Siddhartha Sen

Roll Number: 581117638

MBA- III Semester
MB0050 – Research Methodology - 4 Credits Assignment Set - 1 Q1. Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Ans: The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems. 1) Research extends knowledge of human beings, social life and environment. The search is for answers for various types of questions: What, Where, When, How and Why of various phenomena, and enlighten us. 2) Research brings to light information that might never be discovered fully during the ordinary course of life. 3) Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge. 4) Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory and these help improving our knowledge and ability to handle situations and events. 5) General laws developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen. 6) Research aims to analyze inter-relationships between variables and to derive causal explanations: and thus enables us to have a better understanding of the world in which we live. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research Secondary research

Siddhartha Sen

Roll Number: 581117638

In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers. Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee “more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share. Q2. a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. b. Briefly explain Independent dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Ans: a) Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. As such the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem, broadly defined initially, is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies, which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevant data. Generally, the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about: 1. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. It may also be considered whether the already stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis. In this way the researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases where hypothesis have not yet been formulated, his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. Besides, the bibliographical survey of studies, already made in one’s area of interest may as well as made by the researcher for precisely formulating the problem. He should also make an attempt to apply concepts and theories developed in different research contexts to the area in which he is himself working.

or some other approach may be adopted. the unstructured interviewing may take place. may be examined. For such a survey. This will also give an opportunity to the respondents for doing some advance thinking over the various issues involved so that. In general. the reactions of individuals from different social strata and the like. at the time of interview. the experience of collecting interview is likely to be long and may last for few hours. Experience indicates that for particular problems certain types of instances are more appropriate than others. Attitude of the investigator. Generally. The object of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in the formulation of the research hypothesis. the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights. This. 2. The researcher must prepare an interview schedule for the systematic questioning of informants. The respondents so selected may then be interviewed by the investigator. weight. it is often considered desirable to send a copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondents well in advance. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the . if nay. like height. b) Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. Thus. However. income. 3. what sorts of examples are to be selected and studied? There is no clear cut answer to it. survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research. in an exploratory of formulative research study which merely leads to insights or hypothesis. the only thing essential is that it must continue to remain flexible so that many different facets of a problem may be considered as and when they arise and come to the notice of the researcher. Analyses of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples are also a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research. Hence. the study of individuals who are in transition from one stage to another. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. This method consists of the intensive study of selected instance of the phenomenon in which one is interested. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different types of experience.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 Sometimes the works of creative writers also provide a fertile ground for hypothesis formulation as such may be looked into by the researcher. For this purpose the existing records. etc. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. The concept may assume different quantitative values. But the interview must ensure flexibility in the sense that the respondents should be allowed to raise issues and questions which the investigator has not previously considered. cases that provide sharp contrasts or have striking features are considered relatively more useful while adopting this method of hypothesis formulation. they may be able to contribute effectively. the reactions of marginal individuals. Now. whatever method or research design outlined above is adopted. Thus. One can mention few examples of „insight-stimulating‟ cases such as the reactions of strangers.

where as the number of children is a non-continuous variable. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an “experimental error”. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. more variables determine demand. In this context. they are done in a different manner and produce different results. while price is the independent variable. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. Ans: A survey is a commonly used method of sampling the population on various issues to find out what the majority of people think. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. then demand is a dependent variable. like income and prices of substitute commodity. income and price of substitute. Then.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 attribute considered. For example. This is often done by companies to find out how consumers feel about products or services. they are also known as “discrete variable”. And if. Q3. intelligence may also influence the school performance. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as “continuous variables”. a. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. it would be known as an extraneous variable. with two of the most popular types being a census survey and a sample survey. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. In statistical term. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘Sample Survey’. It takes a lot more time to complete because information needs to be gathered about every single person. The choice of which survey to use often depends on how much time is available. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called “non-continuous variables”. if demand depends upon price. However. age is a continuous variable. . assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts. Surveys are carried out all over the world. For example. Although both of these kinds of surveys are similar. the dependent variable. A sample is portion of the population of a specific location and a census is refers to everyone in the population. Therefore. A sample survey is only done on a small number of the people and the results are then analyzed and extended to the population as a whole. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. as well as on other circumstances. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. all variables need not be continuous. This means that a census survey is much larger in scope than a sample survey. b. For instance. But.

