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OMAN LANGUAGElthough Arabic is Oman's official language. spoken in Oman are Semitic languages Swahili and English are also widely spoken in the country .The dominant indigenous language is a dialect of Arabic and the country has also adopted English as a second language
3. OMAN POLITICSPolitics of Oman takes place in a framework of an absolute monarchy whereby the Sultan of Oman is not only head of state, but also the head of government. Chief of state and government is the hereditary sultan, who appoints a cabinet to assist him.Oman's judicial system traditionally has been based on the Shari'a the Qur'anic laws and the oral teachings of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
4. OMAN RELIGIONAround 75% of the population consists of Ibadhi, a form of Islam distinct from the Sunni and Shia denominations, 17% Shia Muslims and the Zikri forming the remaining 8% of the indigenous population.Various groups Hindus, Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Sikhs,Baha'is, and Christians also exist.
5. OMAN GEOGRAPHYOman lies between latitudes 16° and 28° N, and longitudes 52° and 60° E.The land area is composed of varying topographic features: valleys and desert.Oman has a hot climate and very little rainfall.Muscat is the capital of Oman.
6. OMAN ECONOMYOman's proved reserves of petroleum total about 5.5 billion barrels, 24th largest in the world.Oman's mineral resources include chromite, dolomite, zinc, limestone, gypsum, silicon, copper, gold, cobalt and iron.Oman is known for its popular tourist attractions.Other sources of income, agriculture and industry
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• • • • • • Basically, Dhofar was the most overlooked and backwards place in Oman. This rebellion aimed to liberalize Oman and make it a “People’s Republic” against a really conservative ruler. The Sultan was overthrown by his son which was the beginning of the end to this rebellion. • • On 23 July 1970 Qaboos succeeded his father following a nearly bloodless palace coup. The action was coordinated by Sultan Sa’id’s British military advisors. The actual coup was lead by Burayk bin Hamud al-Ghafiri, the son of Sultan Sa’id’s governor of Dhofar, who led a group of the sultan’s bodyguards to the palace. After a brief struggle, Sultan Sa’id surrendered, signed an abdication document, received medical attention for a superficial gunshot wound, and then was flown to England to be exiled. • • • •
1964 . extraction begins in 1967. Timeline of Oman 1507 . Military and security officials can’t vote. His rule is characterised by a fuedal and isolationist approach. reflecting Oman's strong maritime heritage. Oman Presented By: Jessica Martin Kyle Gruskowski Stuart Smith Ken Starks 2. under the name of the Popular Front for the . 1749 .• • • • • • • • • • • National Holiday is the Sultan’s Birthday Although there isn’t a constitution. 1913 . 1981 .Omani empire expands to include Zanzibar and Mombasa on Africa's east coast and parts of the Indian subcontinent. 1800s-1900s .the Consultative Council. they are driven out in 1650. The interior is ruled by Ibadite imams and the coastal areas by the sultan. by 1967. The uprising is finally put down with the help of soldiers from Jordan and Iran. 1737 . • 5. Post-Coup Timeline 1970 .The sultan is overthrown by his son in a bloodless coup. Sultan Qaboos bin Said begins a liberalization and modernization program. including succession. form of government.Portuguese sack Muscat and capture the Omani coast. Under a British-brokered agreement in 1920 the sultan recognises the autonomy of the interior.Oman and neighboring United Arab Emirates (UAE) sign a border agreement defining most of their disputed common frontier. Oman is the oldest independent state in the Arab world. Dhofar Rebellion 1964-1975 Sultan Said bin Taimur was ultraconservative and opposed to change of any kind Its original aim was the overthrow of Said ibn Taimur. 1997 . • 4. and continues to rule to this day.Persians are driven out. there is a royal decree with some explanations of laws. 1965-75 .Control of the country splits. It is one of the more traditional countries in the Gulf region but until 1970 it was one of the most isolated. Two women are duly elected to the body.Oil reserves are discovered.Sultan Said bin Taimur regains control of the interior.Persians invade.Sultan Qaboos decrees that women can stand for election to . 1959 .Oman is a founding member of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council. but.and vote for . Only three people have been discovered Disposed of his father 53 Member in Council of Ministers More… Oman — Presentation Transcript • • • 1. • • • • • • • Al-Zwaidi has been writing since 1986 Arabic Network for Human Rights Information Black List is secret.Rebellion in the southern region of Dhofar in which leftist forces are pitted against government troops. 1999 . 3. Borrows from Islamic and Common Law. The Al Bu Said dynasty comes to power.
