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IEEE-USA

Salary

& Fringe

Benefits

Survey
2010 Edition

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
IEEE-USA's Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey, 2010 Edition, is the 23rd in a series of studies of
the compensation of U.S. members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
IEEE-USA coordinated the project. Readex Research in Stillwater, Minnesota prepared the
summary report. Raven Analytics in Seattle, Washington developed the regression models
described in Section 4 (and available through the Salary Service).

Copyright 2010 by IEEE

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

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2010 Edition

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
IEEE-USA has conducted surveys of the compensation of the IEEE's U.S. members since 1972. Major
findings from the 2010 edition of this project are summarized below.
 A move in 2001 to collect data solely via the Internet continues to return substantially large numbers
of responses and even more this year than before. This year, a total of 14,724 IEEE members
participated, including 11,766 employed full time in their primary areas of technical competence
(PATC) the most relevant group from both employee and employer standpoints.
 The typical respondent is a male in his mid-forties, with an advanced degree and about 20 years of
experience in the profession. He is at the fifth or sixth of nine possible levels of professional
responsibility, supervising a handful of other people, both professionals and support staff.
 Considering only those working full time in their PATC, the total median pre-tax income in the
calendar year of 2009 from all sources was $118,000. After excluding overtime pay, profit sharing,
and other supplemental earnings, median pre-tax income from all primary sources (salary,
commissions, bonuses, and net self-employment) was $113,500. That represents a slight loss of $440
in inflation-adjusted dollars compared to last years median reported primary income.
 The general PATC of Communications Technology continues to yield the highest earnings, while this
year Energy and Power Engineering falls at the bottom.
 Following a broader societal trend, the gap between those at entry level and those at the highest levels
of responsibility continues to be wide. Those working at Level 9 (greater than GS-15) earn almost
three times those at entry level in median primary income.
 Median income varies by employment sector, as well. Those working in private industry (defense)
earned top primary incomes in calendar year 2009, while those working in state/local government or
educational institutions earned the least, on average.
 A job in management still results in the highest median primary income, with an advantage in salary
of more than $39,000 for those in general management compared to the median for all respondents.
Technical managers and those in marketing and sales also do relatively well compared to the whole.
Lowest median wages belong to the job functions of manufacturing and production; engineering
support; operations, construction and maintenance; quality control, reliability, etc.; and education,
teaching, training.
 Higher education can be a worthwhile investment, with those holding doctorates or MBAs boasting
far higher median primary incomes than those with other degrees.
 Womens salaries continue to trail mens even considering experience levels. Overall, the
difference in median primary income between the genders among those working full time in their
PATC is $15,000, similar to last years gap.
 Those employed full time continue to receive a broad array of health and insurance benefits, with
more than nine in ten offered basic health insurance. However, employer contributions in many of
these areas is down, dropping as much as 4 percentage points from last year for life insurance and
disability insurance, specifically.
 The proportion offered paid attendance at professional conferences has dropped eleven points in the
past nine years, to 67%. The proportion offered paid maternity or paternity leave has jumped from
42% to 57%.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

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2010 Edition

CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................................................................................iii
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Institute and IEEE-USA ....................................................................................................................................................1-1
1.2 The Survey................................................................................................................................................................................1-1
1.3 The Analyses ............................................................................................................................................................................1-3
2 MEMBERSHIP PROFILE
2.1 Members in the Work Force .....................................................................................................................................................2-1
2.2 Academics.................................................................................................................................................................................2-7
2.3 Those Not in the Work Force or Involuntarily Unemployed ....................................................................................................2-7
3 INCOME STATISTICS
3.1 Sources and Amounts of 2009 Income .....................................................................................................................................3-1
3.2 Primary Income in 2009, for Those Working Full Time in Their PATC .................................................................................3-3
3.3 Detailed Income Tabulations ..................................................................................................................................................3-16
3.4 Academics...............................................................................................................................................................................3-28
4 REGRESSION MODELS FOR SALARY BENCHMARKING
4.1 Mathematical Salary Models ....................................................................................................................................................4-1
4.2 The 2010 Regression Models....................................................................................................................................................4-1
4.3 Accuracy of the Models ............................................................................................................................................................4-2
5 FRINGE BENEFITS, RETIREMENT, SELF-EMPLOYMENT, AND SATISFACTION WITH WORK
5.1 Fringe Benefits Offered ............................................................................................................................................................5-1
5.2 Leave ........................................................................................................................................................................................5-3
5.3 Older Engineers and Retirement ...............................................................................................................................................5-3
5.4 Self-Employment ......................................................................................................................................................................5-6
5.5 Satisfaction with Work .............................................................................................................................................................5-6
6 IEEE-USA SALARY TIME SERIES DATA, 1994-2009
6.1 Constant Dollar Data: Adjusting for Inflation ........................................................................................................................6-1
6.2 Trends in the Membership Profile ............................................................................................................................................6-3
7 METHODOLOGICAL NOTES
7.1 Sampling and Response ...........................................................................................................................................................7-1
APPENDIX
Facsimile of Web Questionnaire .............................................................................................................................................A-1

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

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2010 Edition

CONTENTS
EXHIBITS
1-1 The Survey Data Base...............................................................................................................................................................1-1
1-2 All Respondents: Income Profile by Employment Status, 2008-2010.....................................................................................1-2
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13

Members in the Work Force: Age ...........................................................................................................................................2-1


Members in the Work Force: Years of Experience in the Profession ......................................................................................2-1
Members in the Work Force: Number of Different Full-Time Employers in the Past Ten Years ...........................................2-2
Employed Members in the Work Force: (Non-Consultants Only) Years with Current Employer .........................................2-2
Employed Members in the Work Force: (Non-Consultants Only) Supervisory Responsibilities...........................................2-2
Members in the Work Force: Highest Degree Held.................................................................................................................2-3
Employed Members in the Work Force: Level of Professional Engineering Responsibility ..................................................2-4
Members in the Work Force: Primary Area of Technical Competence (PATC) .....................................................................2-5
Employed Members in the Work Force: Primary Job Function ..............................................................................................2-5
Employed Members in the Work Force: (Non-Consultants Only) Size of Employer.............................................................2-6
Employed Members in the Work Force: Sector.......................................................................................................................2-6
Employed Members in the Work Force: Line of Business ......................................................................................................2-6
Employed Members in the Work Force: Job Function by Line of Business............................................................................2-7

3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15a
3-15b
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-20

All Respondents: Sources of 2009 Total Earned Income by Employment Status ...................................................................3-1
All Respondents: 2009 Total Earned Income from All Sources by Employment Status.........................................................3-2
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Primary Area of Technical Competence .....................3-4
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Level of Professional Responsibility ..........................3-5
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Years of Professional/Managerial Experience ............3-5
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Years with Current Employer .....................................3-6
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Size of Employer ........................................................3-6
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Sector ..........................................................................3-7
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Line of Business .........................................................3-7
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Primary Job Function..................................................3-8
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Age..............................................................................3-9
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Highest Degree Earned .............................................3-10
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Gender and Experience.............................................3-10
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Ethnic Background ...................................................3-10
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by IEEE Region .............................................................3-11
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by U.S. Census Region ..................................................3-11
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by State ..........................................................................3-12
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Metropolitan Area.....................................................3-13
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Non-Metropolitan Area.............................................3-15
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Sector and Level of Responsibility ...........................3-16
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Line of Business, Highest Degree,
and Experience........................................................................................................................................................................3-18
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by PATC, Highest Degree, and Experience...................3-23
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Academic Contract ...........................................3-28
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Academic Rank.................................................3-28
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Tenure Status ....................................................3-28
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Institution (Highest Degree Granted)................3-29
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC: 2009 Primary Income by Institution (Auspices)........................................3-29

3-21
3-22
3-23
3-24
3-25
3-26

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

2010 Edition

CONTENTS
EXHIBITS
4-1 Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: Base Income and Base + Income from Other Sources ........................................4-2
4-2 Regression Model Validation Percent Deviation from Observed Value..............................................................................4-3
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13

Full-Time Workers: Pension and Retirement Benefits ............................................................................................................5-1


Full-Time Workers: Health and Insurance Benefits ................................................................................................................5-2
Full-Time Workers: Miscellaneous Benefits ...........................................................................................................................5-2
Full-Time Workers: Paid Days Off..........................................................................................................................................5-3
Full-Time Workers: Distribution of Paid Leave ......................................................................................................................5-3
All Respondents: Mean Age, 1972-2010.................................................................................................................................5-3
Full-Time Workers: Age Distributions, 1991-2010.................................................................................................................5-3
Members in the Work Force: Median Primary Income by Age, 1991-2010............................................................................5-4
Full-Time Workers: Percent and Absolute Change in Median Base Salaries
by Age, 1997-2010 ...................................................................................................................................................................5-5
Members in the Work Force: 2009 Median Primary Income, Income from All Sources, and
Total Household Income by Age ..............................................................................................................................................5-5
All Respondents: Number of Retirement Plans in which Fully Vested ...................................................................................5-5
All Respondents: Percent Vested, Current Employer's Retirement Program...........................................................................5-5
All Respondents: Satisfaction with Aspects of Work ..............................................................................................................5-6

6-1 Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: Median Primary Income in Constant 2009 Dollars, 1994-2009..........................6-1
6-2 Those Working Full Time in Their PATC: Changes in Median Nominal Primary Income and the CPI, 1996-2009 .............6-2
6-3 All Respondents: Comparisons of Selected Measures, 1972-2010..........................................................................................6-3
7-1 All Higher-Grade IEEE U.S. Members and All Survey Respondents: IEEE Region by Membership Grade ........................7-1
7-2 All Higher-Grade IEEE U.S. Members and All Survey Respondents: Age ............................................................................7-1

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

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2010 Edition

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 THE INSTITUTE AND IEEE-USA

Exhibit 1-1

The Survey Data Base

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers United States of America (IEEE-USA) promotes the career
and public policy interests of more than 210,000 U.S.
members of the IEEE, the world's largest technical
professional society, with a worldwide membership of more
than 395,000 electrical, electronics and computer engineers
and computer scientists in approximately 160 countries. The
IEEE's constitution defines its purpose as "scientific and
educational... [and] professional, directed toward the
advancement of the standing of the members of the
professions it serves; means to this end include, but are not
limited to, the conduct and publication of surveys and
reports on matters of professional concern to the members..."
Pursuant to these purposes, IEEE-USA has conducted,
analyzed, and distributed a salary and fringe benefit survey
of IEEE members in the United States since 1972.

Sampling Frame:
121,669

Survey Data:
14,724

Final number of responses for salary and consultant


reports combined (rate = 12.1%). Exhibit 1-2 provides
comparisons of results with the most recent prior
surveys. All data were collected through the use of an
online survey with routing for consultant and nonconsultant respondents.

Categories of Respondents:
537
14,187
12,825

Consultants (reported separately)


Non-consultants
Full-time non-consultant workers; of these:
11,766

1.2 THE SURVEY

1,059
1,362

The 2010 IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey is


the 23rd compensation study IEEE-USA has published. The
aim of the project is to provide timely information on current
and long-term trends related to the income, salary and
benefits of IEEE members in the United States. This
information is critical for accurate understanding of
compensation practices in this profession, including how
those practices impact individual engineers. As has been the
case since 2001, data for the 2010 survey was collected
exclusively via the Internet, with access to the survey site
controlled by passwords and routing incorporated to separate
consultants from non-consultants.

Employed in their PATC; much of the data in


this report focuses on this group
Employed outside their PATC

Others not working full time, including:


318

Retired, not working

393

Part-time workers

537

Involuntarily unemployed

63

Voluntarily unemployed

51

Full-time students

Of the 14,187 usable non-consultant cases, 12,825 (90%)


were employed full time as of 1 January 2010, the survey's
date of record. 11,766 (83%) are engineers employed full
time in their primary area of technical competence (PATC);
most of the compensation data reported focuses on this group.
Two percent of respondents are retired and not employed, less
than 1% unemployed voluntarily, 4% unemployed
involuntarily, and less than 1% are full-time students.
Comparison of the survey respondents to the population of all
higher grade US IEEE members on key variables shows a
reasonably close correlation. (See Section 7)

A total of 14,724 usable cases are included in the 2010


data set. The 537 individuals who self-identified as
primarily fee-based consultants are excluded from the
current results and reported separately, leaving a total of
14,187 non-consultants for this years results. Most of the
profile information is based on the 13,755 non-consultants
"in the work force" that is, those currently employed or
involuntarily unemployed. Proportions for this subset
subject to a maximum sampling error of 0.8 percentage
points at the 95% confidence level. (An additional 305
respondents with extreme high or low values for the key
measure of total personal income earned were omitted from
both reports.)
IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

IEEE U.S. members invited by email in the summer of


2010 to complete the salary survey. (The sample
consisted of all IEEE U.S. higher-grade members i.e.,
not including Student, Life and Affiliate grades who
consent to email communications from the IEEE.)

Note that the omission of consultants from all the current


analysis is unlike past surveys and should be considered when
comparing to previous results. However, given the small
number of consultant cases and their negligible effect on
overall results, comparability is likely of little concern.

1-1

2010 Edition

As has been the case in prior surveys, 2010 results show


those who are retired and employed full time benefit from
substantial non-primary income streams, and thus earn one
of the highest incomes overall.

Exhibit 1-2 recaps median income for survey years 2008 to


2010 from primary sources (salary, commissions, bonuses,
and net self-employment income) and from all sources (adding
overtime pay, profit sharing, supplemental earnings from other
work, retirement and Social Security benefits, and other
earned income). 2009 median income from primary sources
for those employed full time in their PATC dropped $2,500, to
$113,500 (or -2.2%). On an inflation-adjusted basis, however,
this represents a decline of only $440 real dollars. 2009 data
continue a recent trend of compensation failing to get ahead of
inflation. See Section 6 for a full discussion of time series
data.

This survey reports typical salary outcomes for groups of


people. In addition to differences in income between these
groups, there are also major differences in earnings within
each group, reflecting factors such as the circumstances and
policies of particular employers, and the skill, performance
and negotiating ability of particular engineers. Detailed data
on ranges of pay in Section 3 of the report provide a way to
account for such variations.

Exhibit 1-2
All Respondents (Current Data Excludes Consultants):

Income Profile by Employment Status, 2008-2010


2008 Survey
Number
of Cases

2009 Survey

Median 2007 Income


Primary
All
Sources
Sources

2010 Survey

Median 2008 Income


Number
Primary
All
of Cases
Sources
Sources

Number
of Cases

Median 2009 Income


Primary
All
Sources
Sources

ALL RESPONDENTS

11,907

$108,000

$113,200

12,119

112,000

118,000

14,187

110,000

115,000

FULL-TIME WORKERS

11,127

110,000

115,000

11,072

115,320

120,350

12,825

113,200

118,000

In PATC
Not in PATC

10,365
762

110,610
105,900

115,300
111,660

10,117
895

116,000
109,000

121,000
114,000

11,766
1,059

113,500
110,190

118,000
116,000

Employed
Self-employed
Retired and employed

10,760
289
78

110,000
122,110
106,500

115,000
130,500
151,510

10,519
485
68

115,000
129,000
119,000

120,000
141,000
160,000

12,612
101
112

113,310
111,000
105,000

117,670
125,000
137,710

780

24,000

60,000

1,047

30,000

67,000

1,362

21,800

66,390

Part-time workers
Employed
Self-employed
Retired and employed

320
90
128
102

49,750
61,150
44,930
35,470

76,000
67,220
61,050
93,570

468
154
209
105

65,000
62,600
80,000
36,000

95,000
71,550
101,300
105,600

393
157
75
161

45,000
71,000
31,200
22,190

80,000
79,000
58,000
93,500

Retired, not unemployed


Unemployed, voluntarily
Unemployed, involuntarily
Full-time student

176
55
149
80

0
8,090
44,840
21,000

67,170
15,000
53,000
22,380

153
32
213
181

0
0
72,000
20,000

65,000
10,000
73,590
21,000

318
63
537
51

0
1,400
50,500
21,000

68,830
10,000
62,000
22,800

ALL OTHERS

NOTES: A minimum of 25 cases is required for all of the statistics in this report. Groups may have enough respondents to seem to meet this test, but
they will still fail to pass it if too many of their members have not responded to the particular item. The "All Sources" income class includes all primary
sources (salary, self-employment income and commissions or bonuses, as noted in the text), plus any supplemental earned income, and other income
directly related to employment such as profit sharing, pension benefits and Social Security.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

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2010 Edition

1.3 THE ANALYSES


Section 4, Regression Models for Salary Benchmarking, describes the development of mathematical models
for predicting salary based on a large number of survey
variables. The models themselves are available to IEEEs
U.S. members through the IEEE-USA Salary Calculator, the
chief component of the IEEE-USA Salary Service, Member
Version. Employers and others may also access the models
through use of the Individual Compensation Analyzer in the
IEEE-USA Salary Service, Subscriber Version. For more
information, see http://salary.ieee.org.

The remainder of this report is organized as follows:


Section 2, the Membership Profile, reports on the
characteristics of the respondents to the survey: how long
they have been with their present employers, their levels of
experience, how many people they supervise, etc. These
data are presented for all respondents in the work force:
those employed full or part time, or seeking work. Excluded
are members who are retired and not working, or who are
voluntarily unemployed. And, those who self-identified as
primarily fee-based consultants are excluded throughout the
current results.

Section 5, Fringe Benefits, Retirement, SelfEmployment, and Satisfaction With Work, summarizes data
on the fringe benefits and leave reported by respondents who
were working full time. The section also includes data on
issues relating to older EEs and information on the
subjective sense of satisfaction that IEEE's U.S. members
have with several aspects of their work.

Section 3, Income Statistics, presents the bulk of the


earnings information collected by the survey, divided into
three parts. In Section 3.1, variations in the magnitude and
sources of total income earned in 2009 are examined for
each type of respondent (full-time employed, part-time
employed, self-employed, etc.). In Section 3.2, income
variations are assessed by characteristics of the respondents:
their PATC; degree level; levels of professional
responsibility; length of service, both overall and with
current employers; employer size, sector, and line of
business; job function; location, including regions, states,
and major metropolitan areas; gender; and ethnicity. Section
3.3 provides similar tabulations at still more detailed levels,
with data on combinations of such variables as sector,
degree, and level of experience.

Section 6, IEEE-USA Salary Time Series Data,


1994-2009, documents trends in engineering pay over time,
using the Consumer Price Index to examine compensation
trends in constant dollars. Other membership trends are also
reviewed.
Section 7, Methodological Notes, reviews the survey's
sample and response. Data are provided comparing the
respondent database to IEEE's U.S. membership by region
and grade, and by age. An Appendix follows with a
facsimile reproduction of the survey's Web-based
questionnaire.

In both Sections 3.2 and 3.3, statistics deal only with


income from primary sources for those working full time in
their PATC; these data are for people employed in
appropriate jobs. Income data include 10th, 25th, 50th
(median), 75th and 90th percentiles. Such measures are the
preferred statistics for income analysis, as they are
unaffected by extreme values (see Section 7.1 for more
information). Statistics are not computed if the number of
cases is less than 25; instead, results are replaced with a dash
("-").

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

1-3

2010 Edition

2 MEMBERSHIP PROFILE
2.1 MEMBERS IN THE WORK FORCE

Exhibit 2-1
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Practically all (97%) 2010 Salary Survey respondents are


working or seeking work (status as of 1 January 2010).
Most (90%) were employed or self-employed full time. An
additional 3% work part time and 2% are unemployed
involuntarily (assumed to be looking for jobs) up slightly
from 4% reported last year. Altogether, they are counted as
IEEE's U.S. members in the work force.

Age
Mean:

Note those who indicated half or more of their personal


earned income in the calendar year came from fee-based
consulting were not included in this analysis, but reported
separately as consultants.

1%
2%
8%

55-59
50-54
45-49

13%
17%
17%

40-44
35-39
30-34

13%
10%
10%

25-29
Under 25

Gender, Ethnicity, and Citizenship. Results for these


measures are similar to those in the recent past. Most of
these respondents 93% are men, and 79% describe
themselves as non-Hispanic whites. Since these surveys
began in 1972, IEEE's U.S. members have become
somewhat more diverse, but the change is slow. Asians and
Pacific Islanders are the largest minority group (14% of
members in the work force). Hispanics, non-Hispanic
African Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives
account for 3%, 2%, and less than 0.5%, respectively.
Another 2% class themselves as "other."

