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Contributors: Diana E. Guild Purev-Ochir Chagaa Amarbayasgalan Nyamdorj Batjargal Batkhuyag Gereltuya Dorjderem Edenechimeg Erdene Mongolkhatan Gunsen Burmaa Jambaldorj Ariuntuya Myagmar Bolor Taiwan Erdenesuren Tsend Tuul Tsend-Ayush
Abbreviations and Acronyms ADB: Aimag: Bagh: ECCD: ECE: ELDS: EMIS: EPSS: ESMP: FID: FTI: GDP: Ger: GTZ: HDI: JICA: Khoroo: MASM: MNB: MNT: MDG: MECS: MIS: MOHSW: MSUE: NCEA: NGO: NTV: PPP: Soum: Tugrug: UBS TV: UH: UNDP: UNESCO: UNICEF: Asian Development Bank Province Small town, neighborhood or village within the rural soum Early Childhood Care and Development Early Childhood Education Early Learning and Development Standards Education Management and Information System Education Policy and Strategy Simulation model Education Sector Master Plan Finance and Investment Department Fast Track Initiative Gross Domestic Product Traditional Mongolian house Deutsche Gesellschaft fur International Zusammernarbeit (now GIZ) Human Development Index Japanese International Cooperation Agency Neighborhood or village within the capital region Mongolian Agency for Standardization and Metrology Mongolia National Broadcasting (radio and television) Mongolian Tugrug (national currency) Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science Management and Information System Ministry of Health and Social Welfare Mongolian State University of Education National Committee of Education Accreditation Non Government Organization National Television Public-private Partnership Main district within the rural aimag Mongolian national currency Ulaanbaatar Broadcasting System TV University of Humanities United Nations Development Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization United Nations Children’s Fund
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 BACKGROUND TO MONGOLIA......................75 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS...............................30 ALTERNATIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION CLASSROOMS.............................81 APPENDICES...... AND IMPLEMENTATION..............................................................................15 PRESCHOOL EDUCATION POLICY.....................................................................................16 EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION BUDGETING AND FUNDING......11 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION...........63 PARENT EDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES......................................60 IMPROVING ADVOCACY FOR AND PARENTAL AWARENESS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.......................................56 PARENTS’ AND FAMILY MEMBERS’ KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION..............................................................................................87 APPENDICES 1 ....................................................................................................38 CURRICULUM............................................................................................................................35 TEACHERS....................................................23 ACCESS AND EQUITY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.................................................Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................................................14 ALTERNATIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION.....................................71 MONITORING AND EVALUATION.1 INTRODUCTION...........................................49 READINESS TESTING........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 EDUCATION IN MONGOLIA...........................43 SUPPLEMENTARY TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES....................56 STAKEHOLDERS........................................................................................................................... PLANNING...........................................................................................
In the alternative ECE sector. some have attended training through nearby soum kindergartens. discusses issues that impact ECE. and 25% are aged 2 and below.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Mongolia Education Sector Master Plan (2006–2015) identifies early childhood education (ECE) as a priority issue and makes improving access to ECE. 36% are enrolled in shift groups. and recommends strategies to improve access. Shift group kindergartens are “summer kindergartens” that provide ECE for those children not able to enroll during the regular September-June school year due to over enrollment Nationally. remoteness. and are not usually professional ECE teachers. In this alternative ECE programme. part of its outcomes to be attained by 2015. 23% are aged 3. and the nomadic lifestyle of herder families. lack of kindergarten capacity (over enrollment). These figures show a proportionate enrollment by ages. poverty. however. 9% of kindergartens operate summer shift groups. a comprehensive situation analysis was conducted on ECE in Mongolia between September and December 2010. and interviews. The majority of children enrolled in shift groups are from aimag and soum centers and suburban areas of the city. following nomadic families. and services. As part of this project. and the remaining 17% receive ECE via mobile teachers. They also operate mainly during the summer season only. including lack of access to a kindergarten. the Asian Development Bank (ADB) developed the JFPR 9138MON: Early Childhood Education for Rural. Alternative ECE Programmes As of the 2009-2010 academic year. Vulnerable Children 1 . Nomadic. 25% are aged 4. and also an increase in enrollment of children aged 2 and below. delivery. observations. Mobile teachers circulate throughout a determined area to visit nomadic families every week or two weeks. and Migrant Children project. 80% of children enrolled in mobile kindergarten are mainly from nomadic families who live in soums and baghs. Typically the teachers of the regular kindergarten year also teach shift group kindergartens at least part of the summer. including document review. nomadic. 26% are aged 5. and migrant children. mostly located in rural areas. Alternative Early Childhood Education (Alternative ECE) refers to programmes and activities which aim at providing preschool education to children who are not able enroll in regular kindergarten classes for a variety of reasons. As of 2009. To assist in the attainment of the outcomes. there are 113 mobile teachers throughout the country. Ger kindergartens are housed in traditional ger shelters. ger kindergartens. This report presents the results of the analysis. out of all 109. particularly among rural.479 children enrolled in kindergartens. many of the teachers are volunteers. There are three types of alternative ECE programmes: Shift group kindergartens. 47% are enrolled in mobile kindergartens. and mobile teachers.
However. 2005. Rural population makes up roughly 43% of the total population. and respiratory disease is the second most common disease among children. and single mothers and their children) have lower access to preschool education compared to non-poor population.237 children. Consequently. the size in aimag and city areas is increasing. Child sickness cases have increased. 1 Construction unit of MECS. which eliminated a cost burden. The national average class size is at 29. First. class size has reached its maximum capacity. class size in kindergartens has been growing. kindergarten meals costs of children are born by the state. there is still lack of sustainable and quality ECE. 3 . which diminishes health and hygiene standards and increases the workload of teachers. and enrollment in private kindergartens has doubled in within the past 5 years. In addition. It shows clearly that there is an urgent need for additional kindergarten construction to increase the capacity of kindergartens in settled and urban areas. Access Since 2005. Although the preschool-aged children of this population receive education via mobile kindergartens and visiting mobile teachers. parental contributions to hygiene and learning materials and transportation is another financial burden for poor families to admit their children to kindergartens. the preschool sector – including kindergarten – enrollment rate has been continuously increasing. There are several factors for this increase. particularly in urban areas (ranging 34-45 children per class).Poverty remains a significant factor for low preschool enrollment rate. Enrollment in alternative ECE has reached 17. the capacity of kindergartens has been increased by constructing new buildings. the budget for preschool sector has been steadily rising and has reached MNT 76 billion(or USD60. Second. households in peri-urban khoroos. which is half as much as the total number of children enrolled. Kindergarten building condition study. as the preschool enrollment rate increases. particularly to poor and vulnerable families. The increased budget also favors preschools with alternative ECE and private kindergartens. Third.8 million).4%. The particularly low preschool participation rates in the Kazakh aimag and the lack of either Kazakh language preschool materials or Mongolian as a second language instructional strategies mean Kazakh children start school lagging behind in language and literacy skills and may not gain a sound footing in either Mongolian or Kazakh languages. the studies1on utilization of kindergarten buildings show that the 532 school buildings have the capacity to accommodate a total of 42. although the class size is decreasing in soums. On the other hand. Due to increased migration of into settled areas. Poor and vulnerable groups (particularly migrants. other problems arise.4%.
all but 7 of them female. including provision of equal opportunity to all children Handbooks and working guidelines working with children with disabilities Publications for parents and working with parents. There are currently 4 common curriculum guides used by teachers of alternative ECE programmes. Curriculum and Resources From 2005. provincial. In academic year 2009-2010 there were 1287 students enrolled. there is an increased skill demand to develop curriculum for ECE. regional. and classroom resources pertaining to development of curricula and lesson topic contents. Mongolia has abandoned the “one training programme for all kindergartens” practice. teachers should have more professional resources from which to draw: • • • • Curriculum development texts by ages and developmental stages Active teaching and child-centered teaching methodology texts. and music teachers in Mongolia. Courses are offered by individuals. families and communities Consistent Government provision of classrooms with appropriate and adequate resources is an important issue for rural kindergartens and alternative programmes of ECE. 1 . guidebooks. In-service professional development courses are offered on national. the most commonly raised issue by kindergarten teachers is the lack of professional and methodological support. These curricula are used by shift groups. and kindergartens started developing their own curricula which entailed teachers to develop and implement lesson subject and topic contents. methodological. the School of Preschool Education. In addition. education authorities in urban and rural capitals. The number of applicants has been growing steadily for the last few years.Teachers The School of Preschool Education has prepared over 7000 kindergarten. which in turn requires teachers to continuously develop their professional and contemporary teaching methods. or even organizational level. Government organizations who specialize in teacher training or development. domestic or foreign NGOs. Since the adoption of the Preschool Education Standard. Therefore increased focus should be paid in the curriculum development and implementation process taking into account different teaching strategies necessary to meet different populations and appropriate learning environments. and mobile teaching services which have different teaching and learning conditions and environment. following adoption of the new Preschool Education Standard. They can be general or specialized. and educational research and methodological organizations. Consequently. ger kindergartens. A variety of modes are available for attending courses.
Mongolia Institute of Education (2008). There is a need for an established system that regularly assesses the school readiness of all children of every kindergarten. Article #. Different national and international organizations conduct trainings for parents on child developmental issues. The Law on Preschool Education says that the state budget for kindergarten includes cost of learning materials. State of Readiness of 5-years-old Children. Parents The Education Master Plan of Mongolia recommends support for ECE training for parents. 2006 Institute of Education (2010). with the support of donor organizations. 2 Law on Preschool Education . parents’ education and income level. But implementation of the Law is difficult. Predictably.2. most of the media programmes are for children and parents’ programme time is irregular. This system would require capacity-building of local ECE authorities in terms of test development skills as well as adoption of a cost-effective technology. However. State of Readiness of 6-years-old Children. In order to address the above issues. For the last 10 years MECS has provided resources and training supplies for a number of kindergartens... there is currently no standard. Readiness Testing Mongolia does not have sustainable system that regularly assesses school readiness of children.. kindergartens and preschool classes contain few educational resources with little age or developmental area consideration. and 5-yearold children in 20104. sanitation facilities and TV set . however in reality there has a lack of support from the Government in terms of raising awareness on ECE among parents. In rural areas. Ulaanbaatar. In general. In the past. nor national strategy on the improvement of kindergarten classroom resources. after the shift to a 12-year education system. when the 11-year education system was in force. radio etc. and there are television and radio programmes that provide advice to parents.in 20083. assessment results indicate that a child’s readiness level depends on the number of years s/he attended a kindergarten. Mongolia 3 4 3 . only two studies have been carried out to assess the readiness level of 6-year-old children. Ulaanbaatar. and rural-urban disparity. main recommendations are: • • • • To develop a list of resource materials for preschool classrooms by ages and developmental stages To improve the availability of resource materials for preschool classrooms which are consistent with the Preschool Education Standard To improve teachers’ and caregivers’ knowledge about the use of resource materials for children’s development To improve physical & e-learning (distance education) facilities for mobile gerkindergartens including generators. kindergartens do not have enough budgetary funding for learning materials and classroom learning resources. However.Overall. and caregivers.
and other social services). In addition. one of the pressing issues of ECE is an insufficient [… information] for stakeholders at the local level. Several measures may be needed to assist parents whose children cannot attend ECE services but who are learning at home: • • • • To organize practical workshops and seminars as well as parent education classes or courses for parents to improve working with children at home To familiarize parents with ECE curricula To supply information on how to support children’s development by using mass media Provide targeted budget support to cover hidden costs for parents Advocates for Young Children In the last few years the scope of support for ECE has grown in Mongolia. 5 6 2 . the social workers act as a bridge between district authorities and khoroos by delivering information (e. the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). villages and khoroos. mass media. information to khoroo population.g. data on number of families in needs. who work on volunteer basis. The main international donors in the sector are UNICEF and Save the Children (UK)5. According to MECS (2007).parents mostly receive early childhood information on an occasional basis e. and private sector. Moreover. early childhood. The social workers do not have direct involvement in early childhood services. who works for khoroo under supervision of khoroo coordinator. In urban settings.g. it is recommended that: • Establishment of a local network of ECE stakeholders that aims to support participation of parents along with technical and financial support of Government or/and international organizations. which is changing slowly. non-governmental organizations. number of young age children in need of medical. ADB consultant’s report 2008 The section leader or mobilizer is a volunteer. however they do play certain roles by assisting families in need who have young age children. the district and khoroo social workers coordinate the implementation of social services available from the Government and support humanitarian assistance from international and national organizations to vulnerable population. Therefore. and mobilizes people for government policy implementation purpose. Moreover. The issues of promoting ECE. and the Technological Cooperative Organization of Germany (GIZ). Most support is concentrated in the areas of providing ger kindergartens and improving preschool education quality. including the World Bank. another issue identified was the attitude of parents towards early childhood development. at khoroo level there are other administrative workers such as section leader/mobilizers6. international organizations. The main task is to deliver news. Currently there are 922 social workers working in 476 soums. are actively discussed topics among government agencies. However. ADB. during cultural events. and improving parents and caregivers’ involvement in ECE. a variety of organizations contribute to ECE in Mongolia.
regardless of the ownership type. Monitoring and Evaluation Department in MECS The Information. The data set includes indicators such as enrollment information. types of ECE service offered. management and curriculum. to develop skills and capacities. Implementation of preschool education objectives reflected in Government-led programmes is underway. Summary In the past half decade. establish a proper accreditation and monitoring system 1 Education Sector Statistical Digest . teaching. The Mongolian Education Master Plan and UB city education programme both highlight an establishment of the EMIS however. nomadic. Most of data are based on administrative records and as usually the data are recorded and reported initially by each kindergarten and then aggregated by aimag/soum/city/district levels until they comprise national figures. central and specialized body responsible for inspection. Monitoring and Evaluation There are two main bodies that have the authority to monitor and examine aspects of the preschool education sector: • • Health. and family information. Piloting of mobile phone applications in dissemination of information from the ECE database may work well both for urban and rural settings. particularly those in rural. Monitoring and evaluation data on ECE within MECS is included in the annualEducation Sector Statistical Digest7. and evaluation standards for all preschools.• Support be provided in training of teachers. EMIS would be useful for preschool sector professionals and parents and well as for local and national Government authorities. Monitoring. Monitoring and inspection usually covers all types of preschool education institutions and includes some monitoring visits as well as close scrutiny of a sample of ‘records of evidence' or 'teachers’ documents'. and migrant target groups. standards and quality requirements. To further facilitate the improvement of early childhood education services to young children. as well as parents and caretakers of young children. it has not been started yet. it is essential to: • 7 Develop and enforce learning environment. professional development and progress made by kindergarten staff to ensure conformity of use with regulations. The General Agency for Specialized Inspection is an independent. Education and Science Inspection Office in the General Agency for Specialized Inspection and its Departments Information. teacher: child ratios. the Government of Mongolia has made considerable achievements to improve ECE access and quality. MECS also conducts other activities for monitoring and/or evaluating the status of preschool education. monitoring and supervising a wide range of aspects such as health and sanitation. and Evaluation Department in MECS maintains an information and management system which provides statistical information through its databases.
organizational. evaluation.• • • • • • • Improve the funding. and quality aspects of alternative ECE aimed at children from poor. vulnerable and nomadic families Provide support in for improving the skills and behavior of parents in ECE Improve the coordination and legal environment aimed at increasing efforts by the community and private sector Support key social groups and stakeholders in the ECE To supply information on how to support children’s development by using mass media Establish a sustainable partnership mechanism that ensures the social demands Engage in effective forms of public-private partnerships 3 .
The two targeted districts are Songinohairkhan and Bayanzurkh.To assist in the attainment of the outcomes. and services. observations. The six targeted khoroos within the districts have been identified as khoroos 7. the focus will be on promoting establishment of community-based and/or home-based care in six periurban khoroosin two districts around Ulaanbaatar.22. and 23 in Bayanzurkh. This term is used interchangeably with “preschool” in practice and in early childhood education documents in Mongolia. Given the different circumstances and needs of the target groups. and Migrant Children project. This report presents the results of the analysis. For migrant children. the focus will be on developing financially sustainable alternative ECE programmes in Bayan-Ulgii. Specific soums and baghs in each aimag will be identified after the determination of specific pilot alternative programmes. part of its outcomes to be attained by 2015. and recommends strategies to improve access. particularly among rural. Kindergarten: “Kindergarten” is used consistently throughout the report to refer to the place where early childhood education occurs. Bulgan. and khoroos 17. some terms need to be clarified: Early childhood education: This term refers to the service provided for 2-6 year old children. Nursery for under two-year-olds. and interviews. 1 . delivery. For the purposes of this situation analysis report.INTRODUCTION The Mongolia Education Sector Master Plan (2006–2015) identifies early childhood education (ECE) as a priority issue and makes improving access to ECE. and day care or play centers that cater for casual drop-in clientele). and encompasses the ideals and spirit of the UNICEF term Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Preschool education: This term refers to the sector and programmes. including document review. Likewise. the term “preschool-aged” child is used to refer to those children 2-6 years old who are included in the sector.21.Khentii. and Omnogovi aimags (provinces). nomadic. and is consistent with the primary and secondary sectors and programmes of the education system in Mongolia. the Asian Development Bank (ADB) developed the JFPR 9138MON: Early Childhood Education for Rural. discusses issues that impact ECE. Nomadic. and 23 in Songinohairkhan. a comprehensive situation analysis was conducted on ECE in Mongolia between September and December 2010. These types will be referred to specifically in the document (eg. and migrant children. As part of this project. There are additional types of early childhood education not provided for kindergartens. the JFPR project follows a dual strategy: For rural and nomadic children.
566.6 years. is located in Central Asia. the main geopolitical division. Roughly 20% of the population leads a nomadic lifestyle. Figures reported by the National Statistical Office reported that as of 2010 the country’s population is 2. harsh climate. The territories of Mongolia are geopolitically divided by the capital city and aimags. every season. During the summer nomads store enough food.500 square kilometers. goats. cattle. Khangai.BACKGROUND TO MONGOLIA Map 1: Mongolia Mongolia. A soum. Roughly 33% and 75% of its people are under 14 and 35 respectively. is distanced within the range of 20-300 km from the centers of its respective aimag. looking for a better pasture for their livestock (typically sheep. Mongolia has a predominantly young population with the median age of 21. with an area of 1.773. The country has a dry. dairy products. 1 . and camels). Nomadic families move four times a year. It includes the Altai. and Khentii mountains and other regions occupied by Gobi Desert. The capital city is divided by 9 districts which consist of 117 khoroos.321. It is bordered by Russia and China. and meat for the harsh winter. The 21 aimags are divided into 330 soums which have 1550 baghs. yaks.
200 (roughly USD1. and 38% live in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. the progress has been slow and uneven.7000).6% to 2.22 billion). as of 2010. the GDP of Mongolia is MNT1. The HDI for urban areas (0. The unemployment rate has been decreasing steadily since 2004 from 3.305. As of the first half of 2010 (compared to 2005). However. 2 . Mongolia’s Human Development Index (HDI) stands at 0. is at MNT2.0% higher than the HDI in rural areas in 2002.650.Poverty remains stagnant around 35% despite high economic growth in last few years.720. HDI disparities persist across regions. and the GDP per capita.723) was 14. However. Over the past decade. Mongolia has recorded gains in many areas of human development.8% in 2007. moving up from 117th in previous years. ranking 112th out of 179 countries.41% of the population lives in rural areas.70 billion (roughly USD1.
EDUCATION IN MONGOLIA Significant progress has been achieved in the education sector including improvements in school infrastructure and provision of training equipment.1 in 2005-06 to 31.4% in 2007-08 against a projected target of 87. The shift to the new 12-year education structure. Graph 1: Structure of Mongolian formal education system 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 A M A B 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 g o D U L C V P G e n p n o r e s g p w l i c e n o t v m a e l o e a t p r i g i r a a s e y o i l t i e s n m t c e a S y o w d l r e n i u y c D d t c s o h a c e n g r t h d r y 4 i o u a e o c r e n l a y d e s t P u a i E c r o d o a s n u g t c r i d a a o e t m n g i m r o w e n i s e t h : p r v o o B g c a r c a t h m i e m o l e n o s a r l ' s t / r M a c s k t e r ' s D e g r e e (According to the ISCED 2007) In the 2008-09 academic year. The basic education indicators including net and gross primary enrollment have increased compared to the 2005-06 school year and school dropout rates have been falling steadily. brings Mongolia into line with the widely recognized education model. 3 . as a result of increased access to in-service training. The primary school completion rate is estimated to have reached 98. These play an important role in achieving the education Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Mongolia. and textbooks. learning materials. The student teacher ratio has decreased from 33. The level of professional skills of primary-school teachers has increased notably.6% of the primary-school-age children were enrolled in primary school.The enrollment rate has been rising in all education sectors. introduced into schools in September 2008.1 in 2007-08.0%. 90.
increase in supply of school seats and dormitory beds. and as a smaller minority in other soums. New competence-based education standards were adopted in 2005. In preschool and pre-tertiary education. In addition to the poor teacher quality. Kazakhs are the largest ethnic group in Mongolia and make up 4. Khentii. and Durvud ethnicities. in Hovd soum where they are a dominant majority. ensuring primary education teacher qualifications. In many important ways Kazakh children are not being afforded the same opportunities to learn as other children in Mongolia. increasing textbook provision. One of the obstacles for the achievement of this goal is the higher population sparseness in rural areas. and their monthly education cost is 4000 tugrug (or USD3. and enhancing the learning environment. and textbooks. Ulaanbaatar 3 . in-service training of teachers. The remaining population is spread out in Khovd aimag and Nalaikh district of Ulaanbaatar city. Challenges to Education There are other challenges: Enrolling children in kindergartens in rural and remote areas. girls are accountable for 50.2). The Millennium Development Goals The MDGs include a goal to promote achieving universal primary education.5% in 2009.365. as there are fewer males at every level of the school system including preschool education sector. Buriad. specifically in Bulgan.269.4% of the population as a whole. 44.02 percent. and quality and outputs of education. The net enrollment ratio in primary education has remained relatively stable in recent years and reached 91. improving rural school dormitory conditions and services. insufficient supply 8 National statistical office of Mongolia. provision of necessary training equipment and facilities. and proper planning to ensure smooth shift to the new structure. Tuvan. and the remaining 10% of the population is comprised of Kazakhs. In the medium term.983 Kazakhs living in Mongolia out of a total population of 2. in Buyant soum where they comprise about one-third of the population. living primarily in the aimag center. programmes. Dornod aimags. Most of the Kazakh population resides in Bayan-Ulgii aimag. According to the 2000 Population and Housing Census 8. Population and Housing Census report. Ethnic Minorities Almost 90% of the Mongolian citizens are of Khalkh ethnicity. Kazakhs also comprise over 10% of the population in neighboring Hovd aimag. 2000. and ensuring that all preschool-aged (2-5) children attend kindergartens to improve school readiness. Outside of the majority Khalkh. Buriads mainly populate the Northern regions of the country. updating the education curricula. there were 102. the Government needs to focus on eliminating disparity of education services in urban and rural areas. In the short term. and most of the population there is Kazakh. the Government is planning to improve primary education content and curricula. enrolling 6 year-old children in primary school (particularly focusing on enrollment of children from vulnerable groups).Gender disparity in Mongolia slightly favors girls. Tuvan and Durvud ethnic groups mainly live in Uvs aimag.2% of all primary students are from poor families. The recent shift to a 12-year education structure entails further tasks such as additional investments.
