Dedication Dedicated to our parents whose hands are always raised in prayers for our success and we paid

our gratitude to beloved teachers, our friends and to all others who prayed for us.

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Acknowledgements
All praise for Almighty Allah, most compassionate, source of knowledge and wisdom and creator of all the universe of logic, call us to think, about what is happening around us, as there is indication in them for believers. All our respect is for Holy Prophet (PBUH) for enlightening our conscience with essence of faith and knowledge. We are extremely thankful to Mr. Mansoor Fiaz, lecturer, NTU, who’s technical Guidance and help enabled us to complete our project. We are greatly thankful to Mr. Saad Ullah, lecturer, NTU, without whom technical expertise, intellectual help and persistent cooperation we would not have been able to carry out our work. U.S DENIM MILLS LAHORE: Really it was a great task and a troublesome process to make procedures and parameters being in practice in U.S DENIM, one of the esteemed Textiles Mills in Pakistan. But in this regard we are very thankful to all the managerial and technical staff members who cooperated with us. We are especially thankful to the Mr. Irfan Malik, project manager, for allowing us to make the required fabric samples. We wish to thanks to Miss Rashida Perveen (Head of RND Department), Mr. Hassan Ashraf (Assistant Manager), Miss Sadaf Mehmood (Assistant Manager) who not only allowed us to conduct our project, but also provided us every facility there. CRECENT BAHUMAN LTD PINDIBHATTIAN: We are equally thankful for the corporation and guidance of all the managerial and technical staff members at CRECENT BAHUMAN LTD. We are grateful to Mr.Rehman, SDM (GWP), Mr. Sajid Tanoli, SAM (Weaving) for their keen interest and support towards our project. We would also like to thanks to Mr.Imran Tasleem, SAM (Testing and Quality Control) who help us to carry out the necessary testing work.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………....1 Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………..……...2

TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................8
Denim:......................................................................................................................................8 Twill weaves:.......................................................................................................................9 Fabrics made from twill weave:........................................................................................10 Methodology of Project..........................................................................................................10 Construction Shrinkage (First Portion of Project).............................................................10 Processing Shrinkage (Second Part of Project).................................................................11

DENIM MANUFACTURING.......................................................................................15
Warping:.................................................................................................................................15 Rope Dyeing:.....................................................................................................................16 Re-beaming:.......................................................................................................................17 Sizing: 17 Weaving: 17 Denim finishing.................................................................................................................18

3.SPANDEX....................................................................................................................19
Spandex Type Selection:...................................................................................................20 Stretch Denim Fabric:........................................................................................................21 Finishing:...........................................................................................................................21 Heat Setting:......................................................................................................................21 No-Heat setting Denim......................................................................................................22 Sanforizing.........................................................................................................................22 FABRIC QUALITY PROBLEMS:........................................................................................23

Table 3.............................................................................................................................24 WET PROCESSING OF DENIM.................................................................................25
Washing of Denim .................................................................................................................25 Wet Processing:......................................................................................................................25 Desizing: 26 Stone Washing:..................................................................................................................27 Bleaching Wash:.....................................................................................................................29 Neutralization:...................................................................................................................29 Tint Wash:.........................................................................................................................30

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...............................................................................................................................67 Stretch % due to different Weave Type:................................................................................................43 Shrinkage due to varying Weft Count....................................................................37 CONSTRUCTION SHRINKAGE............................................................................................37 Shrinkage in Rigid and Stretch Denim...68 Variation in Stretching % due to Heat Setting...........................................................................................................................32 Processing Shrinkage:.......................................................................................................................................................................................SHRINKAGE......56 Shrinkage (%) due to varying Temperature.........................................70 SKEWNESS...........................................67 Measuring the Stretch and Growth:..................................32 Factors affecting shrinkage:...................................................................47 Shrinkage (%) due to varying Weave Type................................................................................62 Shrinkage % due to different Industrial Washing Types........................................................................................................................................................................................36 SHRINKAGE EVALUATION.......................................................................................................58 Shrinkage (%) due to different Washing Cycles............................60 Shrinkage (%)due to Washing Type..................................................................................................................49 Shrinkage (%) due to Slub Yarns............................................45 Shrinkage Due to varying Yarn Types.........................31 Types of shrinkage:....................................................................................................................51 PROCESSING SHRINKAGE......................................................................................................................................................74 LIST OF TABLES 4 ..............................................35 Parameters for process control:...............................71 CONCLUSION & RECOMENDATIONS.......................................................................................................39 Shrinkage in Strecth Denim due to varying Picks per Inch.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................41 S Shrinkage due to varying Draft and Denier.......................................52 Shrinkage (%)due to varying Washing Time....................33 Compressive shrinkage:................................................64 STRETCH EVALUATION..........................................................................................31 Construction Shrinkage:.................

