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1.1 Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. I= V/R The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is:
I= V/R 
where I is the current through the resistance in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the resistance in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current. The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm, who, in a treatise published in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire. He presented a slightly more complex equation than the one above (see History section below) to explain his experimental results. The above equation is the modern form of Ohm's law. In physics, the term Ohm's law is also used to refer to various generalizations of the law originally formulated by Ohm. The simplest example of this is: J= σE where J is the current density at a given location in a resistive material, E is the electric field at that location, and σ is a material dependent parameter called the conductivity. This reformulation of Ohm's law is due to Gustav Kirchhoff.
1.2. KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS 1.2.1 KIRCHOFF'S CURRENT LAW
It states that the algebraic sum of all currents entering a node is zero. Mathematically: Into a node Currents are positive if entering a node Currents are negative if leaving a node. Example: Applying Kirchhoff's current law:
I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 = 0 (the negative sign in I2 indicates that I2 has a magnitude of 3A and is flowing in the direction opposite to that indicated by the arrow) Substituting: 5 - 3 + I3 + 2 = 0
Therefore, I3 = - 4A
(ie 4A leaving node)
KIRCHHOFF'S VOLTAGE LAW
It states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops around any loop, open or closed, is zero.
10- 2I - 3I = 0 - 2I and - 3I are negative, since they are voltage drops i.e. represent a decrease in potential on proceeding round the loop in the direction of I. For the same reason + 10V is positive as it is a voltage rise or increase in potential. Concluding: 5 I = 10 Therefore, I = 2A SERIES CONNECTION OF RESISTORS:
Common Current = I = V1 / R1 = V2 / R2 = V3 / R3 = ( V1 + V2 + V3 )/ ( R1 + R2 + R3 ) = VT / RS As VT = V1 + V2 + V3 Therefore, RS = R1 + R2 + R3
RS is an equivalent resistor that has the same voltage across it, and the current through it as that through the 3 resistors in series.
RP is the equivalent resistor. or. RP = (R1R2)/(R1 + R2) Example: . V/RP = V/R1 + V/R2 + V/R3 Therefore. 1/RP = 1/R1 + 1/R2 = (R2 + R1 )/R1R2 ie. For 2 resistors. and GP the equivalent conductance (often useful in parallel circuits).Example Total Resistance = 6 + 8 = 14Ω PARALLEL CONNECTION OF RESISTORS Common Voltage: V = I1 R1 = I2 R2 = I3 R3 = IT RP As IT = I1 + I2 + I3 Then. GP = G1 + G2 + G3 Where. 1/RP = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 .
) Resistors If a circuits contains only resistors possibly in a combination of parallel and series connections then an equivalent resistance is determined. in the steady-state (long term behavior). During the transient period. we've seen that capacitors act like open circuits and inductors act like shorts. capacitors and inductors will be introduced (without considering the effects of AC current. The above figures show the process of replacing these circuit devices with their DC equivalents. capacitors become open circuits and inductors become short circuits. . and resistors. The only circuit components that remain are voltage sources. you can replace a capacitor with an empty space and an inductor with a wire. current sources. In other words.) The big thing to understand about Capacitors and Inductors in DC Circuits is that they have a transient (temporary) response. and become more conductive. In this case. all that remains is a voltage source and a lone resistor. capacitors build up charge and stop the flow of current (eventually acting like infinite resistors. A combination of voltage and current divider rules are then used to solve for other required currents and voltages.) Inductors build up energy in the form of magnetic fields. Then Ohm's Law is used to determine the current flowing in the main circuit. (An AC analysis of this circuit can be found in the AC section.DC Circuit Analysis In this chapter. Capacitors and Inductors at DC DC steady-state (meaning the circuit has been in the same state for a long time). for DC analysis. Thus.
