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Lloyd’s Register Rulefinder 2010 – Version 9.14 Rulefinder Version 9.14 (July 2010) - Lloyd’s Register Rules and Regulations - Rules for the Manufacture, Testing and Certification of Materials, July 2010 - Steel Castings - General requirements

Section 1 General requirements
1.1 Scope
1.1.1. This Section gives the general requirements for steel castings intended for use in the construction of ships, other marine structures, machinery, boilers, pressure vessels and piping systems. 1.1.2. Where required by the relevant Rules dealing with design and construction, castings are to be manufactured and tested in accordance with Chapters 1 and 2, together with the general requirements given in this Section and the appropriate specific requirements given in Sections 2 to 9. 1.1.3. As an alternative to 1.1.2, castings which comply with National or proprietary specifications may be accepted provided that these specifications give reasonable equivalence to the requirements of this Chapter or alternatively are approved for a specific application. Generally, survey and certification are to be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 1. 1.1.4. Where small castings are produced in large quantities, or where castings of the same type are produced in regular quantities, alternative survey procedures, in accordance with Ch 1,2.4, may be adopted.

1.2 Manufacture
1.2.1. Castings are to be made at foundries approved by LR. The steel used is to be manufactured by a process approved by Lloyd’s Register (hereinafter referred as ’LR’). 1.2.2. All flame cutting, scarfing or arc-air gouging to remove surplus metal is to be undertaken in accordance with recognised good practice and is to be carried out before the final heat treatment. Preheating is to be employed where necessitated by the chemical composition and/or thickness of the casting. The affected areas are to be either machined or ground smooth for a depth of about 2 mm unless it has been shown that the material has not been damaged by the cutting process. Special examination will be required to find any cracking in way of the cut surfaces. 1.2.3. Where two or more castings are joined by welding to form a composite item, details of the proposed welding procedure are to be submitted for approval. Welding approval procedure tests will be required, see also the requirements of 1.9.

1.3 Quality of castings
1.3.1. All castings are to be free from surface or internal defects which would be prejudicial to their proper application in service. The surface finish is to be in accordance with good practice and any specific requirements of the approved specification. 1.3.2. The surfaces are not to be hammered, peened or treated in any way which may obscure defects. 1.3.3. The locations of all chaplets are to be noted and to be subject to close visual inspection (and when necessary ultrasonic examination) to ensure complete fusion.

1.4 Chemical composition
1.4.1. All castings are to be made from killed steel. The chemical composition of the ladle sample is to be within the limits given in the relevant Section of this Chapter. Where general overall limits are specified, the chemical composition is to be appropriate for the type of steel, dimensions and required mechanical properties of the castings. 1.4.2. Except where otherwise specified, suitable grain refining elements may be used at the discretion of the manufacturer. The content of such elements is to be reported in the ladle analysis.

1.5 Heat treatment
1.5.1. All castings are to be heat treated in accordance with the requirements given in the relevant Section of this Chapter. 1.5.2. Heat treatment is to be carried out in a properly constructed furnace which is efficiently maintained and has adequate means of temperature control and is fitted with pyrometers which measure and record the temperature of the furnace charge. The furnace dimensions are to be such as to allow the whole furnace charge to be uniformly heated to

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1.. 1. At least one test sample is to be provided for each batch of castings. the heat treatment temperature and time at temperature and the date.8.6.Page 2 of 5 the necessary temperature. unless more specific requirements for non-destructive examination are included in subsequent Sections of this Chapter. All castings are to be presented to the Surveyor for visual examination. other parts of the Rules or the agreed specification. All castings are to be cleaned and adequately prepared for inspection. The manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a signed report confirming that non-destructive examination has been carried out and that such inspection has not revealed any significant defects. 1. see Section 8) in accordance with 1.6.7. Tensile test specimens are to have a cross-sectional area of not less than 150 mm2. using separately cast test samples of suitable dimensions. a batch testing procedure may be adopted. The surfaces are not to be hammered.6.6.7. 1.3. where a number of small castings of about the same size.4.2.7 Visual and non-destructive examination 1. Copies of these records are to be presented to the Surveyor together with a sketch showing the positions at which the temperature measurements were carried out. 1.6. alternative methods will be specially considered.1. the accuracy and verification of dimensions are the responsibility of the manufacturer. As an alternative. Where applicable. Where specified or required by the Rules non-destructive examination is to be carried out before acceptance.. Test material sufficient for the tests specified in Sections 2 to 9 and for possible re-test purposes is to be provided for each casting.5.7. As an alternative to 1.7. castings may be examined in accordance with a National Specification. In the case of very large components which require heat treatment. provided it gives reasonable equivalence to these Rules. This Section gives the general requirements for non-destructive examination of steel castings. The test specimens are to be prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 2. magnetic particle or dye penetrant testing is to be carried out by the manufacturer whenever appropriate and also when the castings are in the finished condition. Unless otherwise agreed.3. 1. or any straightening operation is performed after the final heat treatment.5. 1. Prods are not permitted on finished machined surfaces. The dry powder method is not acceptable for the final inspection. 1. The test samples are not to be detached from the casting until the heat treatment specified in 1. The Surveyor is to examine the charts and confirm the details on the certificate.1 has been completed and they have been properly identified. 1.4. Castings are to be subject to magnetic particle examination or dye penetrant inspection (for austenitic stainless steel castings. Materials and NDE department.14\Rulefind. a subsequent stress relieving heat treatment may be required in order to avoid the possibility of harmful residual stresses. Where magnetic particle examination is specified or required. Where required.2.7. peened or treated in any way which may obscure defects. Suitable methods include pickling. 1. 1.1 and 1. local grinding. 1.6. The test samples are to be either integrally cast or gated to the casting and are to have a thickness of not less than 30 mm.5. Alternative procedures are to be approved by LR.9. each of which is under 1000 kg in mass. this is to include the examination of internal surfaces. Sufficient thermocouples are to be connected to the furnace charge to show that its temperature is adequately uniform and the temperatures are to be recorded throughout the heat treatment.5.3.6. wire brushing. 1. If a casting is locally reheated. 26/10/2010 . The tests are to be made in the presence of the Surveyor unless otherwise specially agreed.7.7. caustic cleaning.7. 1. shot or sand blasting.6 Test material and test specimens 1.7.6. 1. All tests are to be in accordance with the requirements of Ch 1. 1. The records are to identify the furnace that was used and give details of the charge. The castings are to be examined in the following areas: mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9. this is to be carried out using a suspension of magnetic particles in a suitable fluid.4. The test samples are to be properly identified and heat treated together with the castings which they represent.9. are made from one cast and heat treated in the same furnace charge.1. Re-test procedures are to be in accordance with Ch 2.