nearly 20%. For example the majority. There are also serious weaknesses in current Kazakh schools which are significant barriers to quality learning and to progressing successfully through the education system.93 390. and Khoton 9. 2007-2010 2010 437. Huang 1 . Sandra S. 393.4%.762. In 2008.738.20% 9 Save the Children.56 as a % of GDP 5. school quality. over 10.00% 28. Kazakh has 50% illiteracy rate. 41. These indicators point to the importance of increasing preschool participation.90% 30. Education Funding In recent years.59 30₮ $ 33. 45.01 50₮ $346. free textbooks. with the most students. $ 391.10% $ 312.393.50% as a % of Governme nt expenditur e 14.20% Source: Ministry of Education. $ e 00₮ $ 173. and learning materials for children from vulnerable families. it was noted that illiteracy rate in remote areas are high.806. and school retention.38 Current expenditur 216. social welfare intervention programmes have been actively undertaken to support schoolchildren with basic provisions including school meal programmes. a critical instructional issue that is a compounding disadvantage for Kazakh children is the language of teaching and learning.980. dropping out in the first grade and nearly three quarters of all dropouts leaving the primary grades.023.11 40₮ 278. 50₮ 46. (2005).417.20% 7. Education of Kazakh children: A Situation Analysis. e 10₮ $ 21. Kazakhs are not only disadvantaged in a Mongolian learning environment. In the minority groups. Table 1: Public expenditure on education sector (MNT/USD Million) 2007 2008 2009 Educatio 243.40% 7.49 $ 37. illiterate women outnumber illiterate men.712. Darkhad 8.000 students dropped out of school in the 2009-10 year. 348.8%. 432. $ 70₮ 349.948. or geographic and social relevance of curriculum content. n budget 20₮ $ 194.611. the Government of Mongolia has been investing over 20% of the Government expenditure for education sector.97 00₮ $315. By the most conservative definitions. the Khalkha had 4.83 Capital expenditur 27.42 20₮ 312.44 30. 20₮ 6.86 60₮ $ 36. these interventions accounted for 5% of the budget expenditure on education.032. Culture and Science of Mongolia.319.6% illiteracy rate. As the poverty level in Mongolia reached 35%. and the availability of educational services for the minority groups are lacking. In a report developed by Save the Children UK9.of school facilities or learning materials.
thus. of the 43% of children not enrolled in ECE. prompting the Government to finance and support the construction and operation of nurseries and kindergartens in rural areas. According to MECS. 1 . public factories and corporations. Currently.HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION In 1930 Parliament endorsed a decision to develop the early childhood-care system. population urbanization and density increased. public organizations. and Government agencies have invested in the construction of 170 new kindergartens. and women had played a greater role in socio-economic productivity. children up to 8 years old were officially determined as preschool-aged children. following the transition from centralized to free market economy. 57% of Mongolia’s children have access to ECE. the Government took steps to further develop the education sector by including preschool education in the national policy. following the initiation of public primary and secondary education for all. Since the 1970s. Enrollment of these children to kindergartens was addressed at the national level. the demand to enroll preschool-aged children to nurseries and kindergartens was raised. As industrialization accelerated and cooperatives multiplied. multiple nurseries and kindergartens have been established in rural and urban areas. about 30% are children of migrant families and 13% are nomadic and rural children. Government expenditure on education in 1985 was equivalent to 6. Consequently. the number of educational institutions and the enrollment rate in the education – as well as the preschool – sector has fallen. mainly owing to insufficient funding. Since the1990s. and an increase in the poverty level. there were five kindergartens operating in the city. and. Consequently. by 1940. the Government as engaged in a policy of providing public education for all children. in 1930. Since the 1980s. In 1960. the first kindergarten was established in Ulaanbaatar city. and started allocating budget for the preschool sector in 1948. of which 12% are enrolled in alternative ECE programmes. and as the literacy rate increased.2% of GNP. which indicated the Government’s commitment to education of younger children. increasing the kindergarten enrollment rate. As the population density and concentration of the workforce increased in settled areas. a drop in population income.
Types of Alternative ECE Programmes There are three types of alternative ECE programmes: Shift group kindergartens. However.ALTERNATIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Alternative Early Childhood Education (Alternative ECE) refers to programmes and activities which aim at providing preschool education to children who are not able enroll in regular kindergarten classes for a variety of reasons. Nationally. Typically the teachers of the regular kindergarten year also teach shift group kindergartens at least part of the summer. They also operate mainly during the summer season only. ger kindergartens. however. 9% of kindergartens operate summer shift groups. 1 . including lack of access to a kindergarten. some have attended training through nearby soum kindergartens. many teachers are volunteers. and mobile teachers. After 2 or 3 months teachers monitor the mobile process in the home and children’s skills development. Shift group kindergartens are “summer kindergartens” that provide ECE for those children not able to enroll during the regular September-June school year due to over enrollment.social workers are not usually involved in the education sector. The limit is 15-20 families for each mobile teacher. there were 113 mobile teachers throughout the country. In this alternative ECE programme. Teachers develop their schedule of household visiting and teaching. As of 2009. following nomadic families. lack of kindergarten capacity (over enrollment). Mobile teachers circulate throughout a determined area to visit nomadic families every week or two weeks. and are not usually professional ECE teachers. and the nomadic lifestyle of herder families. Mongolian Preschool Education Law stipulates that kindergartens shall organize alternative preschool education instruction and employ professional teachers. Teachers give children and parents assignments to complete by the time they return. Ger kindergartens are housed in traditional ger shelters. poverty. mostly located in rural areas. remoteness. although a few may stretch through into the other seasons. there lacks a social development component in mobile teaching. In most areas mobile teachers are organized only for the summer season.
monitoring budget expenditure Endorsing policies. national programmes and projects. As stipulated in the Education Law and Preschool Education Law. The table below illustrates the overall education policy planning and implementation process. PLANNING. the Cabinet member (portfolio manager) in charge of Education. with the responsible mayors of aimags and the capital city for the provision of public education service. and programmes pertaining to education • Education. strategies. Culture and Science matters is responsible for preschool education functions. Soum and district mayors build performance contracts. funding. standards. Culture and Science Division of the National Professional Inspection Agency MECS • • • • • • Identify development policies and strategies Decision-making on education development policy. providing schools and kindergartens with professional and methodological guidance. as stipulated under the Education Law by establishing a performance contract with the respective Cabinet member. Subsequently. District mayors assume the responsibility to provide – via their respective Education Divisions – state-owned and private schools and kindergartens with daily operations management. each bagh and khoroo mayor is obligated to ensure access to preschool and basic education for the children under his/her jurisdiction. including the reports Drafting education bills and regulations. and efficiency Monitor and enforce the implementation of all laws. Regulating matters of preschool education is the responsibility of the Standing Committee on Social Welfare. determining work description) 1 . Culture and Science. decrees. other relevant laws. regulations under MECS authority. Table 2: Education Policy Planning and Implementation Process National level Organization Parliament Cabinet • Roles Law on Education. At the Cabinet level. quality. At the local level. training curricula. as well as. and relevant regulations (granting teacher’s license. syllabuses. national programmes and plans. respectively. the schools and kindergartens provide public education services by establishing performance contracts with the respective soum and district governors.PRESCHOOL EDUCATION POLICY. draft bill. provision of bonuses and benefits) needed for ensuring education access. preparing and implementing national education programmes and projects Develop and implement education standards. The Education and Culture Departments – under the Mayor’s Office of aimags and the capital city – are responsible for carrying out the Government policy and legal acts on preschool education. AND IMPLEMENTATION State Great Khural of Mongolia is the highest authority to pass a law. endorsing proposed budget for education. as well as evaluate them General and comprehensive regulations on local and school management (granting teacher’s license. national programme. Education. setting teacher’s professional rank. mayors of aimags and the capital city are tasked to provide ECE services.
and Science 1 . parents and public Provide in-service training for teachers Establish and execute education performance contract with the respective soum or district mayor Prepare school or kindergarten development plan Implement plans. programmes. and plans on education development Build schools and kindergartens. and monitor local funding resources Monitor the implementation of laws and legal acts • • • • • Identify local policies and strategies on education development. projects. Culture. and assessment Collaborate with international partners Provide pre. processing. plans. execution. and dissemination Budget planning.• • • Colleges and universities • • • Citizen’s Representative Board and Mayor’s Office of aimag Professional Inspection Unit of aimags and Ulaanbaatar city Education and Culture Department Local level Schools and kindergartens • • Data collection. allocate.and in-service training for teachers and manager. strategies. strategies. pilot test programmes and projects Endorse local policies. and nominate the staff for awards and rewards Monitor school/kindergarten activities. and regulations aimed at implementing national policies. allocation. and draft education programmes and plans Enforce rules and regulations at local level Ensure education performance contracts are executed Advocate education activities to students. conduct necessary studies and assessments. endorse the bonus and benefit amount for staff. conduct self-assessment. and provide assistance and advice for staff Plan and organize continuous in-service teacher training • • • • • • Figure 1: Structure of the Ministry of Education. provide staff salaries. programmes. hire and dismiss staff. reporting. and determine their structure and locations Mobilize. rules and regulations pertaining to development of schools or kindergartens Determine the school/kindergarten structure.
In the medium term. Ulaanbaatar. The analysis was based on interviews and meetings with officials and staff at all levels of preschool education sectors as well as legal documentation. A more detailed analysis is provided in Appendix 1. National Development Policies Currently the Government of Mongolia is implementing the National Development Strategies of Mongolia10 and the Millennium Development Goals of Mongolia11. enforced by MECS. Mongolia. of the National Development Strategies. and that teachers lack information and guidelines to implement regulations. 11 State Great Khural (Parliament) of Mongolia. Mongolia.Early Childhood Education Legal Environment An analysis on the implementation of rules. (2010) Endorsement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)-based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia. or learning environment standards. 1 . Some of the stipulations in the Preschool Education Law have not been implemented yet such as regulation on school readiness assessment. or during 2007-2015. (2005) Endorsement of the Millennium Development Goals of Mongolia. to implement the Policy on Preschool Education Delivery teachers do not have sufficient guidelines to develop schedules and contents. the following objectives were set with regards to preschool education: • Ensure conditions for preschool-aged children to obtain full access to preschool education 10 State Great Khural (Parliament) of Mongolia. The analysis indicates that the legal coordination of alternative ECE learning environment is weak. Ulaanbaatar. For example. was conducted. regulations and legal acts on the preschool sector. There are duplicate legal acts on kindergarten hygiene and safety.
and the shift to a 12-year education system. reducing rural-urban disparity. corresponding to the needs of migrant families Enroll all children of age 6 to primary school However. particularly those with limited access to education. Mongolia. Since the adoption of the law. (2009) Third National Report. health of children. According to evaluation report on the implementation of MDGs prepared in 200913.the implementation rate of these objectives is at 91. within the scope of the national development policy. In addition. the Government has set a target. One of the notable achievements of preschool education policy. learning. (2005) Endorsement of the Millennium Development Goals of Mongolia. increasing the employment rate. to reduce the mortality rate of children aged up to 5 to reach 21% by 2015. 12 1 . Ulaanbaatar. and national education objectives. 14 National Development and Innovation Committee. and quality of. In addition. the preschool enrollment rate and the preschool sector budget have. State Great Khural (Parliament) of Mongolia. Mongolia. and ensuring school preparedness children by admitting all children ages 2-5 to preschool education14. Ulaanbaatar. socio-economic. the performance of these objectives was set to be evaluated in 2009based on primary education indicators (primary education enrollment and quality). The policy and legal documents make an effort to link the challenges of preschool-aged children with the human development. The MDGs of Mongolia stipulates that universal primary education is to be provided by 201512. directly affects the access to and quality of preschool education. The policy and legal documents specify increasing efforts for preschool-aged children. has a substantial impact on their physical. one intervention focuses on enrolling children in school at the appropriate age. and developmental progress. increased by 8% and 1%. 2015. One of the objectives of the national development policies is to improve access to. Page 60. Because the objective to provide universal primary education within the aimed period is at risk. The Millennium Development Goals Implementation. in order to achieve the MDGs. developing of suitable methods of education delivery for these children. Goal 2. Page 2. enrolling all children from vulnerable groups and children with disabilities to school and kindergarten. (2009) Third National Report.5%. 13 National Development and Innovation Committee. aged up to 5. preschool education. is the adoption of the Preschool Education Law. The achievement of this target is strongly correlated to enrollment in preschool education and. The Millennium Development Goals Implementation.• • Provide preschool education for nomadic children ages 0-6. The performance evaluation of the programme’s initial stage has not been completed. improving the quality of social services. These objectives are consistent with the activities and objectives implemented at the national and ministry levels. Ulaanbaatar. increasing the supply of learning materials. and building the capacity of human resources. The documents emphasize the improvement of the development indicators of younger children in consistency with (as the basis for) reducing the poverty level. respectively. thus. indicating the positive intervention of the law. Mongolia.
Mongolia. and access to information.000 In the past ten years the number of physicians has decreased children) by 3. healthy and safe living environment. Minister of Social Welfare and Labor of Mongolia. Culture and Science. calling for greater joint efforts and support of social sectors in the implementation of the policy. to 35 As of 2008 mortality rate of children. is at 23. the preschool enrollment children to 72% rate has reached 76%. 2005) Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy. including the National programme on child development and protection (2002-2010)15. Performance indicators. Resolution No. (April 13. 58. to Percentage of infants. Culture and Science. Page 46. 15 Ulaanbaatar. and produced the following conclusions and recommendations: “Although the objectives with respect to education. 17 Joint Order by the Minister of Education. due to lack of Government of Mongolia. aged up to 5 children is at 19. and the Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy (2005)16. 18 Review report on implementation of Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy.2% (per 1. UNICEF (2007). aged up to 5.and family-based child protection. quality education. up to 6 months. maturity.6% and 17. Ulaanbaatar.0 (per 10.4%. Minister of Health. There is a need for: greater participation from and improved coordination among the Government and relevant local agencies. Mongolia. to evaluate the implementation of the programme are as follows: Table 3: Performance Indicators for Programme Implementation Child development and protection (up to 2010) Increase the number of physicians up to 5.Social Sector Development Policy Policy documents. UNICEF conducted a review on the implementation of this policy. and education services for every child. merely 25% of all aimags having sanitary physicians of younger and teenage children Reducing the mortality of children. Ulaanbaatar. (April 13. social participation of children and teenagers. they are still being implemented via dis unified efforts.”18 The policies at the social sector development level are aimed at supporting the development of preschool-aged children. Minister of Social Welfare and Labor of Mongolia. At the local level. In 2007. social. aged up to 5. nourished solely 90% on breastfeeding is at 37% Increase the preschool enrollment rate of preschool-aged Based on education statistical data. However. 1 .2% Increase the breastfeeding of infants. percentage of undernourished children. respectively The Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy17 (2005) addresses challenges in early childhood development. The policy aims at enhancing the socio-economic impact on younger children by providing comprehensive medical. improved management. Mongolia. 245 (December 04. served as the basis for analysis on social sector development policy.000 successful births) Reduce the malnutrition/underdevelopment ratio of Malnutrition rate is 6. commitment/allocation of adequate financial resources for the set objectives. 16 Joint Order by the Minister of Education.6% of which account for regular kindergarten and alternative preschool services. the outputs of the policy implementation are not stable (throughout the regions or the sector).5 times. similarly. associated with the preschool-aged children. 2002) National program on child development and protection (2002-2010) of the Government of Mongolia. The National programme on child development and protection (2002-2010) sets specific objectives comprised of several components: child-friendly legal reform. health. Minister of Health. and social welfare of early children are progressing. aged up to 6 months. 2005) Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy. and additional Government policies on the social sector. coordination structure and mechanism among the implementing sectors.
intensify the construction and expansion of kindergarten buildings. as well as the 400 kindergartens to be supplied in 2011 by the ADB JFPR 9138MON:Early Childhood Education for Rural. has updated the Education Sector Master Plan for 2006-2015 (ESMP)n response to socio-economic changes. 192 (2006) Ratification of Master Plan to Develop Education of Mongolia in 2006-2015. Mongolia. In addition.23There are few data on the programme that could allow any analysis or conclusions as the endorsement of the programme is only a year old. Ulaanbaatar. children are not receiving sufficient early childhood and development services. Such deficiencies are mainly attributed to poor collaboration among social sector agencies (Ministries) in the policy planning and implementation process. To address these issues the National Development and Innovation Committee was created in 2009. This task entailed updating the previous targets and formulating new ones based on thorough qualitative and quantitative review of the implementation of sub-sectoral (including preschool sector) objectives and targets. Resolution No.2. of the Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia. Resolution No. 60% of all baghs will have a ger kindergarten augmenting alternative ECE services as planned by the Government. MECS and the World Bank. 23 Strategic objective 1. Mongolia. The Education Programme22stipulates. 20 Government of Mongolia.500 baghs in Mongolia. along with learning materials and kitchen facilities in the past three years. the Education Sector Master Plan of Mongolia for 2006-201520.2. 31 (2010) Endorsement of a National Program. 22 Government of Mongolia. through the Fast Track Initiative. monitoring and evaluation mechanism to ensure effective implementation is weak. The analysis on the status of implementation of objectives and targets is included as Appendix 2.1. 35 (2008) Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia. Nomadic. 2 . Ulaanbaatar. There are over 1. One of the stipulations of the Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia for 2008-2012 is to “Increase preschool education enrollment to 70% by building a ger kindergarten in every bagh and diversifying alternative preschool services (p. 19 State Great Khural (Parliament) of Mongolia. In addition. Taking into account the investments made in the past three years by international organizations and the Government for provision of kindergartens. and augment the supply of ger kindergartens for baghs”. Ulaanbaatar. 21 Goal 1. Education Sector Development Policy The Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia for 2008-201219. and as a have supplied 229 gers. “Provide preschool education that suits the nomadic lifestyle of rural herders’ children of ages 0-5. Mongolia.”21Within the scope of this provision. expand the accessibility to and forms of preschool education for early children. and Migrant Children project. MECS with the support of ADB. Ulaanbaatar. 160). formulate objectives to ensure universal coverage of preschool education for early children. and the Endorsement of a National Program (2010) served as the main policy documents for analysis on education sector development policy. National Education Program (2010). Mongolia. Resolution No. UNICEF and other donor agencies have made sizeable contributions to soums in the form of complete set of training gers in support of ger kindergarten training services. In 2009-2010.disintegrated and poorly coordinated efforts.
in response to population growth in settled areas. regardless of the ownership type Establish a proper accreditation system Improve the funding. there are still funding Gaps that need to be solved in order to achieve strategic objectives on improving ECE access and quality(Appendix 4). To implement the set objectives and strategies it is essential to: • • • • • Develop and enforce learning environment. budget planning and monitoring methods should be refined and implemented in order to assess the funding efficiency. teaching. A complete discussion of this issues follows in the next section. and quality aspects of alternative ECE aimed at children from poor. organizational. In addition. within the scope of the abovementioned policy documents. evaluation. ECE Budgeting and Funding. there is a need to: • • • • Improve the coordination and legal environment aimed at increasing efforts by the community and private sector Support key social groups and stakeholders in the ECE Establish sustainable partnership mechanisms that ensure social demands Develop policies on effective forms of public-private partnerships (PPP) Despite the steady state budget growth in the preschool sector.Issues and Recommendations There are many recommendations included in the ESMP to achieve a 93% gross enrollment rate. and evaluation standards for all preschools. analysis on the education sector development policy documents shows that in the past 4-5 years. and the improvement of policies and the legislative and regulatory environment (Please see Appendix 3). In addition. Furthermore. Implementation of preschool education objectives reflected in Government-led programmes is underway. vulnerable and nomadic families Provide support in rural areas for improving the skills and behavior of parents in ECE Improve the planning and monitoring skills of national and local ECE officers. the Government of Mongolia has made considerable achievements to improve ECE access and quality. For example. services that meet the needs of child development. investments are needed in the coming years to renovate and construct kindergarten buildings. including international and best practice planning 1 .
particularly in the medium term. Once approved. the Law on Management and Funding of Public Organizations took effect in 2003.g. a large majority of the contributions were invested in the preschool and primary sectors. One of the significant achievements of the ESMP is that it allowed the Government to seek contributions from the donor community to cover the funding gaps in the education sector. the Law reduced the school and kindergarten revenues derived from non-core activities (e. To forecast the future funding trends for budgeting and planning purposes. The physical budget distributions to kindergartens are done by the Treasury. The budget plans are then consolidated and monitored by aimag Education and Culture Departments (in Ulaanbaatar city. budget plans are initially developed by individual kindergartens. MECS allocates the budget by aimags and Ulaanbaatar city. City Education and Culture Department has to compile the budget plans consolidated by District Education Divisions). which are responsible for allocating the budget for each kindergarten. Donor contributions make up over 15% of the total spending in education. the ESMP used the Education Policy and Strategy Simulation (EPSS) model created by UNESCO in 2001. This allowed for a more Government-driven investment. The budget portfolio of MECS is then submitted to the Ministry of Finance. On the other hand. One of the notable features in the plan is the funding expenditure framework. and schools and kindergartens received monthly transfer of funds in a timelier manner. To improve efficiency and transparency of the state budget execution. Finally the budget plan is discussed and negotiated at the Cabinet session before being reviewed and approved by the Parliament.This Law resulted in a stricter monitoring of funds.Then the aggregate proposed budgets are submitted to the Finance and Investment Department of MECS. Budget Planning and Allocation Process Currently. revenues from rental fees) and hindered schools and kindergartens to these use these revenues flexibly.EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION BUDGETING AND FUNDING The Education Sector Master Plan (2006-2015) (ESMP)is the key policy guide in the education sector. 1 .
has been steadily growing. including the budget for the preschool sector. education has been one of only two sectors (Health is the other) that did not receive budget cuts. which reaffirms the commitment of the Government to reach education goals. Even during the peak of financial crisis in 2009. 1 .Figure 2: Budget Planning and Allocation Process Overall Preschool Sector Budget The total education budget.
52% 17.696.144.405.7 million) was spent to cover electricity and heating.612.382.24 ₮ 1.378. Table 5: Preschool Sector Expenditures Expenditure Variable cost Fixed cost Food supply One-time benefit and bonus Capital expenditure Total Expenditure Variable cost Fixed cost Food supply One-time benefit and bonus 29.628.596.898.7 million) and 1.082.95 $9.023.166.275.034.1 % in 2009.296.82 41.141.10 ₮ 2007 $ 21.735.77 76.836.250. The budget for preschool education increased by 38.6220.127.116.11% in 2008.70 ₮ 7.526.30 ₮ 4.804.28 63.71 $715.42 million tugrug(USD0.194.430.544.824.63% $ 50.19 $4.56% 16.937.349.122.078.10 ₮ USD 2009 $35. out of which MNT 67.30 MNT 2009 44.212.14 million (USD9.10 ₮ 696.30 ₮ 12.Table 4: Preschool budget million MNT/USD 2007 Total preschool education budget (recurrent) as a % of GDP as a % of Government expenditure as a % of the total education budget 2008 2009 2010 40.11 ₮ 1.15 ₮ 0.487.6 million) was spent to cover meal costs of children.172.20 ₮ 8.055. and 894.681 million tugrug(USD6.047.10 ₮ 6.047.06 $6.215.00 ₮ 2008 46. a total of MNT 74.275.69% $ 53.837.89 $557. whilst Gobisumber aimagis has the smallest budget since the population of preschool-aged children there is relatively small.7 million(USD5.624 million (USD3.MNT 12.90 ₮ 2008 $36.83 $7.77 $158.755.378.884.53 16.918.681.51 $5.778.70 ₮ 66.909.637.106. MNT 4.755.05% 15.2% was spent for one-time benefits and bonuses.459.70 ₮ 7.00 ₮ 11.52 2006 17.31% $ 61.30 ₮ 67.58% In 2009.8 million) and MNT 7.16% 4.7 million) was spent for alternative ECE.60 ₮ 894.86 $4.20 $5.81 million tugrug(USD60 million)were spent on preschool education.30 ₮ 6.418. For fixed costs 8. such as mobile teachers.702.33% $ 32.325.33 $403.40 ₮ 198.9 million)was spent for variable costs such as salary and benefits for teachers and employees as well as for other recurrent expenditures.53 1 .07 $9. and decreased by 2. MNT 44.07% 5.11 million (USD53.9 million) were respectively devoted to recurrent and capital expenditure.3 % in 2007 and 64.56 67.659.534.90 ₮ 6.069.89% 2.08 million(USD 35.504.79 ₮ 1.10 ₮ 2007 26.16% 4.80 ₮ 8.2%).732. shift classes and mobileger kindergarten trainings.70 ₮ 2006 $ 13.30 ₮ 504. Selenge aimag has the highest budget expenditure as its enrollment rate is the highest (96.
