. you can predict the total expected returns from all shipments for the next month. Another window will appear. which shows the expected returns for October.ReliaSoft. Note that the calculation options selected in the linked Data Entry Spreadsheet are used to generate forecasts in the Warranty Analysis utility. The expected returns for each shipment period are indicated by the purple (shaded) cells. • Depending on the type of Data Entry Spreadsheet the Warranty Analysis data set is attached to. or by selecting Generate Forecast from the Tools menu. as shown next. • Two new sheets will be added to the Warranty Analysis window. Type 1 since you are forecasting data for one month (October) and click OK. indicated by their corresponding tabs. For this example. by clicking the Generate Forecast icon on the toolbar. the current Data Entry Spreadsheet will be modified to correspond with the Weibull++ Data Sheet and prompting you to indicate whether you want to proceed. For your reference. the Forecast Output sheet and the Summary Output sheet. October is indicated as period 4. allowing you to enter the number of time periods you want to forecast for. these are displayed in the Analysis area of the Warranty Analysis utility's Control Panel. 66 http://Weibull. October.
Next. the predicted number of products that will be returned under warranty in October are 12 from the June shipment. http://Weibull. Transfer the data on this sheet to the current Data Folio by clicking the Transfer Weibull Data to Folio icon on the toolbar. • • As shown on this sheet. You can also view the summarized forecast results in the Summary Output sheet by clicking its corresponding tab.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • As shown previously.ReliaSoft. or by selecting Transfer Weibull Data to Folio from the Tools menu.com 67 . 11 from the July shipment and 6 from the August shipment. the total expected returns from all three shipments for Period 4 (October) is 29 units. go back to the Weibull++ Data sheet by clicking its tab.
which cause failure by overloading the system. click Calculate. 4. One failure mode is due to random voltage spikes. To estimate the parameters in the Data Folio. published by John Wiley and Sons. The Data Folio will look similar to the one shown next. An electrical component has two failure modes.4928 and eta = 6. 68 http://Weibull.6 from the Meeker and Escobar textbook Statistical Methods for Reliability Data.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • The data from Warranty Analysis will be transferred to the Data Folio. The calculated results are beta = 2.5. The other failure mode is due to wear-out failures. These results also appear in the Warranty Analysis Summary Output sheet. which usually happen only after the system has run for many cycles. Time-to-failure data for each mode and suspension data are shown in the following table: Number in State 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Failure Time* 2 10 13 23 28 30 65 80 88 106 143 Failure Mode V V V V V V V V V V V Number in State 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 Failure Time* 147 173 181 212 245 247 261 266 275 293 300 Failure Mode W V W W W V V W W W suspended *Failure times are given in thousands of cycles.3 Example 16 This example has been abstracted from Example 15.ReliaSoft. This failure mode is denoted by a W in the table. This failure mode is denoted by a V in the table.com .6951.
ReliaSoft. MLE and median ranks using the standard regression method. Select a Weibull distribution with competing failure modes. Identify the failure mode in the Subset ID column. • To calculate the parameters. click the Calculate icon. http://Weibull.com 69 . Your Folio will look similar to the one shown next. or select Calculate Parameters from the Data menu.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 Do the following: • • Determine the overall reliability for the component at 100. Plot the competing failure modes. Solution • • • Create a new Data Entry Spreadsheet for times-to-failure data with suspensions and grouped data. Enter the data from the failures table into the Data Entry Spreadsheet.000 cycles.
click OK. You can compare the two failure modes in the Control Panel by selecting which mode you want to view from the Subpopulation drop-down box. The parameters will be estimated for both failure modes.ReliaSoft. Place the V failure mode into the Mode 1 column and place the W failure mode into the Mode 2 column. The picture below shows the parameters for failure mode 1.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • In the Competing Failure Modes window that appears. define the V and W failure modes. Click (X) to remove the selected Subset ID from the Mode panel. Please note that you must have distinct Subset IDs in the Data Entry Spreadsheet to use Competing Failure Modes. Click (+) to add the selected Subset ID to the Mode panel. You can also double-click or drag and drop a Subset ID to add or remove it from a panel.com . To do this. The calculated results will correspond to the selected failure mode in the Results Area. as shown next. 70 http://Weibull. click a subset ID (mode) from the Available panel and select a Mode panel to place the subset ID into. • After you have separated the failure modes. or the V failure mode.