8%
2%

Number of cases: 13,755

Exhibit 2-2
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Years of Experience in the Profession


Mean:
45 or more
40-44
35-39

About four in five members in the work force (77%) are


U.S. citizens by birth. Another 12% are naturalized citizens,
while 7% are permanent resident aliens, 3% H-1 visa
holders, and 1% holders of some other type of visa.
Age and Experience. The average age of members in
the workforce is 45.7 and each has accumulated about 20
years of professional and/or managerial experience in
electrical, electronics, and computer engineering or related
technical fields (not including undergraduate or graduate
school experience, on average.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

45.7

70 and up
65-69
60-64

20.0
1%
3%
7%

30-34
25-29
20-24

13%
15%
15%

15-29
10-14
5-9
Less than 5

12%
11%
11%
12%

Number of cases: 13,755

2-1

2010 Edition

Compared to last year, slightly more members in the


work force have worked for only a single full-time employer
in the electrical, electronics, computer engineering or related
technical fields in the past 10 years (44% versus 40%). On
average, they have worked for 2.0 different employers in
that time.

Exhibit 2-4
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Years with Current Employer


Mean:

9.4

40 or more
35-39
30-34

0%
1%
3%

25-29
20-24
15-19

5%
7%
6%

10-14
7-9
5-6
3-4

14%
11%
11%
16%

Exhibit 2-3
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

2
1
Less than 1

11%
10%
5%

Number of Different Full-Time Employers


in the Past Ten Years

Number of cases: 13,755

Tenure with the current employer declined from a mean


of 10.3 years in 2001 to 8.7 years in 2008. But that figure is
on the rise, at 9.4 years in the current study. Five percent are
still in their first year on the job, while 16% have been in
their positions for 20 years or more.

Mean:

2.0

10 or more
9
8

0%
0%
0%

7
6
5

0%
1%
3%

4
3
2

7%
16%
27%

1
None

44%
2%

Length of the Work Week. The typical (median)


member in the work force reported working 45 hours per
week in 2009, a value which has remained essentially
constant all the way back to 1994. In this survey, 9%
reported working 60 hours per week or more.
Supervisory Responsibilities. The majority (59%) of
members in the work force supervised directly or indirectly
at least one technical and/or non-technical employee in the
primary position held on 1 January 2010. Typically, they
supervised five other employees.

Number of cases: 13,755

Exhibit 2-5
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Supervisory Responsibilities
Total

Non-Technical

Technical

Median # supervised, if any:

500 or more
50-499

0%
3%

0%
1%

0%
2%

20-49
5-19
1-4

5%
24%
27%

1%
4%
18%

4%
22%
28%

None

41%

76%

44%

Number of cases: 13,755

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

2-2

2010 Edition

Exhibit 2-6
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Highest Degree Held

BSC S = 2%
BET/BSET = 2%
BA = 2%

1%

Two-Year Degree

o ther Bachelor's = 3%
BSEE/BSC E = 28%

Bachelor's Level

Master's Level

MBA = 6%

PhDs and JDs

PhD = 27%

0%

5%

O ther = 8%

MSEE/MSC E = 21%

JD (law) <0.5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

Number of cases: 13,755


NOTE: Within levels, degrees were ranked as they appear in the chart, left to right. For example, if a member had both an MSEE and an MBA, the
MBA was counted as the higher degree. Distinctions within broad degree levels, e.g., among different kinds of Master's degrees, are necessarily
somewhat arbitrary; the important differences are between the Bachelor's, Master's, and PhD levels.

Although professional registration is a prerequisite for


practice as an engineer in most countries in the world,
registration has not been essential for most EEs in the United
States. Many engineering employment sectors, including
some of direct interest to IEEE's U.S. members (such as
consulting and power engineering), do place more
importance on these credentials. Currently only 15% of
members in the work force are registered professional
engineers (PEs).

Education and Certification. As the chart in Exhibit 2-6


shows, slightly more than one-fourth of members in the
work force (27%) hold a PhD or equivalent as their highest
degree, and fewer than 0.5% achieved a Law Degree (JD).
For 35%, a Master's degree is their highest: an MSEE or
MSCE for 21%, an MBA for 6%, and other Master's degrees
for 8%. About a third (36%) report the Bachelor's level as
their highest attainment, most holding a BSEE or BSCE.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

2-3

2010 Edition

Exhibit 2-7
Employed Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Level of Professional Engineering Responsibility


30%
25%

25%

19%

20%
16%
15%

13%

10%

8%

8%
5%

5%

4%

2%
0%

Level 1
(GS-5)

Level 2
(GS-7)

Level 3
(GS-9)

Level 4
(GS-11)

Level 5
(GS-12)

Level 6
(GS-13)

Level 7
(GS-14)

Level 8
Level 9
(GS-15) (>GS-15)

Number of cases: 11,964 (excludes 1,791 not employed as engineers)

Exhibit 2-8 shows that, many (10%) are competent in the


non-Internet software development category within
Computers.

Levels of Professional Responsibility. Respondents


were asked to indicate their levels of professional
engineering responsibility, using detailed definitions
provided with the questionnaire. These data resemble those
from surveys dating back to the 1990s: 73% of these
engineers are in Levels 4 through 7, equivalent to the tenuretrack academic ranks of assistant, associate, full, and
distinguished professors, or the GS-11 through GS-14 grades
in government. However, the proportion working at the
highest levels (i.e., Levels 8 and 9, equivalent to GS-15 or
higher) has dropped five points since 2001, to 12%.

Energy and Power Engineering is the next most


frequently mentioned PATC, at 18%, followed by Circuits
and Devices (16%), Communications Technology (9%),
Systems and Control (9%), and Signals and Applications
(7%). The proportion reporting a specialty of Engineering
and Human Environment has dropped five points since
2001, to 2%. Eighty-eight percent of those in the work force
report they are employed in their primary area of technical
competence, down two points from 2009. Compensation
variation is examined extensively for this group with respect
to PATC in Section 3.

Specialty. In its compensation studies, the IEEE


measures the specialties of its members by asking them to
choose a "primary area of technical competence" (PATC).
Nine broad areas of competence were listed in the survey
form, with 41 more detailed subcategories within these
types, plus an "other" field for areas not otherwise listed. As
has been true in recent surveys, a specialty in Computers
accounts for the largest share of members in the work force
(24%).

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

2-4

2010 Edition

Job Functions. Exhibit 2-9 shows that design and


development engineering and technical management are the
most frequently named primary job functions, at 24% and
18%, respectively. The other functions indicated by the
most are computer programming/systems software
engineering (11% up 2 points from last year) and systems
engineering (8%).

Exhibit 2-8
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Primary Area of Technical Competence (PATC)


Circuits and Devices
Circuits and Systems
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Electronic Devices
Lasers and Electro-Optics
Solid-State Circuits
Communications Technology
Broadcast Technology
Communications
Consumer Electronics
Vehicular Technology
Computers
Hardware
Non-Internet Software Development
Non-Internet Systems Analysis/Integration
Non-Internet Software Applications
Including Database Admin.
Internet/Web Development/Applications
Other
Electromagnetics and Radiation
Antennas and Propagation
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Magnetics
Microwave Theory and Techniques
Nuclear and Plasma Sciences
Energy and Power Engineering

16%
6%
1%
3%
1%
4%
9%
<0.5%
7%
1%
<0.5%

Administration/personnel services
Basic research
Computer programming, systems software engineering

1%
3%
4%
5%
1%
1%
<0.5%
1%
1%
18%
2%
<0.5%
1%
<0.5%
<0.5%
<0.5%

Industrial Applications
Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Industry Applications
Instrumentation and Measurement
Power Electronics

4%
<0.5%
2%
1%
1%

Signals and Applications


Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Oceanic Engineering
Signal Processing
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control

7%
2%
<0.5%
<0.5%
3%
<0.5%

Other

Primary Job Function

24%
4%
10%
3%

Engineering and Human Environment


Education
Engineering Management
Professional Communication
Reliability
Social Implications of Technology

Systems and Control


Control Systems
Engineering in Medicine and Biology
Industrial Electronics
Information Theory
Robotics and Automation
Systems, Man and Cybernetics

Exhibit 2-9
Members in the Work Force:

<0.5%
6%
11%

Consulting
Design and development engineering
Education, teaching, training

6%
24%
6%

Engineering support
Management, general
Management, technical

6%
3%
18%

Manufacturing and production


Marketing, sales
Operations, construction and maintenance

1%
2%
2%

Quality control, reliability, etc.


Systems engineering
Other job function

1%
8%
5%

Number of cases: 13,755

9%
4%
2%
1%
0%
1%
1%
6%

Number of cases: 13,755

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

2-5

2010 Edition

Exhibit 2-10
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Employer characteristics. Exhibits 2-10, 2-11, and 2-12


summarize data about employers of members in the work
force.

Size of Employer

Members tend to work for large organizations: 29% are


employed by places with more than 10,000 employees in the
United States, and another 38% work for organizations with
501 to 10,000 employees results similar to 2009.

More than 10,000 employees


501 to 10,000 employees

29%
38%

51 to 500 employees
11 to 50 employees
1 to 10 employees

20%
9%
5%

More than half of members in the work force (52%) are


employed by private non-defense companies; when defenserelated firms are added in, the private industry share rises to
two-thirds of the members in the work force (65%). Other
sectors employing significant fractions of IEEE's U.S.
members include utilities (11%), educational institutions
(10%), and the federal government (4% defense, 2% nondefense).

Number of cases: 13,441 with knowledge to answer

Members are employed in a variety of lines of business,


with no more than 14%, in any single category.

Private Industry: Defense


Private Industry: Other than Defense or Utilities
Utilities

As shown in Exhibit 2-13, job functions vary markedly


by line of business, with some associations predictable
e.g., educators with educational institutions and others
perhaps less so.

Federal Government: Defense


Federal Government: Other than Defense
State or Local Government

NOTE: U.S. employment at all locations.

Exhibit 2-11
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Sector
13%
52%
11%
4%
2%
1%

Educational Institution
Non-Profit Institution: Except Education
Other sector

For more information about working electrical engineers,


including additional data on variations by geographic
regions, see the income data in Section 3.

10%
2%
4%

Number of cases: 13,755

Exhibit 2-12
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Line of Business
Aerospace
Automotive
Communications

8%
2%
10%

Computers
Consulting
Defense (except Aerospace)

11%
5%
9%

Education
Electrical/Electronic Manufacturing
Electrical/Electronic Services

8%
14%
3%

Medical
Metals
Petroleum/Chemical
Transportation
Utilities
Other Line of Business

5%
<0.5%
2%
1%
11%
11%

Number of cases: 13,755

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

2-6

2010 Edition

Exhibit 2-13
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Job Function by Line of Business

Number of cases:

Total

Aerospace

13,218

1,003

Auto- Communi- Commotive cations puters


213

1,330

1,393

EE
Consul- Defense EduManuEE
ting (no Aero) cation facturing Services
702

1,254

1,034

1,791

414

TransMediPetroporcal chemicals tation


628

276

154

Utilities

Other

1,519

1,507

Administration/personnel
services

0.3%

0.2%

0.5%

0.2%

0.1%

0.3%

0.2%

1.8%

0.1%

0.2%

0.5%

0.0%

0.6%

0.0%

0.2%

Basic research

6.3%

5.0%

6.6%

5.0%

8.4%

1.4%

8.1%

19.8%

3.4%

4.6%

11.5%

5.1%

0.6%

0.4%

6.7%

10.3%

10.9%

10.8%

9.3%

31.5%

5.1%

12.1%

3.2%

4.8%

5.6%

10.8%

6.2%

11.0%

2.0%

13.5%

6.2%

2.3%

1.9%

3.4%

2.8%

53.7%

2.8%

0.9%

2.0%

8.5%

2.9%

9.1%

11.7%

6.6%

3.6%
20.3%

Computer programming,
systems software engineering
Consulting
Design and development
engineering

24.2%

30.8%

31.5%

29.8%

23.3%

14.0%

22.9%

2.7%

40.1%

30.7%

30.9%

19.6%

10.4%

17.9%

Education, teaching, training

5.7%

1.0%

0.5%

0.9%

3.8%

0.3%

0.6%

60.1%

0.5%

1.2%

1.4%

0.0%

1.3%

0.3%

1.1%

Engineering support

6.3%

5.5%

4.2%

4.4%

1.9%

2.8%

4.9%

1.1%

5.4%

9.7%

3.2%

14.9%

8.4%

19.9%

5.0%

Management, general
Management, technical

3.4%

3.0%

1.9%

2.9%

2.0%

3.4%

3.4%

1.5%

2.8%

4.1%

3.7%

5.4%

5.2%

5.6%

4.9%

18.7%

16.3%

24.9%

23.4%

15.7%

10.8%

19.7%

4.4%

21.3%

18.1%

21.3%

18.8%

24.0%

24.0%

20.5%

Manufacturing and production

0.8%

0.5%

2.8%

0.2%

0.4%

0.0%

0.6%

0.1%

2.4%

0.2%

1.1%

2.2%

0.0%

0.1%

1.2%

Marketing, sales

2.2%

0.9%

0.9%

3.1%

1.1%

0.6%

0.6%

0.1%

7.0%

5.3%

0.3%

1.4%

0.0%

1.1%

2.7%

Operations, construction
and maintenance

1.8%

0.2%

0.9%

0.8%

0.4%

0.9%

0.4%

0.6%

0.3%

2.7%

0.8%

8.7%

4.5%

8.2%

1.9%

Quality control, reliability, etc.

1.4%

1.3%

2.8%

1.3%

1.7%

0.1%

1.5%

0.1%

2.2%

1.2%

2.4%

1.4%

1.3%

1.1%

1.6%

Systems engineering

7.8%

19.7%

7.5%

11.2%

3.6%

4.8%

18.0%

0.8%

4.3%

4.6%

4.8%

4.7%

14.3%

7.8%

5.0%

Other job function

4.5%

2.5%

2.3%

4.1%

3.2%

1.7%

4.2%

3.0%

3.3%

3.4%

4.5%

2.5%

6.5%

5.1%

11.9%

2.3 THOSE NOT IN THE WORK FORCE OR


INVOLUNTARILY UNEMPLOYED

2.2 ACADEMICS
Because the nature of academic employment differs
substantially from employment in industry or other types of
organizations, new questions were added to the survey in
2005 to better profile this small but important segment of
IEEE's U.S. membership. Ten percent of members in the
work force indicated that an academic (degree-granting)
institution was their primary employer as of 1 January 2010.
Of this group, 48% are on a nine- or 10-month contract, 37%
on an 11- or 12-month contract, and 16% on some other
arrangement.

Last year, full-time student were the dominant group


among those not in the work force on the "anchor date" of 1
January 2010, but this year there are only 51 full-time
students compared to 318 retired and 32 voluntarily
unemployed.
Involuntarily Unemployed Engineers. The members in
the work force profiled in this report include the 537 (3.8%)
who indicated they are unemployed involuntarily,
presumably searching for work. This proportion is more than
double that reported in the last survey (1.8%).

The largest portion of this group (27%) are full


professors. About one in five (18%) are associate professors,
and another 15% are assistant professors. Fourteen percent
have a non-teaching research appointment. Forty percent are
tenured, with an additional 14% on a tenure track. The large
majority (76%) work at public or private institutions that
grant doctoral degrees.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

2-7

2010 Edition

3 INCOME STATISTICS
3.1 SOURCES AND AMOUNTS OF 2008 INCOME
As in prior surveys, earned income was measured for the
year preceding the survey's date of record so the 2010
survey reports income earned in calendar year 2009.
Thirteen categories of income are measured, grouped
broadly into income from primary sources (salary,
commissions, bonuses, and net self-employment income)
and secondary sources (overtime pay, profit sharing,
supplemental earnings from other work, retirement and
Social Security benefits, and other earned income).

while those who have retired from a prior career and are still
working full time receive 73.9% of their total from
salary/self-employment income (with 17.7% coming from
retirement benefits plus Social Security). Those members
who are retired and not employed receive an average of
51.7% of their totals from retirement benefits plus Social
Security, with an additional 20.4% from profit sharing/other.
Compared with seven years ago (2001 survey), full-time
workers now depend significantly more on salary plus net
self-employment income (82.7% versus 90.0%), and earn
substantially less from commissions and bonuses (8.3%
versus 5.9%) and from profit sharing/other (5.2% versus
1.5%).

Exhibit 3-1 shows how 2009 earned income distributes


by category for each group of responding U.S. IEEE
members. For full-time workers who are employed or selfemployed, salary plus net self-employment income
constitutes the bulk of their earnings (over 90%, on average),
Exhibit 3-1
All Respondents (Excluding Consultants):

Sources of 2010 Total Earned Income by Employment Status


Percentage of 2010 Total Earned Income From ...
Primary Sources
Secondary Sources
Number
of Cases

Salary
+ Self
Employment

Commissions
+
Bonuses

Overtime
+
Supplemental

Retirement
+ Social
Security

Profit
Sharing
+ Other

ALL RESPONDENTS
(EXCLUDING CONSULTANTS)

14,187

88.3%

5.8%

1.5%

2.4%

2.0%

FULL-TIME WORKERS

12,825

90.0

5.9

1.4

1.2

1.5

11,766
1,059

90.1
89.3

5.8
6.1

1.4
1.2

1.2
1.7

1.5
1.8

12,612
101
112

90.3
81.2
73.9

5.9
6.5
2.8

1.4
3.1
2.4

1.0
4.0
17.7

1.5
5.2
3.2

1,362

61.5

4.1

2.9

21.1

10.4

Part-time workers
Employed
Self-employed
Retired and employed

393
157
75
161

62.0
87.3
63.9
41.7

3.5
2.5
3.9
4.2

5.6
3.3
2.7
8.4

21.1
3.4
12.9
37.8

7.8
3.4
16.6
7.9

Retired, not employed


Unemployed, voluntarily
Unemployed, involuntarily
Full-time student

318
63
537
51

23.5
86.1
82.0
93.8

2.8
5.6
5.4
0.8

1.5
0.3
1.5
3.0

51.7
0.7
3.9
0.0

20.4
7.3
7.2
2.4

In PATC
Not in PATC
Employed
Self-employed
Retired and employed
ALL OTHERS

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-1

2010 Edition

characteristics such as level of responsibility and supervision


requirements; employer characteristics such as organization
size and sector; and location. Considering members working
full time in their primary areas of technical competence
(PATC), we see typical (median) 2009 total earned income
of $118,000, while 10% earned less than $71,500 (lowest
decile) and 10% earned more than $187,640 (highest decile).
The middle half of engineers employed full time in their
PATC (upper minus lower quartile) ranges $58,000. Ranges
are even larger for those self-employed full time ($75,500).
Part-time workers also exhibit large variations, with an
interquartile range of more than $82,000.

Where sufficient responses were received (n 25), five


compensation statistics are presented:
 lowest decile (10% earn less)
 lower quartile (25% earn less)
 median (50% earn less)
 upper quartile (75% earn less)
 highest decile (90% earn less)
Exhibit 3-2 shows that within a given group of members
the variance in earned income is large, influenced as it is by
a host of factors: personal characteristics such as education,
certification, specialty, and experience; position
Exhibit 3-2
All Respondents (Excluding Consultants):

2010 Total Earned Income from All Sources by Employment Status


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

14,187

$62,500

$86,530

$115,000

$147,000

$186,500

12,825

70,290

91,690

118,000

150,000

189,000

In PATC
Not in PATC

11,766
1,059

71,500
60,000

92,000
84,890

118,000
116,000

150,000
150,000

187,640
201,000

Employed
Self-employed
Retired and employed

12,612
101
112

70,420
48,400
80,670

91,600
87,000
107,330

117,670
125,000
137,710

149,280
162,500
179,000

188,000
223,600
223,370

1,362

3,450

25,000

66,390

109,350

156,400

Part-time workers
Employed
Self-employed
Retired and employed

393
157
75
161

20,000
12,000
12,730
30,220

42,320
31,630
34,600
60,500

80,000
79,000
58,000
93,500

125,000
120,690
105,550
135,250

170,000
160,800
165,600
190,460

Retired, not employed


Unemployed, voluntarily
Unemployed, involuntarily
Full-time student

318
63
537
51

5,930
0
180
0

33,710
0
20,000
15,000

68,830
10,000
62,000
22,800

100,400
78,580
109,400
40,000

153,890
134,220
145,100
68,600

ALL RESPONDENTS

(EXCLUDING CONSULTANTS)

FULL-TIME WORKERS

ALL OTHERS

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-2

2010 Edition

3.2 PRIMARY INCOME IN 2009, FOR THOSE


WORKING FULL TIME IN THEIR
PRIMARY AREA OF TECHNICAL
COMPETENCE

Speculating about the value of stock options. Nearly


one in five (18%) of the IEEE's U.S. non-consultant
members in the work force reported they received stock
options in 2009 from their employers, a figure down 14
points from 2000 and down two from the last survey. The
value of these options can only be estimated; their final
worth cannot be known until they are exercised and the
stock is sold. For those who received them, the median
estimated present value of options was $5,000. Seventeen
percent of those granted options in 2009 say their options are
currently worthless. Thats an improvement over last year
when 25% reported worthless stock options.