Below are the variable cost norms used by kindergartens to develop their annual budget proposals. many schools and kindergartens report that the normbased budget is not accurate and sufficient enough to cover the diverse needs of schools.4 33.46 $5. norms-based budgeting has been used to finance kindergartens (as well as educational institutions of other sub-sectors).08 For the last few years. Table 6: Preschool Sector Enrollment Rate 2009 Number of children in prescho ol educatio n 102522 28182 Number of classes Child number of per class Number of children per teacher Variable cost per child (thousand MNT/USD) Avarage training hour per child Avarage meal cost per child (thousand MNT/USD) Kinder garten Altern ative ECE 3601 835 28.844. The norms have been refined numerous times to meet the needs of kindergartens as well as to encourage funding efficiency.740 employees in preschool education. According to Governmental resolutionof 2009. Data for the past three years show an increase in the overall enrollment rate of preschool education.7 24. Since 2004.727.003.866.6 $228.5) which required roughly MNT 20 billion (USD16 million).56 $3.96 720 320 117000₮ 70200₮ $93.1 477000₮ 286200₮ $381. children’s daily food cost was increased to1. Currently. This has proved to be successful in increasing kindergarten attendance. salaries of teachers and staffhave been accountable for the majority of the budget increase. 53% is staff who provide direct service for children such as teachers.2 102. meal costs for preschool children were changed to be covered entirely by the state budget. Until 2000 and 2001. as a result of Government resolutions to increase state employees salary in 2007 and in 2008.82 $52. It should be pointed out that according to the Preschool Education Law both 1 . there are 14. The remaining staff (47%) provide in-direct services for children. norms varied on regional locations. Currently. Class size and student-teacher ratio decreasedby 0.9) per child.100 tugrug (USD 0. whereas previous daily food cost per child was 658 tugrug (USD 0. Funding Formula Evolution Since 1998. assistant teachers and alternative training teachers.6 $56. aimag.5%. A more comprehensive analysis will be needed to determine if the kindergartens are efficiently utilizing the norm-based budget or whether the current funding formula needs to be revised.16 Currently. According to Preschool Education Law.64 $32.Capital expenditure Total $23. the three norms are used to depending on where the kindergarten is located (soum. seven different norms were used depending on the distance from a settled and urban area. and city). many schools and kindergartens submit their budget proposals neglecting the officially endorsed norms. However.37 $54.
Umnugobi Selenge. Uvs.700 158. Table 7: Budget Norm Evolution 2005-2007 Regions and aimags 2007 resolution #167 (July 07. Dornogobi. Zavkhan.100 124.600 157. Khentii 167.300 99 98 99 118.300 USD 104 99 2005 resolution #187 (August 23.600 158.200 USD 101 95 Regions Aimags Variable cost per child MNT USD 134 127 West Khangai Central region Gobi aimags Central East Bayan-Ulgii. Dundgobi.900 119. 2006) 2006 resolution #177 (August 24.700 159. Orkhon Gobisumber.600 124.900 127 126 128 123. Uvurkhangai. Gobi-Altai. Ulaanbaatar Dornod.300 123. DarkhanUul.private and public kindergartens are eligible for variable cost norms per child for regular and alternative ECE services.300 95 96 99 1 . 2005) Variable cost per child MNT 130. Khuvsgul. BayanKhongor. Bulgan. Tuv.500 120. Khovd Arkhangai. Sukhbaatar. 2004) Variable cost per child MNT 125.300 122.
4 00 367 296 295 45.30 0 330.50 0 33 0 26 6 26 4 45.70 0 26.70 0 217.4 00 15.90 0 37.80 0 37.50 0 3 0 2 4 2 1 2 .50 0 34.30 0 36.30 0 3 6 2 9 2 9 19.00 0 332.5 00 368.10 0 20 8 17 4 16 8 37.10 0 29.4 00 17.50 0 36.80 0 3 7 3 0 2 9 41.Table 8: Budget Norm Evolution 2008-2010 2010 resolution #190 (July 2009) of which Social insurance payment MNT USD Other variable cost MNT USD 2009 resolution #294 (22 July 2008) of which Social insurance payment MNT USD Other variable cost MNT USD 2008 resolution #184 (25 July 2007) of which Social insurance payment MNT USD Teacher salary Location Soum (excluding aimag center) Aimag center City MNT USD Teacher salary MNT USD Teacher salary MNT USD 412.00 0 36.20 0 3 3 3 0 2 7 259.8 00 1 6 1 4 1 3 459.3 00 370.30 0 210.
funds should be attributed to teaching staff who directly work with children instead of non-teaching staff. The introduction of an output-based funding system to improve the efficiency of funding.Issues and Recommendations Based on the above analyses. if needed. A comprehensive analysis to determine the effectiveness of the funding formula be conducted in order to. revise the budget 3 . the following are recommended: • • • • • • The coordination of donor contribution and the reduction or elimination of funds to kindergartens. There is a need for a unified database of all donor contributions. More involvement in the budgeting process by kindergarten directors. To improve the quality of ECE services. Funds allocated for alternative ECE services provided by private kindergartens should be used for public kindergartens.
These figures show a proportionate enrollment by ages. out of all 109. Enrollment rate of alternative ECE is higher in the Western and Khangai regions. 80% of children enrolled in mobile ger kindergartens are mainly from nomadic families who live in soums and baghs. and 2-5) leading to an increase in the enrollment rate. 25% are aged 4.4% are respectively enrolled in kindergartens and alternative ECE services. and 25% are aged 2 and below. 36% are enrolled in shift groups. and the remaining 17% receive ECE via mobile teachers. 47% are enrolled in mobile ger kindergartens. and Khangai regions. 26% are aged 5. due to the shift to the 12-year primary and secondary education system. Enrollment rate in the Eastern region is comparatively lower due to its low population.ACCESS AND EQUITY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Since 2000. As of 2010. and also an increase in enrollment of children aged 2 and below. the preschool enrollment rate for children aged 2-5 is at 76%. In the alternative ECE sector. 2-6. 23% are aged 3. Central. the “preschool age” of children has been changed three times (2-7. of which 58. Ulaanbaatar city is accountable for 40% of all children enrolled in kindergartens.6% and 17. As of the 2009-2010 academic year. Graph 2: Enrollment by Age 2009-10 4 . The majority of children enrolled in shift groups are from aimag and soum centers and suburban areas of the city. and the remaining percentages are proportionately spread over the Western.479 children enrolled in kindergartens.
2005. There are several factors for this increase. the capacity of kindergartens has been increased by constructing new buildings. 2008 25 Construction unit of MECS.8 million). as the preschool enrollment rate increases. the studies25on utilization of kindergarten buildings show that the 532 school buildings have the capacity to accommodate a total of 42. as a result of the Preschool Education Law. Graph 5: National Average Kindergarten Class Size On the other hand. which diminishes health and hygiene standards and increases the workload of teachers. Third.Graph 3: Alternative Education by Type Since 2005. Kindergarten building condition study. First. and respiratory disease is the second most common disease among children. The increased budget also favors preschools with alternative ECE and private kindergartens. class size in kindergartens has been growing. The national average class size is at 29. kindergarten meals costs of children are born by the state. although the class size is decreasing in rural soums. the size in aimags and city areas is increasing. Second.4%. Due to increased migration into settled areas.4%. particularly in urban areas (ranging 34-45 children per class). the budget for preschool sector has been steadily rising and has reached MNT 76 billion (USD60. other problems arise. the preschool sector – including kindergarten – enrollment rate has been continuously increasing. For instance. 24 5 . 2010 statistical report shows enrollment in alternative ECE has reached 17. class size has reached its maximum capacity. and enrollment in private kindergartens has doubled in within the past 5 years. the results of monitoring and evaluation conducted by the National Inspection and Monitoring Agency24of Ulaanbaatar city show that child sickness cases have increased. which is half as much as the total number of children enrolled. Graph 4: Preschool Education Enrollment by Percent However. which eliminated a cost burden to poor and vulnerable families. MECS reports an establishment of 26 kindergartens in 2010 alone.237 children. It shows clearly that there is an urgent National Inspection and Monitoring Agency’s annual monitoring review on school and kindergarten’s health condition. Consequently.
and hospitals. One out of every 10 migrants has migrated to Ulaanbaatar city and the Central region. 26 27 National statistical office of Mongolia. migrants.462 people will be needed.need for additional kindergarten construction to increase the capacity of kindergartens in settled and urban areas.4%. the number of preschool-aged population is expected to rise in the Southern region. The birthrate in city areas (2. 115. and 10% of the population lives in extreme poverty.9 children). a workforce of 40.577 since 200027. In Ulaanbaatar city one-third of the population is considered poor. 2008 6 . According to official statistical data. Poverty reduction and livelihood has not improved to reach a sustainable level. will require an increase in kindergarten buildings in which to provide ECE services. and Erdenet cities. This indicates that the population of preschool-aged children is likely to grow. Such large migration requires major measures such as the provision of housing. According to estimations. many nomadic families sustained significant losses of livestock and incomes which may lead to an additional surge of migration to urban areas. Population and Housing Census report. Ulaanbaatar City Statistical Office. In addition. but has been increasing by 6% in the past 4 years. 2000. schools.5 children throughout her lifetime. which in turn. meaning a female in Mongolia gives birth to 2. infrastructure.500 people (including the family members of the workforce) are expected to migrate to Umnugobi and Dornogobi aimags in the next five years. the number of households in Ulaanbaatar city has increased by 84. many aimags experienced an unusually harsh winter in 2009-2010. Consequently. Graph 6: Ulaanbaatar City Population Growth In order to implement major projects in mining. Migrants account for majority of the poor compared to native residents. and statistical figures up to 2004 show that whereas the population growth has been on average at 1. The results of studies on reproductive health of the national population conducted in 2003 indicate that the birth rate coefficient in the past 5 years is 2.1 children) is lower compared to rural areas (2. Particularly. In addition. Darkhan. The birthrate varies in different population groups. the cohort of preschool children ages 1-5 decreased up to 2006. and energy sectors planned for 2010-2015.5. households in suburban districts. studies on population migration show that the population density is higher in settled areas such as Ulaanbaatar. annual statistical information bulletin. Population Migration and Poverty The Population and Housing Census conducted in 200026. As a result. and single mothers and their children are more affected by poverty. water supply.
there is still lack of sustainable and quality ECE. particularly in inclement weather. Such distances require higher costs and more flexible forms of education to ensure provision of social services for young children. The kindergarten is too far from home. Children in this aimag drop out at over three times the national rate—the highest dropout rate in the country—and they attend formal preschool programmes at less than two-thirds of the national average—the lowest preschool participation rate in the country. in Baya-Ulgii aimag.7%) rates in the country (65.Poverty remains a significant factor for low preschool enrollment rate. Rural populations make up roughly 43% of the total population. parental contributions to kindergarten hygiene and learning materials. Interviews conducted during field visits confirmed that one of the main reasons children in remote areas do not attend kindergarten is lack of transportation. which is 90% Kazakh and where over 90% of all Kazakhs in Mongolia live. During the winter we cannot reach kindergarten at all as children’s hands and foot suffer from frostbite during the walk to kindergarten. Bayan-Ulgii aimag has one of the lowest kindergarten enrollment (41. Though the Government has helped increase ECE participation dramatically . But the data paint a very clear picture of educational needs. A nomadic family is typically distanced 10-55 km from a soum center. and transportation are financial burdens for poor families. the Kazakh Family Development NGO addressed this issue by providing transportation for 75 children from their homes to the kindergarten28. Both Bayan-Ulgii’s physical remoteness and its cultural and linguistic differences from the rest of Mongolia have contributed to Kazakh conditions being far from central level consideration.4% of preschool education). Roughly 80% of all 341 soums in Mongolia are located over 100km from an aimag center.a clear picture is not available. Recommendations There is a need to address the issues discussed above: 28 Interview with Ms. as there is a lack of preschool enrollment data by ethnicity. The fact that children in alternative ECE receive half of the variable cost per child compared than children in regular kindergarten supports this conclusion.Maira. In the Sogog bagh of Ulaankhus soum. The particularly low preschool participation rates in the Kazakh aimag and the lack of either Kazakh language preschool materials or Mongolian as a second language instructional strategies mean Kazakh children start school lagging behind in language and literacy skills and may not gain a sound footing in either Mongolian or Kazakh languages. In addition. Although the preschool-aged children of this population receive education via mobile kindergartens and visiting mobile teachers. a mother in Ulaanhus soum. -Ms. “Bal-bobek” kindergarten director 7 . 8th bagh Minority Children in ECE Kazakh children account for about 5% of all children aged 0-14. has a poverty rate of 46% compared to 36% nationally. Poor and vulnerable groups have lower access to preschool education budget compared to non-poor population. Bayan-Ulgii aimag.Kulshash.
7 58.6 78.4 5. particularly for Kazakh children in Bayan-Ulgii aimag • • • ALTERNATIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION CLASSROOMS ECE data of the project target areas are shown in the table below.0 68.1 60.1 25.8 23.3 56.1 84.6 22. Table 9: Alternative ECE Enrollment Rate and Number of Teachers in Target Aimags Nu mber of child ren enrol led in ECE Of which: Num Num ber ber of of child child ren ren enrol enrol led led in In alter kind nativ erga e rten ECE 2057 1420 703 1090 3942 9212 3628 2166 1882 3022 4479 4 5549 2 Enrollment rate Aimag/city Over all ECE Alter nativ e Kind erga rten Fulltime teac her Teac her/s tude nt ratio Shift grou p teach er 24 2 13 14 135 188 Mob ile teac her 10 0 4 28 1 43 Bayan-Ulgii Bulgan Umnugobi Khentii Ulaanbaatar Total 5685 3586 2585 4112 4873 6 6470 4 65.7 38.3 25.2 21. such as cities and mining areas.5 23.4 96.3 22.• Increase the number of kindergarten buildings in specific areas with large populations and low access.8 176 97 73 131 1795 2272 20.3 9.4 8 . Provide transportation to kindergartens for children who have no or infrequent access Reduce the teacher: child ratio Develop clear plans and processes for increasing the access to and quality of ECE to vulnerable children.0 24. Public-private partnerships can be key to increasing the number of buildings without straining the education budget.9 62.5 66.8 41.7 58.
bathrooms. and resources. as well as a “mixed” class which consists of children of variety of ages. who assists the classroom teacher. Culture and Science. lower level (ages 2). annual statistic. Training and provision of meals is provided inside the ger(s). learning materials.Regular and Shift Group Kindergarten Classrooms A regular kindergarten consists of nursery (ages 1-2). The national average teacher-student ratio (TSR) is 24. It should be noted that an assistant teacher. Mongolia. MECS. upper (ages 4). Shift groups are intended for out-of-kindergarten children aged 4-5.463 classes. which undermines the safety and hygiene of children and increases the workload of teachers. is located near nomadic family settlements. sleeping area. Kindergartens consist of reception area. etc). is not taken into the TSR equation. animals. which consist of 1-2 gers. preparatory (ages 5) classes. Ulaanbaatar.5. The latest statistics (2009-2010 academic year)29 show there are 712 public kindergartens which operate 3. 2009-2010 academic year Ministry of Education. Ger Kindergarten Classrooms for Nomadic Children A ger kindergarten. Due to migration of rural population to urban areas. A class consists of one teacher and one assistant teacher as stipulated in the Preschool Education Law. (2010) Evaluation Report on the Access and Quality of Alternative Early Childhood Education. a shelf for training supplies and clothes. Although many ger kindergartens are furnished with resources and learning materials. and furniture. and a classroom (which has a training activity space. 29 30 9 . corners plants. Shift group alternative ECE classes operate in the regular kindergarten building classrooms during the summer. class size in urban areas surpasses 35. studies30 show that roughly 20% of ger kindergartens do not have any of these resources. middle (ages 3).
and provide instructions for the parents and work for 1-2 hours with children and give assignments. Weather provides its own challenges: During heavy rain and wind. Music players. Nomadic group daily routine goes as it is in formal groups. however. Clean and fresh water supply is not guaranteed. sunstroke is possible even inside the ger. Recommendations • • Stronger and better furnished gers need to be built to ensure the safety. parents expressed satisfaction with the activities of mobile teachers. Few ger kindergartens operate part time. and provide intensive training same as shift group. Table 10: Daily Routines in Alternative ECE Programmes Class hours per day Characteristics of Alternative ECE Programme Shift group (2-4 hours) Ger kindergarten (4-8 hours) Mobile teacher (1-2 hours) Activities focus on training (Math. Breakfast and snack is provided. There is a lack of food storage systems to keep food fresh. Teachers visit families roughly every 2 weeks. and health and hygiene of children There is a need for more frequent and quality in-service training for mobile teachers. currently this is not feasible in practice due to lack of professional teachers in rural areas. however. including in the areas of parent education and readiness skills for children about to 10 . The kindergarten environment often does not meet standards. ger kindergartens run out of dry firewood during continuous rains. Many ger kindergartens do not have toilet facilities. Although the Preschool Education Law stipulates that professional teachers are needed to run all alternative ECE services.In addition. and laptop computers are not used due to the unavailability of electricity in the rural areas Mobile Teachers The mobile teacher alternative ECE programme is an important and appropriate means to deliver preschool education to young children of nomadic families and those living in remote rural areas. and in the hot summers.most nomadic kindergartens bring their own drinking water from the wells. During interviews. Pre-literacy. Soum mobile teachers visit family homes and teach children according to a preset schedule (usually 2-4 times per month). as can be seen from the table below. no lunch is provided. observations conducted indicate that the teachers focus on basic skills development with few materials. gers cannot ensure the safety of children. and do not work with parents to enhance their skills to facilitate their young children’s growth and development. the wooden lattice framework that supports the gers may not be strong enough to handle frequent travel. Typical Daily Routines The daily routine differs depending on the alternative ECE programmes. dvds and vcds players. Creative skills).
enter primary school • The Preschool Education Law needs to be reviewed taking into consideration the lack of professional teachers in rural areas to work in alternative ECE services
There are 15116 people working in 837 preschool educational organizations nationwide in the year 2009-2010.
Graph 7: Number and Type of Preschool Education Positions
Graph 8: Comparison of Urban and Rural Preschool Teachers
Graph 9: Gender Differences in Preschool Teachers
The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science is responsible for awarding teaching permissions and professional degrees. Recent Government legislation that relates to preschool sector teachers includes: • • • • • 2001: National programme to prepare primary and secondary education teachers and improve professional skills 2008: Procedure to improve professional skills of teachers and senior managers of preschool, primary and secondary education institutes 2008: Procedure to award or remove professional grade to teachers 2008: Procedure to award or remove teaching permissions for preschool or primary education teachers 2009: Regulation on evaluation of teacher’s performance
As of 2010, there are 4,504 kindergarten teachers in Mongolia, including methodologists (279), classroom teachers (3,814), and music teachers (411). In addition there are 3,885 assistant teachers. Salary of teachers follow the standard rate of public servants in Mongolia, which currently at MNT309,000 (USD247). In addition to this base salary rate, teachers receive several types of bonuses for high professional degree, high performance, working in rural area. However, assistant teachers have lower salaries due to the fact they are not public servants. Although teacher salary, like other public servants, has been steadily increasing, it still needs to be increased taking in consistent with the inflation rate. Teachers’ workload is quite high compared to primary and secondary school teachers since they have ensure safety of children at all times and usually work during 8am through 6pm.
the State parliament ratified the Law of preschool education. alternative and regular kindergartens. methodological. they will be awarded with Methodologist. which stated that “Kindergarten teachers must possess a higher education certificate in order to work as a teacher”. and music teachers in Mongolia. all but 7 of them female. Diplomas and Bachelor’s degrees are awarded. To become a kindergarten teacher. Currently. and 500 staff working for 6900 undergraduates and 700 graduate students.Pre service ECE Teacher Training The Mongolian State University of Education (MSUE) of Mongolia’s began when the first teacher training temporary course was established in 1922. after the victory of people’s revolution of 1921. The following graphic illustrates the structure of the preschool education training. In academic year 2009-2010 there were 1287 students enrolled. The following factors are the main reasons for the trend: • • The need and interest to increase human education level In year 2008. It offers over 40 different kinds of professions nationwide. A variety of modes are available for attending courses. Figure 3: Teacher Training Programmes The Preschool Education College has prepared over 7000 kindergarten. The university now boasts 12 faculties. Since 2004 it has been working as one of the faculties of MSUE. (See Appendix 5) According to research. Leading. the only preschool education college is in Ulaanbaatar city. The number of applicants has been growing steadily for the last few years. The Preschool Education College does not provide specific course on alternative ECE services. or 14 . After receiving their certificates and working continuously for 5 years. New career opportunities Privately owned and new kindergarten buildings have been opened in recent years • • Inservice Opportunities Graduates from the teacher training schools receive their diploma and work for one year at a kindergarten as an assistant teacher. this growth is likely to continue for another 5 years. At their second year they receive their certificate giving them their right to teach in the preschool sector. 350 professors. The School of Preschool Education prepares kindergarten teachers and methodologist teachers through day and evening or even distance learning options. everyone has to complete a bachelor’s degree in preschool education according to the existing Preschool Education Law. Hence it is the biggest central institution to prepare professionals for education and science sector as well as future teachers. The School of Preschool Education accepts students as long as they have completed secondary education.
Mongolian Education Alliance (MEA)has the highest number of accredited in-service training programs accredited by MECS. All the course curricula to improve professional status are monitored by MECS. 15 . although trade unions sometimes pay partial fee. According regulation on in-service teacher training. They can be general or specialized. The number of teachers who attended professional training courses between 20082010 and a sample of courses offered can be found in Appendix 6. the City and aimag Education Departments. Government organizations who specialize in teacher training or development. and NGOs are providing accredited in service training for teachers. regional. Courses are offered by individuals.Teachers select courses depending on their individual professional educational needs.Consulting degrees for which are awarded additional bonus equivalent to 5-15% of their main salary. which ratifies and give permission to conduct with the course. These courses can be offered on national. the School of Preschool Education. They pay for the course fee. provincial. educational institutes and organizations interested in providing in-service training for teachers have to have the training programs accredited by the MECS. or even organizational level. The main requirement for improving degree status is to attend relevant courses and collect credits. education authorities in urban and rural capitals. Institute of Education. Currently the Preschool Education College. domestic or foreign NGOs. and educational research and methodological organizations.