The process is expensive and timeconsuming because a large number of people are involved in collecting the information and policies have to be formulated so that they apply to the general population. it has to count every person. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First. at each stage. a sample survey that uses a number of cancer patients would suffice and the result would be generalized according to the ratio of those surveyed to the total number of patients. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. There is a margin of error in a sample survey. A sample survey uses a portion of the population. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. time –consuming and expensive. In order for the government to know how many people live in the country. In this case a sample survey would not produce the desired results. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. In a multi-stage sampling.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 Census surveys are usually carried out by governments. However. the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from . called multi-phase sampling.. they cannot be eliminated entirely. if the government wanted to find out how many cancer patients would be interested in a specific program. Sub-sampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. This is also known as sequential sampling. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. Every individual is surveyed in a census survey. b) Multi-stage sampling: In multi-stage sampling method. A census survey is accurate because it involves everyone. cost and sampling errors. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes.e. A census survey is very broad. it is then. A sample survey is used when it is not feasible to do a census survey. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. Errors do occur in a sample survey and although they can be minimized. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. That is. Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process. Sequential Sampling: Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. Summary Two ways of gathering information from people is through a sample survey and a census survey. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit.

The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data: a) Central tendency b) Dispersion c) Skew ness d) Kurtosis In a data distribution. In this distribution. If x1 x2 x3… xn are the values of a series. in a mark distribution. Such a tendency of the data to concentrate to the central position of the distribution is called central tendency. geometric mean and harmonic mean are mathematical averages. 1. Mathematical averages 2. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. For instance. These statistical measures try to understand how individual values in a distribution concentrate to a central value like average. Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. It is the value obtained by dividing the sum of the item by the number of items in a series. Q4. i. Arithmetic Mean Arithmetic mean is the most commonly used statistical average. the individual items may have a tendency to come to a central position or an average value.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. then arithmetic mean of the series obtained by . List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Ans: Analysis of data involves understanding of the characteristics of the data. Instead. Symbolically we say Arithmetic mean = ΣX/n Where ΣX = the sum of the item N = the number of items in the series. which are near to the average marks.e. 50. Median and mode are positional averages. Averages are classified into two groups. the individual students may score marks between zero and hundred. If the values of distribution approximately come near to the average value. Positional averages Statistical Averages Mathematical averages Arithmetic mean Geometric mean Harmonic mean Positional averages Median Mode Arithmetic mean. we conclude that the distribution has central tendency. many students may score marks.

and f1 f2 f3… fn are their corresponding frequencies. GM = n 2 1 . Σfx = sum the values multiplied by the corresponding frequency. we take the square root.. the values are first multiplied with the corresponding frequency.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 (x1 + x2 + x3… +xn) / n. x2. there occur equal number of values to the left and right of the median. Thus in a discrete series.xn are the items of the given series. if there are three items we take the cube root. and so on. then arithmetic mean = ΣX/n When frequencies are also given with the values.x . In individual series. To simplify calculations. we take the average of these two values as median. . Individual series Median = (N+ 1 / 2) th item . logarithms are used.. log x / Σf Harmonic Mean In individual series HM = N / Σ (1/x) In discrete series HM = N / Σf (1/m) N = Total frequency M = Mi values of the class Median Median is the middlemost item of a given series. Σf = sum of the frequency If x1 x2 x3… xn are the values of a series. Then their sum is divided by the number of frequency. GM = Anti log of (Σlog x /n) In discrete series GM = Anti log of Σf . we arrange the given data according to ascending or descending order and take the middlemost item as the median. Symbolically. When two values occur in the middle.x x n Where x1. Since median is the central value of an ordered distribution. Arithmetic mean = Σfx/ Σf Where. Accordingly. arithmetic mean is calculated by the following formula. If put (x1 + x2 + x3… +xn) = ΣX. If there are two items in the data.. to calculate arithmetic mean. Arithmetic mean is calculated by (f1 x1 + f2 x2 + f3x3… + fn xn) / (f1 + f2 + f3… + fn) or Arithmetic mean = Σfx / Σf Geometric Mean Geometric mean is defined as the nth root of the product of N items of a series.

