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ELECTRONICS I BS Computer Engineering III Research Work
Techniques in biasing a Bipolar Junction Transistor. Different transistor packaging and electrodes identification. Sketch/draw.
The simplest biasing applies a base-bias resistor between the base and a base battery VBB. It is convenient to use the existing VCC supply instead of a new bias supply. Note the resistor from the base to the battery terminal. A similar circuit is shown in Figure below. Write a KVL (Kirchhoff’s voltage law) equation about the loop containing the battery, RB, and the VBE diode drop on the transistor in Figure below. Note that we use VBB for the base supply, even though it is actually VCC. If β is large we can make the approximation that IC =IE. For silicon transistors VBE≅0.7V.
Base-bias Silicon small signal transistors typically have a β in the range of 100-300. Assuming that we have a β=100 transistor, what value of base-bias resistor is required to yield an emitter current of 1mA? Solving the IE base-bias equation for RB and substituting β, VBB, VBE, and IE yields 930kΩ. The closest standard value is 910kΩ.
What is the emitter current with a 910kΩ resistor? What is the emitter current if we randomly get a β=300 transistor?
If the emitter current were to increase. The base-biased emitter current is not temperature stable. . decreases the emitter current. It should be approximately midway between VCC and ground. Collector-feedback Bias Variations in bias due to temperature and beta may be reduced by moving the VBB end of the base-bias resistor to the collector as in Figure below. Base-bias by its self is not suitable for high emitter currents. Find the collector voltage VC. for low level signals from micro-volts to a about a volt. Collector-feedback bias. RC . Write a KVL equation about the loop containing the battery. However. the voltage drop across RC increases. Find the required collector feedback bias resistor for an emitter current of 1 mA. Thermal run away is the result of high emitter current causing a temperature increase which causes an increase in emitter current. However. However. as used in power amplifiers. and the VBE drop. low level signals will not be clipped. correcting the original increase. decreasing VC. with a change in β from 100 to 300. which further increases temperature.The emitter current is little changed in using the standard value 910kΩ resistor. in turn. The bias point will still drift by a considerable amount . This.7K collector load resistor. the emitter current has tripled. the bias point can be centered for a β of square root of (100·300)=173. This is not acceptable in a power amplifier if we expect the collector voltage to swing from near VCC to near ground. Solving for IE yields the IE CFB-bias equation. a 4. Substitute IC≅IE and IB≅IE/β. Solving for IB yields the IB CFB-bias equation. and a transistor with β=100 . decreasing IB fed back to the base. RB .
This opposes a change in emitter current IE due to temperature changes. beta variation. power supply— 5%. the end closest to the (+) terminal it (+). Emitter-bias Inserting a resistor RE in the emitter circuit as in Figure below causes degeneration. Recalculate the emitter current for a transistor with β=100 and β=300. the emitter current increases from 0. This decreasing emitter current partially compensates the original increase. resistor tolerances. This is an improvement over the previous base-bias circuit which had an increase from 1.989mA to 1. decreasing the base current. Collector feedback bias is twice as stable as base-bias with respect to beta variation. Why might the emitter resistor stabilize a change in current? The polarity of the voltage drop across RE is due to the collector battery VCC. The end of the resistor closest to the (-) battery terminal is (-).02mA to 3. Find the emitter current I E with the 470 K resistor.07mA. Note that the (-) end of R E is connected via VBB battery and RB to the base. also known as negative feedback. Typical tolerances are as follows: resistor— 5%. or power supply tolerance. Any increase in current flow through R E will increase the magnitude of negative voltage applied to the base circuit. beta— 100-300. We see that as beta changes from 100 to 300.The closest standard value to the 460k collector feedback bias resistor is 470k. decreasing the emitter current. .48mA.
48mA . Choose a standard value resistor. it could be set higher to compensate for the voltage drop across the emitter resistor RE. For β=300 the emitter currents are shown in Table below. we write the KVL equation for the loop through the base-emitter circuit. Though. we need to choose values for RC and RE . Compare the stabilization of the current to prior bias circuits. Normally the bias point for VC is set to half of VCC. RC is related to the collector supply VCC and the desired collector current IC which we assume is approximately the emitter current IE.989m 1. At β=100. It could range from micro-Amps to Amps depending on the application and transistor rating. β=300. Emitter current comparison for β=100. An emitter resistor which is 10-50% of the collector load resistor usually works well. Calculate the emitter current for β=100 and β=300. Figure above. Meanwhile.02mA 3. We choose IC = 1mA. paying attention to the polarities on the components. Before applying the equations: RB emitter-bias and IE emitter-bias.01mA. Determine the required value of base-bias resistor RB. Bias circuit base-bias collector IC IC β=100 β=300 1. typical of a small-signal transistor circuit.Emitter-bias Note that base-bias battery VBB is used instead of VCC to bias the base in Figure above. Figure above. We substitute IB≅IE/β and solve for emitter current IE. The collector current is whatever we require or choose. Later we will show that the emitter-bias is more effective with a lower base bias battery. IE is 1.07mA feedback 0. This equation can be solved for RB . An 883k resistor was calculated for RB. an 870k chosen. We calculate a value for R C and choose a close standard value. equation: RB emitterbias. Our first example sets the base-bias supply to high at VBB = VCC = 10V to show why a lower voltage is desirable.