Issues and Recommendations Even though a number of steps have been taken in terms of opening education programmes and/or increasing the applicants at public and private higher education institutions in Mongolia. Therefore. One of the main reasons behind the fact that graduates are not employed is the surplus of applicants for such positions at the local level. Such graduates either choose to work in a different field or pursue studying in other fields. there is need to: • • • • • • Develop and implement on-site in-service training programs using ICT tools Have a complete. On the other hand. there is an increasing tendency to apply to teacher training institutes only for the sake of obtaining higher education. reliable database of human resource at local levels through continual updating of the teaching force Organize activities and campaigns in collaboration with local stakeholders to raise teacher profile and image Provide concrete support to those students who have really chosen the profession. Improve supply and quality of books and learning materials for students in the Preschool Education College Insert special short-term training courses for assistant teachers and alternative ECE services in the Preschool Education College 16 . almost all kindergarten directors and teachers are female. there is a need to look into the issue of employment of graduates systematically. Gender balance in kindergartens is disproportionate.
The advantage of the new standard is that is allows teachers to plan the education process. Then. The new standard was implemented in kindergartens during the 2005-06 school year. which means there will be a national child-oriented ECE standard. as well as evaluating associated teaching aides and materials. and the variety of methodologies and tools. The standard has 4 main parts: physical development. rather than kindergarten-oriented. in order to shift early preschool education programmes and approaches to the human development-oriented perspective. The standard is distinctive in terms of providing flexibility and openness to the teaching-learning content. and social development) Cultural appropriateness. Alternative Preschool Education Curriculum Guides This section provides the results of research conducted into four current preschool curriculum guides. to develop curriculum. their content and methods. development and learning needs Implementation Assessment 17 . cognitive.CURRICULUM Preschool Education Sector Content Standard Prior to 1990. Such a standard will expand the roles and involvement of parents. mental development. The most common issue raised by kindergarten teachers is the lack of professional and methodological support and guidebooks pertaining to development of curricula and lesson topic contents. and socialization. and to work with a focus on supporting child development. Furthermore. art and creative development. The MECS order “Policy on Preschool Education Training” (2007) sets the learning and development activity hours for children at 40 and 60%. The order also sets the minimum hours of regular kindergartens and alternative training in a given academic year. kindergartens in Mongolia had developed a training plan that included a set schedule for a kindergarten academic year. to employ flexible teaching and evaluation methods. respectively. caregivers and ECE teachers in childcare and development. a working team under MECS has been drafting the Early Learning & Development Standard (ELDS). a new competency-based standard for preschool education developed and adopted in 2004. The following aspects of the curriculum guides were analyzed: • • • • Curriculum content (Physical. MECS plans to have the draft endorsed by the Mongolian Agency for Standardization and Metrology (MASM). From 2007. In 1998. the training plan included detailed daily routine plan for lessons for children. Mongolia first adopted a content standard for primary and secondary education that included preschool education with child development goals and achievement levels for each age. with the support of UNICEF.
University of the Humanities). Sh. Ulaanbaatar. Z. Ts. Mongolia. Bayantsetseg. M. (2010) Alternative Course Curriculum for Young Children’s Development(for soum and bagh teachers. Ch. B. Pagma. Munkhtuu (Ministry of Education. Densmaa (Ministry of Education.Ulaanbaatar. N. Erdenechimeg. In addition. • • • Curriculum Content The curriculum content of the guides listed above was analyzed by component for consistency with the Preschool Education Standard and suitability for children’s development and characteristics of age. Ya. Mongolia.Narmandakh. Purevdolgor(Ministry of Education. Mongolia. Otgonjargal.• Theoretical or research basis The curriculum guides analyzed were: • Ts. (2007) Teaching Module of Mobile Teachers(for teachers and 4-year-old children). Sh. Ulaanbaatar. Z. Z. Culture and Science. Tserennadmid (Ministry of Education. Mongolia. Czech Caritas NGO). 18 . United Nations Children’s Fund). Culture and Science. University of the Humanities). and 3-4-year-old children). Bolormaa. (2005) Teaching Module of Mobile Teachers. А. Bolormaa. Culture and Science. curriculum content was analyzed for how well it addresses children’s special needs. Ts. Culture and Science.Narangerel. А. Bolormaa. Tuul. Ulaanbaatar. (2009) Alternative Course Curriculum for Young Children’s Development(for teachers and 5-year-old children). Chimedtseyen.
etc. dancing to music contents are spread evenly within the guides. reading aspects of a language. activities relating to telling time are not as numerous as other concepts. or creative arts contents. and their preparation content is evenly spread. and talking about a story or legends. speaking. listening with concentration. Mathematics. Listening to music. speaking ability. Exercise was the only aspect addressed to any extent in any of the curriculum guides. sizes. Cognitive development Listening. volume and space contents are evenly spread within the curricula guides. writing. and introductory writing. the musical scores were not. sculpting. lack health. and Content Scope of standards Physical development Lessons and activities reflected in the curriculum Physical education Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • – – Exercise Health Hygiene Safety Hearing Understanding Speaking Writing Numbering Shapes Measuring Space Time Drawing Sculpting and constructing Sticking Invention Music Songs Dance Environment Relationship Intelligence development Language Mathematics assumptions Art Music Social development Relationship Physical development The Teaching module for mobile teachers (2005 and 2007). shapes.Table 11:Scope of Standards of Preschool Education Contents. The relationship aspects were reflected in the curriculum as playing fun games with others. The content dispersion was appropriate in all of the investigated curricula. 19 . Social development. In the future the musical notes need to be included along with the lyrics. memorization. However. singing. The Alternative course curriculum for young children’s development (2009 and 2010) guides have a relatively higher number of drawing activities compared to appliqué. exercise. understanding. hygiene. it is noted that although song lyrics were provided. and safety contents. The guides contain a variety of activities including poems and stories to develop children’s listening ability. However. Curriculum Lessons and Activities.
Development and Learning Needs The curriculum guides were analyzed for the extent of the relationship between content and materials and children’s real life living conditions and culture. etc. nomadic. Use of real materials for the course were specified and listed in Alternative course curriculum for young children’s development (2010) and the Teaching module of mobile teachers (2005 and 2007) curricula. model plans. They also include workbooks for children. Implementation of the curriculum The curriculum is directly dependent on the class and activity timetable. nomadic. In order to implement the curriculum. 20 . special advice for the parents has been organized into the Alternative course curriculum for young children’s development (2009) and (2010)both have a variety of lessons for each day that allows flexibility. In order to evaluate these aspects. the inclusion of guidance for working with children with special needs. the inclusion of information on mobile. the following indicators were formulated: • • • • • • The inclusion of class and activity structures and timetables The inclusion of lesson plans Recommendations or instructions on how to organize children into groups and switch activities between groups The specification and attachment of learning materials to be used for teaching Recommendations and examples for adapting the curricula for mobile. It is noted that this aspect is considered to be imperative for teachers to prepare and carry out a successful course curriculum. however instructions on how to work with mobile. or shift group children was not clearly separated and reflected with contrast within the curriculum. Alternative course curriculum for young children’s development(2009) and (2010) contain the necessary information for organizing into groups and changing tasks. parents’ participation. and/or shift group children. and the extent to which these environments was reflected. chapter organization instruction. Only the Alternative Course Curriculum for Young Children’s Development (2010) contained sufficient guidance on how teachers can work with children with special needs. including seminars or workshops for parents Only the Alternative course curriculum for young children’s development (2009)contained class and activity organization and timetables. class environment. The contents of the guides relate in general to the children’s living conditions and culture.Cultural Appropriateness. nomadic. Only the Alternative course curriculum for young children’s development(2009)contained attached teaching materials needed for teaching. and/or shift group environments The inclusion of working with parents when implementing the curriculum.
such as differentiating for migrant. Therefore the following criteria for analysis were developed: • • • • • • Instruction on how to assess children’s learning activities found within the instruction or grading sections Criteria for assessment Suggestions for using established criteria or benchmarks to assess children Recommendations on the assessment of children on creative arts and through systematically recorded observations Specific assessment advice for mobile. except for the Teaching module for mobile teachers (2007)contain general assessment criteria. therefore satisfying the curriculum’s systematic quality. or how to grade creative art and through observations were not addressed by any of the guides. and strengths.Assessment The intent of the assessment is to determine children’s needs. suggestions or recommendations of assessing specific aspects. However. development and learning. or shift group children’s knowledge and abilities Assessment strategies specific to children with special needs Three of the four curriculum guides. Theoretical Approaches of The Course Curricula Guides A comparison was carried out with the consideration of three popular ECE theoretical approaches: • • • Behaviorist theory. nomadic. or shift groups. in which children learn by interacting with other people and objects. nomadic. and by creatively acting Growth and maturity theory. in which children learn by observation and by following others’ actions (based on social learning theory) Constructivism theory. The Alternative course curriculum for young children’s development (2010) contains templates to be filled out by both parents and teachers to assess child learning and development progress. to plan appropriate learning experiences. in which adults care for the children so that they can gain experience and develop Analysis was conducted focused on the following aspects of the curriculum guides: • Characteristics of the activities 21 . to keep a record of children’s growth. and to measure children’s achievements.
Recommendations The existing guides on curricula Increased supply and support is needed for teachers on professional and methodological guidance and guidebooks pertaining to development of curricula and lesson topic contents. or how to assess creativity through observations were not addressed by any of the guidebooks. These were analyzed for: • • Availability Educational content (language. Implementation These curricula are used by shift groups. and mobile teaching services. A greater focus on the curriculum development and implementation processes. cognitive. personal qualities. psychological development) 22 . Even though teacher guidebooks exist. SUPPLEMENTARY TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES A survey was conducted on currently used teaching and learning resources (handbooks and study materials). taking into account the different learning plans and appropriate learning environments. Assessment Guides or instructions on assessing children in migrant. in that teachers follow the suggested course plan curriculum. nomadic. all of which have different teaching and learning conditions and environments. physical.• • • Role of the teacher Role of the children Types and uses of learning materials All four of the currently used preschool curricula guides lean strongly towards the behaviorist and social learning theory in which children learn by their own observation and by following other’s behavior. additional visual aids are needed to assist teachers in implementing the curricula as well as learning materials for children. or shift groups. Constructivist theory gives children freedom to act on their own to study at their own speed about something that interests them according to their needs. ger kindergartens. The guides are teacher-centered. Teaching methods based on constructivist theory were almost non-existent. should be taken.
and the books were widely available. and 2% were on the study of education. the results of the analysis confirm that even though they may be dated. 43% were curriculum-focused. Teachers stated that they used the curriculum development books most often because they were easy to understand. 26. Teachers reported a lack of availability of books addressing teaching methodology. manuals. the books and manuals conform to the current standard. Manuals. A complete list of the books. and guides that the teachers reported using is in Appendix 7. However. and research methodology.Handbooks and books were categorized according to the target audience: • • Teachers Children Teacher’s Books.5% of all the books and methodology manuals are consistent with classroom 23 . Educational Content The educational content of the books that the teachers used was analyzed according to the following criteria: • • • • • • Consistency with Government standards for preschool education Appropriateness to the daily learning activities and classroom environment Cognitive development: The extent to which the book reflects developmental stages of cognition in early childhood Child-centered teaching method Active teaching methodology Availability in digital form: The availability of the books to be converted into digital form to be used for teacher training or for parents’ use Only 12% of all the books and methodology manuals used by the teachers surveyed were published after the development of Preschool Education Standardin2005. the methodology is clear. The majority of resources (55%) possessed by teachers are those on teaching methodology (strategies and teaching ideas). the study of education and psychology. Eighty percent of the books were published before 2000. and Guides Availability 42 teachers in Khentii and Umnugovi aimags were surveyed about teaching and learning resources.
and 52% are children’s books. and teachers. Bayan-Ulgii aimags. teachers suggested that converting the methodology manual books (physical education. movement games. but lack the supporting handbooks or guidebooks for the successful implementation of child-centered learning activities in the kindergartens. in which 91 kindergarten teachers from Bulgan. Less than 10% of the books and publications which were surveyed can be converted to digital format. dance. Educational Content The analysis indicated that most of the children’s books available by retail are translated and adapted from another languages and cultures into Mongolian. Children’s Books in the Classroom Availability The survey. the content of handbooks and professional publications are broad and not clearly focused on developmental stages of young children. the content and meaning of words of those is not understandable for children due to poor translation. children. as Mongolia does not have systemized information guide (children's book directory) for children's books and publications. Songinokhairkhan and Bayanzurkh districts participated.environment and daily activities in the preschool classroom. music. and kindergarten management. many of the books lack practical tasks or questions for teachers to use. size of kindergarten (how many groups in the kindergarten). In addition. Story books are dominant in the book trade. Children’s Books. 48% are teacher’s professional books. At times. Book sellers report that 30-40% of children's book buyers ask advice from them on choosing the right book for their children's age and development. In addition. Preschool teachers are familiar to the child-centered methodology in Mongolia. The average number of children's 24 . The size of kindergarten classroom library or number of books depends on geographical location of kindergartens (rural/urban). However. Book sellers and sales department employees of printing companies surveyed reported that 60-70% of parents choose story books for their children. introducing to nature and environment. there does not exist a common practice to introduce newly published children's books and publications for parents. In interviews.indicated that of the books in kindergarten classrooms. Handbooks and Learning Manuals Available in Retail Outlets Availability The survey analysis focused on 201 books which were published by 6 printing companies/houses. and the content of the story books do not relate to Mongolian children’s lives. Printing companies and book sellers reported and believed that 68% of books they published and sold are classified by children's ages and developmental stages. arts) into digital form would increase use of the manual.
less than 10% of the children’s books were published in Kazakh language. khoroos. Dundgobi. Other Classroom Resources 12kindergarten classrooms for nomadic children in Umnugobi. and Arkhangai aimags were surveyed about classroom resources. by percentage. in the kindergarten 25 . Bayanulgii.books in the classroom is 5-10 in the rural areas (soums and baghs). In Bayan-Ulgii aimag. The resources were classified into the following categories: • • • • • Language development Creative development Cognitive/intelligence development Physical development Construction by assembly Resources were then categorized by availability: • • • For every child 1 pack between 5-8 children 1 pack between 8-15 children Table 12 presents the availability of teaching materials. None of the kindergarten classrooms had a wide variety of books on different subjects. nor enough age-appropriate books for young children. only a few school textbooks which were imported from Kazakhstan. and 15-20 in the urban areas (aimag centers. Educational Content Generally. a four kind of books intended for children were available in the kindergarten classrooms: • • • • Fairy tales and rhymes Colouring books Children's books in foreign language School textbooks contained in libraries of the preschool classes The kindergartens in Bayan-Ulgii aimag did not have classroom libraries. and cities).
there is a lack of records. More than 80% of classrooms surveyed do not have basic equipment such as balls or circles for the physical development of young children. Overall. 13% of the classrooms contained no story books for children. 48% of teachers do not have musical instruments or educational tools for music classes. and nearly half of the classrooms lack basic items such as alphabet or word flash cards. In the area of music. Basic and comprehensive games as puzzles or shagai encourage the mathematic skills of young children. the survey showed that almost 40% of kindergarten classrooms contained no puzzles or other supportive games for children’s mathematics skills. the provision of physical education equipment is very limited for the kindergarten classrooms. Math concepts and skills development is crucial in early childhood. The provision of puppet and puppet theaters is insufficient: Almost 40% of the classrooms contained no puppets. or tapes for listening and singing along to music.classroom surveyed. 26 . However. although the vast majority of classrooms contain picture books. cds. The data presented below indicate that in the area of language development.
string puppets) Toy replicas of all kinds of foods. liquids. records database Musical instruments for teacher’s use (string instruments.Table 12: The Availability of Teaching Materials Used in the Kindergartens (% of Classrooms) Picture book Story books. keyboard instruments) Musical instruments for children’s use (bell bars. fairy stories. and other strategy games Anklebone (shagai. length.) Physical movement measurement equipments Balancing rod Physical development Jumping rope Ball Circles Small equipments for small muscles of hands Picture puzzle Puzzles Shape puzzle Color puzzle Assembling puzzle Geometry shapes. big and small Development of mathematical imagination Measuring equipments (weight. Theatrical play Picture board for everyday life Toy tools for household use Table theatre Climbing equipments (rope etc. rattlers) Puppets (finger. legends etc Child development books Alphabet flash cards Word flash cards Picture cards Cassette player TV Photo camera Music Music. writing 27 .is a Mongolian traditional game) Flash cards of animals and plants General knowledge development Materials for the use of teachers Tools for gardening Natural materials Tools and materials for experiments Portable computers Printers Copiers LCD projectors Posters for teachers use Printers 6 6 6 3 29 10 10 10 10 10 3 10 3 16 13 3 3 16 32 29 19 42 32 19 19 16 13 55 42 29 39 39 36 39 32 39 16 39 16 45 32 48 19 13 13 13 26 26 6 84 26 For every child 26 16 16 3 7 13 1 for 5-8 children 52 55 42 32 29 39 1 for 8-15 children 19 16 29 16 16 16 74 35 29 42 51 29 32 58 39 52 36 29 26 23 19 32 39 25 35 42 32 29 39 45 39 52 36 26 19 32 36 26 Not available 3 13 13 49 48 32 26 65 71 58 48 23 39 23 6 13 42 52 58 64 16 16 22 26 16 19 19 36 6 39 16 26 16 13 33 49 45 61 87 74 74 94 16 74 Language. small particles) Geometry shapes Paper and magnet numbers Chess.
there is a lack of books and methodology manuals for teachers. the lack of guidebooks for parents and on parenting skills is of concern.) and by ages (for up to 3 years. including provision of equal opportunity to all children Handbooks and working guidelines working with children with disabilities Publications for parents and working with parents. guides for teachers that are currently used are more than 10 years old. In order to address the above issues. Most books. The Law on Preschool Education states that “The state 28 . In addition. movement and sport and music etc. Teachers use story books for language development activities. creative. the content of number of publications are focused mainly on teacher-centered methodology and group classroom environments. Handbooks. manuals. Other developmental activities as math. for teachers is improved The quality is improved and the number increased of the methodology handbooks by subjects (language. and Guides In general. math. from 3 to 6 years) In addition. teachers should have more professional resources from which to draw: • • • • Curriculum development by ages and developmental stages Active teaching and child-centered teaching methodology. including manuals of national standards and active learning textbooks and handbooks. and physical education do not have subject matter books and learning materials to promote children’s learning.Copiers LCD projectors Posters for teachers use 26 6 84 74 94 16 Issues and Recommendations Teachers’ Books. families and communities Children’s Books. Manuals. kindergartens do not have enough budget funding for learning materials and classroom learning resources. and learning materials The application and distribution of children’s workbooks and exercise books are very limited in preschool classrooms. Other Classroom Resources Overall. In addition. it is recommended that: • • The availability of key publications. creative-arts.
. However.02percent of preschool state budget allocated for classroom learning materials for Dundgobi aimag 201032. recommendations include: • • • • To develop a list of resource materials for preschool classrooms by ages and developmental stages To improve the availability of resource materials for preschool classrooms which are consistent with the Preschool Education Standard To improve teachers’ and caregivers’ knowledge about the use of resource materials for children’s development To improve physical and e-learning (distance education) facilities for mobile ger kindergartens including generators. in Dundgobi aimag 32 29 . only 0.budget for kindergarten includes cost of learning materials. nor national strategy on the improvement of kindergarten classroom resources. For example. For the past 10 years MECS has provided resources and training supplies for a number of kindergartens. Consistent Government provision of classrooms with appropriate and adequate resources is an important issue for rural kindergartens and alternative ECE programmes. Article #. In order to address the above issues. But implementation of the Law is difficult. 2006 Budget allocation for kindergartens for 2010.. and radios 31 Law on Preschool Education . with the support of donor organizations. sanitation facilities and televisions.31. there is currently no standard.
parents’ education and income level. the State of readiness of 5-year-old children researched in 201035. when the 11-year education system was in force. Mongolia Institute of Education (2008). and how they were training their children: • • • The relationship between parents’ income development of children and education levels and the Parental knowledge and understanding of children’s readiness for school Parent beliefs about their own children’s readiness for school Parents’ Level of Income and the Ability to Pay for Early Childhood Education It is perceived that the most important factor in determining the child’s healthy growth and Institute of Education (2010). and rural-urban disparity. and 5-yearold children in 201034.1% 70. Mongolia 35 Institute of Education (2010). State of Readiness of 5-years-old Children. Mongolia. State of Readiness of 6-years-old Children. State of Readiness of 6-years-old Children. In the past. The studies were carried using the following domains to assess the readiness level: Table 13: School Readiness Assessment Results (2010) Domains % of Children Successfully Completing Tests Physical development Learning approach Social development Language development Cognitive development 70. the following materials were reviewed: the Methodology for evaluating the children’s readiness for school booklet. Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar.1% 60. Ulaanbaatar. 36 Institute of Education (2008).in 200833. and the State of readiness of 6-year-old children researched in 2008 by the institute of education36.8% Assessment results indicate that a child’s readiness level depends on the number of years s/he attended a kindergarten. Ulaanbaatar. after the shift to a 12-year education system. their readiness for school. only two studies have been carried out to assess the readiness level of 6-year-old children. Ulaanbaatar. 33 34 30 . State of Readiness of 5-years-old Children.9% 64.READINESS TESTING Mongolia does not have sustainable system that regularly assesses school readiness of children.25% 58. PARENTS’ AND FAMILY MEMBERS’ KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION In order to inspect the parents’ level of understanding of preschool education. The following criteria were proposed in order to evaluate how parents interviewed in the reports understood the development of young children.
3 40 38.1 36 39. These supplies cover hygienic and sanitary supplies and materials for learning activities.9 32. the higher the parent’s education level the higher the child’s language and mathematics skills levels.2 41. even if they are within travelling distance of an available kindergarten and even if the kindergarten has sufficient capacity.6 20.7 40 36 37.8 42. available evidence from interviews held in ger districts around UB and in rural aimags suggest that the very poorest parents. This was demonstrated clearly in the research.1 23.g. Unfortunately.8 48.7 0 18 37 32 19 23.000 to MNT40. toilet paper and toothpaste.3 33. some kindergarten teachers noted that they have had to subsidize some of the required supplies (e. Children in lower income families had under. Hidden Costs There is little doubt that the kindergarten free meal programme is a major incentive for parents to send their children to kindergarten.4 50 41.1 39.000+ (About USD 9-32)(See Appendix 8 for a breakdown of materials and costs).3 42.8 19. Table 14: Correlation of parents’ education level with the children’s language skills Education level of parents Uneducated Primary education Basic education Complete secondary education Vocational education Higher education Parents Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Language skill level of a child by percentage Low Medium Good 60 46 25.9 34. In interviews.development is the level of income in a family with young children. etc) out of their own pockets in order to ensure that children from the poorest families can continue to attend.7 43. are often unable to afford the entrance requirements which are specified by MECS and which they are required to pay.6 31 .9 32 41.9 14. It is estimated that parental investment costs for kindergarten entry can range from MNT12.developed language skills and health problems that were seen to be crucial factors for learning process at the time of enrollment to kindergarten.4 23. As is clear from the tables below. Parent’s Education and Children’s Development Parents’ education level was compared with children’s language skills and mathematics ability at age 5.3 19.3 26.