The rest of Section 3 is devoted to a detailed look at the


largest group of people in the study, the 11,766 members
who were working full time in their PATC as of 1 January
2010 and did not indicate half or more of their personal
earned income in calendar year 2009 came from fee-based
consulting. These respondents account for more than nine in
ten (92%) of the full-time workers responding to the survey.
Moreover, as appropriately placed people, they are a useful
benchmarking population, from both employer and
employee perspectives. In examining these full-time, nonconsultant specialists, the income figures in this section of
the report reflect only compensation from primary sources
salary, commissions or bonuses, and net pre-tax income
from self-employment. Additional income from secondary
sources is excluded (such as overtime work, second jobs,
profit-sharing plans, Social Security, and retirement
benefits). This approach provides a consistent way to
compare basic pay for different employment situations.

Medians are the preferred measure for most analyses of


income because they are not affected by extreme cases. The
statistics for options represent a case in point. If one
computes arithmetic averages instead of medians, the
estimate of "typical" value for 2009 options shoots up to
nearly $26,000, because a few members estimated that the
present value of their awards was much higher than most
others. Eleven percent of those getting these incentives
reported estimated present option values of $50,000 or more.

Primary Areas of Technical Competence. Exhibit 3-3


provides statistics on income from primary sources for ten
broad areas of technical competence, as well as subgroups
within these broad areas. As in the prior year, median 2009
primary compensation is highest for those in the broad
Communications Technology specialty ($127,330) and
lowest for those in Industrial Applications ($104,000).
Specific subspecialties that are particularly lucrative
(based on median primary income) include Geoscience and
Remote Sensing, Engineering Management; Consumer
Electronics, and Solid-State Circuits (all over $130,000 per
year). The least remunerative subspecialties include
Education; Robotics and Automation; and Industrial
Electronics (all under $100,000).

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-3

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-3
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Primary Area of Technical Competence


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

CIRCUITS AND DEVICES


Circuits and Systems
Components, Packaging and and Manufacturing Technology
Electronic Devices
Lasers and Electro-Optics
Solid-State Circuits
Other

1,816
661
153
308
135
468
91

72,090
66,000
72,800
64,900
70,600
88,900
74,650

94,600
85,800
95,000
93,630
100,000
105,000
90,000

120,000
112,100
119,000
120,000
128,000
131,520
117,000

150,000
143,480
141,000
149,680
151,000
161,750
146,500

185,000
178,500
193,060
187,660
180,000
193,050
192,180

COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
Broadcast Technology
Communications
Consumer Electronics
Vehicular Technology
Other

1,100
53
784
110
42
111

75,050
64,000
76,850
75,160
65,120
74,840

98,000
90,110
100,000
100,590
85,380
101,000

127,330
110,000
127,900
132,280
105,880
136,000

155,000
136,750
156,000
162,240
134,000
154,590

191,990
204,800
192,500
201,800
155,950
188,440

COMPUTERS
Hardware
Non-Internet Software Development
Non-Internet Systems Analysis/Integration
Non-Internet Software Applications Including Database Admin.
Internet/Web Development/Applications
Other

2,742
386
1,118
324
144
356
414

69,000
72,640
70,470
70,080
60,800
66,000
61,600

90,000
94,650
90,910
90,230
77,850
89,180
86,710

115,000
120,900
115,000
115,000
101,000
117,000
114,000

145,160
154,300
142,000
140,000
132,000
150,280
149,000

179,950
189,600
171,010
171,750
159,980
186,300
187,780

592
169
87
33
145
84
74

73,820
70,000
69,600
77,000
75,080
76,250
66,980

91,500
88,370
90,000
96,900
96,000
91,360
85,830

115,530
115,000
110,000
124,000
114,560
120,000
113,700

144,180
145,510
132,000
142,000
142,750
152,750
157,250

181,000
188,000
157,000
168,800
177,400
189,490
224,250

ELECTROMAGNETICS AND RADIATION


Antennas and Propagation
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Magnetics
Microwave Theory and Techniques
Nuclear and Plasma Sciences
Other
ENERGY AND POWER ENGINEERING

2,268

65,000

82,000

104,710

127,490

160,000

ENGINEERING AND HUMAN ENVIRONMENT


Education
Engineering Management
Professional Communication
Reliability
Social Implications of Technology
Other

253
30
162
4
31
13
13

74,670
56,130
92,560
62,400
-

94,700
64,500
108,980
79,500
-

120,600
84,100
135,000
110,000
-

150,500
114,500
169,860
141,000
-

184,600
140,920
197,640
150,600
-

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
Dielectrics and Electronic Systems
Industry Applications
Instrumentation and Measurement
Power Electronics
Other

462
17
183
133
91
38

71,400
73,800
68,520
74,200
59,970

85,750
90,000
84,750
82,500
77,750

104,000
105,000
103,000
104,000
92,470

128,250
132,000
124,400
134,000
117,750

155,810
159,520
151,800
160,320
136,220

SIGNALS AND APPLICATIONS


Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Oceanic Engineering
Signal Processing
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Other

787
220
61
24
402
37
43

72,800
73,310
86,070
73,000
49,420
67,000

94,900
94,230
106,000
93,000
81,910
96,000

116,000
116,000
136,000
115,000
105,000
120,000

146,770
150,000
171,060
145,000
133,690
145,000

179,040
187,010
207,600
175,700
163,750
178,020

1,059
444
188
66
24
152
71
114

64,470
66,150
50,000
62,850
60,300
70,240
74,500

85,000
84,130
85,000
73,500
76,060
99,500
99,130

108,000
105,000
111,350
95,750
96,210
120,000
128,380

138,000
130,750
147,750
120,250
127,090
152,600
160,000

171,000
165,100
188,200
136,370
160,420
179,800
221,500

687

66,700

90,000

115,000

150,000

185,140

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


Control Systems
Engineering in Medicine and Biology
Industrial Electronics
Information Theory
Robotics and Automation
Systems, Man and Cybernetics
Other
OTHER

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-4

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-4
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Level of Professional Responsibility


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

225
525
814

48,000
52,000
56,050

54,700
60,110
66,000

Level 4 (GS-11/ Asst. Professor)


Level 5 (GS-12/Assoc. Professor)
Level 6 (GS-13/Full Professor)

1,717
2,047
2,627

66,860
80,000
90,000

Level 7 (GS-14/ Distinguished Professor / Academic Department Head


Level 8 (GS-15/ Academic Department Head / Dean
Level 9 (>GS-15/Dean)

1,327
847
359
805

TOTAL
Level 1 (GS-5, Entry Level )
Level 2 (GS-7)
Level 3 (GS-9/Instructor)

Not Employed as Engineer

Professional engineering responsibility. Primary


income reported for nine levels of professional engineering
responsibility are shown in Exhibit 3-4. The effect of
position responsibility is a powerful one, with a range of
about $112,000 separating those working at entry level
(Level 1) from those working at the highest level (Level 9).
But the gap has grown a bit smaller compared to last year
when Level 9 earned a median primary income more than
three times greater than entry level.

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

61,540
70,000
79,000

70,060
82,000
92,400

80,000
97,040
110,000

80,000
95,000
104,000

95,500
112,000
122,730

112,000
133,500
148,000

131,100
156,000
171,580

100,080
106,950
111,000

117,440
130,000
144,000

138,000
153,000
174,000

170,000
185,000
216,200

203,870
225,400
260,000

61,000

85,000

116,500

154,590

200,000

Overall experience and years with the current employer.


Exhibits 3-5 and 3-6 provide information on the effects of
experience. The data in Exhibit 3-5 are for overall years of
professional and managerial experience in electrical,
electronics, and computer engineering or related technical
fields, not counting time in school. As in the past, results
conform roughly to the classic maturity curves of engineering
compensation, in which values rise regularly from entry level
to roughly the 20-25 years level, but flatten thereafter.

Exhibit 3-5
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Years of Professional/Managerial Experience


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

361
341
649

45,080
50,000
56,000

5-6
7-9
10 - 14

640
742
1,385

15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29
30
35
40
45

TOTAL
Less than 2
2
3-4

- 34
- 39
- 44
or more

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

55,000
59,380
64,000

66,500
70,000
76,510

83,500
92,450
94,740

105,000
114,140
115,200

60,000
67,520
75,000

70,000
79,000
90,000

82,000
94,000
109,000

100,190
115,360
134,390

120,900
138,000
159,540

1,428
1,762
1,810

80,000
86,550
90,000

97,000
103,630
107,000

119,760
125,000
129,640

146,000
153,280
160,000

178,510
189,670
198,450

1,461
781
332
47

89,330
89,000
84,300
62,280

105,580
104,000
104,670
90,760

129,020
127,000
128,900
116,000

156,000
162,000
157,740
157,000

199,000
200,000
185,000
198,400

NOTE: Undergraduate or graduate school not counted as experience.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-5

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-6
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Years with Current Employer


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

1,604
1,257
1,842
1,327
1,327
1,677

55,370
61,000
63,000
70,000
76,060
83,000

72,000
76,500
78,790
85,690
93,000
99,000

15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29

760
818
610

82,000
91,860
91,550

30
35
40
45

361
147
32
4

95,100
94,420
97,550
-

TOTAL
Less than 2
2
3-4
5-6
7-9
10 - 14

- 34
- 39
- 44
or more

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

96,860
102,000
104,450
109,000
115,500
119,560

125,880
135,000
137,000
140,000
145,000
149,000

160,000
169,000
167,850
174,010
178,800
181,900

101,630
106,670
109,540

123,890
128,290
128,500

150,000
156,000
160,050

185,000
194,590
198,000

109,000
107,300
114,060
-

130,730
133,000
137,750
-

163,700
165,000
164,110
-

198,920
210,080
186,890
-

Effects of the size of employing organizations. Differences


in primary income for various sizes of employers among
non-consultants are shown in Exhibit 3-7. The largest firms
tend to pay best for the bulk of earners $6,500 per year
more than the grand median. The data show that very small
firms (up to 10 employees) offer the least favorable median
incomes.

The tailing off of rates for the most experienced members is


a common characteristic of technical pay and is related to a
propensity for many of the best-paid people to either rise
into general management, leave engineering altogether, or
take early retirement. In any event, some of the most highly
paid persons are removed from the groups of very
experienced engineers. Time with the current employer,
shown in Exhibit 3-6, follows a similar, though less obvious
pattern.

Exhibit 3-7
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Size of Employer


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

1 to 10 employees
11 to 50 employees
51 to 500 employees

468
1,043
2,244

54,360
63,000
65,000

501 to 10,000 employees


More than 10,000 employees

4,471
3,365

70,000
76,260

TOTAL

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

74,250
85,000
85,000

101,500
110,000
108,330

136,000
140,000
139,950

187,480
180,000
177,000

90,000
97,000

114,000
120,000

144,000
148,690

175,000
180,340

NOTE: Based on total number of U.S. employees at all locations.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-6

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-8
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Sector


Number
of Cases

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

123,000
118,500
104,000

151,000
150,000
124,240

186,000
184,000
150,000

91,500
87,320
70,000

114,260
111,610
89,000

141,800
135,350
107,000

162,600
154,970
125,950

52,000
69,630

72,000
90,000

94,580
118,300

126,000
150,000

162,740
175,000

65,700

84,000

111,900

143,290

182,900

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

Aerospace
Automotive
Communications

865
185
1,226

70,680
71,800
81,280

95,000
83,500
104,380

119,600
102,000
128,000

150,000
123,590
155,540

175,140
141,400
192,000

Computers
Consulting
Defense (except Aerospace)

1,258
605
1,108

75,000
64,030
76,500

97,500
83,000
98,000

125,000
108,000
120,250

156,540
140,000
147,710

191,040
168,400
178,000

Education
Electrical/Electronic Manufacturing
Electrical/Electronic Services

890
1,648
375

57,000
72,000
56,680

74,940
92,530
75,000

96,000
116,000
100,000

126,060
145,000
129,240

167,640
180,000
170,000

548
33
242

63,950
69,260
77,460

86,050
81,610
95,300

109,380
95,600
123,050

140,000
105,060
152,180

185,000
145,200
182,000

Transportation
Utilities

138
1,427

61,930
67,080

73,980
83,000

99,970
103,110

130,500
124,000

163,960
150,000

Other

1,218

65,490

87,000

114,000

144,100

178,040

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-7

TOTAL
Private Industry: Defense
Private Industry: Other than Defense or Utilities
Utilities
Federal Government: Defense
Federal Government: Other than Defense
State or Local Government
Educational Institution
Non-Profit Institution Except Education
Other

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

1,585
6,123
1,395

75,000
73,500
66,000

97,590
93,680
82,560

423
280
157

73,850
65,240
59,810

1,180
247
376

Exhibit 3-9
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Line of Business


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

Medical
Metals
Petroleum/Chemical

2010 Edition

Primary job functions. Compensation fluctuations


among the various job functions of IEEE's U.S. members
working in their PATC are listed in Exhibit 3-10. As usual,
members whose roles emphasize management lead all others
in compensation: general managers earned a median of
$152,780 in income from primary sources, while technical
managers earned a median of $137,520. Those in
marketing/sales were right up there, too, earning $131,220.
Lowest median wages belong to the job functions of
manufacturing and production; engineering support;
operations, construction and maintenance; quality control,
reliability, etc.; and education, teaching, training all
below $100,000.

Employer sector and line of business. Exhibits 3-8 and


3-9 show income variations for some basic characteristics of
employers. Exhibit 3-8 provides data on several types of
private and public organizations, ranked according to median
primary incomes. Similar to last year, top 2009 primary
incomes were earned by those working in private industry
(defense or otherwise), the federal government (defense), and
non-profit institutions (other than education). As has been
true in recent surveys, those working in state or local
government or educational institutions typically earn the
least.
The most lucrative lines of business are currently
Communications, Computers, and Petroleum/Chemical.
Those working in Education, Metals, or Transportation
typically earn the least.

Exhibit 3-10
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Primary Job Function


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

Administration/personnel services
Basic research
Computer programming, systems software engineering

15
782
1,236

53,000
65,000

82,410
83,000

109,000
104,000

141,000
130,000

174,170
157,990

Consulting
Design and development engineering
Education, teaching, training

666
3,007
627

64,040
67,150
62,380

86,000
86,560
77,000

109,350
110,000
95,330

140,000
135,000
126,000

173,000
161,680
162,160

Engineering support
Management, general
Management, technical

743
345
2,248

62,850
94,250
95,000

76,000
115,500
114,520

98,000
152,780
137,520

116,500
200,000
169,000

138,790
243,850
205,000

Manufacturing and production


Marketing, sales
Operations, construction and maintenance

90
244
213

70,000
80,000
67,120

82,000
101,630
78,760

99,450
131,220
97,000

119,540
165,000
115,250

141,010
204,500
146,820

Quality control, reliability, etc.


Systems engineering

153
946

61,600
72,700

77,500
92,000

96,000
113,140

113,500
138,740

140,600
165,890

Other

451

66,890

87,600

110,000

144,000

185,000

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-8

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-11
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Age


$180,000
upper quartile

$160,000
$140,000

median

$120,000
$100,000

lower quartile

$80,000
$60,000
$40,000

25 - 29

30 - 34

35 - 39

40 - 44

45 - 49

50 - 54

55 - 59

60 - 64

65+

Constituting only 7% of all members working full time


in their PATC, women continue to trail men in primary
income even when experience is controlled for.

Age, education, gender and ethnicity. Primary income


quartiles and medians by age for those working full time in
their PATC are shown in the bar chart (Exhibit
3-11). These data are similar to those for years of
professional and managerial experience (Exhibit 3-5), with
noteworthy growth in early years leading to the start of a
plateau in middle age. Also noteworthy is how the range of
compensation expands with age: from an interquartile range
of about $24,000 at ages 25-29 to a range of closer to
$55,000 for those 55 and older.

Exhibit 3-14 shows that median 2009 primary income is


highest among non-Hispanic Whites, followed most closely
by Asian/Pacific Islanders. In contrast, the relatively small
number of Hispanics and non-Hispanic African Americans
report median incomes roughly $10,000 below the grand
median.

2009 primary income statistics by the highest degree


held by U.S. IEEE members working in their PATC are
reported in Exhibit 3-12. At the top are those with law
degrees, with median primary incomes of $150,000 a year,
and MBAs, earning $124,900. PhDs are not far behind
MBAs, with median earnings of 122,500. Those holding an
MSEE or MSCE report a median of $117,500, which
represents a premium of more than $15,000 over the median
earned by those holding a BSEE or BSCE as their highest
degree.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-9

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-12
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Highest Degree Earned


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

PhD
JD

3,214
31

75,000
69,180

96,000
100,000

122,500
150,000

153,660
185,000

191,000
233,600

MBA
MSEE or MSCE
Other Master's

614
2,457
964

84,000
75,650
72,000

100,030
95,000
92,000

124,900
117,500
115,240

154,010
146,000
144,390

200,780
179,680
171,320

BSEE or BSCE
BSCS
BET or BSET

3,198
249
213

63,000
62,000
58,000

79,650
83,500
73,680

102,020
110,000
92,500

128,370
132,500
110,680

160,810
164,500
138,340

373
178
119

65,780
61,900
55,000

85,000
81,880
72,000

108,000
109,350
93,500

140,000
140,000
125,000

171,200
178,400
160,000

Other Bachelor's
BA
Two-year

Exhibit 3-13
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Gender and Experience


Number of Cases
Men
Women
TOTAL
Less than 3 years
3-4
5-6
7-9

Lower Quartile
Men
Women

Men

Median
Women

Upper Quartile
Men
Women

10,970

796

$90,000

$77,000

$115,000

$100,000

$145,000

$125,380

610
580
567
664

92
69
73
78

57,770
64,000
70,000
79,000

60,190
62,500
70,750
76,880

67,000
76,660
82,000
95,000

72,250
75,000
82,320
89,100

86,780
94,450
101,000
115,740

89,500
97,050
96,050
112,360

10
15
20
25

- 14
- 19
- 24
- 29

1,258
1,337
1,659
1,702

127
91
103
108

90,820
97,600
104,750
107,000

85,000
89,450
95,000
105,720

110,000
120,000
125,000
129,750

103,000
105,000
111,000
127,250

135,000
147,900
155,000
160,000

127,000
128,550
138,100
157,750

30
35
40
45

- 34
- 39
- 44
years or more

1,419
775
326
46

42
6
6
1

105,650
104,000
104,890
90,570

105,000
-

129,310
127,000
129,350
116,000

124,500
-

156,110
162,000
158,030
149,610

155,000
-

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

Exhibit 3-14
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Ethnic Background


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

African American (not Hispanic origin)


American Indian or Alaskan Native
Asian or Pacific Islander

194
37
1,675

58,800
58,010
68,070

78,000
90,140
88,000

105,500
111,800
112,000

131,830
151,060
141,440

153,400
179,600
174,730

Hispanic
White (not Hispanic origin)

361
9,201

63,000
69,850

83,000
90,000

102,500
114,500

130,000
145,000

162,000
179,900

244

73,150

91,520

114,100

135,000

175,000

Other

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-10

2010 Edition

story, with those in the Pacific (AK, HI, WA, OR, CA) and
New England (CT, RI, MA, VT, NH, ME) states faring more
than $17,000 per year better than those in the East South
Central (KY, TN, MS, AL), East North Central (WI, IL, MI,
IN, OH), or West North Central (ND, SD, NE, KS, MN, IA,
MO) states. However, it is also the case that costs of living in
the West and Northeast are significantly higher than
elsewhere.