Neighborly Relations Northern tip 35 miles directly opposite with Iran.co.2 percent.Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf--which in 1974 was changed to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO) • • • • 6. divorce. marriage. which governs inheritance.onwar. Areas along the Omani coast.org/articles/pages/5492/Al-Bu-Sa-id-Qaboos-1940. and according to some sources they now represent 19. Human Rights The United Nations high commissioner for human rights. British Propaganda .com/aced/nation/oat/oman/foman1964. Sultan Qaboos Bin Said Came to power in 1970 after overthrowing his father Opened up the entire country of Oman Created economic reforms and boosted spending on health. Religion 75% Ibadhi Muslim 25% other including large minorities Sunni and Shia Muslim.738 members throughout Oman. Oman was one of the first Gulf countries to provide women with political rights and begin integrating them into government structures.16 years 15. • 20. have been parties to a military cooperation agreement Oman also has long been an active participant in efforts to achieve Middle East peace. Over the last five years. and do not have full freedom to make decisions about their health and reproductive rights. women have continued to enjoy higher levels of economic participation. Jessica’s Sources http://news.bbc. Neighborly Relations Oman maintained its diplomatic relations with Iraq throughout the 1990-91 Gulf war Since 1980 Oman and the U.418.65/1000 population Gender ratio (2009) 1.htm http://www.S. Concerned with regional stability and security. female – 73. influenced by international trade and tourism. it includes 39 branches with 2. Demographics Cont. (male – 86. and child custody • 18. are more open to non-Islamic religions and ways of life. • 10. They are afforded unequal rights under the personal status law.state.stm http://encyclopedia. Women’s Rights By 2003.jrank. continues to have a profound impact on women. Nationality Omani Spoken Languages Arabic (official) English Baluchi Urdu Ethnic Groups Arab Baluchi South Asian African Literacy rate 81. and men are traditionally and legally seen as heads of household. Women’s Inequality The government instigated an important change by introducing a law in 2008 stipulating that men and women's legal testimonies are now considered equal.html http://www. women's representation in the labor force grew to 17.5%) 16. PFLOAG Logo Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf Dhofar Sultan Said bin Taimur 7.4%. in combination with conservative religious norms. Omani Culture 14. was recently touring the gulf states criticizing restrictions on women’s employment. education and welfare By reorganizing and modernizing the military he was able to defeat the Dhofar crisis and begin concentrating on other issues.". Women remain underrepresented in the judiciary and government structures.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834. and the potential threat of political Islam Not Good! • 11. Navi Pillay.22 male/female Life Expectancy 74. although it is unclear to what extent this will apply to personal status law cases. • 19. given tensions in the region.085 Birth Rate (2009) 34.8%. 9. women face discrimination in almost all areas of life. the proximity of Iran and Iraq. and also Hindu. Demographics Population 3.79/1000 population Death Rate (2009) 3. Sultan Qaboos Bin Said Came to power in 1970 after overthrowing his father 8. . The Hand of God Destroys Communism ". Women have been allowed to vote and stand in elections for the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Council). Women’s Rights Continued Omani Women’s Associations (OWAs) The OWA provides a channel for voluntary work and child welfare services.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/2448259.htm • • • • 13. Despite progress. • 17. Omani women are encouraged to become involved in voluntary social work and to contribute to the development of their communities.1 percent of Oman's workforce. Oman's patriarchal culture. • 12.
net/en/?p=206 • • 32. Introduced as monetary unit of Oman in 1932. fish. Major exports : petroleum.6% (2009 est.• 21.cfm? page=384&key=261&parent=24&report=86 https:// www.org/template.org/articles/pages/5492/Al-Bu-Sa-id-Qaboos-1940.servat. Ken’s Sources http:// www. The Sultans Job Titles Prime Minister Minister of Defense Minister of Finance Minister of Foreign Affairs Chairman of the Central Bank 29.7%).html http://news.$23. Economy of Oman By: Kyle Gruskowski 33. Japan(11%). Major Imports: machinery/transportation equipment.) Main agriculture exports: dates. 25. Economic Background Per Capita income.openarab. Freedom of Speech “ Anyone who uses a system on a device or a means of communication to direct a message while knowing it is untrue or causes harm to a person or a service” Article 61 of the Telecommunications Law Punishment can be up to 2 years in prison and a fine up to $2. Cont.) • 34. Oman Politics Kendrick Starks 23.anhri.org/files/blog/gender_equality_bubble-size-GDP-per-capita. The Sultanate of Oman: Political Background Type of Government: Monarchy Independence: 1650 National Holiday: November 18 CPI : 39 th Constitution: None Political Parties: NONE Voting Age: 21 24. Labor force by occupation was not specified. Cont. .Thailand(7. • 30.unibe.edutube. None of the 20 females up for election won.britishcouncil. The Executive Branch: Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said Sultan since 1970 Head of State and Commander in Chief All decisions finalized by the Sultan Appoints Council of Ministers 28.html http://www.freedomhouse. Eventually.ch/icl/mu00000_.UAE(11. • 35. vegetables.indexmundi.omanet.) National external debt: $7.385 Rials.co.000 (60% non-national) 142 nd on the world scale. cattle. html http:// www. South Korea(17%).com/oman/demographics_profile.org/tvetarabiaoman-education-in-oman. activist. textiles -Exports account for $29.747 billion USD • 36. 25 th in world.html http://www.stm http://www. Major imports account for $18.html http://www. Labor Force968.2% Industry: 36. 26. bananas.transparency. The next election will be in 2011.