or by selecting Plot Probability from the Data menu. plot the competing failure modes by clicking the Plot icon.com 71 .1%. This option can be accessed by selecting Plot Setup from the Plot Options menu.3373 and eta = 340. activate the Quick Calculation Pad and determine the overall reliability of the system at 100. use standard probability calculations and select to Show Results as Reliability.000 cycles.000 cycles is 69. select Show Individual Mode Lines and click OK. Next. Enter a mission end time of 100 (since the failure times were estimated in thousands of cycles). To calculate this.ReliaSoft. click Set Up CFM Mode Colors. On the Lines page of the Plot Setup window. Next. The results are shown next.6711 and eta = 449. http://Weibull. • Using the Competing Failure Modes and QCP. In the window that appears.3842. Your plot can contain the combined mode line as well as the individual mode lines. the overall reliability for the component at 100. • • Close the QCP. The estimated parameters for Failure Mode 2 (the wear-out failures) are beta = 4.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • The estimated parameters for Failure Mode 1 (the random voltage spikes failures) are beta = .4272.
com .ReliaSoft.Step-by-Step Examples Weibull++ 6 • Click OK in the Plot Setup window.) 72 http://Weibull. (Note that the labels in the figure have been added to show the different modes. Your plot will look similar to the one shown next.
1-parameter Exponential vi. 3. censored. Compare with what you have observed. 2. note how well you think each distribution tracks the data. From the plot.RW6 and close the Folio. Do the following: 1. Save your file as QUEST1. i. 2-parameter Weibull 3-parameter Weibull iii. Open a new Folio and enter the data.e. Select Rank Regression on X as the parameter estimation method. grouped. 5. how well does the fitted line track the plotted points? i. 105. 64. 83.e. 2-parameter Exponential Use the Distribution Wizard to determine the distribution that best fits your data. uncensored. individual. suspended. ii. Lognormal v.5 Practice Questions This section contains some additional practice questions. 6.1 Practice Question 1 Six units were reliability tested and the following times-to-failure were observed: 46. 5. Chapter 6 presents solutions to these examples. Determine the parameters for this data set using the following distributions and plot the data for each distribution. Normal iv. i. etc. . 123 and 150 hr. 4. Use Begin Auto Run to conduct the analysis. Determine how you would classify this data set.
The mission range if ACME Inc. Plot both data sets individually. ten failed between 90-120 hr and seven failed between 120-130 hr. 5. Experiment with annotating the plot while in RS Draw. iii. The mission duration for these units if ACME Inc. requires a 90% reliability at the 50% confidence level. 2-sided confidence limits on the reliability for a mission of 50 hr. Insert a new Data Entry Spreadsheet into this Folio. Save your file as QUEST2. The 2-sided confidence limits on the parameters. Using the Quick Calculation Pad. R(50hr). 11. requires a 90% reliability at the 90% confidence level (Type 1). Time plot for these units. The mission duration for these units if ACME Inc. Close the Folio. Do the following: 1.RW6. Time plot for these units. Copy the data from Question 1 and paste it into the empty Data Entry Spreadsheet. From the plot. Open a new Folio for non-grouped data entry for times-to-failure (no censoring). 9. The mission range if ACME Inc. Determine the parameters of the 2-parameter Weibull distribution using Rank Regression on X. A total of 96 units were released in a small test market. 8. as well as the one you saved from Question 1. Obtain the pdf plot for these units. ii. Copy the data set from Question 1 and paste it into the new Data Entry Spreadsheet. 7. Obtain the probability plot for this data set. The 90%. 2. Switch the parameter estimation method in the new Data Entry Spreadsheet to Rank Regression on X and calculate the parameters.com . Open RS Draw and save your plot as MyPlot1. Customize both plots to your liking. Use the 2-parameter Weibull distribution and Maximum Likelihood Estimation to calculate the parameters. requires a 90% reliability at the 50% confidence level. From the plot. The reliability of these units for a mission of 50 hr. what is the failure rate of these units at 100 hr? 10. You will now have an empty Folio. Obtain the Failure Rate vs. 5. v. Plot the 90%. Ten units failed sometime between 0-68 hr. 6. 2-sided confidence bounds (Type 2). 59 units were still in the field after successfully operating for 153 hr. 3.wmf. 5. Do the following: 1. R(50hr). 74 http://Weibull. determine: i. iv.ReliaSoft.RW6 (Practice Question 1). iii. requires a 90% reliability at the 90% confidence level. iv. 2-sided confidence limits on the reliability for a mission of 50 hr (Type 2). 10 units failed between 6890 hr.3 Practice Question 3 Open the file you previously saved as QUEST1. 4. 3. The reliability of these units for a mission of 50 hr.2 Practice Question 2 ACME manufacturing implemented a reliability tracking program for a recent product. determine: i. The 90%. 2.Practice Questions Weibull++ 6 5. 4. 6. ii. Obtain the Reliability vs.