32 .4 21.7 50.9 25 29. However.8 59.6 10 0 14. and the Evaluation of Parents and Teachers The parents were asked of their perception of their children’s school readiness level according to the five domains below.3 36 28.Table 15: Correlation between the child’s mathematical skill level and parent’s educational level Education level of parents Uneducated Primary education Basic education Complete secondary education Vocational education Higher education Parents Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Father Mother Mathematics skill level of a child by percentage Low Medium Good 70 72. agility (55.9 48 50.8 52. The comparison between the actual school readiness test results of children and parents indicates that parents assume their children have higher skill levels than the children actually have.7 50 40.2% of parents whose children go to kindergarten 26% of parents whose children study alternative course curriculum 41.8 27.5 52.7 22 23. the research results indicated that the kindergarten teachers’ evaluations are closer to the actual assessment.8 19.3 Parents’ Knowledge and Understanding of Children’s Readiness for School The 6-Year-Old research examined what parents know or understand about children’s readiness for school.8% of parents whose children do not go to any formal school Children’s Level of Development.8 16 20.1%) Child’s social adaptation (66.4 41. methodology (66.9%) Emotional development. approach to learning. This may be because the teachers had the necessary knowledge to indicate whether the child is ready for school or not.3 33.5 23.6 20.5 25.4%) According to the 5-Year-Old children’s research a large percentage of parents are not familiar with the kindergarten curriculum: • • • 32.6 19.8 38.4 25 30. The results showed that the parent’s understanding and attitude towards certain issues differed greatly among the 400 families that participated in the study. physical state. The main indicators for a child’s readiness for school as suggested by the parents is: • • • Child’s health.7 51.2 20 27.
2% Physical development Study approach and methods Interpersonal and social development Language development Level of basic mathematical assumptions Issues and Recommendations There is a need for an established system that regularly assesses the school readiness of all children of every kindergarten.1% 60.Table 16:Beliefs on Children’s Readiness by Parents and Teachers Compared with Actual Assessment Results of Children Areas Children’s development level (research results) % 70.1% 70.8% 65.3% 94.3% 59.9% 61.2% Teachers’ evaluation % 68.3% 71.8% Parents’ evaluation % 95% 76% 94% 90. Several measures may be needed to assist parents whose children cannot attend ECE services but who are learning at home: • • • • To organize practical workshops and seminars for parents to improve working with children at home To familiarize parents with ECE curricula To supply information on how to support children’s development by using mass media Provide targeted budget support to cover hidden costs for parents Training for Parents Training for parents should focus on: • • • • Improving parenting skills on children’s learning and development Building parenting skills to work individually with children Providing instruction for parents to use learning resource materials for child development Enhancing the knowledge and skills of parents on child development and education domains STAKEHOLDERS Donor Stakeholder Activities 33 .25% 58. This system would require capacity-building of local ECE authorities in terms of test development skills as well as adoption of a cost-effective technology.9% 64.
quality. resources.A general overview of activities is described briefly below. and teachers. a variety of international organizations contribute to ECE in Mongolia. UK. UN agencies and development partners). In addition. and the Technological Cooperative Organization of Germany (GIZ). and to make available for children from poor families by instilling skillsoriented knowledge on national and domestic levels of the preschool sector. including the World Bank. The Sustainable Livelihoods project is a three-phased programme intended to last 12 years from 2002-2014. workshops for the teachers were organized and teaching materials distributed. The main goals of the project were to improve the quality of preschool and primary education. and NGOs in ECE. Sweden. furniture. Canada. European Union. This initiative also organized training courses and materials on the establishment and operations of ger kindergartens for provincial educators. The project also supports the operation of summer ger kindergartens. education standards for young children. Spain. ЕU. UNICEF’s extensive Basic Education project (2006. Within the curriculum development aspect. and resources for summer mobile kindergartens dedicated to nomadic children in rural kindergartens. Mongolian Government. furniture. the supply of equipment. extension. The main donors in the sector are UNICEF and Save the Children (UK)37. the World Bank. the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). ADB. and facility and equipment improvement of kindergartens in order to increase capacity and enrollment. the projects is aimed at increasing participation of parents. equipment. UNICEF has conducted research into readiness for school of 6-year-old children and on alternative training curriculum. 37 ADB consultant’s report 2008 34 . a global partnership of donors (Belgium. Improving Preschool Education Quality МECS and Save the Children UK jointly implemented the Improving the Quality of Preschool and Primary School Education project from 2006-2009 in 7 provinces and 2 districts of Ulaanbaatar city. Ger Kindergarten Programmes UNESCO implemented the Provision of Comprehensive Mobile Education and Cultural Services for Herders in Mongolia-1 and 2 projects between2004-2009. administered by the World Bank. receives financial assistance through Catalytic Fund.and parents’ and children’s books. and the operation of summer ger kindergartens in soums.The funding comes from different sources: International Development Association. A more complete list of project activities can be found in Appendix 9. However. heating. soums and districts by providing assistance to renovation and extension of kindergarten buildings. principals. teacher and parent training. The Fast Track Initiative(FTI)(2007-08) provided gers.In the last few years the scope of support for ECE has grown in Mongolia. World Vision operates local programmes in kindergartens of select aimags. Ireland. and other study materials. lighting. Japanese Policy and Human Resources Development Grant. and effectiveness of ECE through the development of comprehensive early childhood laws.present) addresses access. and an alternative ECE course curriculum for young children. the public. The projects’ framework coveredthe establishment of ger kindergartens and providedsupport with necessary equipment. rehabilitation. In addition. It is administered by World Bank and includes 670 sub-projects on the building. and local administration. The FTI.
and mobilizes people for government policy implementation purpose. human. As of 2009 there were 108 privately owned kindergartens operating in Mongolia. It is estimated that by 2015 the percentage will reach 10%. Private Sector Activities One of the priorities of the Master Plan is to provide the technology. which has only one administrator. data on number of families in needs. The section supervisors also assist khoroo social workers. In addition. information to khoroo population.g. The bagh governors report sick children to local medical personnel or clinic. or pension-related issues). In rural settings soum is divided into baghs. The percentage of children who attend privately owned kindergartens has increased from 3. at the khoroo level there are other administrative workers such as section leaders or mobilizers 38. the khoroo social workers provide parents with information (e. In urban settings. who works for khoroo under supervision of khoroo coordinator.g. Social Sector Work in Mongolia Currently there are 922 social workers working in 476 soums. unemployment allowances. In addition. the district and khoroo social workers coordinate the implementation of social services available from the Government and support humanitarian assistance from international and national organizations to vulnerable populations. charity organizations fund private kindergartens to ensure early childhood services for children from poor families. permission may be granted to privately owned organizations for the establishment of kindergartens by the soum and district governors.UNESCO Office Beijing supported MECS to develop a national pre-school curriculum (2007) based on the new education standard. and other social services). The bagh governor has almost the same role as khoroo section leader. the social workers act as a bridge between district authorities and khoroos by delivering information (e. finance. had established kindergartens in major railway stations. and other necessary resources needed to improve the access to and quality of the education by encouraging the creative participation of international organizations. individuals. Mongolian Railway. and currently operates and fully funds 27 kindergartens. The social workers do not have direct involvement in early childhood services. Moreover.4% (2009). For example. early childhood. a Government corporation. which focuses on a child-centered approach. Private kindergartens are owned by mostly individuals. foreign and domestic organizations and to improve the way to cooperate with them to increase its effectiveness. who work on volunteer basis under management of khoroo coordinator. villages and khoroos. There are few large corporations in Mongolia that operate kindergartens for children of their employees. paper requirements for getting social allowances for children. but works alone. The main task is to deliver news. Under this task. the bagh governor. The section leader or mobilizer is a volunteer.8% (2004) to 5. number of young age children in need of medical. deliver information such as available assistance for small children to families. 38 35 . or disability. According to the Education Law. however they do play certain roles by assisting families in need who have young children. financial institutes. and prepare data for authorities on preschool aged children to ensure attendance at kindergarten.
In rural areas. Therefore. However. The section leaders be more informed about ECE and have regular contact with local Government offices and the khoroo governor’s office. to ensure ongoing progress within the parent support groups and to network with local ECE stakeholders. bagh governors often perform the same duty as section leaders. and to have this position funded by the Government would be very challenging. Therefore. Therefore. the soum social worker needs to be an experienced kindergarten teacher or ECE professional. The main responsibility of the social worker would be to work with parents who have children with no ECE coverage. the section leaders may obtain commitments from the local Government on local parents’ ECE groups. Interviews with parents indicated close relationship of families with the section leaders. In addition. alternative ECE teachers may act as the facilitators Conduct parent support groups Parent support group facilitators need to be trained in ECE in order to raise awareness among parents. bagh governors have other duties under contract with the Government. • • • • IMPROVING ADVOCACY FOR AND PARENTAL AWARENESS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION The issues of promoting ECE and improving parents and caregivers’ involvement in ECE are actively discussed topics among Government agencies. more involvement of social workers in early childhood services is recommended in the following ways: • • Social workers act as facilitators for local parents support groups. development and education. This way. the soum social worker does not exist. international organizations. the law provides two “responsibilities” of parents and caregivers: They may 39 The Preschool Education Law of Mongolia 2008 36 . they do have close contacts with households and know very well the actual situations of children living in difficult circumstances. National Policies Mongolian Preschool Education Law39provides that parents and caregivers have the rights to be counseled. and private sector.Issues and Recommendations Though social workers have no direct participation in providing kindergarten for children. assisted and informed on their children’s health. non-governmental organizations. The duties may include training of parents and organizing advocacy activities for better early childhood services. Currently. mass media. Have a social worker at soum level to work with families that have young children and to act as an advocate for them.
providing parents with home-based education for children with disabilities. which involved about 1745 nomadic parents. caregivers and community in early childhood education activities. aimag and soum governors develop local plans that have a section on ECE. One of advantages of the new ECE standard is that it provides detailed roles of parents and caregivers in the facilitation of the education of their children according to age group and developmental indicators. it highlights the importance of creating family centered. using information technology in the public education activities. The Education-2012 program. a decree40 by the Minister of Education was released to guide early childhood institutions in their work on increasing participation of parents. In addition. The competitions were aimed providing knowledge for parents on working with MECS (2007). Community Activities ECE advocacy and awareness activities for local communities are organized mainly through sport and cultural competitions among parents with young children. the programme aims to connect city schools and kindergartens to the ECE database for the purpose of information exchange. The local plans are devised in line with respective long term area development programme as well as Mongolia’s education sector master plan. the Ulaanbaatar governor issued an order on the implementation of the Education-2012 programme42. parental and distance learning services to ensure the development of nomadic children in rural areas. training. Mongolia 40 41 37 . In 2007. Particularly. which in turn highlights emerging ECE issues such as parents’ training. monitoring. Likewise. Mongolia 42 The Ulaanbaatar city Citizen Representatives’ Khural (2009). Local Policies At the local level. mobile seasonal. Ulaanbaatar. UNESCO project43 organized dual training-competition activities. A decree on parents participation in ECE UNICEF and MECS (2008). Since 2008 MECS and UNICEF have been working on a draft of the new ECE standard41 that highlight the integration of ECE with the participation of health and social service institutions. and parent and family involvement to ensure extended ECE coverage for all children of 0-6. Among many other issues the programme addresses advancing school management through participation of parents. Ulaanbaatar. and reporting. For instance. The following four ways of cooperation were advised: • • • • To create constant communication with parents and families To increase ECE knowledge of parents and families To allow parent participation in decision making process on child related matters To promote public relations on ECE One of the priorities of the Mongolian Education Master Plan is to establish an education information management system (EMIS) in Mongolia. and establishing an ECE information database. A proposal on ECE new standard.assist kindergarten staff in the creation of a positive environment for their children and they may participate in the kindergarten activities by providing professional assistance in line with their employment and job specifics.
In the next stage. blending traditional child-rearing practices and cultural beliefs with evidence based approaches. three programmes were developed. Zavkhan. Only they are able to get some sporadic information on TV. riddles and question competitions. but they have insufficient knowledge and experience in developing their children. parents and teachers partnership in Bayankhongor. as parents and caregivers have poor knowledge and little appreciation of the importance of early childhood care and development. Uvs and Bayan-Ulgii aimags. and empowering children by enabling them to initiate and carry out their own learning and exploration of their surroundings with ageappropriate activities. Uvs. Ulaanbaatar. concerts. Within the Quality of Basic Education project implemented by European Union and Save the Children. and Dornod aimags received comprehensive knowledge on early childhood development through the introduction of toolkits. it conducted training for 210 parents in Khovd. the toolkits on development of children aged 4-6 will be developed. UNESCO (2008). In addition. the toolkits on development of children aged 0-3 was completed. a mobile photo exhibition of local historical and cultural heritage. one of which was dedicated to strengthening school. and in Ulaanbaatar city with support of the Department of Family Studies at Ulaanbaatar University. in 2006-2009.000 families in remote soums of Bayan-Ulgii. family competitions and sports competitions involving nomadic families). The training module for parents focuses on communication within the family. not only with children. It is very unclear where they should seek the necessary information and who should provide this information. Mongolia 43 38 . various activities of knowledge challenging competitions such as karaoke. The purpose of the development of family-based early childhood development toolkits for parents (in VCD format) is to empower parents and families as partners in supporting their children’s growth and development.g. aimag level International Organization Support Since 2005. cultural events were effective in disseminating ECE information to nomadic parents(e.” -Governor. sports activities for herders.their pre-school-aged children and preparing their children for school. Dornod. The aim of this initiative was to train parents about the key skills necessary to ensure children’s school readiness within the family and to change their attitude from passive recipients of services to active educators for early childhood education programmes and school preparedness. Young parents in particular have had no experience in raising children. cultural performances. In the reporting period. Khovd. The project mobile ger kindergartens were training spots for providing of non-formal education services and different types cultural. but also between parents as a fundamental step. “The number of children per household has decreased in recent years. Now parents focus on their children’s development more. Khovd. UNICEF has supported trainings for parents and facilitated workshops on preparing young children for school by mentors from the IOE and kindergarten teachers. More than 5. Low-level participation by families in preschool education and over-reliance on service providers remain to be addressed. Annual Report for the “Provision of Comprehensive Mobile Education and Cultural services for Herders in Mongolia Phase-II” project. The module helps parents to improve communication with young children by improving the children’s socio-emotional and language development. In 2008. in conjunction with the Institute of Education. UNICEF has also supported development of toolkits for parents.
rural mobile teachers and other alternative training programs. training DVD with classes for kindergarten teachers working in rural areas was an innovative approach that provided a distance learning opportunity for teachers. 39 . Bayan-Ulgii provinces and Chingeltei. Caritas Mongolia organization produced handbooks for parents on working with children age of 3-5 along with an exercise book for children. school supplies for 1st grade school students. This video class was taught by professional ECE teachers. books. namely training for parents. Khan-Uul districts of UB city. Also. Dornod. and construction of kindergartens in 6 districts of Ulaanbaatar city as well as in 19 aimags. Selenge. training for parents with disabled children was organized jointly with World Vision Mongolia. Sukhbaatar. Mongolian Education Alliance conducted the trainings for parents with EC in 7 aimags and their khoroos of UB for 2 years. Under the Soros foundation. World Vision Mongolia has provided various support in the education sector. Moreover.Khuvsgul.
availability and coverage should reflect the needs of that particular area (e. Activities. Ulaanbaatar. A current focus of early childhood activities should be on strengthening parent’s capacity in working with their children and their participation in ECE community initiatives.“In the last decade. It could be a television or radio series class for parents. one of the pressing issues of ECE is insufficient […information] for stakeholders at the local level. Different options of ECE distance learning should be available for parents in order to support their positive behavior that leads to more participation of parents in early childhood development and education.” Tsendsuren Tumee. distance learning options have so far provided limited opportunities for parents due to distribution in selected areas. • MECS. Therefore. Piloting of mobile phone applications in dissemination of information from the ECE database may work well both for urban and rural settings. Mongolia 44 40 . it has not been started yet. to produce sufficient number of copies or to make parents learning materials available in the best communication means). An integrated source of ECE relevant information or ECE database would be useful to preschool sector professionals as well by parents.g. UNICEF. another issue identified was the attitude of parents towards early childhood development. For any distance learning. Review of the Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy Implementation. Early childhood development officer. Furthermore. to develop skills and capacities in cooperation and communication44. or a mobile phone messaging service for parents that ensures continuous support to parents in addition to alternative ECE training for their children. as well as parents and caretakers of young children. which is changing slowly. it is recommended that: • A local network of ECE stakeholders is established that aims to supporting participation of parents along with technical and financial support of the Government and/or international organizations. UNICEF Officer for Mongolia Issues and Recommendations Policies. community attitude on early childhood education has been changed positively. and International Support According to MECS (2007). Recommendations include: • An integrated source of ECE relevant information or an ECE database would be useful for preschool sector professionals as well for parents. and UNESCO (2007). • The Mongolian Education Master Plan and the Ulaanbaatar city education programme both highlight an establishment of the EMIS however. Moreover. The distance learning options shall not be limited only by the video class. Support be provided in the training of teachers.
For instance. and FM radio stations have tripled in the last decade. Particularly. including 110 newspapers. These issues may be initially addressed by: • Raising awareness through spreading best practice strategies of international organizations Mass Media Coverage for ECE Currently. Therefore: • The current Preschool Education Law should be amended to provide a convenient legal environment that supports early childhood institutions in engaging parents and families in ECE The 14th article of the Preschool Education Law should be clarified in order to strengthen a partnership of kindergartens with parents. Ownership and commitments from national and local governments on engaging parents and caregivers in ECE is another major challenge. UNICEF established a counseling center for parents and community at aimag level but it does not yet have commitments from the Government in terms of funding. there has not been any clear guidance nor action plan that instructs on how to do so. television stations. 109 TVs and 76 radio stations (68 of them FM stations).In accordance with the Preschool Education Law. Because the state funds all expenses of kindergarten. In addition. kindergartens teachers are responsible for counseling and informing parents of topics related to their children. The numbers of daily newspapers. Recommendations to address these issues include: • Kindergarten teachers. • The national ECE policies should support current good practices and initiatives of international organizations in supporting parents’ participation in ECE. • The low teacher: child ratio in many kindergartens negatively affects the communication and partnership between parents and teachers. cultural and other specifics of the regions Each kindergarten should have own programme on partnership with parents. lack of funding provides a distinct challenge to the development and implementation of parent-related activities. including assistant teachers. ethnical. The ADB JFPR 9138 MON ECE Project team conducted a mapping of TV and Radio Children’s programmes in Mongolia. Mongolia has 383 media organizations. The provision of more teachers at kindergartens would allow for increased opportunity to work on ECE awareness raising among parents. Adequate funding should be provided for these programmes. The training should reflect geographical. Teachers lack of time to communicate with parents. However. parents may not be engaged in kindergarten’s decision making processes that affect their children. the article should focus on equal responsibilities of parents and ECE institutions in development and education of young children attending kindergartens. should be trained on working with parents and families. The mapping studied programme policies regarding 3-5 41 .
A pre-survey on needs of parents/caregivers for ECE information and educational resources and ECE communication tool for the project target areas. The children’s section reports on child development issues. blogs.The survey identified 100 television programmes that have the most viewers. including child’s physical and psychological well-being. successful advertising. and the most surfed websites/portals for April – June 2010. which identified the most used media. food and nutrition. learning environment. the most read newspapers. many private television stations broadcast programmes for young age children and for teenagers. The peak hours of the MNB radio is 7. The website includes icons such as schedules. JFPR 9138-MON ECE project (2010). 2-5 year-old children’s characters. Just two of these programmes focused on child development issues. results) as well as their experience on reaching out parents. it does not have any parenting-focused programmes. This survey has been conducted since 2003 on a quarterly basis. There are many websites. study groups.9 am and 12. 26 out of 26 households at the soum center had televisions.3pm. The daily newspaper “Today” (Unuudur) had issues in the third quarter of the 2010 extensively devoted to child development topics. and counseling for parents and caregivers. The mapping report shows that only the Mongolian National Broadcasting (MNB) has a separate Children’s Television Programme department within its structure. As part of MNB. However. and tells new children’s stories. however none address parents nor promote parents and care givers’ participation in the early childhood education except for occasional advice for parents. the Auto radio and Family radio have the most listeners. where infrastructure is less developed. but electricity is an issue. details of children’s programmes (focus areas. The most popular radio station among rural residents is the Mongolian National Radio. The survey identifies the most used media.year-old children. In addition.kindergarten85. 85. and movies. the newspaper advertises child entertainment performances such as a photo exhibition. Mongolia 45 42 . The MNB is a public funded station with a nationwide broadcasting. type of programmes. In UB city. a national consumers’ survey of Press Institute of Mongolia was also reviewed. the radio is most accessible information source. the ways of promoting parents’ participation in ECE were analyzed. Also. Also. Complete results from the analysis of National Consumers’ Survey is contained in Appendix11. it is a dominant communication channel in rural areas. The third quarter issue of the 2010 was reviewed. Detailed descriptions of the programmes are available inAppendix10. a children’s fashion show. a few newspapers release a section named “A World of the Children” with a size of half or full page of those newspapers. popular radio shows. Therefore. Bulgan. for nomadic parents. including the most watched television programmes. In fact. With a purpose of assessing current media coverage for ECE.com was created by the Parenting Council of Kindergarten No. the Mongolian National Radio (MNB) also has a separate Children’s Radio Programme department within its structure. The web site www. and television is only watched for limited hours (usually between 6-9pm). target groups. In addition. activities by kindergarten staff. and portals that actively discuss child development issues. who lack of communication devices. According to ECE communications field survey45 in Bulgan aimag. advice to parents.
the magazines are sold at prices that may be difficult to afford. Кazakh people in Bayan-Ulgii watch three Chinese channels and three of Kazakhstan on television. Recommendations in this area include: • • • Make available television and radio children’s programmes that are popular among Kazakh children in their language Extend the current hour-long local programme for parent education purposes Launch new early childhood education-focused and culturally appropriate television and radio programmes for children and parents in Bayan-Ulgii.Issues and Recommendations A weak infrastructure challenges distribution of newspapers and periodicals to rural areas. parent and community participation. the financial difficulties of rural and migrant. education and communication (IEC) materials on ECER through television. the Kazakh people’s language and cultural needs should be considered. Kazakh people listen to a one-hour long programme in Kazakh language that is produced in Bayan-Ulgii but broadcasted through the Mongolian National Radio channel. information and recommendations on ECE for parents on web sites are mainly translation materials from foreign resources. Lastly. Currently. and solutions to emerging ECE problems. In addition. The following recommendations may result in more regular media coverage of ECE: • Organize a regular open discussion on ECE policy level issues such as care giving by parents. This programme has no component for children or parents. To address these issues. Moreover. parents in Bayan-Ulgii wish to have both children’s radio and television programming in the Kazakh language. news. Internet web sites that provide counseling children’s development and their education issues are not regular. Training of media professionals on ECE is important in order to increase publishing and broadcasting on the issue of parents’ participation in ECE. however due to the language barrier they only see images and have little understanding about the contents of those programmes. parents’ positive behavior on ECE. Kazakh children watch children’s programmes of the Mongolian television stations. child health advice. it is recommended that: • • A dedicated ECE website is developed with the purpose of exchanging information and strengthening teacher-parent collaboration is developed The establishment of an ECE database and dissemination of ECE information to parents via mobile phones. or poor families compound the distribution of ECE information. radio and other media sources. • • As the country’s largest ethnic minority. Also. Launch a TV or radio series programmes that engage parents in live interviews Deliver information. and to raise awareness among parents to about their roles in the development and education of young age children. 43 .