Regional variations in primary income. Exhibits 3-15a


and 3-15b report variations in primary income ranges by
region in terms of IEEE's six U.S. regions, and in terms of
the nine divisions defined by the Census Bureau. In terms of
IEEE regions, those in Region 6 (West) and Region 1
(Northeast) fare substantially better than those in Region 3
(Southeast) or Region 4 (Central), with gaps of over $19,000
in median primary income. Census divisions tell a similar

IEEE Regions

Exhibit 3-15a
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC
(Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by IEEE Region


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

1 - Northeast
2 - East
3 - Southeast

1,795
1,675
1,953

72,000
68,070
63,680

4 - Central
5 - Southwest
6 - West

1,438
1,743
3,162

Number
of Cases

TOTAL

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

93,790
89,000
84,000

119,390
114,680
106,100

146,000
145,000
135,000

184,700
170,080
170,000

62,850
67,440
77,000

78,120
87,000
99,240

99,960
110,000
125,000

125,000
138,660
156,630

153,000
171,620
190,000

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

Exhibit 3-15b
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by U.S. Census Division

TOTAL

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central

967
1,486
1,360

71,740
69,300
63,000

95,000
89,830
79,860

120,000
113,000
100,000

146,000
142,460
125,000

182,000
175,000
155,000

West North Central


South Atlantic
East South Central

717
2,108
415

61,880
68,200
62,060

77,000
89,000
80,970

98,000
114,330
102,600

123,790
144,000
125,000

150,140
176,000
154,620

West South Central


Mountain
Pacific

1,146
1,036
2,530

67,280
71,000
80,000

87,840
89,080
102,000

114,500
110,000
129,000

145,000
135,000
160,000

179,620
165,000
195,000

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-11

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-16
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by State


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

151
32
286
45
1,882

70,000
74,040
70,770
63,130
85,000

85,000
89,580
90,000
79,580
107,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

106,000
112,000
110,850
100,840
135,000

126,360
140,550
140,000
131,250
165,000

154,870
181,330
170,000
192,800
200,000

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

393
111
31
79
418

72,570
69,200
80,560
78,750
61,980

90,460
90,000
97,810
103,630
83,600

110,000
110,860
113,000
127,000
104,000

134,770
136,600
140,000
149,500
132,010

164,260
166,580
167,400
163,000
165,510

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

262
33
69
381
180

62,120
74,800
67,500
65,500
60,000

84,750
85,500
83,270
87,260
70,220

108,120
108,160
99,000
110,000
90,000

134,590
140,500
121,750
135,960
118,750

176,880
170,800
143,000
169,000
145,260

68
76
70
79
30

52,940
56,700
62,220
60,000
56,100

63,500
67,370
75,880
80,330
73,770

94,170
94,750
102,740
115,000
94,250

123,930
128,320
122,250
144,000
111,000

154,530
158,300
172,960
190,000
167,400

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

446
670
259
313
53

75,250
75,370
64,970
65,000
55,980

98,300
100,000
82,000
83,000
72,500

124,160
123,450
100,500
101,000
102,600

150,300
150,000
121,000
130,000
126,070

178,600
185,000
146,000
154,930
152,870

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

147
30
58
33
94

64,980
51,450
67,620
72,320
63,880

80,000
73,750
79,800
87,150
77,380

98,000
99,000
98,250
109,210
110,500

123,410
112,500
120,750
135,400
138,150

150,300
129,500
150,100
172,800
165,000

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

406
124
585
300
37

74,000
78,000
72,000
71,550
58,170

93,150
96,150
92,000
89,000
65,150

118,000
119,000
116,950
110,000
78,000

149,000
144,750
145,000
139,000
98,500

176,300
167,000
189,200
169,350
120,070

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

318
60
199
495
31

63,930
54,880
70,740
63,710
67,100

79,830
66,630
90,000
83,000
76,600

99,000
91,000
108,700
107,000
107,500

127,710
112,180
135,000
133,000
140,000

162,100
136,870
167,000
160,000
154,600

South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont

89
141
962
93
31

63,000
59,260
72,000
62,800
73,650

79,700
80,000
92,000
85,240
98,500

97,000
96,000
116,120
110,000
114,000

125,000
124,080
147,100
130,540
155,000

170,500
154,200
179,780
153,500
189,010

Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin

466
384
222

74,170
70,000
63,000

91,820
91,930
75,200

125,250
112,100
93,750

155,000
138,000
117,000

190,000
170,370
147,100

TOTAL
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-12

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-16 shows primary income for those working


full time in their PATC by state (where at least 25 responses
were received). The top ten states for 2009 median income
are California, District of Columbia, Virginia, Maryland,
Massachusetts, New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, Texas,
and Louisiana ($115,000 or more each). The bottom ten are
Missouri, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kansas, Maine, Iowa,
Wisconsin, Oklahoma, Indiana, and North Dakota ($98,000
or less).

Sacramento, and Boston all reporting medians of


$125,000 or more. Cities where compensation is lowest
include Norfolk, Akron, Grand Rapids, Madison,
Milwaukee, Oklahoma City, Indianapolis, Charleston, Tulsa,
and Nashville, all less than $96,000.

Because of the high levels of participation (11,766


members working full time in their PATC), statistics on
primary compensation can be meaningfully calculated for 75
U.S. metropolitan areas (Exhibit 3-17). Using median
primary income as the measure, the best-paying U.S. cities
include San Jose, San Francisco, Santa Ana, Los Angeles,
Oakland, Washington DC, Oxnard (CA), Baltimore,

Note that these geographic analyses must be interpreted


cautiously. Differences in engineering pay from one area to
the next may be caused by variations in the industrial
makeup of each region; if the locals tend to be specialists in
communications technology, while you are in power
engineering, then reports about the pay of other IEEE
members in the area may be misleading.

Exhibit 3-18 examines primary compensation for


portions of states outside of reported metropolitan areas
(where n 25).

Exhibit 3-17
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Metropolitan Area


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

Akron, OH
Albany, NY
Albuquerque, NM
Allentown, PA
Atlanta, GA

26
73
90
47
231

55,700
70,280
78,200
60,800
62,590

74,260
93,500
99,210
100,000
85,000

95,000
118,000
119,000
115,000
110,000

129,750
143,040
145,480
136,000
136,000

162,020
193,400
169,380
159,240
179,600

Atlantic City, NJ
Austin, TX
Baltimore, MD
Birmingham, AL
Boise, ID

55
240
179
33
34

59,700
74,890
78,000
76,200
71,000

85,620
98,180
102,000
86,600
83,340

110,000
122,000
126,700
105,000
100,000

145,800
149,730
155,000
116,280
118,320

169,600
178,810
184,000
148,110
140,930

Boston, MA
Cedar Rapids, IA
Charleston, SC
Charlotte, NC
Chicago, IL

466
27
25
48
274

82,000
57,390
55,040
75,770
65,750

103,380
61,780
68,920
91,630
87,750

125,000
108,970
90,000
101,520
111,940

152,000
126,000
110,380
126,750
141,000

191,450
145,420
155,200
167,300
170,800

Cincinnati, OH
Cleveland, OH
Colorado Springs, CO
Columbus, OH
Dallas, TX

52
80
64
65
307

76,100
65,000
80,500
62,440
75,180

92,880
79,500
93,550
77,300
96,000

110,000
99,000
107,770
97,000
117,000

157,500
119,700
132,160
130,750
146,000

171,450
139,600
153,930
165,280
172,160

Dayton, OH
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Ft. Worth, TX
Grand Rapids, MI

55
321
174
43
34

64,760
71,720
67,810
73,120
61,950

81,120
90,000
85,880
87,270
68,890

100,500
111,590
105,110
109,340
93,650

140,000
136,390
124,400
140,000
109,280

158,600
166,040
152,400
189,560
147,200

TOTAL

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-13

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-17
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Metropolitan Area


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

25
27
36
33
238

76,290
70,890
68,800
74,800
74,580

93,100
88,000
92,950
85,500
92,210

112,500
96,000
120,100
108,160
122,500

125,000
130,000
136,130
140,500
157,730

178,800
202,190
190,600
170,800
187,150

78
61
87
46
31

70,000
60,290
58,150
66,400
65,200

91,500
72,250
65,050
89,740
87,500

115,500
92,000
97,500
109,750
101,500

137,900
116,000
125,000
135,030
118,000

176,300
139,600
152,360
171,900
153,490

Los Angeles, CA
Madison, WI
Manchester, NH
Miami, FL
Milwaukee, WI

312
45
52
44
122

79,440
60,000
69,300
63,650
61,320

100,780
75,000
82,000
86,930
75,000

130,000
93,000
110,500
107,750
92,850

162,000
123,500
140,250
124,550
112,340

204,200
146,600
167,000
213,500
146,800

Minneapolis, MN
Nashville, TN
New Brunswick, NJ
New York, NY (+ NJ/CT suburbs)

254
37
51
418

65,000
55,890
81,000
70,000

86,000
66,850
99,400
91,500

104,750
88,500
116,900
119,470

134,050
122,500
150,000
150,000

157,400
186,400
196,800
200,000

Norfolk, VA
Oakland, CA
Oklahoma City, OK
Omaha, NE
Orlando, FL
Oxnard, CA

50
129
32
39
86
56

62,010
82,000
43,980
71,500
66,050
76,330

76,250
108,500
61,320
85,500
80,400
99,760

95,080
130,000
92,520
100,000
109,500
127,000

122,000
157,370
111,680
119,000
139,250
144,950

166,580
182,500
145,500
151,000
166,600
164,000

Philadelphia, PA
Phoenix, AZ
Pittsburgh, PA
Portland, OR/WA
Raleigh, NC

166
207
168
217
194

65,940
70,660
60,000
71,630
70,750

85,960
94,000
79,250
90,000
90,150

110,000
114,000
99,880
107,500
115,000

140,210
145,000
129,500
134,500
148,250

170,820
173,400
156,380
167,240
174,350

Rochester, NY
Sacramento, CA
Salt Lake City, UT
San Antonio, TX
San Diego, CA

67
61
72
43
195

69,300
72,280
68,380
61,600
72,210

82,000
101,500
85,120
74,740
100,000

105,000
126,000
110,000
96,000
121,000

123,000
160,000
131,520
130,000
153,500

150,000
199,000
150,880
180,400
190,000

San Francisco, CA
San Jose, CA
Santa Ana, CA
Seattle, WA
Spokane, WA

416
453
141
284
25

94,350
100,000
80,000
70,960
47,800

113,630
125,000
100,500
96,000
81,000

141,000
150,000
135,000
115,220
107,790

170,000
179,600
162,000
143,000
120,240

205,000
219,600
195,800
172,500
211,320

73
29
69
55
72

75,630
72,000
59,050
63,400
68,420

91,970
90,030
82,500
92,500
85,000

105,000
108,000
100,300
115,000
108,550

129,000
129,000
119,750
150,000
129,880

168,300
168,380
160,000
180,750
169,940

26
638
34
28
37

57,480
78,600
71,250
80,180
63,000

73,000
103,380
91,750
98,360
88,000

89,640
130,000
106,080
113,750
112,000

115,450
156,000
140,630
139,890
125,750

147,800
189,940
193,440
171,200
157,600

... continued from previous page


Greensboro, NC
Greenville, SC
Hartford, CT
Honolulu, HI
Houston, TX
Huntsville, AL
Indianapolis, IN
Kansas City, MO/KS
Knoxville, TN
Lexington, KY

St. Louis, MO
Syracuse, NY
Tampa, FL
Trenton, NJ
Tucson, AZ
Tulsa, OK
Washington, DC (+ MD/VA suburbs)
West Palm Beach, FL
Wilmington, DE
Worcester, MA
NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-14

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-18
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Non-Metropolitan Area


Number
of Cases
TOTAL
Alabama (other than Birmingham, Huntsville)
California (other than Los Angeles, Oakland, Oxnard, Sacramento,
San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Ana)
Connecticut (other than Hartford, NYC suburbs)
Florida (other than Miami, Orlando, Tampa, W Palm Beach)

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

40

60,530

75,130

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

86,760

119,610

144,270

119

70,000

49

69,000

85,000

112,500

138,600

167,000

89,500

116,000

140,500

167,500
162,700

185

57,600

78,060

103,500

132,520

Georgia (other than Atlanta)

31

58,400

68,200

99,350

117,000

138,780

Idaho (other than Boise)

35

61,000

83,000

95,000

129,000

156,100

Illinois (other than Chicago)

107

63,800

87,000

103,000

122,680

163,600

Indiana (other than Indianapolis)

119

60,000

69,000

89,000

119,500

154,000

Iowa (other than Cedar Rapids)

41

52,520

68,500

93,000

120,620

159,560

Kansas (other than Kansas City)

26

51,750

65,890

91,140

111,380

161,450

Kentucky (other than Lexington)

39

61,410

74,200

111,430

129,000

198,000

167

73,200

95,500

123,360

147,680

178,400

Michigan (other than Detroit, Grand Rapids)

51

65,180

73,000

94,500

111,830

140,800

Minnesota (other than Minneapolis)

59

65,000

73,000

95,550

121,000

142,790

Missouri (other than Kansas City, St Louis)

37

64,430

75,900

91,000

114,600

141,000

New Hampshire (other than Manchester)

42

62,000

73,130

107,940

136,280

170,460

138

82,430

108,000

130,000

155,100

185,480

34

74,680

87,500

118,540

145,230

167,750

131

74,040

85,500

108,340

130,000

166,200

North Carolina (other than Charlotte, Greensboro, Raleigh)

33

64,000

76,180

97,830

115,550

132,360

Ohio (other than Akron, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton)

40

55,670

68,130

84,750

105,790

137,260

Massachusetts (other than Boston, Worcester)

New Jersey (other than Atlantic City, New Brunswick, Trenton,


NYC suburbs)
New Mexico (other than Albuquerque)
New York (other than other than Albany, NYC, Rochester, Syracuse)

Pennsylvania (other than Allentown, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh)

114

63,460

78,390

101,500

125,310

156,200

South Carolina (other than Charleston, Greenville)

37

63,840

82,790

100,000

128,070

168,640

Tennessee (other than Knoxville, Nashville)

58

60,950

78,300

95,650

117,630

139,550
155,160

Texas (other than Austin, Dallas, Ft Worth, Houston, San Antonio)

91

48,000

72,000

97,700

117,500

227

75,000

90,000

115,500

150,000

190,200

Washington (other than Seattle, Spokane, Portland area)

36

67,290

89,250

115,500

136,920

168,580

Wisconsin (other than Madison, Milwaukee)

55

66,180

76,000

98,000

125,000

150,800

Virginia (other than Norfolk, DC suburbs)

NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-15

2010 Edition

3.3 DETAILED INCOME TABULATIONS


The tabulations in this section report income data for
combinations of variables in the survey. Exhibit 3-19
reports income for those with different levels of professional
engineering responsibility, for each of the major types of
employers.

Exhibit 3-20 provides details by experience, line of


business, and highest degree. Exhibit 3-21 is similar, except
that instead of sorting IEEE's U.S. members by line of
business, they are sorted by their technical specialties.

Exhibit 3-19
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Sector and Level of Responsibility


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

11,766
1,564
1,717
2,047
2,627
1,327
1,206

$69,000
52,760
66,860
80,000
90,000
100,080
108,000

$90,000
61,560
80,000
95,000
104,000
117,440
132,000

PRIVATE INDUSTRY: DEFENSE


Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

1,585
220
214
285
345
215
224

75,000
57,500
75,000
88,640
103,000
104,400
126,550

PRIVATE INDUSTRY: OTHER THAN DEFENSE OR UTILITIES


Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

6,123
741
949
1,116
1,383
666
556

UTILITIES
Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

TOTAL
Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: D++


Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

$113,500
72,500
95,500
112,000
122,730
138,000
157,000

$144,000
87,670
112,000
133,500
148,000
170,000
193,760

$177,860
103,750
131,100
156,000
171,580
203,870
240,000

97,590
64,600
86,680
100,500
115,000
123,000
147,550

123,000
73,470
100,150
117,870
130,000
147,750
170,480

151,000
86,930
112,270
135,190
150,000
174,000
209,380

186,000
99,350
128,280
153,630
166,600
211,760
258,000

73,500
54,000
73,000
85,850
91,500
100,000
107,850

93,680
62,050
86,450
100,000
107,100
120,000
130,000

118,500
75,000
100,500
119,000
129,000
145,170
160,300

150,000
92,000
120,000
139,940
154,500
178,000
200,000

184,000
110,000
140,000
165,000
178,620
205,300
242,000

1,395
305
152
183
320
144
115

66,000
58,000
71,330
79,700
89,030
98,310
104,350

82,560
62,500
78,040
90,000
99,160
107,000
120,000

104,000
72,540
90,120
104,700
112,000
120,000
140,000

124,240
83,270
103,750
117,490
126,410
138,000
187,000

150,000
98,480
115,850
131,480
143,980
159,160
242,000

423
37
44
64
110
53
99

73,850
44,800
67,000
70,090
86,030
102,060
128,000

91,500
60,130
77,100
84,000
96,310
118,290
144,280

114,260
67,500
96,670
92,070
108,000
128,420
155,000

141,800
82,300
112,400
113,160
120,000
138,000
164,500

162,600
94,520
130,000
135,140
142,900
158,000
185,000

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-16

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-19
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Sector and Level of Responsibility


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: O++
Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

280
35
25
31
66
58
48

65,240
46,200
56,380
72,400
89,190
105,710
124,970

87,320
56,500
64,610
76,500
94,900
118,170
137,760

111,610
67,000
79,800
90,000
107,030
124,500
150,000

135,350
80,000
108,000
110,000
126,270
134,910
166,730

154,970
90,650
128,760
131,080
154,620
146,820
183,020

STATE OR LOCAL GOVERNMENT


Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

157
26
22
24
25
16
14

59,810
50,730
78,020
-

70,000
58,750
89,210
-

89,000
65,260
103,000
-

107,000
77,830
112,800
-

125,950
104,400
139,730
-

1,180
123
245
250
255
110
82

52,000
41,560
50,000
68,960
80,000
97,510
84,300

72,000
48,000
63,450
80,000
98,540
120,270
99,750

94,580
55,700
77,000
96,220
118,000
149,100
141,000

126,000
68,900
90,000
117,640
149,200
190,930
182,290

162,740
83,640
105,400
135,000
173,400
219,920
218,500

NON-PROFIT INSTITUTION++
Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

247
26
26
44
59
33
28

69,630
55,400
56,780
90,000
90,000
111,760
119,400

90,000
65,000
80,560
101,250
112,000
126,500
143,110

118,300
70,000
90,750
117,970
128,000
150,600
162,500

150,000
81,180
106,210
131,610
151,120
172,500
189,980

175,000
89,190
111,500
151,250
175,000
191,540
215,800

OTHER
Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

376
51
40
50
64
32
40

65,700
52,000
55,300
77,650
79,500
115,800
89,420

84,000
65,000
70,500
97,880
97,250
126,250
121,420

111,900
79,200
86,740
108,200
114,500
145,000
151,150

143,290
95,000
105,050
133,360
146,760
167,500
178,750

182,900
129,300
116,000
149,300
189,600
229,300
200,000

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
Levels 1, 2 & 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
Levels 8 & 9

NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-17

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-20
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Line of Business, Highest Degree, and Experience


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

4,211
981
880
1,308
1,034

62,700
54,000
72,000
83,690
86,000

80,000
60,400
85,000
98,810
100,650

103,000
69,160
100,000
117,000
120,000

130,000
80,000
123,000
141,940
150,000

162,000
93,000
150,000
172,000
184,000

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

3,421
672
826
1,138
776

75,000
60,060
81,120
94,360
92,290

94,000
70,000
95,000
110,000
109,500

116,950
82,000
113,100
130,000
135,000

145,000
98,300
136,810
157,720
158,490

176,320
115,000
162,300
190,090
190,000

MBA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

614
45
152
227
189

84,000
58,700
84,720
87,960
96,000

100,030
72,710
99,600
106,000
108,150

124,900
82,050
115,720
130,070
130,000

154,010
101,190
141,570
168,000
160,500

200,780
118,800
179,400
218,880
220,000

PhD
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

3,214
1,000
901
815
492

75,000
55,000
83,070
94,300
90,230

96,000
78,060
103,250
118,000
111,250

122,500
98,000
129,800
144,000
144,000

153,660
117,000
156,000
172,000
174,750

191,000
138,360
186,000
210,000
222,700

AEROSPACE

865

70,680

95,000

119,600

150,000

175,140

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

259
70
34
98
57

60,800
54,000
72,000
83,380
92,000

71,000
58,930
79,870
99,750
101,080

100,000
63,500
94,480
115,500
117,000

124,000
70,580
107,300
147,630
147,070

153,640
82,890
123,300
163,230
190,200

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

336
67
48
132
89

78,000
62,710
85,480
99,150
107,000

98,250
71,000
94,000
114,130
119,500

121,900
81,500
110,250
132,350
142,000

146,930
95,000
130,000
160,500
157,000

176,070
112,000
138,570
197,400
181,000

43

89,150

108,000

133,000

167,000

190,500

217
50
56
62
49

89,800
67,300
96,050
109,920
115,000

110,700
81,060
116,750
126,270
140,000

136,000
101,450
135,240
151,000
159,000

162,000
117,630
160,500
167,720
188,250

191,360
134,530
180,350
209,400
240,000

185

71,800

83,500

102,000

123,590

141,400

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA

57

62,000

78,230

89,590

110,000

137,480

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA

61

73,430

88,350

105,000

124,040

140,150

PhD

49

82,000

98,190

113,000

125,500

150,000

MBA
PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

AUTOMOTIVE

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-18

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-20
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Line of Business, Highest Degree, and Experience