which are analyzed with statistical techniques. cities. knowledge. occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development. Q. testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. race. districts. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Model shoe size is the mostly demanded shoe. We speak of model wage which is the wage earned by most of the workers.. objectives. religion. the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. intentions. Hence. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables. Without an analysis of factual data. mode is ill defined. sex. etc. ownership. Under such case. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. 3. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions.5. the importance of data for any research studies. marital status. state and the nation. the scientific process of measurements. no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study.. Behavioral variables: Attitudes. Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e. awareness. population. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. opinions. Ans: For performing research on the literacy levels among families. 4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of: 1. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.g. The relevance.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 Mode Mode is the most repeating value of a distribution. of spatial divisions like villages. etc. resource endowment. occupation income. education. talluks. mode is calculated by the formula (3 median – 2 mean). More specifically the primary sources of data collection are suggested in this regard. performance and growth. functions. When one item repeats more number of times than other or when two items repeat equal number of times. Mode is a widely used measure of central tendency in business. Thus. brand preference. practice. The sources of data may be classified into (a) Primary sources (b) Secondary sources. 2. resources. family size. social class. analysis. brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior from a . location of the household life style etc.

Advantage of Primary Data • It is original source of data • It is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities.. primary data have to be gathered. annual reports and financial statements of companies.. Secondary sources consist of not only .. Reports of Government Departments.V. 4. farm managements studies. It is time consuming 3. The important methods are (a) observation. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e. a tool is an instruments used for the method. publications of international organizations such as UNO. There are various methods of data collection. IMF. Reports of the National sample survey Organization. census reports . In this case.g. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation. mailing etc. Yet. the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs. he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. In such cases where the available data are inappropriate. Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. World Bank. radio listening and T. It is difficult to administer. Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. published by the NABARD. They include: socio economic surveys. Methods of Collecting Primary Data Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. Marketing research. Primary data is expensive to obtain 2. • Extensive research study is based of primary data Disadvantage of Primary Data 1. readership.(e) simulation and (f) projective technique. a schedule is used for interviewing. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. leadership studies. WHO. etc. ILO.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 sample of consumers by interviewing them. for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. (b) interviewing. business management studies etc. (d) experimentation. opinion polls. Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks. • It flexible to the advantage of researcher. Reports of trade associations. (c) mail survey. inadequate or obsolete. attitudinal surveys. viewing surveys. For example. It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. interviewing. Statistical statement.

Secondary data.. Clearly. depend primarily on secondary data. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations. the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages. personnel records.g. the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country. Features of Secondary Sources Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials. secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research may be tested. historical studies. e. and so on. report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises. Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks. That is. but also unpublished records. and the like. First. Thus. Finally. Year books. secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. their capital structure. 3. some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. they have certain common characteristics. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. Financial Analysis of companies.g. serve as major data sources for such research studies. Finally. statistical reports of government departments. the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered. if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. Advantages of Secondary Data Secondary sources have some advantages: 1. 4. Use of Secondary Data The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. accounting and financial records. this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources. Censes Reports etc. Second. and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them. may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. . register of members. thanks to Xeroxing facilities..Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 published records and reports. they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification.. Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others. minutes of meetings. inventory records etc. Such studies as securities Market Behavior. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. volume of business etc. Even the tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided. Once their source of documents and reports are located. secondary sources are not limited in time and space. their coverage of villages. 2. First. they are readymade and readily available. Second. For example. sociological studies on crimes. e. collection of data is just matter of desk work.