“There are many challenges that we face in conducting parents training.4% of the participants answered ‘television’. the survey indicated that herders are often self-conscious and do not enjoy discussing matters with strangers. In fact.g. parents receive early childhood information on an occasional basis (e. before conducting any ECE trainings. encouragement of herders to take part in such activities. Most parent training is conducted by the Mongolian Education Alliance. (the beginning of academic year) and the New Year are celebrated as children’s events. Annual Report for the “Provision of Comprehensive Mobile Education and Cultural services for Herders in Mongolia Phase-II” project. dissemination of news and updates or carry out cultural services and entertainment. The Education Master Plan of Mongolia recommends support for ECE training for parents. 25. the 1st September. assistants or counsels nor do they have nearly an adequate number of books or manuals to help them. the Puppet Theater of Mongolia performs for two seasons. In addition. and contests run for children on various subjects. Mongolian Education Alliance NGO UNESCO (2008). On the other hand.PARENT EDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES Different national and international organizations conduct trainings for parents on child developmental issues. during cultural events). most of the media programmes are for children and their parents’ programme time is irregular. but only those living in their target areas. competitions. the needs assessment survey of the “Provision of comprehensive mobile training and services to herders in Mongolia-2”46 project indicated that when asked where they receive information from. A national campaign dedicated to children is usually organized during these celebrations. however in reality there has not been much support from the Government in terms of raising awareness on ECE among parents and care givers. However. autumn and winter. 30. Moreover. However.1% reported ‘friends and acquaintances’ and 21. short-term courses.8% of participants responded that one of the major reasons for the failure to obtain useful information is a lack communication and discussion among herders. these activities do not usually focus on promoting parents’ commitment towards their participation in the development and education of young children. 48.Batjargal. and there are a few television and radio programmes that provide advice to parents. Therefore. Ulaanbaatar. Also these herders do not receive regular guidance from teachers. The international organizations that implement ECE projects conduct training for parents. Mongolia 46 44 . There are three main cultural celebrations for children in Mongolia each year.9% replied that radios are usually the source.” -Mr. Also. Particularly. There are many clubs. and promotion of their enthusiasm in working as a group is essential. Children’s Day is celebrated on the 1st of June. In rural areas. parents of poor families living in outskirt of the city not likely to attend parents training unless proper incentives are offered.
Most books cover child growth and development and they have instructions for parents how to work with their young children. However. children’s play centers became very popular in urban areas. and counseling for parents. Meeting Parents’ Needs in ECE Settings 45 . parent education.not parenting issues. MECS. A list of currently available training handbooks and their main focuses are included in Appendix 12. or parents could be invited in to interact with their children. Teachers therefore have more opportunity to pay a close attention to each child and are enabled with more opportunities to spend informal quality time with parents to discuss individual development of children. The center has activities for children. There are both television and radio programmes for children. or children’s growth and development topics. the Education Master Plan of Mongolia recommends support for ECE training for parents. This waiting time of parents could be used to provide information and materials on child development issues. teachers simply do not have enough time to meet with each parent on a regular basis. In addition to kindergartens. Issues and Recommendations As stated earlier. For example. In private kindergartens a ratio of children and teachers is kept within normal range (1:12). and caregivers. Some of the books have children’s section or a separate children’s exercise book. Parents are instructed to wait outside while their children play inside. in 2010 a center for Indigo children was established in Ulaanbaatar. Training Handbooks for Parents Training handbooks that address parenting skills and behavior have been published by international and national organizations. including the Mongolian Education Alliance (MEA). The exercises are intended to be done by children but some call for parents’ involvement. parenting workshops or seminars are also not organized within private kindergartens. These centers are fully equipped with modern and attractive resources. this information typically addresses preschool activities or needs. because of the large number of children enrolled. and Save the Children. This center is the first to apply a new approach to ECE that includes education of parents alongside of children’s activities. UNESCO. however in reality there has not been much support from the Government in terms of raising awareness on ECE among parents. However. Ulaanbaatar has number of play centers. There is a handbook for nomadic parents as their culture and daily regime are very different than the urban life style. a full-time kindergarten. Information is usually disseminated through infrequent parent conferences and “information boards” at the preschool sites. UNICEF.Meeting Parents’ Needs in ECE Settings CHILDC Within most state preschools. but there is a lack of parentfocused programming. Currently.
Parents and caregivers who involved in local meetings during a field visit. but they do not have enough experience in participating in the education process. Commitments and close cooperation of the Government. Therefore. Parents have positive attitudes and knowledge about preschool education and are aware that their children must attend kindergartens. In addition. Many of the parents noted a lack of ECE counseling services for parents. and migrant parents.Although there are array of clubs and centers for children there is no interactive activities for parents and children. Furthermore. soum. at aimag. few of the handbooks target rural. preferring a professional kindergarten teacher as leader. Also. Therefore. These responses indicate that parents lack tools. 46 . children’s play places. During consultants’ fieldwork in the project target areas. Parents whose children go to kindergarten want to a version based at the kindergarten. parents teach songs and poems that they know or use information obtained from TV. Local parents groups with membership of parents and caregivers on a voluntary basis be established in order to promote parent participation in ECE. a kindergarten-bus service should be established based on local needs. especially handbooks. • • • • Training Handbooks for Parents Some books have limited availability as they were printed before 2008 or the there are no funds to print out more copies after the completion of the initial project. there is a lack of resources for parents with children in special needs. or at child development centers. it is recommended that: • Organized campaigns on building of positive behavior changes in parents are conducted through joint activities with the organizations such as the Puppet Theater along with preschool institutions or community based organizations. Most parents and caregivers who were interviewed during field visits of the project consultants responded to the question on how to educate your children at home stated that they have been using books of school-aged children for their preschool-aged children at home. and bagh levels is important. A guide or regulation be developed that reflects parents’ ideas to ensure sustainability of the local parents groups. parents assist their children to repeat at home what was taught by kindergarten teachers. relevant conditions for these places should be taken into consideration Consideration be given to the fact that most nomadic families live in remote areas. to support their child’s education. the idea of launching a local parent support group was appreciated by parents and caregivers. expressed their interested in obtaining advice on early childhood development. Parents who live in bagh or in remote areas had a preference for establishing this group based at the bagh center or mobile kindergarten. far from kindergartens. Moreover. To address these issues. nomadic. Another issue is that books and handbooks developed and published by national and international organizations and private companies have high prices and low distribution to rural areas. Counseling of parents through websites at kindergartens.
Essential ECE books and handbooks for parents and children should be distributed to parents living under poverty line in order to support their active engagement in educating their young age children. This initiative would support the implementation of national policies that have been developed on enhancing parent participation in ECE. handbooks. and other resources in local languages. but are not yet operational. as well as adjusting the resources for parents who have children with disabilities.The following recommendations support solutions to these issues: • To ensure the availability of parent education. There could be even criteria established to select parents or households to receive the free-of-charge resources. • 47 .
MECS also conducts other activities for monitoring and evaluating the status of preschool education. conducting studies. Monitoring and Evaluation of Teachers Monitoring and evaluation of teachers occurs in several stages.MONITORING AND EVALUATION There are two main bodies that have the authority to monitor and examine aspects of the preschool education sector: • • Health. and Evaluation Department in MECS maintains an information and management system which provides statistical information through its databases. The data are recorded and reported initially by each kindergarten and then aggregated by aimag/soum/city/district levels until they comprise national figures. Monitoring. management and curriculum. the head teacher and methodologist are responsible for the evaluation of a teacher’s daily work and the results of the work. and support of research studies. The central agency may direct more extensive or additional monitoring where this is deemed appropriate. The General Agency for Specialized Inspection is an independent. Monitoring and inspection usually covers all types of preschool education institutions and includes monitoring visits as well as close scrutiny of a sample of records or teachers’ documents. district. In this situation. completeness of documentation. Monitoring and Evaluation Department in MECS The Information. there is a set of criteria developed internally within each kindergarten. Preschool Education Law requires head teachers to evaluate teachers’ and employees’ performance.g. professional development and progress made by kindergarten staff to ensure conformity of use with regulations. standards and quality requirements). for example. including legal regulations. and to provide them with incentives. evidence of participation of children from one’s group in various competitions. with a newly established kindergarten or those kindergartens performing less well than it might be in some circumstances reasonably be expected to perform. Most of data are based on administrative records. and supervising a wide range of components (health and sanitation. Ulaanbaatar. Teachers who receive high scores on wide range of activities (e. and to hold them accountable. evidence of teacher’s professional development) would be eligible for receiving extra incentives or upgrading of her/his professional 47 Law of Preschool Education. evidence of teacher’s participation in various activities within kindergarten. 47Typically. or kindergartens whose overall performance was judged significantly satisfactory within district and city (soum and aimag) and therefore is expected to be selected as the “best kindergarten” in the national level. monitoring and evaluation is conducted within each kindergarten. First. quality of class performance. city and state. monitoring. Education and Science Inspection Office in the General Agency for Specialized Inspection and its Departments Information. support. May 2008 48 . central and specialized body responsible for inspection.
Teachers would prefer on-site observations that reflect the teaching-learning dynamic to be used in performance assessment. Besides sleeping time (when teachers have only time to prepare for next activities or write down curricula. it is prestigious to participate in these competitions since it gives opportunities for travel to Ulaanbaatar. since number of papers that we have to prepare is increased in the past years while classes are coming overcrowded. plan or whatever). But what I can do if I do not complete those papers? My salary will may then be reduced when a head teacher or any inspector will realize that there are some papers are not enough. However. or soum and aimag. teachers are tired with all these paper preparation duties. Frankly speaking. I am getting really nervous when we hear that “inspection” will come. and financial and other incentives. within district and city. they provide systematic monitoring on teaching and curriculum and standard implementation. It comes suddenly and so often. Ulaanbaatar There are three categories of professional qualifications: senior-teacher. particularly those from countryside. teachers. because instead of spending time for my own child I continue my work at home. Bayanzurkh district. which requires a tremendous amount of time to generate. 48 49 . Teachers who had low scores may also receive some penalty. We are really striving between creating of papers and working with children. Although officers from District and City have no authority related to financial incentives. our ‘paper works’ heavily influence our work. We. -Kindergarten teacher with 20 years of teaching experience. I usually bring my paper home. The next stage of monitoring and evaluation is the subject of District or City Education Department. My husband. For teachers. The widely recognized “Teacher’s skills competition” is one of the activities that exercises teachers’ knowledge and skills awards ‘best teacher’ in language or music. That’s all. Papers that we produce are for inspections rather for children. teachers report that inspection brings anxiety because their work is monitored through paperwork. such as salary reduction. getting to check our every our paper in order to be sure that all required papers are on the place. does not like when I do it. I buy paper sheets from my own pocket do not saying about other expensive for copying and printing. of course.qualification48. so we. methodologist-teacher and consultant-teacher.
types of ECE service offered. and central heating connections across aimags and Ulaanbaatar city. Table 17: Major Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators Collected at each Level Indicator Age Cohort Enrollment by Age and gender Number of non-enrolled children Number of Kindergartens Location of kindergartens Enrollment by type of preschool education (regular/alternative) Enrollment by type of alternative ECE programme Enrollment of nomadic children in alternative preschools by age and gender Number of disabled/orphaned children Number of newly enrolled children Teacher/child ratio Number of kindergarten staff Number of age groups Kindergarten capacity Family information Child information x x Individual Kindergarten Level x x x x Disaggregated by public/private x (Disaggregated by bagh/soum/district) x Disaggregated also by other types of care centers x x Aimag/Soum/City Levels x x x x Disaggregated by public/private x x x x National Level (Aimag and UB City) x x x x x (Included in child information) x x x x x (Including social/economic information) x x x x x x x x x x x x As shown in the above tables. the latest Digest of the school year 2009-2010 presents data on the existence of information technology equipment. teacher: child ratios. 49 Education Sector Statistical Digest 50 . In addition.Recommendation: • A more authentic assessment of the performance of teachers be introduced that focuses on the teaching and learning dynamic of the classroom as well as the achievement of set educational standards. The Digest has been expanded considerably and a number of new indicators have been introduced since 2005. These data will allow future monitoring of the preschool environment throughout the country. disabled children and those children who have taken social care service. The data set includes indicators such as enrollment information. and family information (Table 16 below). in building maintenance. including data on nomadic children. Monitoring and Evaluation Data Monitoring and evaluation data on ECE within MECS is included in the annualEducation Sector Statistical Digest49. monitoring and evaluation databases within MECS and other preschool related departments/or divisions provide a large continuum of data related to the preschool sector.
there is little information collected on the situation of children that do not attend preschool education and in particular there are no indicators that allow understanding the characteristics of those children who are not in preschool education. An example of a data collecting system is shown in Figures 4 and 5 below. It is specifically recommended that the JFPR 9138 MON: Early Childhood Education for Rural.However. regional. and an impact evaluation are multiple ways of collecting not only quantitative data but also quality data which help to offset complexity of monitoring and evaluation within MECS and be relevant to policymaking on ECE. and these data flow vertically to higher levels. A more systematic approach will be needed in monitoring and evaluation to determine impact of ECE projects. Through EMIS a new set of indicators and instruments could be developed for improving not only of databases but also methodological aspects of data reporting process at national.and out-of-preschool education for the corresponding years. there are no indicators that identify the number of enrolled children from rural poor or migrant families (as differentiated from nomadic children)at the national level. In addition. enrollment fluctuations are dramatic. An education management information system (EMIS) could be developed in order to collect data at kindergarten and bagh level. Data reliability and completeness remain a difficult issue. Data collection is based on administrative records and may yield incomplete and/or inaccurate data. This makes data analysis and interpretation at the national and aimag levels more difficult. where there is a great potential for including more detailed indicators. At this time data collected at this level are limited to those variables mentioned above. Recommendations include: • Use of other sources of data. and Migrant Children project include a more systematic approach to verify changes brought by the project. and children who attend alternative preschool education programmes for part of the year are counted the same as children who attend regular programmes of much longer duration. A set of systematic surveys such as baseline survey. Therefore it would be able to predict the number of all targeted children including 51 • • • . there exist some data at soum level of statistical departments which show how many migrant households. The models of performance indicators for bagh and soum. imputation and methodology procedure. It may possible to associate these fluctuations with increase or decrease of incentives such as financing schemes or availability to secure funding for organizing of alternative trainings in local areas (this has implications for sustainability). or the fluctuations may also be related to data collection issues. There appears to be incomplete information about financing preschool education disaggregated by type. monitoring field surveys.The modes would enable to estimate and count of children who are in. In addition. Indeed. therefore very little horizontal data sharing takes place. Nomadic. and characteristics of their children who are out of such programmes. including poor. and grassroots levels. and there is little analysis of the reasons for this. khoroo and district levels are indicated in the Appendix 13. in their areas. particularly household surveys or the population census to examine in detail participation in ECE programmes across soums level. in terms of rural poor or migrant household. Recommendations The discussion above highlights the importance of developing a range of approaches that relate to aspect of data collection.
• Figure3 reflects the range of assets which connects conceptual framework of JFRP project to MIS that consists of a set of indicators and measures for monitoring and examining the quality of the intervention programmes across soums and khoroos over time. parents’ attitude and etc. Figure 4: Flow diagram of the project data collecting system 52 .migrant poor children and/or nomadic children that JFPR pilot project aims to involve during its implementation if those data will be collected. Conceptual framework of the project illustrates the need to develop a set of tools and procedures for measuring children’s school readiness. in order to better target interventions and resources.
Figure 5: Data collection and dissemination schema of the project Figure 6: Connection of conceptual framework of JFRP project with MIS 53 .
evaluation. However. organization. As stated in the report there various Government-led programs and plans. it is recommended that the JFPR Project: • • Provide assistance for MECS in developing and/or revising policy and legal documents Organize policy forums and workshops for national and local ECE authorities to increase planning and monitoring skills. To further improve implementation of ECE policies. and evaluation standards for all preschools. the government needs to put additional emphasis on improving access for vulnerable groups as well as the quality aspects of the overall early childhood education. besides maintaining support for increasing access targets. The government has continuously increased budget to implement the policies. children from vulnerable families still are not able to fully benefit the contributions by the government. teaching. regardless of the ownership type Establish a proper accreditation system Improve the funding. and quality aspects of alternative ECE aimed at children from poor. this situation analysis indicates that there are additional steps needed to be taken in order to facilitate the development of the preschool sector. there is a need for increased collaboration among government authorities at all levels. and nomadic families Improve the planning and monitoring skills of national and local ECE officers. and specific recommendations for the JFPR Project to implement in order to improve ECE for rural. and Implementation ECE access and quality policies are reflected and carried out at the national and local level. Preschool Education Policy. improve involvement of the community and parents in child education via legal provisions and advocacy interventions. nomadic.SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS The Government of Mongolia has started to take its initial steps to change the policy towards young children’s development. and migrant children. Therefore. in light of not just preschool education content but with a much broader view according to the new millennium plan to develop education with priority. However. and to familiarize them with international best practices 54 . as well as to address the needs of young children and their families. including international and best practice planning To address these issues. To ensure the implementation of these interventions it is essential to: • • • • Develop and enforce learning environment. Below is a summary of issues facing early childhood education in Mongolia. vulnerable. Planning.
the stipulation in the Preschool Education Law. the available budget should be used in a more efficient way. which states that alternative ECE should be taught by professional teachers. provide fixed costs for alternative ECE such as fuel and heating costs (particularly for kindergartens in soum and city outskirt areas). The introduction of an output-based funding system to improve the efficiency of funding. More involvement in the budgeting process by kindergarten directors.Preschool Education Funding This situation analysis shows increased funding on education. There is a need for a unified database of all donor contributions. including investments for constructions and equipments. does not allow participation of volunteers who are willing to teach in alternative ECE. Funds allocated for alternative ECE services provided by private kindergartens should be used for public kindergartens. Nevertheless. A comprehensive analysis to determine the effectiveness of the funding formula be conducted in order to. The project can address some of the above issues by: • Assisting the MECS in developing and initiating implementation of regulation on 55 . In addition to seeking other resources to increase funding. improve clean water and food supply. reaffirms the Government’s commitment on education. revise the budget The JFPR Project should address some of the above issues: • • • • Assist MECS in analyzing and revising the budget formula Collaborate with MECS in developing and/or revising funding aspects within the ECE laws and regulations Collaborate with MECS and MOF on revising the existing budget lines Organize workshops to improve budgeting practices for local authorities and kindergarten directors Alternative ECE It is concluded that quality and performance of alternative ECE services in Mongolia are not consistent among kindergartens. To improve the quality of ECE services. improve safety and sanitation. in the future there is a need to establish output (school readiness)-based funding and monitoring mechanism. if needed. funds should be attributed to teaching staff who directly work with children instead of non-teaching staff. Particularly. limited overall budget does not allow the Government to solve all the funding issues. In addition. • • • • • • The coordination of donor contribution and the reduction or elimination of funds to kindergartens. including the preschool sector.
also face shortage of learning materials mainly due to limited government budget. the necessity for teachers in rural aimags to travel long distances to UB and low salaries limits their opportunity to receive in service training. In addition. In this regard. Children. there is still a need to improve teachers’ capacity to develop curricula. In addition. The existing training program in the Preschool Education College provides only long-term education without providing any special courses on the tasks of assistant kindergarten teachers and alternative ECE teachers. 56 . and health and hygiene of children Organizing sessions for teachers on alternative ECE management and methodology Providing recommendation for the MECS on the amendment to the Preschool Education Law to reconsider the stipulation that mandates only professional teachers to teach alternative ECE services Teachers Due to workload of kindergarten teachers. one of the major issues faced by teachers is the lack of guidebooks to develop and implement ECE curricula. there is a lack of tools to assess and monitor child growth and learning progress. the existing in-service training programs require further improvements. It is recommended that the JFPR Project: • • • Develop and implement on-site in-service training programs using ICT tools Improve supply and quality of books and learning materials for students in the Preschool Education College Insert special short-term training courses for assistant teachers and alternative ECE services in the Preschool Education College The Project will: • • Train 300-400 kindergarten teachers based on alternative ECE curricula developed by the project Provide learning and teaching materials for kindergarten teachers in the target areas Curriculum and Learning Materials Although the Preschool Education Standard was adopted in 2005. particularly those from poor and nomadic families. it is evident that Kazakh children need learning materials in their language and which suits their distinct culture.alternative ECE • • • Stronger and better furnished gers need to be built to ensure the safety. Many of the existing guidebooks are obsolete. Based on the studies.
radio and other media sources. For Kazakh community language is the key barrier to receive access to media programs for children and parents. poor and nomadic families cannot afford the price and have limited access to internet. However. and web-based sources on parenting. nomadic. and lack of incentives to improve their involvement in early childhood development and education. education and communication materials on ECE resources through television. It is recommended that the JFPR Project: • • • • Develop a dedicated ECE website with the purpose of exchanging information and strengthening teacher-parent collaboration is developed Launch a TV or radio series programmes that engage parents in live interviews Deliver information. There are available newspapers. Currently available TV and radio programs are target mainly on children. periodicals. Provide periodical trainings and materials for kindergarten teachers on working with parents 57 . or shift groups.• Increased supply and support is needed for teachers on professional and methodological guidance and guidebooks on development of curricula and lesson topic contents by different ages Guides or instructions on assessing children in migrant. or how to assess creativity through observations Handbooks and working guidelines working with children with disabilities Increase the availability of resource materials for kindergarten classrooms which are consistent with the Preschool Education Standard • • • The Project could address the above issues by: • • • • • Providing additional visual aids to assist teachers in implementing the curricula as well as learning materials for children Developing and implementing flexible e-curricula based on the individual needs and interests of children Developing a list of resource materials for preschool classrooms by ages and developmental stages Establishing mobile library corners for children and parents Provide learning materials in Kazakh language for the Bayan-Ulgii community Parents and Communities There is little support by the Government to raise awareness on ECE among parents and community.
With regard to qualitative data. Organizing trainings for media professionals on ECE in order to increase publishing and broadcasting on the issue of parents’ participation in ECE Organizing workshop to improve parenting skills on children’s learning and development • • • • • • • • Monitoring and Evaluation The mechanisms by which MECS collects preschool education quantitative data is adequate at the moment. as well as adjusting the resources for parents who have children with disabilities. and obtain data on supply of learning materials. It is recommended that: • An education management information system (EMIS) which is able to track student migration. and other resources in local languages. On a larger scale. Using MECS web-site create a link for parents Disseminating ECE information to parents via mobile phones Developing and broadcasting TV and radio programs for children and parents Developing communication packages for children and parents Conducting advocacy campaign to raise community awareness on ECE Launch new early childhood education-focused and culturally appropriate television and radio programmes for children and parents in Bayan-Ulgii. and school readiness. Improve skills of parents on working with their children at home • • The Project should focus on: • Establishing local parents groups with membership of parents and caregivers on a voluntary basis in order to promote parent participation in ECE. soum.• To ensure the availability of parent education. however. there is still a need for data to track student migration. to accurately monitor alternative ECE enrollment. which leads to duplication of funds. obtain reliable enrollment data on alternative ECE. and bagh levels is important. quality of in-service program. Commitments and close cooperation of the Government. at aimag. handbooks. MECS is not able to gather sufficient information to assess involvement of parents. as well as to collect qualitative data is adopted 58 . donor contributions are not effectively monitored at the MECS and local level (Education Department). Distribute essential ECE books and handbooks for parents and children to parents living under poverty line in order to support their active engagement in educating their young age children. classroom learning process. and data on learning material and toy provision.
and types of contributions is established The JFPR Project should focus on: • • • Assisting the MECS in adopting effective EMIS Developing a design or regulation on school readiness Collaborating with other donor organizations to eliminate duplication of efforts and funds 59 . including the investment amounts. target beneficiaries.• • A school readiness assessment system which conducts readiness tests on annual basis is established An integrated system that inputs donor and government contributions.
Mass Media Coverage of ECE in Mongolia 11. Funding Gaps in the Preschool Sector 5. University Enrollment 6. ESMP Recommendations 4. Hidden Kindergarten Costs for Parents 9. Currently Available Training Handbooks for Parents 13. and Legal Acts in the Preschool Education Sector 2. and Guides used by Teachers in Khentii and Umnogovi Aimags 8. Sample of Courses Offered 7. Monitoring and Evaluation Performance Indicators 60 . Results of National Consumers’ Survey of Press Institute of Mongolia 12. Donors Operating in Early Childhood Education in Mongolia 10. Books. Review Table of the Implementation of Key Rules. Regulations.APPENDICES 1. Review of Preschool Education Targets of the Education Sector Master Plan for 2006-2015 3. Manuals.