Simplify the following: (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Simple circuits series circuits. Then we precede as before first we calculate the equivalent resistance then use Ohm's Law to solve for the current. The circuit in Figure 1 (a) is very simple if we are given R and V. Or alternatively one could use Ohm's Law together with the current just calculated. the voltage of the source. R2 and V then we combine the resistor into an equivalent resistors noting that are in series. The analysis procedes as follows. The resistance of a parallel combination is: . If the voltage is required across the third resistor then we can use voltage divider rule. The current is now calculated using Ohm's Law. (a) Figure 2: Simple parallel circuits. then we use Ohm's Law to solve for the current. Then we solve for the current as before using Ohm's Law. If we need to solve for the current i. In Figure 1 (c) if the resistors are labeled clockwise from the top resistor R1. (b) In Figure 2 (a) if the Resistor nearest the voltage source is R1 and the other resistor R2. This is the formula for calculating the equivalent resistance of series resistor. In Figure 1 (b) if we are given R1. R2 and R3 and the voltage source has the value: V.
In Figure 2 (b) we do exactly the same thing except this time there are three resistors this means that the equivalent resistance will be: Using this fact we do exactly the same thing. . by Ohm's Law: If we need to solve for current through R2 then we can use current divider rule. if the three resistors in the outer loop of the circuit are R1. The equation is just equation 1. (1) But it would probably have been simpler to have used the fact that V most be dropped across R2. If we want to calculate the voltage across the parallel combination of R4 and R23 then we just use voltage divider.So the current. It is clear now that the equivalent resistance is R1 in series with the parallel combination of R23 and R4. flowing in the circuit is. It is simpler to see what is going on if we combine R2 and R3 into their series equivalent resistance R23. This means that we can simply use Ohm's Law to calculate the current through R2. (a) Figure 3: Combined parallel and series circuits (b) (c) In Figure 3 (a). R2 and R3 and the other resistor is R4. i.
The configuration is called a delta network or delta connection. The second method will often require less work since the current flowing from the source is required for the use of current divider rule. The above image shows three points 1. Or we could calculate the current in the main circuit and then use current divider rule to get the current. and R31. Note: To calculate the current draw from the source the equivalent resistance always must be calculated. Such a configuration is called a star network or a Y-connection. 2. and 3 connected with resistosr R12. and 3 connected with resistors R1. But if we just need the voltage across a series resistor this may be necessary. The use of current divider rule is much simpler in the case when the source is a current source because the value of the current is set by the current source. . 2. Star Network The above image shows three points 1. If we want to calculate the current in parallel combination then we must use either current divider rule or calculate the voltage across the resistor and then use Ohm's law to get the current. R23. In Figure 3 (b) we take the same approach simplifying parallel combinations and series combinations of resistors until we get the equivalent resistance.If we want to calculate the current through R2 and R3 then we can use the voltage across R4 | | (R2 + R3) and Ohm's law. R2. In Figure 3 (c) this process doesn't work then because there are resistors connected in a delta this means that there is no way to simplify this beyond transforming them to a star or wye connection. and R3 with a common point.
in the most general case. If all the resistances are equal. Rms value In mathematics. we have. It is especially useful when variates are positive and negative. Consider the points 1 and 2. Waveforms So far we know that AC voltage alternates in polarity and AC current alternates in direction. also known as the quadratic mean. It can be calculated for a series of discrete values or for a continuously varying function. It is a special case of the generalized mean with the exponent p = 2. or “frequency. and express this as cycles per unit time. we encounter a measurement problem if we try to express how large or small an AC quantity is..” In music. Now we will derive similar relations to convert a star network to delta and vice versa. including electrical engineering. then R = r/3. We also know that AC can alternate in a variety of different ways. which is the essential property distinguishing one note from another. However.g. we have little trouble expressing . sinusoids.We have seen that the series and parallel networks can be reduced by the use of simple equations. where quantities of voltage and current are generally stable. RMS is used in various fields. 3 and 3. simplifying.. and by tracing the alternation over time we can plot it as a “waveform. 1. With DC. the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms). e. Making the substitution r1= R23 etc.” We can measure the rate of alternation by measuring the time it takes for a wave to evolve before it repeats itself (the “period”). is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. we have R12 || (R31 + R23) We have similar relations for the points 2. frequency is the same as pitch. The resistance between them in the star case is simply R1 + R2 For the delta case. The name comes from the fact that it is the square root of the mean of the squares of the values. one of the more prominent uses of RMS is in the field of signal amplifiers.