PAGE No.TABLE No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 14 25 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 56 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 70 71 73 LIST OF FIGURES 5 .

PAGE No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 16 17 18 19 22 23 35 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 6 .FIGURE No.

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 58 58 60 60 61 62 64 64 66 67 69 70 71 74 7 .

the material being agitated while heated until it is dried. should be able to stretch in order to accommodate firstly the donning and removal of the garment and secondly any activity undertaken while wearing it. Acceptance. hot water and detergent. it is also woven in colored stripes. while being held between upper and lower platens of the press. This stretch has to be followed by the complete recovery of the original dimensions. and thickness. the shrinkage characteristics relate not only to a change in fabric dimensions. The fabric shrinkage can cause problems in two areas during garment manufacture or during subsequent laundering by the ultimate customer. Similarly laundering is a more vigorous process than pressing and it usually involves mechanical agitation. Certain types of clothing. So the garment remains close fitting and does not appear baggy. stretchable denim. Denim is affordable. In denim industry control of shrinkage is the major challenge particularly in stretch denim. like sports wear. rejection. width. where it is subjected to steam for a short period. and durable and offers a variety of shades and colors. in depth analysis of shrinkage result of a particular fabric can allow for a better understanding of the causes of inconsistent or high shrinkage. This dimensional change may be in a positive (growth) or negative (shrinkage) direction for fabric length. Denim: Denim is a durable twill-woven fabric with colored (usually blue) warp and white filling threads. Tumble drying can also affect the shrinkage as the material is wet at the beginning of the drying process. although considerable quantities are of a cotton-synthetic fiber mixture like cotton and spandex in case of stretchable denim. Normally denim is used for 8 . comfortable. Further.INTRODUCTION The term shrinkage can simply be defined as a change in the dimensions of a fabric or garment. Denim is yarn-dyed and mill-finished and is usually all-cotton. fashionable. Over last few decades denim fabric has become very popular all over the world for its attractive indigo blue shades. but also can relate to other parameters such as seam puckering and overall garment fit. and discount penalties are dependant on shrinkage percentage. At various stages during garment manufacture the fabric is pressed in a steam press such as a Hoffman press. The main focus of our research work was shrinkage in stretch denim. is made to be close fit to the body. Fabric of which such clothing is made. In garment form.

weavers in America made the twills in same fashion as the European denim.jackets and upholstery The origin of the term “denim” can be traced to late 16th century France where a fabric known as “serge de Nîmes” (Twill from Nîmes) was very popular. The properties of indigo dye account for the wide variety of color designs that are available on denim materials. it was made from wool and cotton. Indigo dye in its normal form is a vibrant blue. the weaves undertaken 2/1 and 3/1 twill. Generally. By the 1700s. Diagonal lines are frequently visible on the face of the fabric as well as on the back of the fabric.5 – 8. However denim can also made in 4/1 twill even plain weave denim are also in considerations as in modern world denim is not a fabric but a trend. Twill weave fabrics have a distinctive and attractive appearance.0 – 16. By the late 19th century. bed covers. The denim fabric is found in different weights. The most common types of twill weave are • Herring bone twill 9 .tops. Warp faced twill is usually employed due to which the denim fabric is bluer on the face side and almost white on the black. They are frequently more expensive than plain weaves. Originally.5 ounces per square yard – trousers. The weight of the denim fabric usually determines what the final garment application will be: • • 3. it is called left hand twill or S-twill. If the diagonals move from the upper left to lower right. the indigo must be converted to a water-soluble “leuco” form and then applied to the cotton.jeans jackets and shirts but its versatility also finds applications in furniture. curtains etc. when viewing in a longitudinal direction. Only later was it made solely from cotton. These lines can be made to run from left to right or right to left. it was strong material made from wool. Twill weaves: Twill weaves are formed by interweaving the warp and weft threads with each other in such a manner that diagonal lines are formed in the fabric. Twill weaves may also be called as serge or diagonal weaves. If the diagonal moves from the upper right to the lower left of the fabric.jeans. it is insoluble in water and it will not dye cotton fiber. it is referred to as right hand twill or Z-twill.0 ounces per square yard – blouses. Twill weave fabrics have either a right hand or a left hand diagonal.shirts and top of bed fabrics 8. Mostly warp yarn sheet is dyed with indigo dyed in rope form and the filling yarns are left undyed. upholstery. In order to dye cotton.