UNICEF has also been organizing trainings to educate parents. public and parents In the future. specialists. The order specifies the list and the amounts of the materials. new graduates. To focus on addressing the practical needs of teachers To develop training syllabus timeframe for lower classes Order #20. Kindergartens have taking various initiatives to implement this policy.Appendix 1: Review table on the implementations of key rules and regulations and legal acts in preschool education sector Document. improve the sense of accountability of teachers. and private kindergarten teachers have troubles obtaining their teaching licenses. and safety standards need more focus. forms. of the Minister of ECS List of learning and sanitation materials to be provided by parents of kindergarten children The Ministerial order identifies the approaches and actions for the implementation of objectives. and evaluation of preschool education delivery. collaborating with the community. and identify the implementation mechanisms Reports show … preschool teachers were granted teaching licenses under this regulation. resources. 2007. learning session of teachers. and delivery of educational and training activities. contents. Studies show that such parental costs are causing a burden for children from vulnerable families. etc. the law has been in force and implemented by kindergartens and relevant administrative authorities at all levels. In addition. Since its adoption. learning environment. primary. the officers of Aimag and City Education and Culture Departments have been providing recommendations. kindergartens are now accustomed to receive the mentioned materials from parents. for instance. and developing guiding materials for kindergarten directors and teachers on effectively linking training plan timeframe (annex to the order) with training curricula of every kindergarten. However. Feedbacks by teachers. The order also specifies the minimum hours required for development of ECE curriculum. and secondary education schools. and supports of parents. coordination of early childhood care and development provision. involving parents in decision-making process related to their children. funding for private kindergartens and alternative ECE have been fully enforced. and secondary education teachers Order #85. endorsement date Law on Preschool Education endorsed by the Parliament in 2008 Implementation status The law that has been regulating all aspects pertaining to acquirement of preschool education. of the Minister of ECS Focus of preschools on encouraging involvement of parents and public in the early child development Order #74. As stipulated in the order. improving the educating skills of parents. under this policy document. and communities in preschool activities. There were few cases resulted in revocation of teaching licenses due to mistreatment of children. such as: establishing continuous communication with the parents and families. teachers who have worked for many years in kindergartens. Parents suggest that supply of the materials to kindergartens should be monitored by representatives of parents. enforce ethics and prestige of a teacher. organizing training sessions. and class subject plan. primary. Collect data on the implementation of this policy document. full state provision of kindergarten meals for children. developing methods on collaboration and partnership with the public. 2008. 2008. Since order was put into effect. UNICEF has provided technical assistance in creation of parent information and learning center. The order specifies guides and activities on receiving efforts. and evaluation system on quality of preschool education need to be improved and reflected in the law. implementation of some of the law provisions on construction. of the Minister of ECS Policy on preschool education delivery Order #12. establishing and running a parent center. 2007. of the Minister of ECS Regulations on granting and revoking teaching license of preschool. The purpose of the regulation is to: continuously improve the capacity of preservice training as well as in-service training of teachers from preschool. Nevertheless. families. support for alternative ECE delivery. For instance. Parents and the public suggest to use parentinvolvement-based mechanism to improve ethics and accountability of teachers. 61 .
and evaluating and improving their performance output and quality. and primary and secondary schools Order #73. provincial Education and Culture Departments are organized without credit hours. Most specialized trainings of donor-fund projects and programmes. Kindergarten directors and accountants are suggesting there is a need to increase variable cost per child. of the Ministers of ECS and Finance Endorsing the coefficient for calculating variable cost per kindergarten student Order #72. and a new standard on kindergartens should be developed and adopted. District Education Divisions. Budget for alternative preschool education is approved based on this order. the process of issuance of teacher’s professional rank has been refined resulting in better teaching quality. the transportation costs for alternative preschool education. respectively. Based on the professional rank. teachers receive additional 20%bonuses on their basic salaries. provide support for improving training content and methodology of organizations. mobile teacher) Provide nation-wide and local in-service training and training accommodations for teachers and managers at all organizational levels. a team of organizations and individuals – with analytical expertise – have been accrediting training curricula that met the required qualifications and criteria. There is a need to: improve the capacity to develop curricula of specialized inservice trainings with and without credit hours. The regulation is intended for determining the profession and skill development of teachers. 62 . City Education and Culture Department. particularly. MEA have been approved. of the National Professional Inspection Agency Regulation on hygiene of training and educational organizations for children and adolescents In accordance with the order. 2008. 1995. 2008. Since the adoption of the regulation. All education and health inspectors of the Professional Inspection Agency follow and implement the regulation for monitoring and inspection activities. The regulation should be detailed down at the preschool level. Within the scope of the order kindergartens are issuing a “methodologist”. “lead teacher”. and “advisor” rankings are issued by kindergartens. The regulation mandates educational institutions of all level to follow the hygiene standards Order #1.Joint order #30b/237. of the Minister of ECS Regulation on issuance of teacher’s professional rank The order specifies the coefficients for calculation of variable costs per child with a disability and one who is studying in alternative forms of preschool education (shift classes. provincial Education and Culture Departments. mobile kindergarten. and MECS. over 20 training curricula of organizations such as Preschool Education College. For instance. 2008. monitor the quality of trainings. of the Minister of ECS Regulations on in-service training for teachers and managers of preschools. preschools have been using the coefficient formula for budget planning and execution. Since the order was put into effect.
1 Comprehensive preschool feeding programme to be introduced from school year 2006-2007 4.Appendix 2: Review of Preschool Education Targets of The Education Sector Master Plan for 2006-2015 2005 ESMP Target 1.000 in alternative preschools Target partially achieved 1.899 children enrolled in 87 private preschools kindergartens 6899. Enrolment of children from very poor families with income below poverty thresholds to be increased by 50% in comparison with 2005 2. Less severe disabilities can be educated in regular preschools and up to more severely disabled children.6% of city cohort and 55% of rural children enrolled in formal kindergartens and 5. Toilet facilities of all kindergartens will meet Government standards 4.2% of city children and 22% of rural children enrolled in alternative preschools. social and psychological environment and human resources to be developed to ‘include’ disabled children in regular preschools 4. methodology.2 85% of city children and 35% of rural children enrolled in kindergartens. Supplies of toys.5% 1. 60. and 22% of rural children enrolled in alternative preschools Assessment Target partially achieved 73% of preschool cohort currently enrolled in preschools – 102. teacher’s manuals and learning and teaching materials to be developed 2.3 Percentage of children in private kindergartens increased to 6.0% of total preschool enrolment 2008 Preschool Law established ‘inclusive’ preschool education as national policy.4.2 Drinking water and food will be developed to meet basic hygiene and quality standards to ensure risk-free conditions 4.445 kindergarten beds/seats established since 2005 representing 66% of target In 2009.3.7 times over 2005 4.1 Number of beds/seats of children in kindergartens increased by 3.4 Teacher pupil ratio target of 11.1 including assistant teachers and average number of children per group is 28. MNT2. Practical fulfillment of target is ongoing Fulfillment of target has started but more needs to be done.2%.7% of pre-school enrolment is in private preschools Target achieved Targets partially achieved City target is 37% achieved and rural target is 34% achieved.Management. Total enrolment of 99% of cohort Performance Indicator 2. organization and human resource capacity to organize alternative preschools trainings to be developed 3. In 2009.1 14% of city children and 64% of rural children to be enrolled in alternative pre-school training 2. In 2009 disabled children were 1. In 2009 teacher pupil ratio is 12.3.2. The % of very poor children enrolled in all forms of preschools has increased by more than 50% over 2005 levels The 2008 Preschool Law defined alternative forms of preschool education for the first time and provided for state funding on the basis of defined norms. content.9 billion was allocated for alternative preschools 6. children from very poor families were 8. games. In 2009 5. books and teaching aids Target achieved 63 .service professional training for alternative preschool methodologies In 2005 disabled children were 0.5.650 1. Enrolment of disabled children in preschool services to be increased by 50% over 2005 3. children enrolled.4Training programmes.6 and number of children per group target of 25 2. Target fulfillment is ongoing Target Fulfillment Ongoing 2.6 29.Pre-school educational services for children of rural herders to be institutionalized In 2009 6.1.9% of total preschool enrolment. Standards for kindergarten constructions and training environment to be developed 4. games and learning and teaching materials tools in kindergartens will be increased by 1.5.000 in formal preschools and 28. Parental contributions to preschool feeding replaced by full state funding of preschool feeding programme as a result of the 2008 Preschool law Target Not Achieved Legal Target Achieved but Practical Implementation still has a long way to go Target Achieved Target not achieved 60% of kindergartens do not meet Government standards Preschool construction and environment standards have not yet been developed 60 % of kindergartens have been supplied with toys and teaching aids.4. Target achieved Legal target has been achieved and alternative preschools are now in situationalized. Target not achieved Target not achieved From 2005 to 2008 30% of kindergartens Target achieved in terms of numbers of schools supplied but most preschools report a shortage of toys.5% of formal preschool pop’n and 32% of alternative preschool pop’n.of city children.8% of kindergartens in need for 52% of preschools teachers have attended in. In 2009.2 Technical.
and consulting for children of early childhood will be diversified 7. A UNICEF project “Complex Standards for Early Childhood Education” developed and piloted complex standards. (b) professional (c) and retraining in accordance with preschool education objectives In order to implement preschool education standards.4.repairs will be renovated 5.2 100% of Kindergartens to be provided with trained teachers and assistant teachers 6. However quality and accessibility of this materials is not considered to be sufficient In-service training reports note three types of training attended by 60% of preschool teachers: (a) new standards based curriculum development. Target in process of achievement Target not yet achieved Target not yet achieved Target probably not yet achieved Target mostly achieved 7. However.1 Develop complex standards for the development of children of early childhood education 5. (c) teachers’ continuous professional development. Involve 30 teachers per year in external training and study tours 6.5. There is some cooperation in exchange of information between MECS and MoHSW. However there is no established system of management and cooperation. such as caring centers.1 Types and number of services.1 At least 50% of preschool teachers to be involved in annual re-training annually made repairs in buildings.3. MECS has not yet decided how these standards link current standards for primary and secondary education. In 2008 National Standards Agency has approved a standards document “Requirement of child Care organizations for 0-!7 year children” This standard has been used for monitoring non public early childhood care centers. Training and re-training programmes for teachers will be renewed 6. (b) reform methodology.7 Training modules for preschool management will be developed 7. Training programme to implement new standards will be created Target mostly achieved for formal preschools but not achieved for alternative schools 25% of Target achieved Target achieved 6. nursing.3% of teachers in formal preschools were professionally trained and 100% of assistant teachers Target not yet achieved pending decisions from MECS Quantitative target achieved but qualitative targets considered to be unsatisfactory and there is a shortage of materials in many preschools Target achieved 6. In 2009 93.2 Not less than 4 types of teacher’s manuals and training materials to be developed for preschool teachers and children 6. heating systems and water supply. MECS and IOE have developed model curricula and manuals in order to provide kindergartens with methodological assistance. Training modules for assistant teachers in alternative preschools will be developed 6. 83 handouts and manuals have been published.3 Intersectoral management and information integration for ECE will be developed Target not achieved 64 . Retraining for assistant teachers and other staff were organized and content reviewed but training module not yet developed Training modules for general school management are available but specialist preschool management modules not yet developed Some child care centers have been developed but insufficient information to establish clear indicator. A new preschool curriculum has been developed by IOE in conformity with the new 12 year system. each kindergarten has been developing its curriculum. looking after children at work and at home. which is still due to be implemented.6.2 ECE standards and monitoring mechanisms will be created MSUE preschool teacher training curriculum and standards was revised in 3 parts (a) general.
Improve policies and the legislative and regulatory environment for the provision of preschool education services • • • Develop policies and regulations aimed at providing incentives for private sector and community investment in setting up preschool. and responsive to future demographic and economic development perspectives and trends Review parental cost implications for poor families of attending pre-schools and take appropriate action to ensure equity of access Introduce well organized. and training manuals Objective 3.Appendix 3: Preschool Education Sector (ESMP) Recommendations Based on the review on Preschool Education Sector (section of the Education Sector Master Plan). Improve coordination of tasks and responsibilities between the Government ministries and agencies involved in children’s food and nutrition. individuals. the following strategies are recommended to achieve the objectives in the medium term: Objective 1. and social welfare aspects Improve cooperation between the private sector. Achieve 93% gross enrollment rate for preschool education Recommended strategies • Increase kindergarten capacity and construct new kindergartens in the suburban districts and new residential districts of the capital city as well as centers of aimags and other areas in need based on school mapping. family-based ECE services in rural and remote areas that meet nomadic life-style requirements Improve access to kindergartens for poor and migrant children. Develop preschool education service that meets the needs of child development • • • • • Improve the health environment in kindergartens including food. as well as for children with special needs Improve access to quality preschools for “out-of-preschool” children by standardizing the quality of alternative preschool services Implement policies and programmes to ensure school-preparedness of all preschool children • • • • • Objective 2. games. education. facilities and the learning and teaching environment Improve the professional capacity of kindergarten staff through targeted training and make progress in the resolution of social issues of kindergarten staff Establish minimum standards for and increase the provision of toys. health. and sanitary conditions to ensure healthy growth and development of children Provide basis for social services that meet the needs of child development by designing and implementing a comprehensive child development standard Develop and implement minimum acceptable standards for kindergarten buildings. learning materials. water supply. NGOs and preschools in order to improve access to and quality of preschool services 65 .
2009 2010 Total Constructions & other investments New constructions New equipment (incl. furniture) Toys and other related equipment Reconstruction Total (million tug) Per classroom unit cost 36 4 1 10
2015 2016 Total
5,282 2,050 219 1,887 1,125
24,844 19,390 2,075 2,025 1,354
20,172 14,612 1,563 2,438 1,559
15,586 9,986 1,068 2,807 1,725
11,317 5,746 615 3,105 1,851
9,254 3,577 383 3,331 1,963
12,811 6,447 690 3,533 2,141
99,266 61,808 6,613 19,126 11,718 198,532
Appendix 4: Funding gaps in Preschool sector
Source: Education Policy and Strategy simulation model of the draft version of the Education Sector Master Plan (2010)
Appendix 5 University School of Preschool Education Enrollment Information Table 1. Total number of students at the School of Preschool Education Within the last 5 years
Year Number of students 2005-2006 720 2006-2007 745 2007-2008 859 2008-2009 982 2009-2010 1287
Number of freshman and graduate students of the School of Preschool Education Within the last 5 years
Year Freshmen Graduates 2005-2006 190 188 2006-2007 288 179 2007-2008 366 196 2008-2009 264 163 2009-2010 385 351
Comparison of freshmen for the last 2 years:
№ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Province Arkhangai Bayan ulgii Bayankhongor Bulgan Govialtai Dornogovi Dornod Dundgovi Zavhan Uvurkhangai Umnugovi Sukhbaatar Selenge Tuv Uvs Khovd Khuvsgul Khentii Darkhan Uul Orkhon Govisumber Ulaanbaatar Total Academic year 20092010 49 43 44 49 51 42 45 32 53 46 40 72 33 49 44 43 42 38 52 79 76 265 1287 Academic year 2010-2011 67 85 100 60 79 80 73 70 72 55 106 62 60 38 40 31 42 58 43 21 36 119 1397
Table 3: The number of teachers who attended professional training courses
№ 1 2 3 Year of course 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010 1-р семестр The number of kindergarten teachers who had some sort of vocational training 400 573 442
Appendix 6: 2010 courses organized at The School of Preschool Education
№ 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 Course type Young children’s development standards The use of ICT technology for the school of preschool education. Management of Preschool education Teaching relationship Arts and Crafts methodology Musical education content and methodological update Physical and health education Total Time 2010/02/01-05 2010/10/04-08 2010/12/06-10 2010/01/04-08 2010/10/11-15 2010/01/ 25-29 2010/10/11-15 2010/01/04-08 2010/10/ 04-08 2010/ 04/26-30 2010/10/25-29 2010/01/11-15 2010/10/18-22 2010 /10/11-15 Teachers attended 156 55 24 22 136 32 52 497*
*As of 2010/09/2
Dulamjav.Young children curriculum. Densmaa.D. Ekimto printing company The books teachers use in methodology: 1. Dulmaa .B.(1999).Ulaanbaatar.Ulaanbaatar :Yalguun printing company.( 2000 ) Let's train our child.(2009).Step by step program pedagogical standard. (2002). Orbic printing company. BCI printing company 2.T. Child cognition development workbook. Bolormaa. Bolor. 5. I am growing up. 4.H.Z. 7.A.J.Ulaanbaatar.D.ltd. Chimedlkham. Z.T.Narangerel.(2009). Ulaanbaatar.Ulaanbaatar. Norjkhorloo.Hansen. Save the children 3. Narmandakh. Admon printing company. G. Handbooks for teachers.T. Ulaanbaatar:Admon printing company. P. Ulaanbaatar 7.(2009).B.T.Munhtsatsral.Ch.Narangerel. Bayantsetseg.Methodology to develop preschool curriculum. and Guides Used by Teachers in Khentii and Ulmnogvi Aimags According to the survey teachers use the following books: 1. Orgil printing company 8. Sansudai design and printing company.(2004).Children's kindergarten nurture curriculum. (1999). Kirsten A.Purevdolgor.Ulaanbaatar. Ulaanbaatar. (2010) Variant course curriculum for young children development. Handbook for mobile teacher.И.Appendix 7: Books.Ulaanbaatar: BCI printing company 3.Munhtsatsral. MECS.Kindergarten primary class' curriculum.(2001). MECS. (2000). Admon printing company 2. Purevsuren.Elementary education standard. Kirsten A. Save the children 4.J.Munkhtuul.(1999). (1991). 69 .Z. 6.T.Ulaanbaatar. Admon printing company.Ulaanbaatar. Ulaanbaatar 6. Bolormaa. (2003). N.Ulaanbaatar. EDO Publishing Co.(2009).Alternativecourse curriculum for young children development. 9. Mobile teachers course model. 8. MECS.Ulaanbaatar. (2008).Hansen.(1999).Ts. Ekimto printing company. Batdelger. Norjkhorloo.Purevdolgor. Preschool children core curriculum and its recommendations. Training the young children. (1986) A methodology to introduce the environment and nature to young children. Ulaanbaatar 5. Bolor. Manuals. 9.Music class technology update. Ulaanbaatar. Bolormaa.
Puntsag.T. 22.Methodology to develop child's language skills. Tserennadmid.Short and summer courses proforma recommendations. D. Sh. Gombosuren. Orbis printing company.Ulaanbaatar. D.Methodology to give a music education in kindergarten. My book 1. 70 .Ch. Gombosuren. 2. T. L. 13.Ulaanbaatar: Soyombo printing company. 12. T. Natsagnyam. (2004).D Uderpil. L. Ekimto printing company.(1999) Together with your child. Ts.Methodology advise to teach Counting in kindergarten.(1999). Ts. 20.Sh.Ts.D Uderpil. Admon printing company. D. Teaching toys (games). Norjkhorloo. Ulaanbaatar. Mathematics and experiment cognition. (2000). N. Empathy printing company. Kindergarten study book.10. 14.Z. T.(2001). Puntsag. L.( 1987). 18. Nonna. ( 2002). Mongolkhatan.Ulaanbaatar. Ganchimeg. Oyungerel. 17. Gombosuren. Ekimto printing company .Ulaanbaatar. Vaanchig. Vaanchig. Tserennadmid.N. 11.Ulaanbaatar. Best printing company .Methodology to teach physical education class in kindergarten children.( 1987). Tumenjargal. Tsendsuren. Nonna.( 1987) Methodology to develop preschool children language skills. Developing child's creative activity. Bayantsetseg.(1969). Ekimto printing company.Ulaanbaatar. 21.T.(1986).Ulaanbaatar.Ulaanbaatar.Ulaanbaatar.(2005). 15. Ts. Puntsag.N. Uranbileg B.G.D Uderpil.N. Nonna. Zagdragchaa. Vaanchig.Ulaanbaatar: BIT press printing company. Norjkhorloo. Norjkhorloo. Ulaanbaatar.Ulaanbaatar. 19.T. 16. (2005). I am growing! Everybody.
Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. (2009) Education Sector Crisis Action Plan Draft. 27 kms from aimag center)50 Required Items A4 paper (piece) Notebooks Water Colours Painting brush (complex) Pencil Colour pencils (complex) Water crayon (complex) Notebook for drawing and painting Big painting paper Binder Colour paper (complex) Plastic paper (complex) Scissors Glue Large sellotape Oil pencil (complex) Toilet soap Toilet paper Toothpaste Tissues Total Number of pieces 10 8 2 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 4 3 2 3 Unit Cost (MNT) 20 150 3000 3000 150 2000 3500 800 600 1500 500 2000 800 350 2000 2000 1000 450 2000 350 Total Cost (MNT) 200 1200 6000 3000 450 2000 3500 3200 600 1500 1500 2000 800 1050 4000 2000 4000 1350 4000 1050 44. 71 .400 50 Tony Read.Appendix 8: Hidden Kindergarten Costs for Parents Table : Parental investment costs for Ikhtamir Soum kindergarten of Arkhangai aimag (525 kms from UB.
Bayan-Ulgii provinces cooperation and partnership among parents. whereas 10 soums of 4 provinces and “My Book” was presented to nomadic children who attended Bayanzurkh and Baganuur districts of the mobile ger kindergarten in project implementing soums Ulaanbaatar city were provided with as well as providing their parents with the necessary 28 fully furnished gers in addition to 6 handbooks. Dundgobi.500 US$ 72 . Khovd. Khentii. Uvurkhangai. quality and effects of the Pre-school and primary education FAST TRACK INITIATIVE (FTI) To provide ger. community and and Chingeltei. equipment. principals and teachers of project implementing soum kindergartens in 2007 and 2008. provinces of Mongolia in 2007. kindergartens of Bayangol and Songinokhairkhan suburban districts -to organize pedagogical training courses on establishment of Ulaanbaatar supplied with and operation of “ger kindergarten” for provincial equipment. 1) improve the capacity for school administrations and Khuvsgul. Bayan- 2006-2009 1. and 3) effectiveness of ECE Project coverage UNICEF Dornod. furniture and toys. UB 2) improve the content and methodology for Pre-school education and strengthen the capacity of parents and teachers. teachers for management and planning and improve the Sukhbaatar. Bulgan. Uvs. Huvsgul. Gobi-Altai.388. Dornod. Bayan-Ulgii. furniture and resources for 100 fully furnished gers were provided summer mobile kindergartens dedicated to nomadic children to 50 soums (2 gers per soum) in 21 in rural kindergartens. Umnu-gobi and 4 districts of UB Duration 2007-2011 Budget 240000 US$ Quality Basic Education Mobile kindergarten SAVE THE CHILDREN (UK) 3 sub programmes at the National level targeted to Bayankhongor. training ger kindergarten teachers. Umnogobi and Dornogobi The second phase of the project covered 1 soum of Arkhangai. Ger kindergartens and support with necessary equipments. Khentii. provision of nomadic children with exercise books and supply the nomadic parents with the relevant handbooks UNESCO 1 soum of the Uvs. Sukhbaatar.000 US$ “Provision of comprehensive mobile education and cultural services for herders in Mongolia-1 and 2” 2004-2009 483. 3) improve the disabled children’s access to education and 9 sub programmes at the local level which aims to improve the access.Appendix 9:DONORS OPERATING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN MONGOLIA Programme/ Project name Early Childhood Development Activity Improving the 1) access. Zavkhan. organizing training for parents.470 euro 2007-2009 311. 2) quality. pedagogic. Khan-Uul districts of NGOs. Khovd. Selenge.