. VBB=10V A 1. Bias circuit base-bias collector bias IC IC β=100 β=300 1. The calculated base resistor of 83k is much lower than the previous 883k.bias emitter-bias.01mA 2. β=300. not by much. that is emitter current times emitter resistor: I ERE = (1mA) (470) = 0.02mA 3. we double the emitter resistor to the nearest standard value of 910Ω.7)V or >1. We choose 82k from the list of standard values.47V. we need a VBB >(0. not as good as the 1. How much emitter bias do we Have? Rounding.75mA emitter-bias.76mA 1. emitter-bias does not do a very good job of stabilizing the emitter current.48mA A 1. A good value for VB >1.75mA.7V.causing a correction to base current IB and emitter current IE.17V is 2V. Emitter current comparison for β=100. The key to effective emitter bias is lowering the base supply VBB nearer to the amount of emitter bias.76mA Table above shows that for VBB = 10V.07mA feedback 0. this number will change compared with the fixed base supply VBB. As an example. but.989m 1. VBB=2V How can we improve the performance of emitter-bias? Either increase the emitter resistor R B or decrease the base-bias supply VBB or both.17V. we see considerable improvement at 1. we need to overcome the VBE = 0. Thus. VBB=10V emitter-bias. In addition.48mA of collector feedback.01mA 1. The emitter-bias example is better than the previous base-bias example.47 + 0. though.01mA 2. If emitter current deviates. The emitter currents with the 82k RB for β=100 and β=300 are: Comparing the emitter currents for emitter-bias with VBB = 2V at β=100 and β=300 to the previous bias circuit examples in Table below.
5V. β=300. Bias circuit IC IC β=100 β=300 . For β = 300.01mA 2. RB=910 VBB=2V. Emitter current comparison for β=100.989m 1.07mA 0.01mA 1. Emitter current comparison for β=100. β=300. VBB=2V.76mA 1. IC IC β=100 β=300 1. VBB=10V emitter-bias. it is: The performance of the emitter-bias circuit with a 910 emitter resistor is much improved. and the base-bias supply reduced to 1.02mA 3. The 33k base resistor is a standard value.38mA to the previous examples. Bias circuit base-bias collector feedback bias emitter-bias. See Table below. No need to recalculate IE for β = 100.00mA 1.25mA As an exercise. RB=470 emitter-bias. emitter current at β = 100 is OK.75mA 1.48mA A 1. The emitter current at β = 300 is: Table below below compares the exercise results 1mA and 1. rework the emitter-bias example with the base resistor reverted back to 470Ω.The calculated RB = 39k is a standard value resistor.
respectively in Figure above. IE = emitter current m = varies from 1 to 2 for Silicon REE ≅ 0. The internal emitter resistance is the resistance in the emitter circuit contained within the transistor package. substituting RE with REE+RE.38×10-23 watt-sec/oC.base-bias collector feedback bias emitter-bias.989m 1.01mA 2. Derivation of REE REE = KT/IEm where: K=1.. 1.07mA 0. VBB=10V emitter-bias. Alternatively. RB=470 emitter-bias.00mA 1. The value of internal resistance RE is a function of emitter current IE. This internal resistance REE is significant when the (external) emitter resistor RE is small.01mA 1.75mA 1.5V. start with equations IE emitter-bias and RB emitter-bias in Figure previous. The more accurate emitter-bias equations in Figure above may be derived by writing a KVL equation. Redo the RB calculation in the previous example emitter-bias with the inclusion of REE and compare the results.00mA 1. RB=910 emitter-bias.76mA 1. The result is equations IE EB and RB EB. Table below. Emitter-bias equations with internal emitter resistance REE included. . VBB=2V. Boltzman's constant T= temperature in Kelvins ≅300.38mA The emitter-bias equations have been repeated in Figure below with the internal emitter resistance included for better accuracy.25mA 1.026V/IE = 26mV/IE For reference the 26mV approximation is listed as equation REE in Figure below.48mA A 1. RB=470 VBB=2V. VBB=1. or even zero.02mA 3.