track the plotted line. Weibull++ lets you do just that.4 Practice Question 4 ACME Manufacturing is preparing to purchase a new component for one of its products. One way to view this convergence. when you use Maximum Likelihood Estimation. http://Weibull. 4. Open QUEST1. is to view the 3D plot of the Log-Likelihood Function.RW6. 3. Rotate the plot and view the maximum beta. at the 90% 2-sided confidence level. Move the mouse simultaneously in the direction you would like to rotate the plot. 2. 7. 8. Close 3D Plot and insert a General Spreadsheet in the Folio.com 75 . Two competing manufacturers presented ACME with the following test data. 6. 5.ReliaSoft. (Note that both are made up of the same data. plotting the data points and seeing how well the line runs through the points is an indication of how well the calculated parameters fit the data (or how correct the calculation is). 5. Which design would you choose? 5. 8. the data points do not. Activate the Function Wizard and choose to generate a Table of Reliabilities given a time range. in general. Do you see a difference? Why?) Close all Folios when you are finished. Manufacturer B Time to failure. Use the Tests of Comparison utility to calculate the probability that Design A is better than Design B. Rotate the plot again and view the maximum eta. since MLE maximizes the Likelihood Function. 1. When finished. The reasons lie in the way the parameters are estimated. save the Folio and leave it open. 2. hr 1900 2600 1400 1300 800 2650 1850 2400 1. Calculate the parameters using the 2-parameter Weibull distribution and MLE as the parameter estimation method. Press Ctrl and click the plot. Insert a Multiple Plot Sheet into the Folio and select both data sets to be displayed. 9. However.5 Practice Question 5 As you may have noticed.Practice Questions Weibull++ 6 7. Enter time increments from T = 10 to 100 incrementing by 5. Each manufacturer tested eight units to failure with the following results: Manufacturer A Time to failure. hr 2000 4250 1300 600 3000 6600 9000 12000 Determine the parameters of the 2-parameter Weibull distribution using Rank Regression on X. Plot the Log-Likelihood Function using 3D Plot.
ReliaSoft. Create your own report by doing the following: i. Time from the function list and click OK.RLW. v. You will now be in the Editor page. 5. QUEST1. Select Plot Probability vs. 3. File saved within the Editor page have the extension *. 4. 5.. Time.Practice Questions Weibull++ 6 5. vii. Create a table of Failure Rate vs. Save your report as MyREPORT. starting at 10 hr and ending at 100 hr with an increment of 10 hr. Click Insert Field to open the Function Wizard. When the Create Report from Template window appears. Create a Probability plot based on the linked data set. select Update by Replacing Editor's existing report with a new report and click Yes. Are they the same? 76 http://Weibull. Are the parameters equal to the ones used in the Monte Carlo tool? Comments? Generate another Monte Carlo data set using the same distribution and parameters. 7.6 Practice Question 6 Once you have generated the data. You can use it to generate values for any distribution or function. This example will take you through such a scenario. Use the Function Wizard by clicking Insert Field to insert special commands. iv. 6. These commands will return results based on the linked data set. or by selecting Report Work Center from the Tools menu.. vi. Time.RW6 will already be open. If the parameters are not calculated. 1.RLT. Insert a title and a few lines of text. 4. Calculate the parameters. 6. Open the Monte Carlo Data Simulation by clicking its icon located on the General Tools toolbar. from the Data menu. Click the Create Report or Editor button to create the report based on the default template. the next step is to generate a report.rlw. select a distribution and a calculation method to calculate them. 3. Compare the two sets. Click the Editor button to compile the template and finalize your report. Create a table of Reliability vs. 1. NOTE: Files saved within the Template page have the extension *. viii. 2. Generate a data set using the Weibull distribution with beta = 2 and eta = 1500 hr. starting at 10 hr and ending at 100 hr with an increment of 10 hr. iii. 5. the Template page will be open. ii. created your plots and calculated what you wanted to calculate. it shows you a default template with some instructions. The first time the Template page is activated. Let's include some graphics. Read the default template and follow the instructions.rlt.7 Practice Question 7 The Monte Carlo Data generation is a useful tool when dealing with simulations. Do you notice any differences? Go back to the Template page by clicking the Template button and select New from the File menu. Open the Report Work Center by clicking its icon on the Data Tools toolbar. By default. 2. or by selecting Generate Monte Carlo Data. Save your Template as MyTMPL. Weibull++ 6 allows you to do that very easily.com . a.