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


COMMUNICATIONS

1,226

81,280

104,380

128,000

155,540

192,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

358
63
86
126
82

69,290
48,260
76,190
90,630
91,200

90,000
60,300
92,950
108,140
108,750

117,000
70,000
111,060
123,560
127,140

143,250
80,340
134,630
154,000
160,750

182,600
104,600
166,500
192,840
218,800

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

460
55
142
182
79

90,100
68,040
93,090
101,520
93,000

107,200
80,000
107,750
115,420
109,530

127,500
94,000
122,500
138,160
133,000

155,000
113,000
143,990
164,140
163,000

193,000
131,300
177,620
202,000
206,000

69

91,000

119,250

135,000

157,500

209,000

295
88
101
71
33

94,300
68,000
115,000
120,000
124,420

120,000
93,250
130,000
133,000
150,000

143,000
111,500
145,600
156,200
165,000

166,000
138,000
165,000
177,000
194,500

195,000
160,500
190,000
215,490
231,270

MBA
PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

COMPUTERS

1,258

75,000

97,500

125,000

156,540

191,040

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

385
71
104
125
84

71,850
59,880
78,560
100,560
90,000

94,460
66,000
93,880
111,400
114,250

120,000
77,970
109,210
130,000
140,000

150,000
94,600
138,650
160,000
186,750

187,000
130,600
163,000
187,720
221,000

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

392
82
112
129
68

80,090
68,090
84,300
101,000
99,400

100,100
76,740
105,000
119,500
120,000

125,000
90,000
125,000
140,000
149,470

155,000
104,810
148,660
167,500
168,120

180,000
122,700
173,420
200,000
189,240

42

79,170

105,750

134,490

172,250

211,650

409
154
124
86
43

71,000
60,000
84,000
99,050
78,800

100,600
84,000
116,230
127,500
107,660

130,000
107,500
140,000
161,000
150,000

165,500
125,500
170,750
207,920
206,000

210,000
144,040
197,040
242,900
246,200

MBA
PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-19

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-20
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Line of Business, Highest Degree, and Experience


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


CONSULTING

605

64,030

83,000

108,000

140,000

168,400

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

322
84
70
81
87

60,000
51,800
73,290
72,200
87,860

76,000
58,550
82,250
91,760
103,000

100,000
66,010
105,750
106,000
123,500

126,860
79,750
135,000
135,500
150,000

161,400
92,500
169,750
165,600
175,200

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

155
37
52
44

68,100
51,520
90,300
85,210

89,500
65,500
103,880
111,190

113,000
78,000
124,000
141,330

143,620
97,630
153,750
174,750

182,600
109,520
186,090
197,000

MBA

40

65,550

90,500

120,000

146,500

210,800

PhD

65

73,800

92,250

125,000

150,000

199,400

DEFENSE (EXCEPT AEROSPACE)

1,108

76,500

98,000

120,250

147,710

178,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

288
82
44
80
82

63,180
55,190
84,500
95,060
91,510

80,880
61,590
93,690
106,260
101,500

106,550
69,430
106,930
118,990
123,430

129,350
80,000
125,580
137,380
143,770

150,000
93,050
168,500
150,900
155,660

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

443
113
80
145
104

80,000
69,020
92,100
100,540
110,750

98,000
75,000
100,030
112,050
126,240

120,000
85,000
110,250
130,000
147,500

149,000
101,100
131,750
154,690
164,440

175,000
116,600
158,600
198,290
199,150

44

101,000

116,620

131,000

167,860

218,890

317
74
97
92
54

96,000
75,500
93,640
117,500
119,000

112,750
95,750
113,500
130,130
144,600

135,000
109,000
134,000
146,510
163,900

160,750
120,000
149,750
168,850
216,250

196,400
135,250
181,210
210,510
300,500

890

57,000

74,940

96,000

126,060

167,640

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA

55

46,720

62,190

80,000

91,220

107,160

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 30+ years

95
27
33

50,300
55,400
45,000

60,630
62,500
50,350

73,500
74,750
76,000

100,000
88,500
104,000

122,800
130,000
119,200

721
188
158
230
145

62,400
45,000
65,420
78,100
83,480

80,000
59,250
79,500
98,880
96,000

100,000
76,500
96,320
123,750
118,000

134,400
90,750
121,050
162,000
159,000

179,000
111,000
149,280
200,000
201,400

MBA
PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

EDUCATION

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-20

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-20
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Line of Business, Highest Degree, and Experience


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC MANUFACTURING

1,648

72,000

92,530

116,000

145,000

180,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

582
92
163
176
151

62,490
49,550
63,060
85,580
81,300

81,090
56,850
80,000
95,300
95,000

104,930
65,780
95,000
115,450
124,000

132,590
76,030
125,000
145,000
155,000

167,730
100,000
157,940
176,050
194,640

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

494
90
145
152
105

75,000
55,750
87,450
94,250
95,420

95,000
67,000
95,750
109,180
106,500

114,000
76,720
114,000
124,000
135,000

141,850
97,930
134,750
153,750
160,560

173,500
110,000
167,000
180,000
190,800

MBA
Experience 20-29 years

83
36

91,140
98,800

104,000
112,230

128,000
145,000

160,000
171,500

209,840
212,720

440
146
141
110
42

91,630
84,700
96,680
100,500
99,000

106,630
95,000
112,000
126,760
122,160

127,750
110,000
128,550
149,780
141,000

155,840
128,130
157,000
185,270
160,740

195,000
152,330
194,700
215,900
198,390

ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC SERVICES

375

56,680

75,000

100,000

129,240

170,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

163
63
26
41
31

53,400
49,360
53,700
71,780
94,170

65,000
56,200
82,680
83,380
102,000

88,000
65,000
99,740
114,000
115,000

115,000
76,080
111,880
149,500
150,000

155,000
84,200
133,050
198,410
184,000

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years

91
32
26

61,920
51,500
77,260

80,080
62,400
95,070

103,000
80,000
121,700

135,000
95,500
131,250

170,760
109,400
145,600

PhD
Experience 0-9 years

79
38

79,200
67,200

90,000
85,000

115,000
100,000

150,000
115,500

211,000
131,020

548

63,950

86,050

109,380

140,000

185,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

148
32
33
44
38

65,000
44,850
72,400
83,000
81,700

80,050
60,250
81,000
99,230
91,750

100,600
72,250
105,000
121,440
110,000

134,500
85,520
128,150
157,690
149,050

177,430
97,750
160,000
203,500
181,400

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

146
25
42
50
29

75,210
56,800
76,530
96,180
77,800

91,880
68,310
89,430
110,170
92,000

114,000
83,000
104,950
138,140
126,000

144,250
95,100
126,630
179,500
151,750

181,000
119,100
143,500
201,800
180,770

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

229
92
75
37
25

50,000
42,230
79,680
93,400
75,000

86,050
54,000
100,500
117,250
120,000

110,000
88,750
124,000
140,000
133,000

141,500
107,750
159,500
169,000
171,370

187,000
118,700
207,600
226,000
218,400

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

MEDICAL

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-21

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-20
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Line of Business, Highest Degree, and Experience


Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


PETROLEUM/CHEMICAL

242

77,460

95,300

123,050

152,180

182,000

141
35
42
43

74,120
60,920
88,800
91,000

91,500
72,300
114,500
110,000

119,000
86,100
131,500
138,230

150,000
92,400
171,250
177,000

181,580
111,210
181,370
228,160

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA

48

74,290

100,750

124,000

153,500

191,500

PhD

30

92,790

104,500

143,100

169,900

187,960

138
69

61,930
60,570

73,980
67,930

99,970
99,900

130,500
115,500

163,960
153,670

47

67,700

80,100

108,000

143,000

170,290

1,427

67,080

83,000

103,110

124,000

150,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

877
255
139
272
209

64,460
57,200
79,500
85,530
89,310

79,330
62,250
90,920
96,000
100,890

100,000
72,000
101,500
113,650
114,000

120,000
80,000
113,000
131,420
130,340

143,400
88,880
131,000
156,390
159,200

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

307
72
69
77
88

70,000
60,150
80,400
89,800
96,800

87,500
66,630
92,560
100,830
106,130

106,000
76,250
103,800
117,000
121,110

129,000
87,500
122,980
132,450
145,000

150,200
96,500
151,000
181,000
190,000

MBA
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

156
34
44
57

82,670
91,720
86,730
97,600

97,670
99,040
93,390
105,900

111,890
110,050
113,570
119,500

138,570
129,750
146,500
165,500

185,600
165,000
202,280
232,800

59

78,000

92,170

110,000

130,000

160,000

1,251

65,500

86,030

112,700

143,030

178,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

507
97
119
162
128

61,980
49,600
66,300
79,330
77,400

78,100
58,750
82,630
95,450
96,130

100,100
67,200
95,000
110,630
115,550

128,000
78,550
115,350
140,000
153,510

164,600
92,120
143,000
174,290
179,550

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

346
56
80
124
85

72,040
56,390
70,200
88,800
92,200

92,310
63,000
91,820
104,080
114,000

118,000
79,100
111,500
124,690
137,040

147,000
93,000
140,000
154,380
158,700

185,000
131,800
174,680
184,000
227,000

MBA
Experience 20-29 years

57
26

82,540
82,040

102,500
96,750

130,070
124,500

154,250
171,250

197,600
220,300

297
104
71
71
51

75,400
45,000
86,000
113,340
105,480

95,500
80,000
105,000
121,680
121,690

121,680
92,450
127,000
142,090
143,800

152,000
113,680
151,000
164,000
168,900

185,000
142,750
199,000
207,400
195,400

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

TRANSPORTATION
BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
UTILITIES

PhD
OTHER

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-22

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-21
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Primary Area of Technical Competence, Highest Degree, and Experience
Number
of Cases
TOTAL

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

11,766

$69,000

$90,000

$113,500

$144,000

$177,860

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

4,211
981
880
1,308
1,034

62,700
54,000
72,000
83,690
86,000

80,000
60,400
85,000
98,810
100,650

103,000
69,160
100,000
117,000
120,000

130,000
80,000
123,000
141,940
150,000

162,000
93,000
150,000
172,000
184,000

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

3,421
672
826
1,138
776

75,000
60,060
81,120
94,360
92,290

94,000
70,000
95,000
110,000
109,500

116,950
82,000
113,100
130,000
135,000

145,000
98,300
136,810
157,720
158,490

176,320
115,000
162,300
190,090
190,000

MBA
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

614
45
152
227
189

84,000
58,700
84,720
87,960
96,000

100,030
72,710
99,600
106,000
108,150

124,900
82,050
115,720
130,070
130,000

154,010
101,190
141,570
168,000
160,500

200,780
118,800
179,400
218,880
220,000

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

3,214
1,000
901
815
492

75,000
55,000
83,070
94,300
90,230

96,000
78,060
103,250
118,000
111,250

122,500
98,000
129,800
144,000
144,000

153,660
117,000
156,000
172,000
174,750

191,000
138,360
186,000
210,000
222,700

CIRCUITS AND DEVICES

1,816

72,090

94,600

120,000

150,000

185,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

505
114
120
155
115

60,940
49,950
75,000
79,280
83,200

78,110
57,960
88,250
96,260
99,400

103,200
65,660
105,360
119,600
127,000

137,000
77,250
135,580
147,000
160,000

178,000
87,390
169,600
195,000
196,720

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

604
124
184
187
109

77,750
64,000
87,990
99,470
87,320

96,000
73,530
100,330
114,000
104,220

120,000
88,990
120,000
136,000
135,000

149,510
99,000
141,760
157,680
157,950

175,000
116,500
176,040
180,000
195,000

45

86,600

108,630

140,000

163,800

202,000

635
201
197
166
71

87,330
77,370
91,980
104,870
82,000

108,000
94,000
117,110
125,000
118,000

130,000
110,000
139,000
145,000
140,000

160,000
131,050
163,830
185,270
166,000

199,880
159,050
193,600
216,230
211,100

MBA
PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-23

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-21
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Primary Area of Technical Competence, Highest Degree, and Experience
Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

1,100

75,050

98,000

127,330

155,000

191,990

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

313
48
60
117
88

63,400
46,960
62,830
79,890
84,300

83,000
57,250
81,820
94,550
105,310

115,000
67,200
108,900
122,500
135,000

145,750
76,640
132,000
147,150
159,250

173,600
94,000
164,920
170,800
220,200

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

415
61
110
157
85

81,460
62,360
86,860
96,080
90,610

102,800
72,930
102,230
111,800
114,500

127,000
88,000
122,000
139,000
136,940

153,500
110,000
142,700
170,000
166,250

190,800
126,380
166,350
202,600
218,800

MBA
Experience 20-29 years

63
28

81,350
118,450

115,000
131,250

142,000
148,750

160,000
184,650

208,600
232,100

273
78
80
71
43

86,500
64,360
100,740
110,640
96,200

111,000
85,230
120,880
142,000
124,030

140,000
107,500
143,170
162,000
153,500

166,680
125,520
165,000
188,000
175,000

197,560
144,280
191,800
243,060
223,400

2,742

69,000

90,000

115,000

145,160

179,950

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

922
207
233
310
169

62,490
52,400
70,460
81,200
86,260

80,530
60,800
88,170
102,000
102,000

108,120
72,000
107,000
122,000
125,000

135,630
87,000
134,750
149,390
155,250

165,000
100,200
154,680
176,920
193,000

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

912
161
236
330
182

73,000
60,160
75,000
91,190
85,290

93,000
70,000
93,000
109,930
105,860

118,750
81,500
113,810
128,250
133,500

145,000
100,200
134,100
158,910
157,000

175,000
121,750
156,000
188,990
186,240

MBA
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

113
34
44
27

75,200
66,000
75,750
92,680

94,250
89,330
95,500
102,000

118,000
121,220
117,940
125,000

154,500
173,380
154,690
152,000

191,300
207,000
187,500
191,200

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

706
212
206
182
102

75,000
63,350
80,000
87,360
83,300

96,500
79,460
99,920
105,000
103,800

120,870
101,500
134,150
141,000
131,500

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

COMPUTERS

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-24

155,000
197,600
122,880
141,400
165,000
197,900
178,130
224,850
171,420
223,900
continued on next page ...

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-21
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Primary Area of Technical Competence, Highest Degree, and Experience
Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


ELECTROMAGNETICS AND RADITION

592

73,820

91,500

115,530

144,180

181,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

119
41
31

63,600
88,050
67,000

82,000
96,500
99,500

104,500
110,000
125,000

129,000
133,000
141,000

145,000
144,000
192,700

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

169
43
38
53
35

76,250
61,880
89,350
101,510
100,000

93,730
74,000
99,000
109,250
110,000

112,000
82,500
109,600
133,990
143,000

140,000
94,500
126,610
162,460
168,190

174,770
110,480
140,100
204,800
191,600

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

268
81
66
65
56

75,950
51,000
74,240
108,520
100,200

95,570
76,500
100,930
130,000
120,420

125,000
91,930
128,750
150,000
158,850

157,000
110,170
140,750
177,000
199,400

200,100
120,800
166,000
228,200
256,000

ENERGY AND POWER ENGINEERING

2,268

65,000

82,000

104,710

127,490

160,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

1,365
394
249
367
352

62,830
56,000
74,000
85,000
88,170

78,000
62,000
85,970
98,000
102,000

100,000
69,550
100,500
114,790
115,000

122,000
79,900
116,000
135,000
142,000

150,490
90,050
138,600
163,110
173,490

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

468
123
92
121
132

68,000
59,700
79,420
86,000
97,670

85,000
65,850
92,330
103,700
107,650

107,680
75,000
105,000
119,930
128,500

132,000
87,500
128,000
133,000
153,750

165,000
100,000
158,500
168,200
190,090

MBA
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

203
45
55
82

88,020
91,760
87,500
99,400

100,000
100,000
100,000
107,200

116,290
113,500
116,290
132,500

147,000
129,840
150,000
165,250

195,740
163,700
202,140
237,300

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

176
60
45
35
35

71,280
56,000
84,240
91,590
89,140

90,000
75,650
98,600
103,000
100,000

110,000
90,000
118,500
130,000
125,000

136,500
105,900
142,000
178,000
159,570

179,180
126,000
158,800
211,000
225,200

ENGINEERING AND HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

253

74,670

94,700

120,600

150,500

184,600

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

75
31
22

78,450
100,000
-

98,000
109,620
-

120,000
133,400
-

152,700
177,340
-

192,360
197,760
-

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA

68

70,540

90,680

120,100

149,430

180,100

MBA

44

94,700

111,480

133,500

158,510

187,640

PhD

62

60,450

80,500

114,500

150,000

187,640

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-25

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-21
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Primary Area of Technical Competence, Highest Degree, and Experience
Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

462

71,400

85,750

104,000

128,250

155,810

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

249
39
46
81
82

68,000
52,120
70,030
75,810
81,300

82,000
57,000
79,500
89,780
94,740

102,000
75,000
95,500
107,000
118,660

123,400
86,100
110,000
125,750
149,630

154,000
110,770
117,510
153,800
178,500

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

102
26
38

73,800
87,690
77,800

89,560
96,150
104,130

105,000
108,460
120,500

132,000
132,000
148,250

161,340
192,600
172,750

MBA

32

80,500

92,500

118,170

146,750

203,700

PhD

62

82,150

92,880

115,000

140,000

155,340

787

72,800

94,900

116,000

146,770

179,040

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

126
33
36
34

63,160
56,080
88,500
90,080

78,630
60,500
101,390
100,860

100,670
67,000
120,500
116,000

125,900
74,660
150,000
149,870

160,300
90,480
177,920
195,500

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

236
55
52
74
54

80,850
65,960
86,550
107,720
114,500

100,060
78,000
95,750
117,830
125,250

124,700
93,000
113,600
143,250
144,950

151,410
105,000
134,360
170,520
166,880

188,110
120,130
156,880
208,900
223,000

PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

403
125
114
100
64

72,000
48,940
83,390
100,080
89,280

95,500
72,500
100,000
118,920
111,250

117,500
95,000
120,000
140,000
146,390

148,000
108,050
143,160
166,880
170,550

179,120
125,800
166,500
191,260
217,630

SIGNALS AND APPLICATIONS

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL

1,059

64,470

85,000

108,000

138,000

171,000

BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

325
76
66
103
80

62,000
52,700
64,700
83,400
72,200

75,400
59,990
79,500
98,900
92,130

98,000
66,750
92,250
114,000
109,360

125,000
79,410
108,500
140,000
142,540

162,530
94,320
137,300
201,600
177,480

MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

269
63
37
98
70

70,000
58,200
77,400
94,800
98,000

91,300
65,000
89,800
104,480
120,000

112,000
78,200
100,000
120,000
144,000

146,950
93,950
116,870
159,250
157,550

181,000
105,000
160,000
202,800
194,490

45

69,120

95,900

122,950

147,500

194,900

395
140
106
94
55

64,200
47,100
80,100
84,000
90,960

89,000
67,750
95,850
106,000
102,000

113,500
89,500
124,500
133,500
129,000

144,000
107,750
150,000
159,240
163,000

172,400
120,900
202,700
184,970
249,480

MBA
PhD
Experience
Experience
Experience
Experience

0-9 years
10-19 years
20-29 years
30+ years

continued on next page ...