Finally. because of time lag in producing them. In additions to tabular forms. In planning this work. and time periods may also be different. 1. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? b. Graphic presentation must be planned with utmost care and diligence. it is often desirable to use appropriate forms of graphic presentations. 3. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support.” They. Graphic forms used should be simple. the following questions must be considered. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city. The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the mind to grasp or retain. For example. graphic presentation involves use of graphics. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? Ans: a) In presenting the data of frequency distributions and statistical computations. graphic forms are not substitutes for tables. a. 4.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 5. population census data are published tow or three years later after compilation. by emphasizing new and significant relationship. The researcher need not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected. units of measure may not match. It is useful to even technical people for dramatizing certain points about data. Q6. logically and simply. for important points can be more effectively captured in pictures than in tables. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. are also useful in discovering new facts and in developing hypothesis. the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. but are additional tools for the researcher to emphasize the research findings. information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. The device of graphic presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are nontechnical people or general public. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. (a) What is the purpose of the diagram? . These forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly understood at the glance. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of burdensome details by portraying facts concisely. However. For example. Even if the location of the source is known. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print. Disadvantages of Secondary Data The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. and no new figures will be available for another ten years. charts and other pictorial devices such as diagrams. 2. and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places. clear and accurate and also be appropriate to the data.

4. If a part of the scale is omitted. The two lines divide the region of the plane into four sections known as quadrants that are numbered anticlockwise. a set of parallel jagged lines should be used to indicate the break in the scale. . Numerical data upon which the chart is based should be presented in an accompanying table. The point at which the two axes intersect is zero for both X and Y axis. The chart should have a title placed directly above the chart. 6. they should be clearly differentiated from one another by distinct patterns or colors. Line Graphs The line graph is useful for showing changes in data relationship over a period of time. The horizontal line measures time or independent variable and the vertical line the measured variable. 5. d) Scatter plots e) Bubble charts f) Stock plots g) Pictographs h) Chesnokov Faces The general rules to be followed in graphic representations are: 1. 3. Graphic forms should be used sparingly. 8. The horizontal line is called the abscissa or X-axis and the vertical. Each curve or bar on the chart should be labeled. the ordinal or Y-axis. 9.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 (b) What facts are to be emphasized? (c) What is the educational level of the audience? (d) How much time is available for the preparation of the diagram? (e) What kind of chart will portray the data most clearly and accurately? b) Types of Graphs and General Rules The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories: a) Line Graphs or Charts b) Bar Charts c) Segmental presentations. If there are more than one curves or bar. concise and simple and should describe the nature of the data presented. The title should be clear. Measurements to the right and above “O” are positive (plus) and measurements to the left and below “O” are negative (minus) is an illustration of the features of a rectangular coordinate type of graph. 2. Graphic forms should follow and not precede the related textual discussion. 7. Scale intervals in both the axes should be equal. Measurements proceed from left to right on the horizontal line and from bottom to top on the vertical. Any point of plane of the two axes is plotted in terms of the two axes reading from the origin “O”. In this graph. The zero point should always be represented and the scale intervals should be equal. The “O” is the origin of coordinates. Too many forms detract rather than illuminating the presentation. figures are plotted in relation to two intersecting lines or axes. 10.

III Semester .Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 The time dimension or independent variable is represented by the X-axis and the other variable by Y-axis. MBA.

4 Credits Assignment Set . The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 MB0050 – Research Methodology . Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap. Assure a common understanding . for some demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be practical. It should preferably contain mostly closed-end and multiple choice questions so that it could be completed within a few minutes. The main points that should be taken into account while drafting a questionnaire: Use simple words Survey recipients may have a variety of backgrounds so use simple language. What is questionnaire? Discuss the main points that you will take into account while drafting a questionnaire? Ans: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses. the word "who" is appropriate in many instances when "whom" is technical correct. do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys. However. The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. Communication is carried out only in writing and this required more cooperation from the respondents than in verbal communication. and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. For example. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. Thus. "About how many times in the last 30 days have you driven to your parent's home?" Relax your grammar Relax your grammatical standards if the questions sound too formal. For example. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them. this is not always the case. and not by the investigator as in the case of personal interview method. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent.2 Q1. "What is the frequency of your automotive travel to your parents' residents in the last 30 days?" is better understood as.