Methodology of Project Place of Project: US Denim Mills (PVT) Ltd Crescent Bahumän (PVT) Ltd Department involved: Weaving Department Research and Development Department Finishing Department Garment Wet Processing Department Physical Testing Lab Looms Used for Fabric Manufacturing: Automatic Picanol Omni Plus US Denim Ltd Toyota JAT 710 In CBL Construction Shrinkage (First Portion of Project) Constant Factors: Washing Conditions • • • • • Temperature Time Washing types Washing cycles Picks per inch Variable Factors: 10 .• • Pointed twill Diamond twill Fabrics made from twill weave: Twill weaves are most widely used after plain weaves. jean. denim.gabardine. They are used for both civilian and military uses. blanket and others. Among them are the parachute fabrics of all kinds.

91 40+3. T1 T2 Count 10 lycra 10 lycra Denier + Draft 70+3.• • • • • Draft + Denier Weft Count Weave type Yarn type (fiber type) Slub Processing Shrinkage (Second Part of Project) Constant factors: • • • • • • Picks per inch Count (Warp. Weft) Draft + Denier Weave type Finish type Washing Conditions  Temperature  Time  Washing types  Washing Cycles DETAILS OF FABRIC MANUFACTURED FOR CONSTRUCTION SHRINKAGE: Warp Count: 9Ne Ends per inch: 72 Trial No.25 Picks 40 40 Weave Type 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill Variable Factors 11 .

25 70+3.91 40+3.25 44 44 40 40 40 40 40 40 12 .25 70+3.25 70+3.91 40+3.91 40+3.25 70+3.91 40+3.25 70+3.91 40+3.T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18 10 spandex 10 spandex 10 lycra slub 10 lycra slub 10 lycra 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 spandex 70+3.91 40 40 40 40 44 44 44 44 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 2/1 Z-twill 2/1 Z-twill 2/1 Z-twill 2/1 Z-twill 2/1 Z-twill 2/1 Z-twill 40+3.25 70+3.25 10 lycra slub 10 lycra slub 10 lycra 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 spandex 10 lycra slub 10 lycra slub 70+3.91 40+3.91 40+3.

3HL washes were used for shrinkage measurement.2 6.3 9 9. DETAILS OF FABRIC MANUFACTURED FOR WASHING SHRINKAGE: Fabric No.3 9 Weft Count 14/1+30D 16/1+40D 9/1+70D 14/1+30D 16/1+40D 9/1+70D Weave Type 2/1 RHT 2/1 RHT 2/1 RHT 2/1 RHT 2/1 RHT 2/1 RHT Finish Type Mercerized Mercerized Mercerized Regular Regular Regular Ends/inch 64 68 64 64 68 64 Table 2 Picks/inch 48 44 45 48 44 45 13 .T19 T20 T21 T22 T23 T24 T25 14 lycra 14 spandex 14 lycra slub 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 lycra slub 10 polylycra 70+3.91 70+3.91 Table 1 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z-twill Every trial was manufactured two meter long.2 6.91 70+3.91 70+3.91 70+3. F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 Warp Count 9.91 70+3.91 70+3.

