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Principles of interpersonal communication: According to Orbe & Bruess (2005), the process of interpersonal communication integrates the following

four principles: 1. Interpersonal communication is irreversible which means that one cannot change or amend the words he/she used during the conversation. Also it is possible to expect how the conversation will proceed. 2. Rules are also important for interpersonal communication. Speaking humbly and sensibly and listening with concern and respect facilitates both parties in having a good two way communication. 3. Style of communicating differs with the culture. Business communication in offices is entirely different compared to the way one communicates with their family. 4. The way of communicating is also changing with the passage of time. Advancement of technology such as use of cell phones, email and internet messaging has altered the means of communication. Principles of Motivation: Following are the six motivational principles: 1. Needs and Drives Every individual is somehow controlled by personal needs or drives which are due to lack of contentment regarding something. For example, a person who has need for attention may intentionally behave in a certain manner to attract attention of others around him. 2. Interest Every individual is interested to know that what is in for me? regarding any activity. More interest develops as he/she personally finds the activity helpful or pleasurable or both. 3. Values

An individuals intrinsic values, prior experiences or feelings influence their learning process. For example, a person would be more interested to learn about philosophy if he/she values spirituality. 4. Attitudes Attitude of an individual represents his point of view, sentiments or behavior for or against other individuals, things or ideas.

5. Incentives Giving a reward or incentive is way to increase motivational level. A child can be motivated by toys, an employee by salary increments and student by good grades as incentive for motivation. 6. Achievement Achievement is the endeavor or ambition to acquire certain results which would meet the expectations of individual and satisfy him internally.

Principles of critical thinking: Critical thinking involves the following points: It is essential to collect whole data. All terms should be identified and analyzed. The methods used to obtain facts should be inquired. Conclusions should also be interpreted. Hidden suppositions and biases should be taken into consideration. The source used to attain facts must also be checked. One should not expect all queries to be answered. Instead of looking at one aspect whole view should be considered. There can be more than one cause and effect.

One should be cautious of the thought inhibitors. One should comprehend own beliefs and values.

Principles of speaking: Following are the seven important principles of public speaking according to Zeoli (2009): 1. In order to become a good speaker, a person should develop his/her comfort zone around the audience. Most of the time it happens that when a person faces the audience he focuses more on the public than does on his speaking. It is important to make a connection with the people and share thoughts with them in an easy manner without trying too hard.

2. Even the best speaker can make simple mistakes during the speech. One should let go of the minor mistakes and continue with the speech because small mistakes are easy to make and often hardly noticeable. Audience would be more interested in listening to someone who speaks in a natural way even if little mistakes are made.

3. Visualization is an important factor while making speech which will facilitate natural flow of words. Great speaker delve into their strong sense of imagination and automatically find a better way to express what they want to communicate. For instance, if a person is shy in front of the audience, he may visualize himself standing in an empty room and talking to himself and a loud and clear voice. This will decrease his anxiety level and help him feel much better eventually.

4. Practice makes a man perfect. However, in real sense even when it is not possible to achieve perfection one can be pretty close to it by practicing constantly. To be an effective speaker, practice is important to remain in touch with the process.

5. Adding personal touch to the speech makes the audience more interested. Even if a person is delivering excellent speech but it involves no personal experiences or experiences related to the audience, soon it will sound monotonous and audience might start losing interest. Incorporating stories, everyday examples or a bit of humor will keep the audience happily engaged in speech.

6. Complete purpose of speech in served when a speaker communicates a message which is effective for the audience to achieve their goals in some way.

7. Having all the above mentioned points followed, last one is to deliver quality content in a short speech. Audience generally lose attention when the speech is too long, so speech should be short, effective and interesting, always leaving the audience to anticipate more.

Orbe, M. P., & Bruess, C. L. (2005). Contemporary issues in interpersonal communication. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.