3 Electric Power A considerable part of electrical technology is concerned with the transmission of power. watts .i. This is known as the peak-to-peak (PP) value of an AC waveform: Figure below Peak-to-peak voltage of a waveform. For example. a square wave peaking at 10 volts is obviously a greater amount of voltage for a greater amount of time than a triangle wave peaking at 10 volts. The effects of these two AC voltages powering a load would be quite different. 1. This is known as the peak or crest value of an AC waveform: Figure below Peak voltage of a waveform. so it is appropriate to take a quick look at the basic relations here.how much voltage or current we have in any part of a circuit. of an AC quantity is to measure its peak height on a waveform graph. or magnitude (also called the amplitude). either one of these expressions of waveform amplitude can be misleading when comparing two different types of waves. P = v. Another way is to measure the total height between opposite peaks. In an electric circuit: Power. But how do you grant a single measurement of magnitude to something that is constantly changing? One way to express the intensity. Unfortunately.
Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time. e. and is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1 (frequently expressed as a percentage. or the rate of change of energy in a system. a load with a low power factor draws more current than a load with a high power factor for the same amount of useful power transferred. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.g.Power is the rate of doing work. The higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution system. or due to a non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source. and require larger wires and other equipment. the apparent power will be greater than the real power.e. . i.5 pf = 50% pf). 0. electrical utilities will usually charge a higher cost to industrial or commercial customers where there is a low power factor. P= dt/dW Where: W: energy or work for an electrical system in joules: POWER FACTOR The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit. In an electric power system. Because of the costs of larger equipment and wasted energy. Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source.
THREE PHASE BALANCED CIRCUITS .
the “Y” configuration becomes more obvious in Figure below. The three conductors leading away from the voltage sources (windings) toward a load are typically called lines. (Figure below) Three-phase “Y” connection has three voltage sources connected to a common point. although it certainly helps alleviate potential problems should one element of a three-phase load fail open. Three-phase. In a Y-connected system. there may or may not (Figure below) be a neutral wire attached at the junction point in the middle. four-wire “Y” connection uses a "common" fourth wire. as discussed earlier. If we draw a circuit showing each voltage source to be a coil of wire (alternator or transformer winding) and do some slight rearranging. This configuration of voltage sources is characterized by a common connection point joining one side of each source. .Three-phase Y and Delta configurations Initially we explored the idea of three-phase power systems by connecting three voltage sources together in what is commonly known as the “Y” (or “star”) configuration. while the windings themselves are typically called phases.
the “Y” configuration is not the only valid one for connecting three-phase voltage source or load elements together. Another configuration is known as the “Delta. For the circuit shown above. Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure below. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor. the line voltage is roughly 208 volts.” for its geometric resemblance to the Greek letter of the same name (∆).Three-phase. Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced three-phase system. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3: However. With the above circuit. three-wire “Y” connection does not use the neutral wire. . and the latter to current through any one component. and line currents equal to phase currents. Y-connected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages. we need to be specific as to where we're measuring. When we measure voltage and current in three-phase systems. the phase voltage is 120 volts. If the Y-connected source or load is balanced. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced three-phase source or load.
then there will be no voltage available to push current around and around that loop. One quick check of this is to use Kirchhoff's Voltage Law to see if the three voltages around the loop add up to zero. Starting with the top winding and progressing counter-clockwise. Due to the phase angles of these three voltage sources. our KVL expression looks something like this: Indeed. If they do. this is not the case. Another way to verify the fact that these three voltage sources can be connected together in a loop without resulting in circulating currents is to open up the loop at one junction point and calculate voltage across the break: (Figure below) . if we add these three vector quantities together. however. At first glance it seems as though three voltage sources like this would create a short-circuit. and consequently there will be no circulating current. electrons flowing around the triangle with nothing but the internal impedance of the windings to hold them back. they do add up to zero.Three-phase. three-wire ∆ connection has no common.
the resulting equations for a ∆ configuration are as follows: Let's see how this works in an example circuit: (Figure below) . Not surprisingly. Conversely. because each line conductor attaches at a node between two windings. the line current will be the vector sum of the two joining phase currents. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage. Starting with the right winding (120 V ∠ 120o) and progressing counter-clockwise. our KVL equation looks like this: Sure enough.Voltage across open ∆ should be zero. Because each pair of line conductors is connected directly across a single winding in a ∆ circuit. we turn to its practical use as a source of power in three-phase circuits. Having established that a ∆-connected three-phase voltage source will not burn itself to a crisp due to circulating currents. there will be zero voltage across the break. telling us that no current will circulate within the triangular loop of windings when that connection is made complete.