Testing methods used: • • AATCC 135 for measuring shrinkage LSEMA Method 2 for measuring skewness 14 . Factors affecting the stretch ability of stretch denim were also determined.All these fabrics were used to determine the shrinkage behavior during different washes and also different factors that affect shrinkage of stretch denim fabric.

DENIM MANUFACTURING Firstly denim fabric was only manufactured from ring spun yarn. Yarn Spinning Ball Warping Rope Dyeing Rebeaming Slashing Weaving Finishing Figure 1 Warping: Warping is the process of transferring multiple yarns from individual yarn packages onto a single package assembly. Process flow for manufacturing of denim fabric is as followed. 15 . Normally. but now the different combinations of ring. For denim ball warping is done. This is known as beam warping. which keeps each warp yarn separate and parallel to its neighboring ends. The yarns then go through a funnel-shaped device called a trumpet or condenser. which collapses and condenses the sheet of yarn into rope form. in which 250 to 400 yarn ends are pulled from the creel. open-end yarns and core spun yarn with core of elastomeric yarn are used. The yarns then pass through a comb-like device (sometimes called a reed). yarns are collected in a sheet form where the yarns lie parallel to each other and in the same plane onto a beam. which is a cylindrical barrel with side flanges.

Slasher dyeing For certain manufacturers.After drying. These fabrics are known as natural denims sometimes called as bull denims. A slasher is a range is normally employed to apply size formulations onto warp yarns before weaving. It is possible for the denim fabric to be finished and sold without going through any drying process. The ropes are then dried . In rope dyeing. After dyeing the color of the yarn is checked either visually or instrumentally. The ropes are kept separate from each other throughout the various parts of the dye range.3. The dye is layered by using multiple passes of rope into the soluble dye and then exposing to the air for oxidation. 12-36 individual ropes of yarn are fed side-by-side simultaneously into the range. the ropes are coiled into the larger tubs. Typically. the rope or chain dyeing of indigo is not possible or desirable.Ball warping Figure 2 Rope Dyeing: Denim is yarn-dyed fabric with the warp yarns dyed with indigo dye and the filling yarns left undyed process. It is also possible to manufacture the fabric with both warp and weft dyed. ball warps are continuously fed into the rope or chain-dyeing range for application of the indigo dyeing. 2. so slasher dyeing has become a reasonable alternative method. Here the yarns sheet from the warping beam is fed into the scouring section followed by a dyeing section where the indigo is applied. Slasher dyeing ranges have a number of advantages and unique 16 .

which separates individual yarn ends and keeps them parallel to one another. The yarns sheets re guided into the size box. Figure 3 Re-beaming: Beaming or re-beaming involves pulling the ropes of yarn out of storage tubs and moving them upward to a guiding device. 17 . and a comb-like device called a reed while the weft yarn is fed from larger packages located outside of the machine. they go through tensioning rollers to help further the separation of the ropes before going through a comb at the rebeaming head. Once the ropes come down from the guiding device. Sizing: The main purpose for sizing warp yarns is to increase the strength of the warp sheet. the protective coating also reduces the hairiness of the yarn. This upward travel allows the ropes to untangle before nearing the beamer head. The denim is mostly woven as 3/1 twill 2/1 twill. The sequence of interlacing two sets of yarn can be varied to produce many weave design. PVA etc. Warp yarns are fed from the loom beam and are then directed through drop wires.characteristics. heddles. The beams from the beaming process are creeled on the back of the machine. The size is applied to the yarn consist of starch. abrasion resistance. After leaving the size box the yarn sheets are squeezed and dried and are wound onto a beam which is directly put onto the loom for weaving purpose. Weaving: Fabric is woven by interlacing of two sets of yarns perpendicular to one another. In sizing the number of ends required for the specific fabric width is achieved.