mediate the scale so that there is room for both extremes. It is good to ask a general question and then ask more specific questions.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 Write questions that everyone will understand in the same way. Don't assume that everyone has the same understanding of the facts or a common basis of knowledge. Identify even commonly used abbreviations to be certain that everyone understands. Save the questions that might be difficult or threatening for later. Avoid double negatives Respondents can easily be confused deciphering the meaning of a question that uses two negative words. it is difficult for respondents to evaluate all of them. You will get far more accurate information from people if you ask. Don't make the list of choices too long If the list of answer categories is long and unfamiliar. If there are an excessive number of written response questions. Avoid difficult concepts Some questions involve concepts that are difficult for many people to understand. For example. Balance rating scales When the question requires respondents to use a rating scale. InfoPoll allows you to use a wide variety of other types of questions. Voicing questions in the third person can be less threatening than questions voiced in the second question. please explain why". These are useful because the respondents know clearly the purpose of the question and are limited to a set of choices where one answer is right for them. you should . it reduces the quality and attention the respondents give to the answers. "About how many times last year did you go out and see a movie in a movie theater or drive-in?" Use Closed-ended questions rather than Open-ended ones Most questionnaires rely on questions with a fixed number of response categories from which respondents select their answers. Avoid difficult recall questions People's memories are increasingly unreliable as you ask them to recall events farther and farther back in time. Put your questions in a logic order The issues raised in one question can influence how people think about subsequent questions. However. "About how many times in the last month have you gone out and seen a movie in a movie theater or drive-in?" rather than. ask: "How do your colleagues feel about management?" rather than "How do you feel about management?" Don't write leading questions Leading questions demand a specific response. Start with interesting questions Start the survey with questions that are likely to sound interesting and attract the respondents' attention. An open-ended question is a written response. Keep the list of choices short. For example. For example: "If you do not want a company picnic. For example: the question "Which day of the month is best for the newly established company-wide monthly meeting?" leads respondents to pick a date without first determining if they even want another meeting.

Naming your survey Some people discard an electronic message based entirely on its subject or sender. brand preference. Before sending a survey to a target audience. What do you mean by primary data? What are the various methods of collecting primary data? Ans: Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e. interviewing. mailing etc. brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. A good cover memo or introduction should be short and includes: -Purpose of the survey -Why it is important to hear from the correspondent -What may be done with the results and what possible impacts may occur with the results. Pre-test your survey It is better to identify a problem during the pretest than after you have published the survey. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation.g. brainstorm with them to see if they had problems answering any questions.. After they have completed the survey.. The cover memo or introduction offers an excellent place to provide the motivation. . Here are examples of survey names that might be successful in getting attention: -Memo From the Chief Executive Officer -Evaluation of Services of the Benefits Office -Your Opinion About Financial Services -Free T-shirt -Win a Trip to Paris -Please Respond By Friday -Free Subscription -Win a notebook computer Cover memo or introduction Once a recipient opens your survey. You should consider other titles that will pique the interest of the recipients. -Due date for response Q2. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 avoid asking a series of questions about a free banking service and then question about the most important factors in selecting a bank. you may still need to motivate him or her to complete it. send it out as a test to a small number of people. It would help if they explained what the question meant to them and whether it was valid to the questionnaire or not. -Address identification -Person to contact for questions about the survey..

like surveys. (b) Interviewing: Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. a tool is an instruments used for the method. experimentation is the most scientific method employed in marketing research. There are various methods of data collection. In such cases where the available data are inappropriate. (d) Experimentation: The popularity of experimentation in marketing research has much to do with the possibilities of establishing cause and effect. provide much more ambiguous findings. (a) Observation: Observation means viewing or seeing. farm managements studies. (c) Mail survey: The mail survey is a data collection process for researchers. Research practitioners should recognize that this is a viable means of collecting specific market data. readership. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. facial expressions and pauses.V. It involves not only conversation. opinion polls. business management studies etc. (c) mail survey. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. primary data have to be gathered. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data. In this case. radio listening and T. viewing surveys. Other methods commonly used in marketing research. Experiments can be configured in such a way as to allow the variable causing a particular effect to be isolated. (b) interviewing. Observation is classical method of scientific study. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. and his environment. but also learning from the respondent’s gesture. the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs. They include: socio economic surveys.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 Methods of Collecting Primary Data Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. leadership studies. In fact. For example. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. (d) experimentation. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) Observation. attitudinal surveys. . initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. Yet. Marketing research. inadequate or obsolete.