samples A and B. Due to time constraints. 2. Using ReliaSoft's Design of Reliability Tests (DRT) find the number of units that have to be tested if: 1.Practice Questions Weibull++ 6 5. The test time for 20 units. design a test to demonstrate a reliability of 90% at t = 100 hr. 5. extract two different data sets. Assume a Weibull distribution with a shape parameter beta = 1. No failures are allowed. The number of units to test for 48 hr (in integers). Time-to-failure.10 Practice Question 10 For this example. with a 95% confidence. Both samples are assumed to be identical. determine the following: 1. No failures will be allowed on this test. http://Weibull. 3. hr 49 71 80 85 93 100 16 18 30 34 50 201 Subset ID A A A A A A B B B B B B Using the Batch Auto Run feature.5. Using the DRT (Design of Reliability Testing) utility. 2.5. or f = 0. Create a Multiple Plot and plot the two data sets together. One failure is allowed.9 Practice Question 9 The next table presents a data set corresponding to the times-to-failure for two samples of the same product. You know from past experience that the shape parameter for this product is 1. 2.ReliaSoft. 5. utilizing the Subset ID column to identify each sample. you are allowed to test the units for no more than 500 hr. Calculate the parameters for each data set using the 2-parameter Weibull distribution with Rank Regression on X.com 77 . so the times-to-failure were entered together into Weibull++. 3. Do the following: 1. Experiment with the other cases using the DRT.8 Practice Question 8 Your new manager has to be convinced that product X has an MTBF of 1000 hr with a 95% confidence level. Compare the two sets using the Tests of Comparison utility.
η = 195.1666. Individual Parameter values for each distribution: i.4381. µ = 4. σ = 0. γ = 15. ii. 5. η = 108. 4. γ = 46 The Distribution Wizard suggests the 3-parameter Weibull distribution. Mission Duration @ 50 hr .1 Practice Question 1 1.3005.4372 iv.6 Answers to Practice Questions This section provides answers to the Practice Questions in Chapter 5. β = 1.4277 β = 1. 5. σ = 43. Due to the structure and process required.9469. 6. λ = 0.0191.6%.2 Practice Question 2 1. 6.2800 iii. β = 2. ii. answers are not provided for Questions 6 and 7. λ = 0. µ = 95. Lower CL @ 83% iii.4625 From the plot: i.4901 v.0119 vi.6284. η = 92. R(50 hr) @ 89% Upper CL @ 93.4805.
From the QCP: i.9497 0.8001 0. For β : 1.71% iii.8776 0.9973 0.0796.9370 0. Lower CL = 83.5577 0.7282 0.7451 0.2519 0.9874 0. 8. η = 106.2921 0.4 Practice Question 4 1.3767 0.8393 0.4381.5518 0. ii. Requires a mission range of 36. η = 2107.6985 0.6515 0. η = 106.5 Practice Question 5 2.9455 For RRX: β = 2.6849 hr v.0802 hr iv. 2.com . R(50 hr) = 89.9455 Reliability for time increments from 10 to 100 with a 2-sided confidence level at 90%: Time 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Lower CL 0.7095 0. Manufacturer A: β = 2.3291. η = 108. 4. β = 3.4277 6.9960 0.6045 0.9525 0.8739 0.1346 Manufacturer B is better with a 73% probability 6.9694 0.6801 80 http://Weibull.5113 0.7738 0. η = 5322.0139.4656 0.9999 0.9997 0.9936 0.3338 0. 2. Mission Duration = 49.3 Practice Question 3 2.4207 0.9785 0.9992 0.4419 Upper CL 1 0. 222.1231-66.9661 0.7567 0.9991 0.8864 0.0139.9171 0. Requires a mission range of approximately 37-68 hr 6.8352 0.3039.5E-03 6.6591 0.Answers to Practice Questions Weibull++ 6 iv.0338 For η : 171.58%.9290 0.6062 0.9953 Failure Rate @ 5.9980 0.7908 0.4967 0.2287 Manufacturer B: β = 1.ReliaSoft.9142 0.9553 0.2135 0.9926 0. 9.8158 0.9876 0.1772 Reliability 0.8535 0.9799 0.71% Upper CL = 93.7017.9038 0. For MLE: β = 3.
6 Practice Question 8 1.Answers to Practice Questions Weibull++ 6 6. 10 units 17 units 6. η = 87.3813 Product B: β = 1.4934 6.ReliaSoft.8 Practice Question 10 1. η = 55.7 Practice Question 9 1.3121. 2. Product A: β = 4. 86 units 126 hr http://Weibull.com 81 . 2.2669.
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