Bayan – Ulgii. Zavkhan. UB city: Nalaikh. KhanUul 2002-2014 Each soum US$8-15 million Local programmes-general education sector -WVIM has been operational since 1993 with the formalizing of a country office in 1995 to establish and direct development. supply Support in education sector was of equipment. Dari-Ekh. Khentii. summer ger kindergartens in soums. Selenge and Tuv. Tuv. 73 . and other specific sectoral programmes. Arvaikheer. Khovd. -The total financial contribution of WVM for the 2009 was 24.979USD. WVM annual report for 2008 notes that this organization supported education sector with training for parents. the capacity of kindergartens 670 sub-projects on rehabilitation. Arkhangai. Darkhan. Erdenet. However. study materials and operating provided to the following 19 aimags. Zavkhan. extension. and kindergarten enrolment has been increased. Bor-Undur. Selenge Khovd. The Education was one of the priority areas of World Vision’s main programme—Area Development Programme (ADP). On the other hand. Dundgobi. Khuvsgul.555. and 6 districts of UB city: Bayankhongor. Uvs. and construction of kindergartens in 6 districts of Ulaanbaatar city as well as in 19 aimags. Uvurkhangai. Bayankhoshuu. school supplies for 1st grade school students. WVM did not provide a separate report on education nor on ECE therefore it is impossible to report a certain figure here. Khuvsgul. Bulgan. furniture. Outer Bulgan. Dornod. rural mobile teachers and other alternative training programmes. SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS building 9 new kindergartens. Dornod. Amgalan. heating. books. and facility To support the running of summer ger kindergartens which and equipment improvement of increased accessibility for children of nomadic households kindergartens in remote areas to take part in preschool classes by ger kindergartens. Gobi-Altai. Chingeltei Tolgoit Khailaast.The Sustainable Livelihoods project Olgii. Zuunkharaa. Gobisumber. WORLD VISION Renovation and extension of kindergarten buildings. lighting. Bayankhongor. toys.
It has journalists in 11 aimags and broadcasts nationally. The MNB recent children’s programmes include “Mazaakhai”. Recently the MNB agreed to collaborate with ADB JFPR 9138 MON ECE Project team and held an open TV discussion on ECE emerging issues including ECE policies. “Daddy. On semi-annual basis NTV contracts an evaluation firm to assess the existing programmes and the assessment report indicated that children’s programme should be a priority for the TV. and “Can you do this?” that are for children of all ages. 74 . “Morning stars”. Accordingly. current challenges and solutions. a programme for young children but parents have to payfees. The UBS does not have its own team for children’s programminge. currently the programme for parents is withheld due to financial difficulties. a music programme for teenagers. The UBS is experienced in implementing reality and entrainment show also in live coverage of international events. this television delivered programmes for Ulaanbaatar residents and few years ago it began to disseminate programmes to aimags. The city’s Youth Development Department recently requested for a new programme for teenagers that focuses on children up to 14 yrs old. State Education University. However.g. and promote parents participation through sport/art competitions. which reports on MSWL project for homeless children. and me”. international and national NGOs on programmes focusing on parents with children from 0-6 years old. a programme that features a girl and her friend a hedgehog targets younger aged children. The report says that 12% of total programmes are for children. “Boroldoi’s time”. Participants included relevant preschool education professionals from MECS. Since 1992. It is the first time to discuss openly and independently about ECE issue on TV and Radio. and independent researchers. However.Interviewers of TV and Radio open discussion on ECE (MNB TV) The city-funded station is Ulaanbaatar Broadcasting System (UBS TV). however it also includes mostly cartoons translated from English to Mongolian. Due to business competition among private televisions. The team is not experienced in producing children’s programme though it has a fully equipped high tech studio. The NTV is a private television station that has been broadcasting since 2005. “A way back home”. parents’ knowledge and awareness certainly be increased. however it includes mostly cartoons translated from English to Mongolian. the team is considering an idea of devising a programme dedicated for solving social problems to explore emerging issues of ECE. a paid entertaining programme based on parent’s request. Mongol TV was not able to share details of the Buudii children’s programme. a programme for up to 6 years old. The MNB cooperates with UNICEF. UNICEF. Mongol TV is a private television established in 2008.Appendix 10: Mass media coverage for ECE in Mongolia TELEVISION The Mongolian National Broadcasting (MNB) is the only TV that has a separate Children’s Programme department within its structure. “Apple”. and “Ulmedeh in Flower Town”. . it has few children’s programmes: “Red Hat”. The only existing children’s programme is “DX Music”. a new proposal on children’s programme is under their discussion. If the programmes like this or a counseling talk show are broadcasted regularly. mommy. “Red Hat” is produced by independent studio and broadcasted through UBS. In addition. The “Buudii”. The NTV introductory brochure says that 11% of total programmes are for children. These programmes are educational and entertaining.
It has broadcast a number of children’s programmes during its 44 years of broadcasting. in a sign language Weekend entertaining programme for children Sport for kids Foreign language series A programme for teenagers Open discussion among kids Economics for kids Children’s movie Children’s TV drama Focus areas: child development issues Target groups: all age children Type of programmes: educational. It is prepared by a professional team.SBN TV started “Nahia”. Also. 2010. a series programmes A programme for children with hearing disabilities. Particularly. The programme discussed 75 . education. it produces a bi-monthly magazine for teenagers. such as reproductive health. Indeed. a children’s programme in 2004. The Dream TV is the only television dedicated for children and it has all types of Children’s programmes that cover variety of issues related to children. Children of all ages are the audience of this entertaining and educational programme. a producer and the only staff of the programme. who address parents and caregivers’ behavior through their programme. The Mongolian National Radio recently collaborated with ADB JFPR 9138 MON ECE Project team and held an open radio discussion on ECE emerging issues. the programme content is literally decided by one person. sport or art competitions. Also. entertaining. It is well accepted among the rural population. It has number of children’s programmes: Good morning kids News for kids Music programme Good night kids Science for children. the programme has a special section for children up to 6 yrs old and it is called as “Grandpa Pe Pe’s time”. but is not as popular among young listeners in Ulaanbaatar as most of FM radios are in UB. sport or art programmes. however it has already become one of the favorites of urban residents. programmes with parents participation. and cognitive behavioral specifics of youth. It covers also variety issues. its children’s programme named “Unagaldai” has been getting the attention of more viewers. music. The programmehas 7 different subprogrammes dedicated for each day of the week. and one of the programmes is prepared by children themselves. The Dream TV was established on October. Moreover. But. These programmes target all ages of children. fashion. the television has a Child Development Center that supports talented children through its music and drama classes. this TV aims to promote participation of children. entertaining. The C1 television is also the newest among private TV stations. It is a public funded radio station with a nationwide broadcasting. RADIO The Mongolian National Radio (MNB) is the only one radio station that has a separate children’s programme department within its structure. The MNB Radio has a professional children’s programme team that has over 44 years of experience and a long-term commitment for the programme focusing parents with 0-6 yrs old children. sport. They are educational. both children and their parents.
and independent researchers participated. Preschool education professionals from MECS. As of 4 October. this site had 56 different advices for parents.5 is one of the first stations in Ulaanbaatar. The station plans to start a new counseling programme for young parents on their child development and education. The FM Radio 107. UNICEF. a regular column named “Please read for your child”. a national NGO named as “Dayar” launched www.mnthat addresses parents’ needs in development of their children. indigohuuhed. The State University of Education provides professional support for this programme. This newspaper releases a monthly special issue named “A World of the Children” with a size of 4 full sections of the newspaper. Furthermore. www. and portals that actively discuss the child development issues. including child’s physical and psychological well being. Also.g.dayar. and “How much do you know about your child” are prepared to promote parents participation in development of their children. and tells new children’s stories. and solutions. The station’s innovative approach to reaching out to listeners has resulted in a psychological center based at the FM radio. and movies. it has already begun a programme that educates parents on child developmental issues. and children. the newspaper advertises child entertaining performances such as a photo exhibition. a daily newspaper “National Post” (Undesnii shuudan) has a weekend issue. 76 . The parents’ programme runs on Wednesdays and Fridays and first it airs an educational session then answers to questions from parents.com. For instance. sites devoted to children are run regularly. “Tsondooloi and Tsundeelei”. This special issue reports on child development issues.5 is a newly established station.5 was established in 2001. e. “A little leader” and “Window” WEBSITE AND PORTALS: Currently. The radio has a professional team with extensive experience in conducting social development programmes focused on mothers. It has no commercial advertisement but the radio audience is limited to young adults. The FM Radio 105. State Education University.khuukhed. however. advice to parents. The Family Radio – FM 104. there are many websites. Moreover. current challenges. This radio station focuses on family education and children’s development. fathers. In addition. “Ulmedeh in Flower town”. children & youth. there are children’s magazines such as “A sun”. men. blogs. and “Barbie” “Dinza”. The other daily newspaper named “Udriin sonin” also produces a section named “A World of the Children”. Also. Three different programmes of this station are dedicated for young people.blogspot.ECE policies. It has one programme for children. and families. NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS The daily newspaper “Today” (Unuudur) has the most readers among others. For instance. a children’s fashion show. Parents have to pays in order to let their children to participate in this programme. this newspaper has a section titled as “A World of the Children” on its regular issues. Issues in the third quarter of the 2010 extensively covered child development topics. It also collaborates with international organizations. which covers child and family development broadly. which is available for all radio listeners. The National Youth Radio – P3 was established in 2008 as one of MNB Radio branches. The target groups are 25-45 yrs old mothers. 2010.
Moreover. The web site www. activities by kindergarten staff.com. additional study group.kindergarten85.blogspot. The website includes icons such as leaning activities schedule.mongolhuuhed. food and nutrition status. a kindergarten has its website in UB.mn.com was created by initiative and support of parenting council. learning environment. 2-5 years old children character and counseling for parents and caregivers. and huuhdiin-humuujil. 77 .worldpress. The Q&A sections of these sites indicate that parents are interested in children’s behavior issues.
zaluu. a regular column named “Please read for your child”. Issues in the third quarter of the 2010 extensively covered child development topics.news. The UBS and MN 25 televisions were the next most watched channels. the most popular radio among rural residents is the Mongolian National Radio (MNB). SBN. This special issue reports on child development issues. entertaining programmes. and C1TV had more viewers than others. reading. These FM radio stations have various programmes for children and youth but not for parents and their behavior change issues. the radio is most accessible information source.mnwebsite has a portal that is dedicated for families. and provides advices to parents. Newspapers and periodicals: The daily newspaper “Today” (Unuudur) has the most readers among others.mn. This portal discusses child development issues. The Children’s programmes of MNB TV. the newspaper advertises child entertaining performances such as a photo exhibition.30 pm.olloo. and www. In urban setting. many commercial televisions ask parents for fee for participation of their children in the programme. a children’s fashion show.mn . drawing. dance. However. 78 . and tells new children’s stories. which in a way attract parents therefore. parents programmes may reach target audience effectively if aired before/ after these programmes or close to pick hours. it is a dominant communication channel in rural areas. It is followed by the websites. www. In overall. and “How much do you know about your child” are prepared to promote parents participation in development of their children. which was identified as 8 -10. Also. The pick hours of the MNB radio is 7. the survey identified the 100 television programmes that have the most viewers. the survey report notes that teaching a song. Moreover. Website and Portals: The Press Institute survey shows that the www.news. But. The first one is the MNB TV produced “Mazaakhai” programme that goes on air five times a week and it targets children in ages of 2-6.3pm. and sport programmes have more viewers than others. who lack of communication devices. Also.Appendix 11: Results of national consumers’ survey of Press Institute of Mongolia Television: During the third quarter of the 2010. For instance. Thus. including child’s physical and psychological well being. The programmes aim to build up talents of children.9 am and 12. Radio: According to the Press Institute survey. and writing is common among children’s television programmes. and it airs every day. The second one is “Nahia” programme of SBN television. B TV. The www. mainly UB city. the Auto radio and Family radio have the most listeners. This newspaper releases a monthly special issue named “A World of the Children” with a size of 4 full sections of the newspaper. advice to parents. Two programmes focused on child development issues were selected among these 100 programmes.mnsite is most popular among readers. it is observed that there is still gaps in programmes that promoting parents and community participation in integrated child development is missing. www. TV series.mn. where infrastructure is not so developed. for herder parents. it does not have any programme for changing behavior of parents except few advices that are provided during children’s programmes. In fact.shuud. MNB television had most viewers for three months in a row. Therefore. Detailed descriptions of the analyzed programmes are contained in appendix: Mass media coverage for ECE in Mongolia. and movies.
Child behavior or temperament A wonder of talking Ensuring child safety Introducing a book Moderator and limitation “Integration and Emotion ” “Cute baby” “Right feeding from early stage” “Learning with playing” /1-5 yrs old/ MEA (2006). Using the handbook. and creating books. Mongolia A series handbook for parents / Under Step by Step programme/ 10 series handbooks on educating parents on ECE: 1. UB. and social developments. and ways of building of learning environment for children with specials needs. Development of children with special needs. painting. arithmetic. there should be a flexible plan that meets children’s needs and their interests. 79 . reading poem. The book supports teachers. learning materials. Mongolia The book has advice to parents and care givers on how to support their children’s cognitive. 3. I am growing. parents. The parents’ section introduces a methodology of home based training. The handbook “I am growing” is dedicated to parents and it aims supporting parents on their home based care for children. Developing child‘s creative activity. In addition. Mongolia The earlier version of the book was published in 2000. Exercises are intended to be done by parent’s involvement but child on his/her own. memorizing alphabets. observing. the book discusses importance of parents. talking. 5. MEA (2006). Let’s learn together. Ulaanbaatar. MEA (2004). Early childhood development. Mongolia A Handbook for teachers. drawing. This guide book introduces methods adjusted in working with children with special needs. dressing. Ulaanbaatar. 2. 9.Appendix 12: Currently Available Training Handbooks for Parents MEA MEA (2007). Mongolia (2-7 yrs old) (A guide book for teachers and parents) Within the other programmes and projects European Union. Ulaanbaatar. and their family 10. and community involvement in development of children with special needs. 6. holding and will obtain practical knowledge on common hygiene. Mongolia A handbook for teachers on working with 3-6 yrs old children The book shows that when the training on ECE is conducted. A handbook for 5-6 yrs old children. MECS. MECS & SFK (2009). Children will learn skills like feeding. “Learning with playing”” /0-12 months/ The handbook introduces a list of the sample and teaching aids for childcentered in class training and a methodology of conducting training that meets child’s needs and interest. Ulaanbaatar. 8. MEA (1999). 4. parents will get involved in their child‘s development. and students with a fine methodology and content on preschool education. MEA (2005). Save the Children Great Britain EU. Teachers’ regular activity and parent’s support also need to reflect the same. 3-6 yrs old children. Ulaanbaatar. family. parents. Mongolia A handbook for teachers and parents This handbook has 2 sections. 7. Do you know me? Advice to parents with 1-3 aged children. Early childhood development. Ulaanbaatar. The children’s section has exercised that are dedicated to develop skills such as listening to others. physical.
“Mobile teacher handbook -3yrs old”. brain development. MECS & SFK (2009). UB. A parents notebook on child development. “Mobile teacher handbook -5 yrs old”. UB. these books were published dedicating to herders with children with 3-4 and 5-6 yrs old.EU. Caritas Mongolia. UB. which covers age specific cognitive & physical development in line with preschool education standard. sample exercises. Mongolia MECS UNESCO Under National programme “Preshcool-2“. MECS. Mongolia European Union MECS Save the Children European Union MECS Save the Children Czech Technical Cooperation Agency. The book has note sheets that allow parents to observe their children’s speech. MECS. Lessons include teachers plan. interests and skills of 5 years old children of herders. UB. The books include exercises that support child development in line with their age and thinking features. “My book ” herders child with 3-4 yrs old. MECS and UNESCO (2002). 80 . Mongolia The book is for mobile teachers and parents. Manual on using “Мy book ”. and physical growth. Caritas. MECS MECS UNESCO EFA-FTI Based on the needs. Mongolia This notebook is dedicated for parents with children 3-4 age and their teachers. Mongolia MECS UNESCO The manual suggests recommendation on how to use the “My book”. “Мy book” herders child with 5-6 yrs old. UB. MECS & SFK (2008). who teach out of kindergarten 3 years old children. EU. and consultation for parents and tasks designed for both parents and children. UNESCO & EFA-FTI(2003). and Czech Technical Cooperation (2010). Mongolia MECS and UNESCO (2002). UB. the book was developed with 3 components.
Appendix 13: Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators 81 .
./… … … … … /… … .. Aimag S heet dis tributed Y ear/M on th/Day : … … … … … .... soum) within the last 6 years but had not yet been registered as a resident of the corresponding territory.. Non....R elated C hildren are those children that had migrated from other territories (aimag.1 Nu m b e r r e Number of n A m o n g Number of Ter ritory -Non-Related Children Number of Non..A pp endix . which locate in a territory different from their one's legal residence.R elated/ Registered C hildren are those children that have legal residence where kindergarten or place of alternative training is located.......Par ent Children N u Number of Orphan Children m Number of Dis abled Children b 2... of .......Regis ter ed Territory -Related Children Number of Herder s ' Children Children f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold Single.Par ent Children Orphan Children Dis abled Children o f C h ild r e n at Sh if t Gr o u p Ter ritory -Related/Regis tered Children Number of C h Number of i Number of l Number of d 2. These children may have attending alternative training while staying in their grandparents' and/ or relatives' place of residence.. Low... 82 T erritory...Regis ter ed Territory -Related Children Number of Herder s ' Children Number of Children f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total m alefem ale alefem ale alefem a le alefem a le alefem ale a lefem ale alefem ale m ale fem ale m m m m m m Number of Single...... ....Regis ter ed Territory -Related Children Number of Herder s ' Children Number of Children f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold Number of Single.......S o u m o f … … … … … … … … .3 Nu m b e r o f C h ild r e n at M o b ile T e ach e r T r ain in g Number of Ter ritory -Related/Regis tered Children Number of Ter ritory -Non-Related Children Number of Non. S um bitted: Y ear/M onth/D a ty : … … … … … . Nu m b e r o f C h ild r e n at A lt e r n ative T r ain in g e r Number of Ter ritory -Related/Regis tered Children o f Number of Ter ritory -Non-Related Children A m o n g Number of Non..Regis ter ed Territory -Related Children A m Number of Herder s ' Children o Number of Children f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold n g Number of Single.Kin d e r g ar te n Number of Ter ritory -Related/Regis tered Children Number of Ter ritory -Non-Related Children A m o n g Number of Non.R elated C hildren are those children that have been registered and live in territories other than kindergarten and/ or alternative ECE training conducted... Nu m b e r o f C h ild r e n at O r d in ar y Gr o u p Number of Ter ritory -Related/Regis tered Children Number of Ter ritory -Non-Related Children A m o n g Number of Non.. B a g h kin d e rg a rte n lo ca te d w ith in A g e o f Ch ild re n Sex 1.Par ent Children Number of Orphan Children Number of Children f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold Number of Dis abled Children 2.Par ent Children Number of Orphan Children Number of Dis abled Children Note: T erritory...Non..../… … … /… … … Data re gis te red: Y ear/M ont h/D ay : … … … … … .Regis ter ed Territory -Related Children Number of Herder s ' Children Number of Single......Registered T erritory.Par ent Children Number of Orphan Children Number of Dis abled Children 2./… … … … … /… … ...2 Nu m b e r o f C h ild r e n at Ge r .Income Household refers to household whose income satisfy basic survival requirement according to the " Minimum Subsistence Level of Population" defined by National Statistical Office.. N am e o f pe rs ons who filled o ut a s hee t: Job/pos itio ns : No /o r N a m e o f … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .-A D ata In fo rma tion o n C h ild re n in K in d e rg arte n N u mbe r/o r N a me ..
.....Related Children are those children that have been registered and live in territories other than kindergarten and/ or alternative ECE training conducted..Income Household refers to household whose income satisfy basic survival requirement according to the " Minimum Subsistence Level of Population" defined by National Statistical Office.../… … … … … /… … .../… … … … … /… … ./… … … … … /… … ...Registered Territory.. Nam e: S um bitted Y ear/M onth/Daty : … … … … … .................Soum of .Parent Children Number of Orphan Children Number of Childr en f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold Number of Dis abled Childr en Ch ildre n in ..../… … … … … /… … ...Parent Children Number of Orphan Children Number of Childr en f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold Number of Dis abled Childr en Ch ildre n in ../… … … … … /… … . ...../… … … … … /… … . Nam e: S um bitted Y ear/M onth/Daty : … … … … … .........Non-Related Childre n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tota l m a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a lem a le fe m a le m m m m m m A m o n g Number of Non-Regis tered Territor y -Related Childr en Number of Herder s ' Childr en Number of Single............./… … … … … /… … ..Ba gh Regis tered Y ear/M onth/Day : … … … … … ..Non-Related Childre n Regis tered Y ear/M onth/Day : … … … … … .../… … … … … /… … ...... Nam e: Data regis tered: Y ear/M onth/Day : … … … … … ........Related/Regis tered Children Number of Terr itory .../… … … … … /… … ...Ba gh Regis tered Y ear/M onth/Day : … … … … … ./… … … /… … … S um bitted: Y ear/M onth/Daty : … … … … … .B D ata Information on C hildre n in ..... Job/pos ition: Ag e of Ch ild re n Nu bm e r of Child re n Sex To ta l Nu m b e r o f Child re n in S O UM Number of Terr itory ....Related/Regis tered Children Number of Terr itory ........ Job/pos ition: Ag e of Ch ild re n Nu bm e r of Child re n Sex To ta l Nu m b e r o f Child re n in S O UM Number of Terr itory .. These children may have attending alternative training while staying in their grandparents' and/ or relatives' place of residence.. Territory....Related/ Registered Children are those children that have legal residence where kindergarten or place of alternative training is located............................Ba gh Regis tered Y ear/M onth/Day : … … … … … ...........Related/Regis tered Children Number of Terr itory ........Non...../… … … … … /… … . Nu bm e r of Child re n Sex To ta l Nu m b e r o f Child re n in S O UM Number of Terr itory .........Non-Related Childre n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tota l m a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a lem a le fe m a le m m m m m m A m o n g Number of Non-Regis tered Territor y -Related Childr en Number of Herder s ' Childr en Number of Single.................Non-Related Childre n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tota l m a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a lem a le fe m a le m m m m m m A m o n g Number of Non-Regis tered Territor y -Related Childr en Number of Herder s ' Childr en Number of Single............ Non. S um bitted Y ear/M onth/Daty : … … … … … ....Parent Children Number of Orphan Children Number of Childr en f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold Number of Dis abled Childr en Ch ildre n in ......... soum) within the last 6 years but had not yet been registered as a resident of the corresponding territory... Nam e: S um bitted Y ear/M onth/Daty : … … … … … .. Job/pos ition: Ag e of Ch ild re n Nu bm e r of Child re n Sex To ta l Nu m b e r o f Child re n in S O UM Number of Terr itory ......Related/Regis tered Children Number of Terr itory ...Related Children are those children that had migrated from other territories (aimag. which locate in a territory different from their one's legal residence.... Aimag S heet dis tributed Y ear/M onth/Day : … … … … … . Job/pos ition: Ag e of Ch ild re n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tota l m a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a le a lefe m a lem a le fe m a le m m m m m m A m o n g Number of Non-Regis tered Territor y -Related Childr en Number of Herder s ' Childr en Number of Single..A ppendix . Low..Parent Children Number of Orphan Children Number of Childr en f rom Low -Inc ome Hous ehold Number of Dis abled Childr en 83 Note: Territory....
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