2 are to be applied where no specific acceptance criteria are stated in the subsequent Sections of this Chapter. At positions which may be subjected to high stresses in service.12. 1. In the event of any casting proving to be defective during subsequent machining or testing it is to be rejected notwithstanding any previous certification. ultrasonic examination is to be carried out by the manufacturer.4. 1. Where required by subsequent Sections or by the agreed specification. At positions where subsequent machining may expose filamentary shrinkage or other defects (e. for a distance not less than 50 mm from the edge. 1. In way of fabrication weld preparations.8. At positions where surplus metal has been removed by flame cutting. 1. 26/10/2010 . At positions where experience shows that significant internal defects may occur: these are to be agreed between the manufacturer and the Surveyor.11. The Surveyor is to satisfy himself that the number.9.5.2. bearing bores). When unacceptable defects are found in a casting. be accepted provided that they will cause no appreciable reduction in the strength of the castings and that they are suitably blended by grinding. 1.7. (b). scarfing or arc-air gouging.. Radiographic examination. In way of riser positions. Flamescarfing or arc-air gouging may also be used provided that preheating is employed when necessary and that the surfaces of the resulting excavation are subsequently ground smooth.2 are to apply. Where flame scarfing or arc-air gouging is used.. At other positions agreed with the Surveyor to include areas which may be subjected to high stress in service. where required.14\Rulefind. is to be carried out by the manufacturer in areas generally as indicated for ultrasonic examination in 1. but Surveyors may request to be present in order to verify that the examination is carried out in accordance with the agreed procedure.10. Where required by the relevant Rules. In way of welds. (f).7.3. (d). for a distance not less than 50 mm from the edge. bolt holes.1.10. 1. (e). 1.Page 3 of 5 (a). In way of welding.9 Rectification and dressing of castings 1. the requirements detailed in 1. Grinding wheels for use on austenitic stainless steels are to be of an iron-free type and shall have been used only on stainless steels.7. (d). castings are to be pressure tested in the final machined condition before final acceptance.9. (b). All radiographs are to be submitted to the Surveyor for examination and acceptance. All proposals to repair a defective casting by welding are to be submitted to the Surveyor before this work is commenced. position and size of the defects are such that the mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9.g. In way of fabrication weld preparations. These tests are to be carried out in the presence of the Surveyors and are to be to their satisfaction.8 Pressure testing 1. (e). Complete elimination of the defective material is to be proven by adequate non-destructive examination. at the discretion of the Surveyor. as agreed with the Surveyor.7. (f). Complete elimination of the defective material is to be verified by magnetic particle or dye penetrant testing. 1. (c). The radiographic technique and acceptance standards are to be to the satisfaction of the Surveyor and in accordance with any requirements of the approved specification. In way of chaplets. 1. (c). Shallow grooves or excavations resulting from the removal of defects may.7. This examination is to be carried out in the following areas: (a). The general acceptance criteria given in 2. these are to be removed by machining or chipping. At all accessible fillets and changes of section.2.