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-26

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-21
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Primary Income by Primary Area of Technical Competence, Highest Degree, and Experience
Number
of Cases

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

... continued from previous page


OTHER
BSEE/BSCE/BSCS/BET/BSET/BA
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years
MSEE/MSCE/MS/MA
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years
MBA
PhD
Experience 0-9 years
Experience 10-19 years
Experience 20-29 years
Experience 30+ years

687

66,700

90,000

115,000

150,000

185,140

212
39
45
67
61
178
39
69
49
34
234
70
62
64
38

63,000
47,500
67,910
83,290
90,260
78,340
78,380
97,400
77,600
84,000
60,000
45,000
65,000
90,990
116,120

82,000
59,000
80,100
98,800
104,640
100,000
99,020
109,040
102,500
101,130
91,840
59,500
93,600
117,770
149,050

104,000
64,600
90,000
111,000
124,000
120,000
117,000
130,000
122,000
125,000
120,550
84,000
119,000
135,000
161,870

130,230
75,000
110,050
145,800
150,000
150,000
140,000
155,000
163,000
188,750
161,800
110,520
140,000
178,380
189,430

164,700
101,000
154,000
164,530
189,140
181,410
163,000
198,000
184,000
234,000
195,000
129,890
170,600
220,700
207,100

NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-27

2010 Edition

3.4 ACADEMICS
for academics working full time in their PATCs by the nature
of the academic contract, academic rank, tenure status, and
the type of institution (highest degree granted and public
versus private).

Questions were first added in the 2005 survey that


explored in more depth the small portion of U.S. IEEE
members who characterize their primary employer as an
academic (degree-granting) institution. Exhibits 3-22
through 3-26 break out 2010 results (2009 primary income)

Exhibit 3-22
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC:

2009 Primary Income by Academic Contract


Number
of Cases
TOTAL
11 or 12 month contract
9 or 10 month contract
Other

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

1,200

$53,060

$73,000

$95,000

$128,510

$164,450

448
598
154

46,660
66,900
50,000

60,000
79,610
67,010

90,630
98,900
89,500

134,180
127,390
120,000

164,250
168,200
150,160

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

Exhibit 3-23
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC:

2009 Primary Income by Academic Rank


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

1,200

$53,060

$73,000

$95,000

$128,510

$164,450

Full Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor

344
227
181

90,000
68,170
54,660

105,000
82,000
70,000

133,000
97,000
80,000

168,000
118,680
92,000

208,360
140,000
109,940

Non-teaching research appointment


Other

176
272

43,000
46,790

52,250
58,250

75,500
76,670

107,800
107,300

144,300
145,470

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

1,200

$53,060

$73,000

$95,000

$128,510

$164,450

503
171
187
334

80,000
60,130
45,720
45,000

95,000
71,700
57,000
56,000

118,000
81,000
79,000
79,750

151,000
94,870
109,000
109,000

197,610
114,800
144,200
146,000

Exhibit 3-24
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC:

2009 Primary Income by Tenure Status


Number
of Cases
TOTAL
Tenured
On tenure track
Not on tenure track
Not applicable

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-28

2010 Edition

Exhibit 3-25
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC:

2009 Primary Income by Institution (Highest Degree Granted)


Number
of Cases
TOTAL
PhD or comparable
Public
Private
Master's
Bachelor's
Other

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

1,200
948
650
298

$53,060
51,000
50,730
54,560

$73,000
76,000
75,000
79,750

$95,000
100,850
100,000
105,000

$128,510
136,750
135,000
139,250

$164,450
177,100
176,800
180,300

122
78
52

56,510
55,600
48,000

71,050
64,590
64,030

84,100
75,500
77,500

95,630
97,480
105,590

117,700
130,000
138,500

Lowest
Decile

Lower
Quartile

Median

Upper
Quartile

Highest
Decile

Exhibit 3-26
Academics Working Full Time in Their PATC:

2009 Primary Income by Institution (Auspices)


Number
of Cases
TOTAL

1,200

$53,060

$73,000

$95,000

$128,510

$164,450

Public
Private

782
399

52,650
53,600

75,000
71,070

94,940
96,430

129,250
127,300

164,350
165,300

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

3-29

2010 Edition

4 REGRESSION MODELS FOR


SALARY BENCHMARKING
4.1 MATHEMATICAL SALARY MODELS
The regression approach solves this problem. Instead of
producing a multitude of tables for various combinations of
factors (many of which cannot be estimated in any event, due
to the problem described above), the survey data are utilized
to construct predictive equations that allow for many
simultaneous influences on salaries. The original technical
approach used by IEEE-USA was linear. In 1993, a log
transform of the response variable was substituted, to provide
a better fit to the curvilinear distribution of salary statistics. A
consequence of the logarithmic methods is that the predictive
equations become multiplicative instead of additive, as is the
case with linear regressions.

The tables and charts provided in Section 3 of this report


describe broad compensation trends for IEEEs U.S.
members, but more detailed information is usually needed to
assess the situations of individuals. In response to this need,
IEEE-USA has for a number of years produced mathematical
salary models using regression analysis. Use of these models
to benchmark individual compensation is available to IEEEs
U.S. members through the IEEE-USA Salary Calculator, the
chief component of the IEEE-USA Salary Service, Member
Version. Employers and others may also access the models
through use of the Individual Compensation Analyzer in the
IEEE-USA Salary Service, Subscriber Version. For more
information, see http://salary.ieee.org.

The value computed by the regression model is the mean


income from primary sources. Another new feature of the
model, introduced in 1999, is the ability to generate deciles as
well as means, providing information on salary ranges. Range
data help users to put an employment situation in context,
allowing for such factors as differences in the performance of
individuals.

These models allow users to calculate results from the


survey for thousands of possible employment situations. Two
alternative approaches are provided, for estimates with or
without consideration of levels of professional responsibility.
Results include both base salary estimates and income from
primary sources (bonuses, commissions, and net selfemployment income). The approach also supports the
generation of range data like low and high deciles.

4.2 THE 2009 REGRESSION MODELS


Data. 10,761 survey response cases were used in the
statistical models. These cases were obtained after removing
cases with invalid data, removing cases where the primary
occupation was consulting, and filtering for base salaries
above $45,000 and base salaries plus other income under
$280,000, and for cases in which the respondent was
employed full-time in PATC. An analysis of the models on
various subsets of the data showed that using the $45,000
cutoff would provide the best fits to the model after a log
transform of the dependent variables. The charts below show
the distribution of the untransformed dependent variables,
base income, and base + income from other sources, for the
cases in the modeling data.

How these models were generated. Since 1991, IEEEUSAs salary studies have included the use of regression
models to derive estimates of salaries that draw on many
predictive variables at once. The advantage of such an
approach is obvious when one considers the limitations of the
more familiar tabular presentations of data. For example,
earlier sections of this report use tables to provide
information on the effects of factors like areas of competence,
sector, degree level, and other determinants of engineering
compensation.
The tabular methods have the drawback of rapidly
exhausting large data bases. As added variables are
considered, the number of cases available for computing
salary statistics diminishes, and it is not feasible to generate
conventional tables that allow for all of the factors discussed
in the illustration above (and even if such tables could be
generated, it would take a report the size of a telephone book
to reprint them).

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

4-1

2010 Edition

Exhibit 4-1
Those Working Full-Time in Their PATC:

Base Income and Base + Income from Other Sources

Decile factors. Although the models strictly predict the


mean rather than the median, examination of the observed
and predicted values showed that the median was within 2%
of the mean. Therefore the mean prediction was taken to be
the 50th percentile, and the decile factors were calculated
around this value.

Modeling. The dependent variables were base salary, and


base salary + primary sources (signing, performance, end-of
year and other bonuses, commissions, and net income from
self-employment). The natural logs of these two variables
were used as dependent variables. For the categorical
predictor variables, the reference level was chosen by
determining the level with the median base income within the
category. For example, for the variable Line of Business,
Design and Development Engineering had the median
income, so it became the level to which all other lines of
business were compared.

Decile factors were computed by first taking the


predictions for all cases from a model. These predictions
were transformed to dollars by taking the exponent, and then
ordered by value. The deciles of the resulting data were
computed by taking the value at each succeeding 10% of the
data. The decile factors were obtained by dividing each decile
by the median.

The coefficients of the predictor variables were estimated


using ordinary least squares. Adjustment factors were
obtained by taking the natural exponent of the coefficients. 4
models were created. 2(base salary, base + primary) x 2(with
and without engineering levels).

4.3 ACCURACY OF THE MODELS


Goodness of fit was obtained by looking at the proportion
of variance explained by the model, commonly known as R2,
and this year it ranged from 0.55 to 0.61 across all the
models. R2 is a customary measure of how well the models
fit the data, and is mathematically equivalent to the
proportion of total variance in a dependent variable (in this
case, income from primary sources) that can be attributed to

The models were developed on a random 80% sample of


the modeling data, and validated on the remaining 20%. The
validation showed no significant shifts in most coefficients,
therefore the full data was used to obtain the coefficients and
model fits.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

4-2

2010 Edition

model and observed income from the surveys. This measure


is shown in the graphs below. The base model was able to
predict 45% of cases within 10% accuracy and 74% of cases
within 20% accuracy: so if someones actual salary was
$60,000, the base model would have made a prediction of
between $54,000 and $66,000 for the median, in about 45%
of similar cases. The $12,000 range in possible predictions is
again caused by the same two reasons discussed above measurement error, and factors not considered in the model.
The graph shows that models with engineering levels slightly
outperform the models without levels. The models with
income from other sources have higher variability in the data,
and predict slightly worse than the base income models.

changes in the values of one or more predictors (here, the


continuous and indicator or adjustment variables). In informal
terms, R2 measures the ability of the predictors to account for
changes in compensation. For this year's models R2 ranged as
high as 0.61, meaning that as much as 61% of all variance in
the income of IEEEs U.S. members can be associated with
the specific predictors used here.
What accounts for the remaining, unexplained, variance?
In general, remaining differences in pay can be ascribed to
two sources. One is error, including measurement error. The
other consists of all those factors not explicitly considered in
the models. There are many such factors, including such
critical matters as the performance of individual engineers,
the financial health and compensation policies of particular
employers, negotiating skill, and sheer luck, both good and
bad. These are some of the reasons why there are such large
ranges of income between high and low deciles for otherwise
matched individuals in the tabulations in Section 3.

This year, an additional comparison between the


distribution of data in 2009 and 2010 was done, using the
2010 salary models. Using the same base model without
engineering levels on both sets of data, the 2010 data showed
an average of 3.6% decrease in median salary. The base
model with engineering levels showed an average of 4.8%
decrease this year from last year.

A related measure of accuracy was determined by


calculating the difference between predicted income from the
Exhibit 4-2

Regression Model Validation


Percent Deviation from Observed Value

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

4-3

2010 Edition

5 FRINGE BENEFITS, RETIREMENT, SELFEMPLOYMENT, AND SATISFACTION WITH WORK


5.1 FRINGE BENEFITS OFFERED
Health and Insurance. As has been the case in recent
surveys, virtually all full-time workers are offered extensive
health benefits. More than nine in ten are offered basic
health insurance, major medical, and dental insurance, both
for themselves and their dependents. Ninety percent are
offered prescription/drug coverage, and 88% coverage for
eyeglasses, lenses, and exams (up ten points since 2001).

Exhibits 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 provide information on the


fringe benefits offered to IEEE's U.S. members who work
full time. Benefits are examined in three broad categories:
pension and retirement benefits; health and insurance
benefits; and miscellaneous benefits.
Pension and Retirement. In the 2001 survey, more than
half of full-time workers (55%) were offered "defined
benefit" (pension) retirement plans, in which an employee is
promised a certain amount if they meet the terms of the plan
(which may include a minimum number of years of service).
In step with the broader societal trend, that proportion has
dropped to 37% as of 2009.

Nine in ten are offered life insurance and/or disability


insurance coverage. Health/insurance benefits less
frequently offered include long-term care insurance (61%),
well baby care (48%), elder care referral services (28%), and
day care service or subsidy (26%).
Employer contributions in many of these areas is down,
dropping as much as 4 percentage points from last year for
life insurance and disability insurance, specifically.

Even while pensions are disappearing, the proportion


offered 401(k), 403(b) or 457 salary reduction plans so
called "defined contribution" plans has remained
essentially flat since 2001, at 88% in the current survey.

Miscellaneous Benefits. In results similar to those seen


in the past, 80% of full-time workers are offered flexible
working hours, and 50% are offered professional association
membership fees. The proportion offered paid attendance at
professional conferences, however, has dropped eleven
points in nine years, to 67%. The proportion offered paid
maternity or paternity leave has jumped from 42% to 57%,
and offers of unpaid leave have stayed about the same (from
74% to 76%).

Profit sharing plans are now offered by 23% of


employers, down from 37% eight years ago. Offers of stock
options have diminished even more, from 49% in 2001 to
29% in 2009. Offerings of employee stock ownership plans
(ESOPs) are similarly reduced, from 40% then to 22% now.
Other retirement benefits affect relatively small proportions
of members working full time.
Exhibit 5-1
Full-Time Workers (Excluding Consultants):

Pension and Retirement Benefits


Employer Offers
and Contributes

Employer Offers
but Does Not
Contribute

Employer
Does Not
Offer

Defined Benefit Pension Plan


Profit Sharing Plan
Stock Options

33%
20%
20%

4%
3%
9%

63%
76%
71%

401(k), 403(b), or 457 Salary Reduction Plan


Other Defined Contribution Pension Plan
SEP (Simplified Employee Pension Plan)

73%
6%
2%

15%
3%
2%

12%
91%
96%

ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan)


TIAA/CREF
IRA (Individual Retirement Account)

13%
8%
4%

9%
3%
7%

78%
90%
89%

4%
3%

3%
6%

92%
91%

Cash Balance Plan


Other Salary Reduction Savings Plan

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

5-1

2010 Edition

Exhibit 5-2
Full-Time Workers (Excluding Consultants):

Health and Insurance Benefits


Employer Offers
and Contributes

Employer Offers
but Does Not
Contribute

Employer
Does Not
Offer

Basic Health Insurance


Basic Health Insurance for Dependents

93%
86%

4%
10%

3%
4%

Major Medical Insurance


Major Medical for Dependents

86%
80%

5%
11%

8%
9%

Dental Insurance
Dental for Dependents

83%
77%

12%
17%

5%
6%

Eyeglasses, Lenses, Exams

70%

18%

13%

Life Insurance Coverage


Disability Insurance

76%
69%

15%
20%

9%
11%

Well Baby Care


Long-Term Care Insurance
Prescription/Drug Coverage

33%
31%
77%

15%
30%
12%

52%
38%
11%

9%
9%

17%
19%

74%
73%

Day Care (Service or Subsidy)


Elder Care Referral Services

Exhibit 5-3
Full-Time Workers (Excluding Consultants):

Miscellaneous Benefits
Employer
Offers

Employer
Does Not
Offer

Professional Association Membership Fees


Paid Attendance at Professional Conferences

50%
67%

50%
33%

Paid Maternity or Paternity Leave


Unpaid Personal Leave

57%
76%

43%
24%

Flexible Working Hours


Other Services/Benefits

80%
8%

20%
92%

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

5-2

2010 Edition

5.2 LEAVE

5.3 OLDER ENGINEERS AND RETIREMENT

Exhibit 5-4 summarizes the numbers of days off that fulltime working respondents were eligible to receive on 1
January 2010; the median figures resemble those in recent
surveys. Exhibit 5-5 shows how the different types of leave
were distributed: Two-thirds (66%) are entitled to at least
20 days of vacation and holidays combined, including 28%
who get 30 or more days.

After remaining remarkably stable throughout most of


the 1980s, the average age of IEEE's U.S. members
increased rapidly during the 1990s (see Exhibits 5-6 and
5-7). The 2001 survey, the first to be conducted solely via
the Internet, saw a drop of nearly six years in respondents'
average age; 2010 results are lower still, at 45.7 years.
Exhibit 5-6
All Respondents (Excluding Consultants):

Exhibit 5-4
Full-Time Workers (Excluding Consultants):

Mean Age, 1972-2009

Paid Days Off


Lower
Quartile
Vacation days
Holidays
PTO (sick days)

Median

Upper
Quartile

15
10
2

20
10
12

0
7
0

Exhibit 5-5
Full-Time Workers (Excluding Consultants):

Distribution of Paid Leave


Vacation
30 or more days
26-29
25

Holidays

PTO

Vacation
+ Holidays

4%
3%
6%

<0.5%
<0.5%
<0.5%

3%
1%
3%

28%
13%
8%

21-24
20
16-19

5%
15%
3%

<0.5%
<0.5%
<0.5%

3%
5%
2%

12%
5%
5%

15
11-14
10
Less than 10

20%
6%
10%
27%

1%
22%
29%
47%

5%
4%
5%
68%

2%
5%
6%
17%

1972
1975

42.2
41.9

1977
1979

42.6
43.1

1981
1983
1985

42.7
40.6
40.0

1987
1989

40.9
40.6

1991
1993
1995

44.0
45.1
48.0

1997
1999

47.6
52.6

2001
2005

46.9
44.8

2006
2007

45.3
45.6

2008
2009

44.6
45.8

2010

45.7

Exhibit 5-7
Full-Time Workers (Excluding Consultants):

Age Distributions, 1991-2010


1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

65+
60-64
50-59

11%
7%
15%

13%
6%
16%

17%
7%
18%

16%
6%
19%

4%
7%
25%

2%
5%
24%

1%
5%
23%

2%
5%
23%

3%
5%
24%

1%
6%
25%

1%
8%
29%

1%
7%
29%

40-49
30-39
<30

23%
29%
16%

24%
28%
14%

24%
27%
8%

24%
26%
9%

29%
29%
6%

36%
29%
4%

38%
26%
6%

35%
26%
8%

35%
24%
10%

34%
23%
10%

32%
21%
9%

30%
22%
10%

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

5-3

2010 Edition

household income was from their personal primary income.


The proportion of total household income represented by
primary income drops from 96% in the 20-24 age bracket to
73% among those 65-69. Those members still in the work
force at age 70 or above contribute only 62% of total
household income from primary sources, though their
contribution from all sources is still high (85% of household
total).

Exhibit 5-8 lists median incomes from primary sources


for respondents in the work force from 1991 to the present.
These data are broken out by eleven age categories. The
earnings are lower than those reported in Exhibit 3-11,
because these data include all of the engineers in the work
force, not just those working full time in their areas of
competence.
Exhibit 5-9 presents changes in base salaries for full-time
workers (non-consultants). These figures come from an item
in each survey that asks respondents to report their base
salaries for the current year, the previous year, and the year
before that. These data are direct measures of changes over
time in an individual engineers pay, and reflect the effects
of annual salary increases for added experience, as well as
changes in the value of engineering skills. Between 2008
and 2010, the average increase in base salary was about 8%,
with younger respondents reporting higher increases than
those 35 and older.

Seven percent of all non-consultant respondents


indicated they have been offered incentives to retire early.
Most of them were given the offers in years prior to 2009.
Seventy-seven percent indicated they are fully vested in
at least one retirement plan, down from 84% in 2001.
However, 25% are vested in two or more (Exhibit 5-11).
Seventy-four percent of those answering indicated they are
100% vested in the retirement program of their current
primary employer (Exhibit 5-12), while 8% are not vested at
all (0%). These results quite different from last years, with
a 10-point increase in the proportion full vested and a
decrease of 9 points in the proportion not vested at all.