it is still less than the 1000+ pounds of copper required for a single-phase system delivering the same power (30 kW) at the same voltage (120 volts conductor-toconductor). in order to . With a Y-connected system. One distinct advantage of a ∆-connected system is its lack of a neutral wire. The answer is no. a neutral wire was needed in case one of the phase loads were to fail open (or be turned off). necessitating thicker.34 amps.33 amps: So each line current in this three-phase power system is equal to 144. given the fact that we have such greater conductor currents. With each load resistance receiving 120 volts from its respective phase winding at the source.The load on the ∆ source is wired in a ∆. the current in each phase of this circuit will be 83. which is substantially more than the line currents in the Y-connected system we looked at earlier. more costly wire. One might wonder if we've lost all the advantages of three-phase power here. Although this circuit would require three number 1 gage copper conductors (at 1000 feet of distance between source and load this equates to a little over 750 pounds of copper for the whole system).
keep the phase voltages at the load from changing. 208. and load phase voltage is still 120 V. It is possible for one of the windings in a ∆-connected three-phase source to fail open (Figure below) without affecting load voltage or current! Even with a source winding failure. Compare this fault tolerance with a Y-connected system suffering an open source winding in Figure below. This is not necessary (or even possible!) in a ∆connected circuit. the line voltage is still 120 V. The only difference is extra current in the remaining functional source windings. A Y-connected load suffers an even worse fate (Figure below) with the same winding failure in a Y-connected source . Perhaps the greatest advantage of the ∆-connected source is its fault tolerance. The only consequence of a source winding failing open for a ∆-connected source is increased phase current in the remaining windings. Open “Y” source winding halves the voltage on two loads of a ∆ connected load. the phase voltage will be constant regardless of open failures in the load elements. two of the resistances suffer reduced voltage while one remains at the original line voltage. With a ∆-connected load. With each load phase element directly connected across a respective source phase winding.
However. line voltage is equal to phase voltage times the square root of 3. if dual voltages are needed (e. Phase current is the current through any one component comprising a three-phase source or load.g. In this case. while line current is equal to phase current times the square root of 3. and looses one load entirely. Line current is the current through any one line between a three-phase source and load. Y-connected systems are the configuration of choice. while line current is equal to phase current. two load resistances suffer reduced voltage while the third loses supply voltage completely! For this reason. Phase voltage is the voltage measured across a single component in a three-phase source or load. ∆-connected sources are preferred for reliability. The three components comprising a three-phase source or load are called phases. • . Line voltage is the voltage measured between any two lines in a three-phase circuit. line voltage is equal to phase voltage. In balanced “Y” circuits. 120/208) or preferred for lower line currents. • • • • • • • • • REVIEW: The conductors connected to the three points of a three-phase source or load are called lines. • • In balanced ∆ circuits.Open source winding of a "Y-Y" system halves the voltage on two loads.
Y-connected sources can deliver the same amount of power with less line current than ∆-connected sources. . However.• ∆-connected three-phase voltage sources give greater reliability in the event of winding failure than Y-connected sources.
inductive high resistance in series with it . The other flux is created by a movable coil which carries a current proportional to the load voltage and thus called the voltage or potential coil. It has a non . It is thin in cross .section and has hundreds of turns. One of the fluxes is produced by a fixed coil which carries a current proportional to the load current and therefore called the current coil. The coil is thick in cross section and has less number of turns.This coil is divided in to two parts and they are kept parallel to each other.The moving coil (pressure coil) is connected across the load. In a dynamometer type wattmeter the fixed coil (current coil) is connected in series with the load. The control torque is provided by a control spring.Working of dynamometer type wattmeter The principle of operation of the electrodynamometer-type wattmeter is the same as that for dynamo-electric machines. A high non-inductive resistance is connected to the potential coil so that its current is almost in phase with the load voltage. The deflection torque is produced by the interaction of two magnetic fluxes.