It falls below the standard value 82k resistor instead of above it. For an audio amplifier extending down to 20Hz it will be large. This restores the AC gain since the capacitor is a short for AC signals. Cbypass is required to prevent AC gain reduction. thus. What value should the bypass capacitor be? That depends on the lowest frequency to be amplified. The capacitor should be designed to accommodate the lowest frequency being amplified.) This degeneration severely reduces the gain from base to collector.4k Bypass Capacitor for RE One problem with emitter bias is that a considerable part of the output signal is dropped across the emitter resistor RE (Figure below). A “rule of thumb” for the bypass capacitor is that the reactance should be 1/10 of the emitter resistance or less. This voltage drop across the emitter resistor is in series with the base and of opposite polarity compared with the input signal. The capacitor for an audio amplifier covering 20Hz to 20kHz would be: . (This is similar to a common collector configuration having <1 gain. The DC emitter current still experiences degeneration in the emitter resistor. The solution for AC signal amplifiers is to bypass the emitter resistor with a capacitor. For radio frequencies Cbpass would be small.The inclusion of REE in the calculation results in a lower value of the base resistor R B a shown in Table below. stabilizing the DC current. Effect of inclusion of REE on calculated RB REE? Without REE REE Value 83k With REE 80.
[TK1] The steps are shown graphically in Figure below. Draw the voltage divider without assigning values. Then convert it to the voltage divider bias configuration by using Thevenin's Theorem.) Apply Thevenin's Theorem to yield a single Thevenin equivalent resistance Rth and voltage source Vth. Thevenin's Theorem converts voltage divider to single supply Vth and resistance Vth.Note that the internal emitter resistance REE is not bypassed by the bypass capacitor. . Break the divider loose from the base. (The base of the transistor is the load. The alternative to a base supply VBB is a voltage divider based on the collector supply VCC. Voltage Divider bias replaces base battery with voltage divider. Figure below. The design technique is to first work out an emitter-bias design. Voltage Divider Bias Stable emitter bias requires a low voltage base bias supply.
Vcc. VBB . Convert this previous emitter-bias example to voltage divider bias.The Thevenin equivalent resistance is the resistance from load point (arrow) with the battery (V CC) reduced to 0 (ground). This calculation is by the voltage divider ratio method. The equation for R2 is in terms of R1 and Rth. The equation of R1 is in terms of known quantities Rth. RB yields R1 and R2 for the voltage divider bias configuration. R1||R2. Emitter-bias example converted to voltage divider bias. Note that Rth is RB .The Thevenin equivalent voltage is the open circuit voltage (load removed). R1 is obtained by eliminating R2 from the pair of equations for Rth and Vth. In other words. the bias resistor from the emitter-bias design. These values were previously selected or calculated for an emitter-bias example Substituting VCC . . Vth.
Problem: Calculate the bias resistors for the cascode amplifier in Figure below.5-0. VB1 is a fairly high voltage at 11. Bias for a cascode amplifier.8k is 39k. the common-base stage is the load. The closest standard value for R2 corresponding to 38. .7=10. for the common-emitter stage's collector. We desire a 1mA emitter current.) That is.8V.5 because we want the common-base stage to hold the emitter at 11. VB2 is the bias voltage for the common emitter stage. (It will be 10V after accounting for the voltage drop across RB1 . substitute for a resistor. This does not change IE enough for us to calculate it. about 11V.R1 is a standard value of 220K. Problem: Convert the base bias resistors for the cascode amplifier to voltage divider bias resistors driven by the VCC of 20V.
Note that the pin-outs of plastic transistors can vary within a single package type. any of which may be used to house a bipolar transistor. Figure below shows several standardized package types for three-terminal semiconductor devices. Package type is primarily dependent upon the required power dissipation of the transistor.g. . much like resistors: the greater the maximum power dissipation. or subjecting it to a set of electrical tests. the larger the device has to be to stay cool. It is impossible to positively identify a three-terminal semiconductor device without referencing the part number printed on it. e.Bipolar transistors come in a wide variety of physical packages. TO-92 in Figure below. There are many other semiconductor devices other than bipolar transistors which have three connection points.
The dissipation ratings listed in Figure above are the maximum ever encountered by the author for high powered devices. not shown. Consult specific device datasheets for actual ratings. dimensions in mm. approaching the dissipation of the all metal TO-3. and the TO-3 case are connected to the collector. . The metal cans. The datasheet ratings for the power packages are only valid when mounted to a heatsink. The semiconductor die in the TO-220 and TO-247 plastic packages is mounted to a heat conductive metal slug which transfers heat from the back of the package to a metal heatsink. A thin coating of thermally conductive grease is applied to the metal before mounting the transistor to the heatsink. Since the TO-220 and TO-247 slugs. Plastic power transistor packages like the TO-220 and TO-247 dissipate well over 100 watts. a TO-220 dissipates approximately 1 watt safely in free air. Most power transistors are rated at half or less than the listed wattage. several hundred milliwatts. Without a heatsink. it is sometimes necessary to electrically isolate these from a grounded heatsink by an interposed mica or polymer washer. Small plastic transistor packages like the TO-92 can dissipate a few hundred milliwatts. TO18 and TO-39 can dissipate more power.Transistor packages.
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