Exhibit 5-10 compares, by age group, median primary


income, income from all sources, and total household
income for 2009. Overall, 81% of their 2009 total

Exhibit 5-8
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Median Primary Income by Age, 1991-2010


Survey Year
1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2005

2006

20-24
25-29

$33,000
40,050

$35,000
42,600

$35,676
44,000

$38,000
46,700

$55,000

$68,000

$52,000
67,400

$52,300
67,000

30-34
35-39

50,000
57,000

52,711
60,939

56,400
65,000

60,000
69,000

68,000
77,000

80,000
89,650

85,050
99,000

40-44
45-49

64,000
68,000

65,650
72,000

69,200
77,240

75,000
78,000

84,000
86,080

96,000
98,915

50-54
55-59

70,000
71,000

76,000
77,875

80,000
79,900

82,000
85,000

89,300
90,000

60-64
65-69

70,000
69,000

73,200
80,000

82,000
78,000

80,000
56,000

70+

60,000

71,000

75,900

6,000

2007

2008

2009

2010

$54,000
69,630

$58,900
72,300

$60,000
71,500

$61,000
72,850

88,580
100,000

90,000
103,000

92,550
106,190

94,680
110,000

90,890
108,500

106,810
110,000

108,950
113,000

112,220
118,000

119,000
121,000

120,160
125,310

118,500
123,860

97,500
101,000

108,060
109,440

111,280
110,000

117,000
115,000

121,000
118,500

128,460
125,000

125,000
123,470

88,000
67,500

100,000
91,857

106,020
99,000

111,290
104,000

116,940
101,200

117,000
112,000

122,750
118,000

118,000
110,000

12,275

100,000

58,610

50,000

71,000

81,750

85,000

90,000

NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

5-4

2010 Edition

Exhibit 5-9
Full-Time Workers (Excluding Consultants):

Percentage and Absolute Change in Median Base Salaries by Age, 1997-2010


1997-1999
(1999 Survey)

1999-2001
(2001 Survey)

2003-2005
(2005 Survey)

2005-2007
(2007 Survey)

2006-2008
(2008 Survey)

%
$
Change Change

%
$
Change Change

20-24
25-29

24% $11,000

30-34
35-39

17%
15%

40-44
45-49

%
$
Change Change

%
$
Change Change

%
$
Change Change

34% $17,250

16% $7,750
19% 11,000

49% $18,920
25% 14,000

9,700
9,898

22% 14,200
17% 12,950

13%
9%

9,650
8,080

12%
9%

9,080
7,000

14% 11,550
12% 10,000

9%
7%

50-54
55-59

11%
6%

8,800
5,000

11%
9%

9,600
8,000

60-64
65-69

6%
10%

5,000
8,500

10%
8%

5%

4,000

70+

2007-2009
(2009 Survey)

2008-2010
(2010 Survey)

%
$
Change Change

%
$
Change Change

26% $12,320
24% 14,000

16% $8,820
18% 11,000

13% $7,250
15%
9,650

20% 15,000
14% 12,600

20% 15,250
15% 13,000

16% 13,000
10% 10,000

13% 10,000
9%
8,500

9,000
7,000

12% 11,700
12% 12,000

12% 12,000
13% 13,400

10% 10,710
9% 10,000

6%
8%

5,550
8,000

10% 10,390
11% 11,000

12% 12,000
10% 10,570

6%
7%

9,134
6,613

10%
6%

9,630
5,800

11% 12,000
9%
8,730

13% 13,780
12% 13,000

14% 12,000

8%

10,000

8%
6%

8,320
7,200

7,000
8,000

4%
4%

5,000
5,000

9%
4%

10,000
5,320

4%
3%

5,000
3,500

10% 10,000

NOTE: Results suppressed where n<25.

Exhibit 5-10
Members in the Work Force (Excluding Consultants):

Exhibit 5-11
All Respondents (Excluding Consultants):

2009 Median Primary Income, Income from All


Sources, and Total Household Income by Age

Number of Retirement Plans in which Fully Vested

Primary
Income
Total

Income from
All Sources

111,000

115,710

136,800

20 - 24
25 - 29

61,000
72,850

63,000
74,850

63,460
84,000

30 - 34
35 - 39

90,890
108,500

93,500
110,000

108,750
130,000

40 - 44
45 - 49

118,500
123,860

121,490
128,000

140,000
150,000

50 - 54
55 - 59

125,000
123,470

129,000
127,500

150,000
150,680

60 - 64
65 - 69

118,000
110,000

126,000
128,000

150,000
150,000

90,000

122,630

145,090

70+

4 or more
3
2
1
None

Total
Household
Income

1%
5%
19%
50%
23%

Number of cases: 14,187

Exhibit 5-12
All Respondents (Excluding Consultants):

Percent Vested, Current Employer's Retirement


Program

NOTE: Primary Income and Income from All Sources earned by


individual respondent; Total Household Income includes other
breadwinners (if any). Results suppressed where n<25.

100%
76%-99%
51%-75%

74%
2%
3%

26%-50%
1%-25%
0%

3%
9%
8%

Number of cases: 9,618 (4,569 unknown/not applicable)

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

5-5

2010 Edition

5.4 SELF-EMPLOYMENT
the proportion in the work force reported earning some gross
income from self-employment in the prior year would drop
from 15% to 9%.

Considering the new basing for the results this year


which excludes those earning half or more of their personal
income from fee-based consulting in 2009, its logical that

5.5 SATISFACTION WITH WORK


dimension, favorable responses continue to outweigh
unfavorable responses. Members are most satisfied with the
technical challenges of their jobs (+.87) and overall (+.84).
They are least satisfied with advancement opportunities
(+.22): about one quarter rate themselves either dissatisfied
or very dissatisfied in this area. A slightly smaller proportion
(about one in five) are dissatisfied with their current
compensation. The trend on this measure was modestly
favorable from 2005 up to last year, with another dip (though
not as bad as 2005) this year.

A series of questions asked since 1997 measure members'


general sense of satisfaction with their work, using a common
satisfaction scale (very satisfied / satisfied / neutral /
dissatisfied / very dissatisfied). By scoring these scale points
from +2 to -2, the mean rating provides a useful shorthand for
satisfaction levels.
Exhibit 5-13 shows that, after peaking in the 2001 survey,
satisfaction levels took a big step backwards in 2005, and
have remained roughly at those levels since. Still, on every

Exhibit 5-13
All Respondents (Excluding Consultants):

Satisfaction with Aspects of Work, 1999-2010


2010 Ratings
Very
Satisfied Satisfied Neutral

Mean Satisfaction Ratings

Overall satisfaction with your job


Satisfaction with ...
The technical challenges
of your job
Employer's support for
your technical vitality
Your current compensation
Advancement opportunities

1999

2001

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010

+2

+1

.98

1.04

.87

.86

.84

.88

.84

25%

50%

.94

1.03

.93

.92

.91

.92

.87

30%

.47
.60
.36

.63
.65
.50

.43
.35
.24

.46
.42
.27

.45
.43
.27

.43
.49
.26

.40
.41
.22

19%
14%
13%

DisVery Dissatisfied satisfied


-1

-2

14%

8%

3%

43%

17%

8%

3%

35%
39%
31%

23%
25%
28%

14%
15%
18%

9%
6%
9%

NOTE: Satisfaction with current compensation not asked in 1997.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

5-6

2010 Edition

6 IEEE-USA SALARY TIME SERIES DATA, 1994-2009


6.1 CONSTANT DOLLAR DATA: ADJUSTING FOR INFLATION
As seen previously, members employed full time in their
PATC saw a slight decrease in median primary income from
2008 to 2009: from $116,000 to $113,500, or -2.1%.
However, a more meaningful measure of economic progress
looks at changes in real (inflation-adjusted) dollars, which
these surveys have done (using median income) since 1994.

Using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban


Consumers as the deflator, we see that real primary income
rose steadily from $97,430 in 1994 to $120,920 in 2002.
2003 saw a big step backwards, to $116,660. Slippage
continues through to this survey, with 2009 real primary
income losing $440 in inflation-adjusted dollars.

Exhibit 6-1
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Current Data Excludes Consultants):

Median Primary Income in Constant 2009 Dollars, 1994-2009




$120,000


$110,000

$100,000

  
   




$90,000

$80,000

$70,000
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Survey
Conducted
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

Surveyed
Period
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

Nominal
Income

Real
Income

67,000

97,430

72,000

98,920

82,000

108,340

93,100

116,240

101,000
99,500
103,000
104,700
108,000
110,610
116,000
113,500

120,920
116,660
117,100
115,740
114,540
114,420
113,940
113,500

NOTE: Real Income expressed in current dollars, based on an average June-July 2009 CPI of 215.5 (Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers;
1982-1984 = 100).

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

6-1

2010 Edition

median income outpaced inflation handily in the 1990s and


early 2000s, but that 2003 begins a stretch where inflation
appears to have the upper hand, a trend not reversed
significantly with 2009 data.

Exhibit 6-2 presents related data. The bars show periodto-period changes in the CPI; the line shows changes in
median nominal primary income reported by engineers
working full time in their PATC. Combined, these show that

Exhibit 6-2
Those Working Full Time in Their PATC (Current Data Excludes Consultants):

Changes in Median Nominal Primary Income and the CPI, 1996-2009


20.0%
% change:

income
CPI

15.0%

10.0%


5.0%




0.0%

-5.0%
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Survey
Conducted

Surveyed
Period

CPI

1995

1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

148.2
152.5
156.9
160.4
163.1
166.5
172.6
177.8
180.0
183.8
189.6
195.0
203.2
208.3
219.4
215.5

1997
1999
2001
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

% Change
Nominal Income

% Change
CPI

% Change
Real Income

+7.5%

+5.8%

+1.5%

+13.9%

+4.0%

+9.5%

+13.5%

+5.8%

+7.3%

+8.5%
-1.5%
+3.5%
+1.7%
+3.2%
+2.4%
+4.9%
-2.2%

+4.3%
+2.1%
+3.1%
+2.8%
+4.2%
+2.5%
+5.3%
-1.8%

+4.0%
-3.5%
+0.4%
-1.2%
-1.0%
-0.1%
-0.4%
-0.4%

NOTE: Percentage change calculated from measure to measure, not year to year in years with no survey. CPI for year calculated as average for
June-July (Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers; 1982-1984 = 100).

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

6-2

2010 Edition

6.2 TRENDS IN THE MEMBERSHIP PROFILE


one third, well below the 50% levels seen in the 1970s and
1980s. The proportion holding Master's or Doctoral degrees
has plateaued at just under two-thirds.

Selected characteristics of IEEE's U.S. members are


compared for all surveys conducted since 1972 in Exhibit 63. As previously noted, mean years of experience, mean
years with current employer, and mean age are down
somewhat compared with data from 2001, which probably
exerts a dampening effect on compensation measures. The
involuntary unemployment percentage is twice that of last
year, reflecting the down economy. The proportion holding
a Bachelor's as their highest degree has stabilized at around

After modest gains in the 1970s and 1980s, the


proportion of female EEs remains at 6-7%. The profession
continues to slowly grow more diverse racially/ethnically,
however 79% of 2010 respondents are non-Hispanic
Whites, sixteen points lower than in the inaugural 1972
survey.

Exhibit 6-3
All Respondents (Current Data Excludes Consultants):

Comparisons of Selected Measures, 1972-2010


Mean
Age

Mean Years
with Current
Employer

Highest Degree:
Master's or
Bachelor's
PhD

Survey
Conducted

Mean Years
of Experience

Unemployed
Involuntarily

1972
1975

17.6
17.8

1.7%

42.2
41.9

6.5
10.6

50%
50%

1977
1979

17.3
17.7

0.8%
0.4%

42.6
43.1

10.9
11.9

1981
1983
1985

17.7
17.0
15.9

0.5%
0.1%
0.4%

42.7
40.6
40.0

1987
1989

16.1
15.4

0.7%
0.9%

1991
1993
1995

18.4
19.0
21.3

1997
1999

Male

White

99%
99%

95%
96%

50%
51%

99%
99%

95%
94%

11.2
9.9
9.5

51%
48%
50%

98%
96%

94%
93%

40.9
40.6

9.9
9.3

45%
46%

50%

96%
95%

92%
90%

1.5%
2.7%
2.3%

44.0
45.1
48.0

9.9
10.4
11.2

48%
45%
37%

46%
51%
54%

95%
95%
96%

90%
89%
90%

20.9
24.9

1.2%
1.3%

47.6
52.6

10.4
11.9

40%
40%

55%
58%

94%
97%

87%
90%

2001
2003
2004
2005

21.2
19.4

0.6%
4.0%
3.4%
2.1%

46.9
44.8

14.2
9.2

34%
33%

65%
66%

95%
95%

87%
83%

2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

19.7
20.0
19.1
20.2
20.2

1.7%
1.2%
1.3%
1.7%
3.8%

45.3
45.6
44.6
45.8
46.1

9.0
9.1
8.7
9.5
9.5

34%
35%
36%
36%
36%

65%
65%
64%
62%
62%

95%
94%
94%
94%
93%

82%
83%
82%
83%
79%

NOTE: - indicates item not reported.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

6-3

2010 Edition

7 METHODOLOGICAL NOTES
7.1 SAMPLING AND RESPONSE
Invitations to the Web-based 2010 Salary & Fringe
Benefits Survey were emailed in June 2010 to 121,669 IEEE
U.S. members. To create the sample, all records of highergrade members Associate Members, Members, Senior
Members, and Fellows who consent to receive email
communications from IEEE were drawn from the member
database. As noted in Exhibit 1-1, 12.1% of those invited
responded, a total of 14,724 usable returns.

responding sample is a reasonably close match with the


invited sample (membership as a whole); Associate
Members are slightly under-represented, while Senior
Members are slightly over-represented. IEEE's six Regions
are more or less proportionately represented.
Focusing on Exhibit 7-2, survey results tend (as in prior
surveys) to over-represent younger members, while underrepresenting older members not surprising, given the
proportion of that group that is at or near retirement and thus
has little interest in current compensation data. Those for
whom no age data is on file with IEEE were quite
unresponsive.

Exhibit 7-1 compares the responding sample with the


invited sample with respect to the joint distribution of
Membership Grade and Region (as recorded in IEEE
Member Data). In terms of these two variables, the

Exhibit 7-1
All Invited Higher-Grade IEEE U.S. Members and All Survey Respondents:

IEEE Region by Membership Grade (IEEE Member Data)


Associate Member

Member

Senior Member

Members

Survey
Cases

Members

Survey
Cases

Survey
Members Cases

1 Northeast
2 East
3 Southeast

1.0%
0.9%
0.7%

0.6%
0.5%
0.5%

13.9%
12.8%
11.1%

13.2%
12.1%
11.0%

1.7%
1.6%
1.6%

4 Central
5 Southwest
6 West

0.6%
0.7%
1.4%

0.4%
0.5%
1.1%

9.2%
11.9%
23.5%

10.5%
12.6%
22.8%

TOTAL

5.2%

3.6%

82.4%

82.1%

Fellow

TOTAL

Members

Survey
Cases

Members

Survey
Cases

2.0%
1.9%
2.1%

0.4%
0.3%
0.2%

0.4%
0.2%
0.2%

17.0%
15.6%
13.7%

16.1%
14.8%
13.8%

1.0%
1.7%
2.9%

1.5%
2.0%
3.4%

0.2%
0.2%
0.5%

0.2%
0.1%
0.4%

11.0%
14.5%
28.3%

12.5%
15.1%
27.7%

10.6%

12.8%

1.7%

1.5%

100.0%

100.0%

NOTE: Based only on invited U.S. higher-grade members; Student, Life, and Affiliate grades not invited.

Exhibit 7-2
All Invited Higher-Grade IEEE U.S. Members and All Survey
Respondents:

Age (IEEE Member Data)


Members

20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60+
blank

4.1%
13.4%
26.3%
30.2%
16.9%
9.1%

Survey
Cases

9.2%
19.5%
28.7%
29.5%
12.8%
0.3%

NOTE: Based only on invited U.S. higher-grade members; Student,


Life, and Affiliate grades not invited.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

7-1

2010 Edition

The descriptive statistics reported include percentages,


measures of central tendency such as means and medians,
and measures of dispersion such as ranges and percentiles.
Percentages in most tabulations are rounded to the ones
place, in recognition of the larger-magnitude effects of
sampling error. Means arithmetic averages appear
only occasionally, as they are not a preferred measure for
analysis of income; they tend to be biased high because of
the undue influence of very large values at the top of a
distribution.

Statistical precision. With 14,187 usable non-consultant


cases in the 2010 data set, full sample estimates of
proportions are subject to a maximum sampling error of 0.8
of a percentage point at the 95% confidence level. Most of
the profile information is based on the 13,755 non-consultant
respondents "in the work force" that is, those currently
employed or involuntarily unemployed. Proportions for this
subset are also subject to a margin of error of 0.8. (305
responses with extreme high or low values for the key
measure of total personal income were omitted from the data
set.)

Medians and other percentiles are points that divide a


ranked distribution into equal-sized groups. The median
divides a distribution in half; quartiles divide it into quarters;
deciles divide it into tenths; percentiles divide it into
hundredths. The median is also the second quartile, the fifth
decile, and the 50th percentile. Interpolated values are used
if necessary; for example, if the number of cases in a
distribution is even, the median is the value half-way
between the two cases in the middle. People tend to report
values such as income in round numbers, which is why
many percentiles in this report are multiples of $1,000.

Compensation results (for the 11,766 non-consultant


respondents working full time in their Primary Areas of
Technical Competence) are reported in terms of percentiles,
rather than proportions or means. Sampling error is not
readily quantified for such statistics calculated from nonnormal distributions.
As in any survey, results are somewhat less precise when
the database is carved up into subgroups such as the
combinations of specialties and experience reported in
Section 3. Results based on rather small numbers of cases
may still be of interest to IEEE's U.S. members, and are
provided in this report along with suitable cautions for care
in their use. The minimal reportable group is fixed at 25
cases, a threshold selected as a common and reasonable
lower limit for large-sample statistical procedures.

IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey

7-2

2010 Edition

APPENDIX
FACSIMILE OF WEB QUESTIONNAIRE

2010 COMPENSATION SURVEY


Thank you for choosing to participate in the 2010 IEEE-USA Salary Survey!
The survey will take a few minutes to complete and you may wish to have available a copy of your 2009 federal tax return for the
questions about specific income amounts. If you need to leave the survey before completing it, you may return to the form by
clicking on the link in the email invitation you received to participate in the survey.
Please be assured that your personal information is confidential and secure. Your data is encrypted using 128-bit SSL (secure
socket layer) protection. None of your individual data or contact information will be shared with any third party, nor used by IEEEUSA except in connection with its Salary Survey services. For more information about Readex Researchs or IEEEs privacy
policies, please see the following web sites:
http://www.readexresearch.com/privacy-policy.cfm
http://www.ieee.org/security_privacy.html
If you have any questions about or problems with the survey, please contact Readex Research at ieeehelp@readexresearch.com.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Q1-Q14 = ALL RESPONDENTS; Q15-Q34A = CONSULTANTS ONLY; Q35-END = NON-CONSULTANTS ONLY]

1.

How many years of professional and/or managerial experience did you have in electrical, electronics, and computer
engineering or related technical fields as of January 1, 2010? Do not include undergraduate or graduate school as
years of experience. (Please round to the nearest whole number; enter 0 if you have six months or less experience.)
_______ years

2.

Check the one response that best describes the sector of your primary employer as of January 1, 2010, or, if you were
not then employed (or self-employed), on the last date that you are/were employed. If you worked primarily as a
consultant, please indicate the option that best describes your primary client(s).










3.

Private Industry: Defense


Private Industry: Other than Defense or Utilities
Utilities
Federal Government: Defense
Federal Government: Other than Defense
State or Local Government
Educational Institution
Non-Profit Institution: Except Education
Other sector (please specify):____________

Check the one response that best describes the line of business of your primary employer as of January 1, 2010, or, if
you were not then employed (or self-employed), on the last date that you are/were employed. If you worked primarily
as a consultant, please indicate the option that best describes your primary client(s).
















Aerospace
Automotive
Communications
Computers
Consulting
Defense (except Aerospace)
Education
Electrical/Electronic Manufacturing
Electrical/Electronic Services
Medical
Metals
Petroleum/Chemical
Transportation
Utilities
Other (please specify):____________
4

4.

What was your IEEE Membership Grade as of January 1, 2010 (or as of the date you joined, if you joined after January
1, 2010)? (Note: "Life" is not a Membership Grade.)







5.

As of January 1, 2010, what degrees did you hold? (Please select all that apply.)













6.

Fellow
Senior Member
Member
Associate Member
Student Member
Graduate Student Member

No Degree
Two-year Degree
BA Degree
BET or BSET Degree
BSCS Degree
BSEE or BSCE Degree
Other Bachelors Degree
MSEE or MSCE Degree
Other Masters Degree
MBA Degree
Law Degree
PhD or equivalent

Do you have a Professional Engineers (PE) license?


 Yes
 No

7.

What is your Gender?


 Male
 Female

8.

As of January 1, 2010, what was your age?


__________ years old

9.

What is your ethnicity?