but also in volts and amperes.The wattmeter is an electrodynamic instrument for measuring the electric power or the supply rate of electrical energy of any given circuit. the potential coil carries a needle that moves over a scale to indicate the measurement. On an ac circuit the deflection is proportional to the average instantaneous product of voltage and current. A current flowing through the current coil generates an electromagnetic field around the coil. thus conforming to the equation W=VA or P=EI.but in the wattmeter. a high-value resistor connected in series with it to reduce the current that flows through it. The strength of this field is proportional to the line current and in phase with it.in case of an overload. The result of this arrangement is that on a dc circuit. thus measuring true power. the deflection of the needle is proportional to both the current and the voltage. and a movable coil known as the potential coil. Also. The two circuits of a wattmeter are likely to be damaged by excessive current. Therefore. even when both of its circuits are loaded to the maximum safety limit. . their pointers will be driven off scale . while the potential coil is connected in parallel. and possibly (depending on load characteristics) showing a different reading to that obtained by simply multiplying the readings showing on a stand-alone voltmeter and a stand-alone ammeter in the same circuit. The potential coil has. known as current coils. as a general rule. a wattmeter is rated not only in watts. The device consists of a pair of fixed coils. The ammeter and voltmeter are both vulnerable to overheating . either or even both the current and potential circuits can overheat without the pointer approaching the end of the scale! This is because the position of the pointer depends on the power factor. The current coils are connected in series with the circuit. voltage and current. on analog wattmeters. Thus. a circuit with a low power factor will give a low reading on the wattmeter.
The series magnet produces magnetic field proportional to the load current. Series magnet Shunt magnet Braking magnet Series magnet This magnet is denoted as M. Due to this. Principle The operation of the induction type energy meter is based on the passage of alternating current through two coils (current coil and pressure coil). It is the U-shaped lamined core. It is the M-shaped laminated core. Therefore it carries the load current. Therefore. The figure shows the diagram of a single phase energy meter. Moving System The moving system consists of a thin aluminium disc fixed on a vertical spindle. Thus energy meters are integrating instruments and do not indicate the power directly. the energy meter must take into account the time duration of supply of this power. operating mechanism and recording mechanism. This coils produce the rotating magnetic field which interacts with a aluminium disc suspended near to the coils and makes the disc rotates. This coil is current coil. It is wound on the middle limb of the magnet. It carries the current proportional to the supply voltage. a phase difference of 90° exists between the fluxes developed by two coils. The coil is known as pressure coil or voltage coil. a rotating field which interacts with the disc to rotate. The spindle is supported by a cup-shaped jewelled bearing at the bottom end. There is no pointer and control spring hence the disc makes continuous rotation under the action of deflecting torque. A thick wire consisting few turns. It is connected across the supply or load. is wound on both lags of the magnet M. The current coil carries the line current and develops magnetic field. 'A single phase induction type energy meter consists of moving system. This magnetic field is in phase with the line current. Shunt magnet This magnet is denoted as N. Operating Mechanism The operating mechanism consists ofthree megnets. It consists of more number oftums and thin wire.ENERGY METER An energy meter is essentially the same as a wattmeter except that. The pressure coil in the highly inductive hence the current passes through it lags behind the supply voltage by 90°. . This magnet is connected in series with load. It has a spring at the top end.
It produce the magnetic field and is in phase with the line current. Cheap in cost. The current coil carries the load current. Operation The energy meter is connected in the given circuit to measure the electrical energy. also known as the power factor compensator is provided in the central limb of the shunt magnet. The braking magnet is produced the braking torque on the disc. The spindle is geared to the recording mechanism so that the electrical energy consumed in the circuit is directly given in kWh (kilo watt hour). Simple in operation. Braking magnet A permanent magnet. . Recording mechanism The number of revolution of the disc is a measure of the electrical energy flowing through the meter and is recorded on dials which are geared to the shaft. The magnetic field due to pressure coil lags approximately 90° behind the supply voltage. Advantages I. This helps to achieve exactly 90° phase displacement between the flux produced in shunt magnet and the voltage across the shunt magnet. called braking magnet is positioned near the edge of the disc and provide the braking torque. High torque / weight ratio. Thus a torque is developed in the disc then it rotates.A copper shading ring R. The pressure coil carries current proportional to the supply voltage. Unaffected by temperature variations. lne current coil magnetic field develops eddy currents in the aluminium disc which react with magnetic field due to the pressure coil.
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