experiments. Research methods involve conduct of experiments. an in-depth study of a firm’s top sales people and comparison with the worst sales people might reveal characteristics common to stellar performers. The case data are always gathered with a view to attracting the natural history of the social unit. to understand the complex of factors that are working within a social unit as an integrated totality. On the other hand research methodology explains the methods by which you may proceed with your research. and its relationship with the environment. namely. Looked at from another angle. surveys and critical studies. might prove more productive.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 Q 3. by means of the case study method. b. research methods and research methodology. In-depth analysis of selected cases is of particular value to business research when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities. The aim of case study method is to locate or identify the factors that account for the behavior patterns of a given unit. the case study serves the purpose similar to the clue-providing function of expert opinion.a. Distinguish between research methods & research Methodology. This is the technical difference between the two terms. be it a person. surveys and the like. . The exploratory investigator is best served by the active curiosity and willingness to deviate from the initial plan. Anthropologists and ethnologists have liberally utilized cast study in the systematic description of primitive cultures. On the other hand research methodology involves the learning of the various techniques that can be used in the conduct of research and in the conduct of tests. a family. tests. For instance. Ans: a) Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit or entity. and its relationship with the social factors and forces operative and involved in this surrounding milieu. the social researcher tries. One of the primary differences between them is that research methods are the methods by which you conduct research into a subject or a topic. Strictly speaking they are not so and they show differences between them. b) Research Methods v/s Research Methodology Research Methods and Research Methodology are two terms that are often confused as one and the same. Historians have used this method for portraying some historical character or particular historical period and describing the developments within a national community. William Healey used case study in his study of juvenile delinquency. In short. It is most appropriate when one is trying to find clues and ideas for further research. Herbert Spencer was the first social philosopher who used case study in comparative studies of different cultures. The major credit for introducing case study method into social investigation goes to Frederick Leplay. when the finding suggests new courses of enquiry. Analyze the case study and descriptive approach to research. an institution or a community.

study of various other results of different experiments performed earlier in relation to the topic or the subject and the like. more variables determine demand. while price is the independent variable. if demand depends upon price. On the other hand research methodology pertaining to the topic mentioned above involves the study about the tools of research.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 In short it can be said that research methods aim at finding solutions to research problems. And if. collation of various manuscripts related to the topic. For example. weight. they are also known as „discrete variable‟. etc. In statistical term. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „noncontinuous variables‟. like height. techniques involved in the critical edition of these manuscripts and the like. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. ‘employment of figures of speech in English literature’. The concept may assume different quantitative values. like income and prices of substitute commodity. all variables need not be continuous. For example. where as the number of children is a non-continuous variable. In this topic if we are to conduct research. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. Q4. However. advanced techniques that can be used in the conduct of the experiments and the like. Explain the important concepts in Research design? Ans: 1. It is thus interesting to note that research methodology paves the way for research methods to be conducted properly. age is a continuous variable. On the other hand research methodology aims at the employment of the correct procedures to find out solutions. But. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. Any student or research candidate is supposed to be good at both research methods and research methodology if he or she is to succeed in his or her attempt at conducting research into a subject. namely. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. then demand is a dependent variable. tests. then the research methods that are involved are study of various works of the different poets and the understanding of the employment of figures of speech in their works. the tools of research. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. If the subject into which you conduct a research is a scientific subject or topic then the research methods include experiments. income. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables‟. Let us take for example a subject or a topic. On the other hand research methodology pertaining to the scientific topic involves the techniques regarding how to go about conducting the research. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the . Research methodology is the beginning whereas research methods are the end of any scientific or non-scientific research.