White (not Hispanic origin)


African American (not Hispanic origin)
Hispanic
Asian or Pacific Islander
American Indian or Alaskan Native
Other ethnicity (please specify):____________

10. As of January 1, 2010 please indicate your citizenship status.








Citizen of the USA, by birth


Citizen, by naturalization
Permanent resident alien
Visa Holder, H-1
Visa Holder, other, (please specify):____________

11. Please enter the 5-digit zip code for your work location or your primary employment (or self-employment) in calendar
year 2009. If no such code applies, enter the zip code for your primary 2009 residence.
______________

12. Considering the full calendar year 2009, what was your pre-tax income from the following sources, before all
deductions such as health insurance, savings, or other pre-tax programs? (Please enter only whole numbers no dollar
signs, commas, percent signs, periods, or dashes).
NOTE: The sum should equal your actual earned income from all sources in 2009. You must provide an entry for all possible
components of pay; if one or more of them do not apply in your case, enter 0 in each such case.
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________
$____________

Base salary
Overtime pay, if any
Commission
Signing bonus
Performance bonus
End-of-year bonus
Other bonus
Profit sharing
Any net income from self employment
Supplemental earnings (consulting, teaching, other part-time job, etc.)
Retirement/pension plan benefits (exclude Social Security)
Social Security
Other Income (Do not report stock options here)

$____________ TOTAL
a. What was the type of "Other Bonus" you received?

b. What was the type of "Other Income" you received?

13. Which option best describes your employment status on January 1, 2010? If your employment has a tax status other
than W-2 (e.g., 1099, S corp.), please select one of the self-employed options.











Employed full time


Employed part time
Retired and employed full time
Retired and employed part time
Self-employed full time
Self-employed part time
Retired, not employed
Unemployed, voluntarily
Unemployed, involuntarily
Full-time student

14. Did half or more of your personal earned income in calendar year 2009 come from fee-based consulting?
 Yes
 No

15. What percentage of your time consulting do you bill in each of these ways? (Please fill in each blank with a whole
number. The total should add to 100%.)

__________ % hourly
__________ % daily
__________ % fixed price
=100%
16. During 2009, what was your average number of billable hours per week as a consultant? (Please fill in a number below;
0 if none)
__________ billable hours/week
17. Please select all of the technical specialties listed below in which you offer consulting services.














































Acoustics
Aerospace
Analog Design
Antenna
Application Software
ASIC
Automation
Broadcast, Radio and Television
Business Application & Management
Business Planning
C++
CAD
Circuits and Printed Circuit Design
Client Server
Communications
Computers
Consumer Electronics
Databases and Data Management
Diagnostic Software
Digital Design
DSP
Electrical Power Generation, Transmissions & Distributions
Electrical Power Quality, Reliability and Safety
Electrical Power Systems
Electrical Power, Transformers, Switchgear and Controls
Electro-Mechanical
Electromagnetics, including EMI, EMC and EMP
Electronic Components
Embedded Systems, Hardware, Software and Controls
Expert Witness
Failure Analysis
Fiber Optics
Financial
Forensic Engineer
FPGA
GPS
Hardware, General
Human Factors
IC Design
Illumination/Lighting
Instrumentation and Controls
LAN/WAN
Languages
Large Systems
Lasers

 Linux
 Management
 Manufacturing
 Marketing
 Materials and Material Handling
 Mechanical
 Medical
 Microprocessors
 Microwave
 Military
 Motors
 MS Windows
 Networks - LAN/WAN - Other
 New Product Development
 Object Oriented
 Oceanic
 Optics
 Packaging
 Peripherals
 Power Supply Design
 Process Controls
 Project Management
 Quality and ISO-Related
 Radar
 Reliability and Availability
 RF
 Semiconductor Fab
 Servo/Control Systems
 Signal Conditioning
 Simulation and Modeling
 Software Development, Application &
Management
 Systems Engineering
 Technical Writing
 Telecom and Telephone
 Telemetry
 Test Engineering, Equipment or Services
 Testability
 Thermodynamics
 Training
 Troubleshooting
 UNIX
 Vehicular
 Wireless Networks, Systems, Instrumentation
 World Wide Web

18. Please specify below any additional technical specialties that did not appear in the above list but in which you offer
consulting services:

19. Please indicate what percentage of your consulting hours were performed for each of the categories below during
2009. (Please fill in each blank with a whole number; 0 if none. The total should add to 100%.)

__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %

An independent
With partners
Incorporated
As a contract employee (job shopping)
As an employee of another company (not your own)

=100%
20. Is your office in your home?
 Yes
 No
21. Do you carry professional liability (errors & omissions) insurance?
 Yes
 No
22. How do you get your consulting business? Estimate the percentage of total dollars earned from each of the following.
(Please fill in each blank with a whole number; 0 if none. The total should add to 100%.)

__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %

Repeat business from your clients


Client contacts made by networking
Referrals from clients and friends
Contacts through IEEE directories/databases
Print advertising
Cold calls
A marketing or referral service with a fee
Other

=100%
23. How many years of consulting experience have you had? (Please round to the nearest whole number; enter 0 if you have
six months or less experience.)
_______ years
24. What is your current hourly rate for consulting? Please convert other rates to an equivalent hourly rate. If your rate
varies, select the average or most common rate. (Please enter whole numbers without a dollar sign or a comma.)
$__________ per hour
25. What is the gross income that you received in 2009 from consulting? (Please enter whole numbers without a dollar sign
or a comma.)
$___________

26. Estimate the percentage of your consulting hours that you do in the following fields. (Please fill in each blank with a
whole number; 0 if none. The total should add to 100%.)

__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %
__________ %

Hardware
Software
Management
Marketing
Manufacturing
ICs and devices
RF
Telecom
IT
Computers
System Engineering
Power
Quality and Reliability
Control Systems
Expert Witness & Forensics
Other

=100%
27. Are you having any trouble getting paid?
 Yes
 No
a. Was the work you had trouble getting paid for performed under contract?
 Yes
 No
b. Please indicate your comments here regarding these difficulties.

28. Where are the largest number of your clients located?


 In the United States or Canada
 Outside the United States or Canada
a. In what State/Province are the largest number of your clients located?
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa

Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico

New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington

West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Alberta
British Columbia
Manitoba
New Brunswick
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Ontario
Prince Edward Island
Qubec
Saskatchewan
Yukon

b. In what country are the largest number of your clients located?


Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua & Deps
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Rep
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Congo {Democratic Rep}
Costa Rica
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
East Timor

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland {Republic}
Israel
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Korea North
Korea South
Kosovo
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia

Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar, {Burma}
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
St Kitts & Nevis
St Lucia
Saint Vincent & the Grenadines

Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome & Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad & Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Vatican City
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Other

29. How has your consulting business been affected by the trend to move engineering offshore?

10

30. How has your consulting business been affected by the downturn in the economy?

31. What action do you recommend that the IEEE Consultants Network take in response to your answers to the two
questions immediately preceding?

32. IEEE-USA has an online Consultants Database (see http://www.ieeeusa.org/consultants) to allow member consultants to
advertise their services to prospective clients. What is your level of interest in the Database?







I am currently a member
I am a former member
I have been aware of the Database but choose not to join
I have been aware of the Database and may have an interest in joining
I have not been aware of the Database and do not have an interest in joining
I have not been aware of the Database and may have an interest in joining

33. IEEE-USA is considering establishing relationships with other consultants databases whereby IEEE members joining or
renewing membership in the IEEE-USA Consultants Database would be offered the opportunity to cross-post their
profiles on other Web sites at no extra charge. If you were considering joining or renewing your membership in the
IEEE-USA Consultants Database, how would such opportunities affect your decision?
 I would be more likely to join or renew
 I would be less likely to join or renew
 Neither / unsure

34. If you would like a coupon for a free 2010 Survey Report emailed to you, please provide your email address here. (The
Survey Report will be published as an IEEE-USA ebook and offered for sale to non-respondents during the last quarter
of 2010.)

a. Please re-enter your e-mail address.

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35. Using the definitions of levels of professional engineering responsibility provided, please choose the one level that best
describes your responsibility as of January 1, 2010, or, if you were not then employed, as of the date that you were last
previously employed.
These definitions are based on U.S. Department of Labor criteria and have been used for many years by IEEE-USA to
support more precise information on the compensation of engineers. Note that a tenth and final level applies if you are
working but are not employed as an engineer. If you are currently unemployed, a full-time student, or completely retired
and no longer working, use the level that applied to your most recent job.
Click here to view definitions












Engineer Level 1 (equivalent to GS-5)


Engineer Level 2 (equivalent to GS-7)
Engineer Level 3 (equivalent to GS-9 or Academic Instructor)
Engineer Level 4 (equivalent to GS-11 or Assistant Professor)
Engineer Level 5 (equivalent to GS-12 or Associate Professor)
Engineer Level 6 (equivalent to GS-13 or Full Professor)
Engineer Level 7 (equivalent to GS-14 or Distinguished Professor or Academic Department Head)
Engineer Level 8 (equivalent to GS-15 or Academic Department Head or Dean)
Engineer Level 9 (greater than GS-15 or Academic Dean or higher)
Other/Not Employed as Engineer
Unknown

36. Listed below are ten broad areas of technical competence. Please select the one response that best describes your
primary area of technical competence.
 Circuits and Devices
(includes Circuits and Systems; Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology; Electronic Devices; Lasers and Electro-Optics; Solid-State Circuits;
Other or combinations within this area)

 Communications Technology
(includes Broadcast Technology; Communications; Consumer Electronics; Vehicular Technology; Other or combinations within this area)

 Computers
(includes Hardware; Non-Internet Software Development; Non-Internet Systems Analysis/Integration; Non-Internet Software Applications Including Database
Admin.; Internet/Web Development/Applications; Other or combinations within this area)

 Electromagnetics and Radiation


(includes Antennas and Propagation; Electromagnetic Compatibility; Magnetics; Microwave Theory and Techniques; Nuclear and Plasma Sciences; Other or
combinations within this area)

 Energy and Power Engineering


(includes Power Engineering; Other or combinations within this area)

 Engineering and Human Environment


(includes Education; Engineering Management; Professional Communication; Reliability; Social Implications of Technology; Other or combinations within this
area)

 Industrial Applications
(includes Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation; Industry Applications; Instrumentation and Measurement; Power Electronics; Other or combinations within this area)

 Signals and Applications


(includes Aerospace and Electronic Systems; Geoscience and Remote Sensing; Oceanic Engineering; Signal Processing; Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and
Frequency Control; Other or combinations within this area)

 Systems and Control


(includes Control Systems; Engineering in Medicine and Biology; Industrial Electronics; Information Theory; Robotics and Automation; Systems, Man and
Cybernetics; Other or combinations within this area)

 Other (please specify):___________________________


a. Within the area of Circuits and Devices, please check the one response that best describes your primary area of
technical competence.







Circuits and Systems


Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Electronic Devices
Lasers and Electro-Optics
Solid-State Circuits
Other Circuits and Devices specialties or combinations of the above (please specify):____________

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b. Within the area of Communications Technology, please check the one response that best describes your primary area
of technical competence.






Broadcast Technology
Communications
Consumer Electronics
Vehicular Technology
Other Communications Technology specialties or combinations of the above (please specify):____________

c. Within the area of Computers, please check the one response that best describes your primary area of technical
competence.







Hardware
Non-Internet Software Development
Non-Internet Systems Analysis/Integration
Non-Internet Software Applications Including Database Admin.
Internet/Web Development/Applications
Other Computer specialties or combinations of the above (please specify):____________

d. Within the area of Electromagnetics and Radiation, please check the one response that best describes your primary
area of technical competence.







Antennas and Propagation


Electromagnetic Compatibility
Magnetics
Microwave Theory and Techniques
Nuclear and Plasma Sciences
Other Electromagnetics and Radiation specialties or combinations of the above (please specify):____________

e. Within the area of Engineering and Human Environment, please check the one response that best describes your
primary area of technical competence.







Education
Engineering Management
Professional Communication
Reliability
Social Implications of Technology

Other Engineering and Human Environment specialties or combinations of the above (please
specify):____________
f. Within the area of Industrial Applications, please check the one response that best describes your primary area of
technical competence.






Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation


Industry Applications
Instrumentation and Measurement
Power Electronics

Other Industrial Applications specialties or combinations of the above (please specify):____________

g. Within the area of Signals and Applications, please check the one response that best describes your primary area of
technical competence.







Aerospace and Electronic Systems


Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Oceanic Engineering
Signal Processing
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control

Other Signals and Applications specialties or combinations of the above (please specify):____________

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h. Within the area of Systems and Control, please check the one response that best describes your primary area of
technical competence.








Control Systems
Engineering in Medicine and Biology
Industrial Electronics
Information Theory
Robotics and Automation
Systems, Man and Cybernetics

Other Systems and Control specialties or combinations of the above (please specify):____________

37. As of January 1, 2010, were you employed (or self-employed) in your primary area of technical competence, as indicated
in the previous question?
 Yes
 No
38. Check the one response that best describes your primary job function as of January 1, 2010 or, if you were not then
employed (or self-employed), on the last date that you are/were employed.
















Administration/personnel services
Basic research
Computer programming, systems software engineering
Consulting
Design and development engineering
Education, teaching, training
Engineering support
Management, general
Management, technical
Manufacturing and production
Marketing, sales
Operations, construction and maintenance
Quality control, reliability, etc.
Systems engineering
Other job function (please specify):____________

39. During calendar year 2009, were you employed at any time on a contract (job-shop engineering) basis?
 Yes
 No
40. How many different employers have you worked for full time in the electrical, electronics, computer engineering or
related technical fields in the last ten years? (Please fill in the number of employers, 0 if none. Include managerial positions
and your present full-time employer. If self-employed, count that. Treat company name changes, transfers, mergers, etc. as one
employer.)
____________ employers in past 10 years

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41. Did you have any gross income in 2009 from self employment?
 Yes
 No
42. How many years had you worked for your present employer as of January 1, 2010, or, if you were not then employed, on
the last date that you are/were employed? (Round to the nearest whole number; enter 0 if you have six months or less
experience.)
_______ years
43. What is the approximate number of employees that your employer has in the USA?








1-10 Employees
11-50 Employees
51-500 Employees
501-10,000 Employees
More than 10,000 Employees
Dont know
Does not apply

44. In calendar year 2009, what was the average number of hours you worked per week? (If you did not work this year, enter
0.)
_______ hours/week
45. In your primary position, how many technical employees did you directly or indirectly supervise as of January 1, 2010?
(If none, enter 0.)
_______ technical employees supervised
46. In your primary position, how many non-technical employees did you directly or indirectly supervise as of January 1,
2010? (If none, enter 0.)
_______ non-technical employees supervised
47. Were you awarded stock options by an employer in 2009?
 Yes
 No
a. Please enter your best estimate of the present value of those options. Count only the value of options awarded in 2009.
(Enter dollar amount rounded to the nearest whole number. Do not enter dollar sign or a comma.)
$_____________ in stock options
48. What was your pre-tax annual base salary rate with your primary employer as of January 1 of each of these years? If
you were self-employed, enter your best estimate of a base salary equivalent.
(Enter dollar amount rounded to the nearest whole number -- do not enter commas. Exclude commissions, bonuses, overtime
compensation, etc.; include base income before all deductions for health insurance, savings, or other pretax programs. If not
applicable because you were not working, enter zero).

January 1, 2010 base salary $

______________________________

January 1, 2009 base salary $

______________________________

January 1, 2008 base salary $

______________________________

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49. What was the total income of your household from all sources in 2009? (Enter dollar amount rounded to the nearest whole
number. Do not enter dollar sign or comma.)
$_______________
50. In your primary employment as of January 1, 2010, how many days off (if any) are you annually entitled to in each
category below?
(Enter the number of days for each category you are entitled to, even if you dont expect to use them all. If not entitled to any
days in a category, enter 0. If unsure how many days youre entitled to, enter "999". Be sure not to double-count days - total paid
days off should not exceed 52 weeks x 5 days = 260 days.)

#_________
#_________
#_________
#_________
#_________

Paid vacation days


Paid holidays
PTO (Paid Time Off, regardless of how used - often replaces sick/holiday/vacation days)
Paid maternity or paternity leave
Other paid leave

#_________ TOTAL
51. Including your current and all prior companies, in how many company retirement plans are you fully vested? (Enter 0 if
none.)
_______ retirement plans in which fully vested
52. As of January 1, 2010, approximately what percentage were you vested in the retirement program of your current
primary employer? (Indicate percentage from 0 to 100 or select "Unknown" or "Not applicable.")
_______ % vested
 Unknown
 Not Applicable
53. Have you ever been offered incentives to retire before you plan (or planned) to retire? (Check all that apply.)
 Yes, in 2009
 Yes, before 2009
 No

54. Was an academic (degree-granting) institution your primary employer as of January 1, 2010?
 Yes
 No
a. On January 1, 2010, which type of contract covered your academic employment?
 9 or 10 month contract
 11 or 12 month contract
 Other academic contract (please specify):___________________________
b. What is the academic rank for this position?









Full Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
Visiting/Adjunct Professor/Instructor/Lecturer
No Institutional Ranks
Non-Teaching Research Appointment
Other Non-Faculty Position
Other Faculty Position, (please specify):___________________________

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c. What is the tenure status for this position?







Tenured
On Tenure Track
Not on Tenure Track
Tenure Not Applicable

d. What type of institution applies to this position? (Please select the applicable response that grants the highest degree.)










Public associate degree-granting school


Private associate degree-granting school
Public bachelor degree-granting school
Private bachelor degree-granting school
Public masters degree-granting school
Private masters degree-granting school
Public PhD or comparable degree-granting school
Private PhD or comparable degree-granting school
Other type of institution, (please specify):___________________________

55. Please rate your satisfaction with each of the following aspects of your work (for your primary employment in calendar
year 2009). (Please select one response in each row.)

Overall satisfaction with your job


Satisfaction with advancement opportunities
Satisfaction with the technical challenges of
your job
Satisfaction with employers support for
your technical vitality
Satisfaction with your current compensation

Very
satisfied
1

Satisfied
2

Neutral
3

Dissatisfied
4

Very
dissatisfied
5

Not
Applicable



















56. If your current employer offers medical coverage, is this limited to HMO-type plans?
 Yes
 No
 Not Applicable

57. Please indicate if, as of January 1, 2010, you are making use of any employer-offered benefits (including pension,
retirement or other plans, health benefits and/or other services/benefits).
 Yes
 No

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58. For each of the Pension/Retirement benefits or services listed below, indicate if, as of January 1, 2010, the benefit was
or was not offered by your employer, and if offered, whether your employer contributes to the benefit. You may view a
description of these plans here.
Click here to view descriptions
(Please select one response in each row.)
Employer
offers and
contributes


Defined Benefit Pension Plan

Employer
offers but
does not
contribute


Employer
does not
offer


Profit Sharing Plan

Stock Options

401(k), 403(b), or 457 Salary Reduction Plan

Other Defined Contribution Pension Plan

SEP (Simplified Employee Pension Plan)

ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan)

TIAA/CREF

IRA (Individual Retirement Account)




Cash Balance Plan

Other salary reduction savings plan (please specify): ____________

a. Is your employers defined benefit plan portable? (Portable: You can take your vested benefits with you when you terminate.)
 Yes
 No
 Dont Know

59. For each of the Health/Other benefits or services listed below, indicate if, as of January 1, 2010 the benefit was or was
not offered by your employer, and if offered, whether your employer contributes to the benefit. (Please select one for
each row.)
Employer
offers and
contributes


Employer
offers but does
not contribute


Employer does
not offer


Basic health insurance for dependents

Major medical insurance

Major medical for dependents

Dental insurance

Dental for dependents

Eyeglasses, lenses, exams

Life insurance coverage

Disability insurance

Well baby care

Long-term care insurance

Prescription/drug coverage

Day care (service or subsidy)

Elder care referral services

Basic health insurance

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60. For each of the benefits or services listed below, indicate if, as of January 1, 2010, it was or was not offered by your
employer. (Please select one for each row.)

Professional association membership fees


Paid attendance at professional conferences
Paid maternity or paternity leave
Unpaid personal leave
Flexible working hours
Other services/benefits (please specify): ____________

Employer
offers







Employer
does not
offer






61. We are now at the end of the survey. If you would like to make any additional comments, please do so here:

Thank you very much for your input.

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IEEE-USA
2001 L Street, NW, Suite 700
Washington, D.C. 20036
Tel: +1 202 785 0017
Fax: +1 202 785 0835
E-mail: ieeeusa@ieee.org
Web: www.ieeeusa.org