1.7.10. Castings in carbon-manganese steels may also be required to be preheated.12. The Surveyor is to attend at these inspections.9.2. or liquid penetrant testing.1. the dimensions. 1.14\Rulefind. all castings which have been tested and inspected with satisfactory results are to be clearly marked by the manufacturer with the following particulars: (a). As far as possible.9.16.9. Where welding is required. A statement and/or sketch detailing the extent and position of all welds is to be prepared by the manufacturer. see 4.9.10. The use of low hydrogen type welding consumables is preferred.Page 4 of 5 casting can be effectively repaired.9. 1. the manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a written statement that this is the case. or a stress relieving heat treatment at a temperature of not less than 550°C.. Tables 13.9.9. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9. all welding is to be carried out in the downhand (flat) position. as appropriate.2. all welds and adjacent material are to be ground smooth and examined by magnetic particle. The type of heat treatment required will be dependent on the chemical composition of the casting and the dimensions.9.9.14. Special consideration may be given to a local stress relieving heat treatment where both the welded area is small and machining of the casting has reached an advanced stage but prior agreement is to be obtained from LR in writing.8.6. The foundry is to maintain full records detailing the weld procedure.13.9. The manufacturer is to adopt a system of identification. Copies of these sketches are to be submitted to LR. and the Surveyor is to be given full facilities to trace the castings when required. which will enable all finished castings to be traced to the original cast. 1. and the results of these tests are to be presented to the Surveyor. and copies are to be attached to the certificates for the castings. 1. the castings are to be given the heat treatment specified in Sections 2 to 9.11. 1. Before acceptance. Welding is to be carried out under cover. giving a weld deposit with mechanical properties similar and in no way inferior to those of the parent castings. depending on their chemical composition. 1. After welding is completed.. On completion of heat treatment. 1.15.6 in Chapter 13. For rectification of defective steel castings for crankshafts. to witness the results of magnetic particle or liquid penetrant examination and to examine any radiographs. 1. 1.9. Manufacturer’s name or trade mark. cast number or other marking which will enable the full history of the casting to be traced. a grain refining heat treatment is to be given to the whole casting prior to carrying out welding unless agreed otherwise with the Surveyor. after final preparation for welding. Where no welding has been made on a casting. Identification number. 1. The welding procedure is to be such that residual stresses are minimised.10. All welding is to be carried out by an approved welder and in accordance with an approved welding procedure which includes the features referred to in 1.10 Identification of castings 1.9.9. heat treatment and the extent and location of all welds made to each casting.5. positions and nature of the repairs. (b). 1. 1. The acceptance criteria for the NDE of welds are to be in accordance with subsequent Sections of this Chapter or where these do not exist. 1. 1.6 to 1. Grain refining heat treatment requires heating above the upper critical temperature. Any excavations are to be of suitable shape to allow good access for welding and. Welding procedure tests are to be carried out by the manufacturer to demonstrate that satisfactory mechanical properties can be obtained after heat treatment as detailed in 1. The welding consumables used are to be of an appropriate composition. Satisfactory results are to be obtained from all forms of non-destructive examination used. are to be re-examined by suitable non-destructive testing methods to ensure that all defective material has been eliminated. and copies of individual records are to be supplied to the Surveyor on request.17. All castings in alloy steels other than austenitic and duplex stainless steels are to be suitably preheated prior to welding.13.9.4 to 13.7. ultrasonic or radiographic examination. These records are to be available for review by the Surveyor.12.2. configuration and positions of the welds. 26/10/2010 .9.9.9. in positions free from draughts and adverse weather conditions.

Test pressure. individually and collectively. 1. damage or expense caused by reliance on the information or advice in this document or howsoever provided. referred to in this clause as the 'Lloyd's Register Group'. Personal stamp of Surveyor responsible for inspection. (d). A LR certificate is to be issued. (b). Results of mechanical tests. Lloyd's Register. 1. where applicable.2.7.Page 5 of 5 (c). see Ch 1. Where applicable. modified arrangements for identification may be specially agreed with the Surveyor.9. Purchaser’s name and order number. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Lloyd's%20Register\Rulefinder\9. Date of final inspection. (f).3.3.11. Test pressure. cast number. The Lloyd's Register Group assumes no responsibility and shall not be liable to any person for any loss.. (e).5 or the statement detailed in 1. where applicable. General details of heat treatment including the temperature and time at temperature. All rights reserved. 1. (c).1. employees or agents are. Identification number. Where small castings are manufactured in large numbers. the chemical analysis of the product or test bar. LR or Lloyd’s Register and the abbreviated name of LR’s local office. (g).11. the manufacturer is to provide a signed report regarding non-destructive examination as required by 1.1.7 together with a statement and/or a sketch detailing the extent and position of all weld repairs made to each casting as required by 1. 1. The manufacturer is to provide the Surveyor with a written statement giving the following particulars for each casting or batch of castings which has been accepted: (a). unless that person has signed a contract with the relevant Lloyd's Register Group entity for the provision of this information or advice and in that case any responsibility or liability is exclusively on the terms and conditions set out in that contract. International Maritime Organization. Description of castings and steel grade. (d). Steel making process. chemical analysis of ladle samples and. its affiliates and subsidiaries and their respective officers. 26/10/2010 . in the case of the Special grade (see Section 2).14\Rulefind.3.11 Certification of materials 1. International Labour Organization or Maritime and Coastguard Agency. (f). (e).. Copyright 2010 Lloyd's Register.

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