The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. income and price of substitute. iii) Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. iv) Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 own price. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. In the afore-mentioned example. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. i) Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods. if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop. A research design may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together. Therefore. For instance. when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition. 3. the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. However. then both the groups may be called as “experimental group”. the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. intelligence may also influence the school performance. then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. it would be known as an extraneous variable. Whereas. a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. experiment may be conducted to . Then. Technically. the dependent variable. 4. For instance. when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. it is known as an “experimental group”. In this context. Generally. In the example considered. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable. the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis. On the other hand. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. it is known as research hypothesis. ii) Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. it is known as “control group”. 2. Likewise. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an “experimental error”. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts.

Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. 4. characteristics or the blocks. if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer. the type. make. then it is known as absolute experiment.. but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature. 1. many things are before his eyes. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. For example. When he observed the movements of vehicles on the road. Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study. scope and objectives of his study. absolute experiment and comparative experiment. Ans: Observation means viewing or seeing. Q5. if any. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule. social metric scale etc. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop. Meanwhile. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. etc. It captures the natural social context in which persons behaviour occur. but also learning . then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. size and color of the vehicles. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present. Further. Experiments may be categorized into two types namely. 2. Observation is classical method of scientific study. their hair style. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him. It involves not only conversation. to which the different treatments are applied. v) Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots. 3. the persons sitting in them. and precision instruments.

Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. interpersonal relations. facial expressions and pauses. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. and his environment. When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. anthropology. (b) The behavior of other living creatures like birds. However. crowd behavior. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. It may be used for studying (a) The behavior of human beings in purchasing goods and services: life style. values. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact.Strictly speaking. customs.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 from the respondent’s gesture. factories. leadership styles. other behaviors and actions. personal interview is feasible. residences etc. There are some similarities in both approaches and there are scientific researches being conducted through case studies. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. While a scientific research is preferred by most as it is based upon observation and experimentation that can be easily verified. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. managerial style. Once report is established. Time tested theories are used while . Case study Case study as a technique of research is commonly employed in social sciences such as psychology. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. beliefs past experience and future intentions. there are differences between a case study and scientific research that need to be highlighted for the benefit of research students. Q 6. and then interviewing is required. group dynamics. there is also a method called case study that is becoming popular among research students. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? Ans: Case Study vs Scientific Research Students pursuing their thesis are often required to conduct research and feel perplexed because of different methodologies available. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. and manner. attitudes. sociology and economics. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. animals etc. even confidential information may be obtained.

does not hamper a research project as the data obtained through a case study serves as input in many related research projects. and no quantitative data. On the other hand scientific research requires precise measurement and analysis of data collected. One benefit of scientific research is that it has practical applications. In the last few decades. In brief: Case Study vs Scientific Research: • Case study as a method of research is used mostly in social sciences whereas scientific research. . This however. Scientific research This is a type of research that allows researchers to come to conclusions that are definitive in nature and easily verifiable through experiments that can be repeated by anyone interested in the research. Theoretical models can be easily tested in real life situations through case studies. Scientific research utilizes data collection through observation and experimentation and then testing hypotheses that are theories that have stood the test of time. • Scientific research is sometime considered guilty of being a slave of theories and laws whereas case study is freer in comparison and studies specific cases to make generalizations. • Case study produces qualitative data while scientific research produces quantitative data. • Case study is longer in duration. case studies are even being applied in scientific disciplines to analyze specific situations. event. Scientific research is mostly confined to natural phenomenon and health and ailments. Case study serves to narrow down the focus of the researcher and brings out results that are natural and spontaneous.Siddhartha Sen Roll Number: 581117638 observing a particular situation. or a group. Scientific research is also characterized by neutrality as there is no bias and the researcher has set guidelines and uses a method of presentation that is transparent and can be interpreted easily. Case studies produce only observations. Most of the drugs are a result of scientific research only. as the name indicates is a popular mode of research in life sciences.

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