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/mu.bbc.jpg • • • • • 22. but GDP composition by sector states. crude oil production.1%) Oil production: 806.34 billion USD(2009 est.3%(2009 est.cia.uk/2/low/middle_east/country_profiles/791892.jrank. the government lifted the ban to some books and/or showed tolerance.7%). Judicial Courts that cover following cases: Family Criminal Commercial Labor • • • 27.) Inflation rate: 5. limes.000 bbl/day.om/english/useful/basic.900 USD (2009 est.asp?cat=use http://freedomhouse.cfm?page=384&key=261&parent=24&report=86 http://www. Agriculture: 2. manufactured goods.net/en/node/795 http://www.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834.000 Journalist.) Major trading partners: China(31. Stuart’s Sources http://www.) 53 rd compared to the world. Freedom of Speech Continued Oman Government confiscated and banned several books at the Muscat International Book Fair Government has black list of people that are allowed to have media appearance. Ali al-Zwaidi published material relating to corruption in Omantel and sentenced to 10 days and required to pay a fine.htm http://www. Unemployment Rate: 15%(2004 est.41 billion USD(2009 est. and co-founder of the Oman Writers' Society.org/template. Branches of Government Legislative Entire branch only has advisory role and split up into two parts The Shura Council consists of 71 seats and are appointed by the Sultan The Council of the State consists of 84 seats and are elected by popular vote for 4-year terms The last election was in 2007. Currency Exchange Rate The Currency in Oman is known as the Rial The exchange rate from USD to rials is $1 USD= 0.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009/cpi_2009_table http:// encyclopedia.state.3% Services: 61. • 31. The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information feels that these actions are hostile to the freedom of expression.
• • 47. and has a strategically important positioning in the Gulf.Activate market forces and competition 4. executive president of CMA. neighboring countries will sabotage oil pipelines during state of unrest. Oman’s struggle Oman is the oldest independent country in the Arab world. • 38. Their foothold near the Arabian Sea makes this commodity a key part in the diversification process. This helped Oman tremendously because it was an initiative for foreign business’ to invest in Oman because they new they would be protected.:22% Total investment in oil and gas: 56% Public sector: 54% 48. To stray from the use of oil. In order to drastically change the economy the country must also obtain a strong. Which opened up important sea ports like Salalah. Vision 2020 Now As challenging as the oil crisis was. Objectives of vision 2020 1. states that with the completion of the infrastructure in various parts. Doing so will allow the transportation process to and from Oman more efficient which will later boost economic growth. Core nations. by 2022 it is said that most of the oil reserves will be depleted and Oman must find new means of commodities other than oil.development and enforcement of capital market. Cont. Oman has made 3 major investments in 3 major ports in the Indian Ocean. which can hinder Oman’s agriculture production. 3. 5. yet the economy proceeds to continue to grow and in the eye’s of many will continue to do so . This plan the government calls “vision 2020” was adopted in 1996 and is set up to diversify the economy so that the oil sector of the GDP changes from 37% to 9%. Resource Curse Ultimately. they cease to grow due to their lack of diversification of resources and continue to export low value raw materials and import manufactured goods. Also the government invests heavily in the gas sector of the economy because Oman has a much bigger natural gas resource than oil. Vision 2020 cont. Cont. tourism. Yahya bin said Al Jabri. enable the private sector to participate in development of national economy. So far Oman is on track to diversify its economy yet there are no guarantees in the future. on January 1. Vision 2020 cont. • 43. the only other problem that can occur is the water scarcity in the Middle East. stray from the oil production industry to non-oil areas which will enhance economic growth. Oman was able to reduce inflation from 12%(2008) to 8%(2009) and estimate it will drop to 1. centralized political system. • 49.increase efficiency in deployment of resources. Cont. • 41. airports. over time. Continuous fighting and growing military tensions is the one of two main challenges to this reform. industrial. 2.• 37. • 40.there are not many challenges to this plan working. Compared to past reforms. the government is adopting a new development plan that focuses on the diversification. and sea ports. • 44. 2009. Oman signed a free trade agreement with the United States which eliminated trade barriers on all consumer and industrial products. Seventh five-year plan has made great results for Oman : Capital expenditure on oil:34% Investment in gas-based indust. he declares Oman is keeping pace with the long-term plan. Oil/Gas production and consumption 46.” Oman has a high oil production level. Cont. Ex. Oman seems to be failing on the global economic level because they continue to follow the vicious cycle of “Periphery vs. • 42. as well as numerous free trade agreements. Cont. By 2020 Oman hopes have drastically changed their global economy to a more efficient competitor in the global market. Cont. and gas sector of Oman’s economy . The country has made concrete moves to develop trade links between Asia. • 39. • • 45. Vision 2020 Because of dwindling oil reserves. This is very difficult to uphold due to the constant political instability in the Middle East. Oil production has been a main asset to the success of Oman and 2/3 of all oil production comes from the Middle East. the government focuses on major investments to Oman’s infrastructure such as roads. in return the government believes the economy will.diversification of the sources of national income. industrialization and privatization while simultaneously reducing the use of oil. With major investments to infrastructure.8% in 2011.
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