After finishing cutting and sewing of garment is done and then wet processes are applied to the garment. 18 . The potential shrinkage of grey denim fabric varies from 8-18%.Figure 4 Denim finishing Finishing of denim fabric is carried out after weaving .Hence the denim fabric must be pre shrunk so that the finished fabric does not show higher shrinkage during subsequent washing. Sometimes the fabric is treated with softeners and lubricants to give the fabric soft and pleasing handle. Normally the denim fabric is singed twice. Denim fabric is skewed during finishing process as fabric is skewed during washings. The fabric is then singed in order to burn off the protruding fibers from the fabric surface.the finishing procedure involves the following steps: • • • • • Singeing Skewing Pre drying Shrinking Drying The grey fabric is brushed to remove the loose lint and fluff from the fabric surface.

Typical stretch levels for cotton knit fabrics with spandex are in the 50-100 percent range thus spandex may in every course or in alternating courses. leggings. Prevalent in women’s wear. and the heat-setting conditions. Construction of the woven fabric is paramount in determining the achievable amount of stretch. it is known to lose strength when subjected to prolonged UV radiation exposure or chlorine. or in both. the amount of spandex used. cotton/spandex blends can be found in knit goods such as skirts. in the warp yarns. performance requirements. However. Typically. the spandex used in woven goods will be found in a core spun yarn. 3. and it is not usually affected by small amounts of knitting oils and lubricants. In woven goods. but expanding into other product categories. SPANDEX Spandex is incorporated into cotton fabrics to impart a greater level of stretch and recovery than can be achieved by cotton alone. spandex may be found in the filling yarns. and experience of the designer. Stretch values may vary depending upon the fabric construction. Consumers prefer the stretch denim fabrics combining classic cotton aesthetics with improved fit and comfort. however. The denims containing spandex possess a higher extensibility and recoverability. The choice of denier depends on the aesthetic properties that are desired. Stretch levels are typically 1550 percent for woven structures. and tops.3. which can increase comfort and freedom 19 . Some features of spandex are listed below: • • • • High elasticity and recovery Low moisture absorption Resistant to normal apparel exposure to sunlight Resistant to most common chemicals Spandex is not degraded under normal acidic or alkaline conditions. the form in which the spandex is used depends upon the fabric construction. Stretch Denim: The popularity of stretch denims with SPANDEX (elastane) has increased significantly in recent years. the denier of the spandex. or in most all types of woven goods such as stretch jeans.1.

To create stretch denim. 70 D spandex is usually chosen for most denims. Regular spandex can provide best stretch power. However. Also. 20 . By default Stretch Denim will be made body hugging unless you specify in the comment box of the measurement form that you dont want body hugging. which meets the high requirements of consumers and cutters. reducing wrinkles and bringing new fluidity and drape ability to garments. fabric formation. For no heatset denim. it provides ultimate comfort and gives great shape to your body. The right Spandex deci-tex choice is based on final fabric weight. Just a small percentage of spandex (elastomeric yarn) will enhance appearance by approving shape retention. The waist/seat of Stretch jeans may measure less than you order because they will stretch to much more than the waist/seat measurement you will have specified. the right combined elastic yarn. heat-set type can reduce denim stone wash shrinkage and definitely offers wider width of fabrics. or at tenter-frame speeds that are 20% to 50% faster. 40 D and 140D spandex can also be used. dye and finishing have to be chosen. Stretch Jeans can be made body hugging or even loose. for some lighter weight and heavy weight denims. Heat-Set is a new elastane type which provides better width and can be heat-set at temperatures that are 20oC lower than conventional elastane.of action in various types of jeans. heat-set type could reduce the shrinkage variation and width variation between lots and pieces of denim products. regular spandex or Heat-Set spandex is used. Spandex Type Selection: For cotton rich denim (cotton contain>96%).

In order to obtain good denim fabrics with nice stretch. so that the fabric remains wider than the required width and lacking in stretch ability. high recovery and low shrinkage. • • Stretch denims are usually of the 3/1-twill structure with the warp yarn floating on the fabric surface. A wide 2 to 2. The available stretch of the fabric is mainly dependent on the difference between the maximum reed width and the fully relaxed fabric construction. Too tight a fabric structure and too high a yarn count and yarn twist factor will prevent weft contraction. The framing width will depend on the fabric weight. Heat Setting: Heat setting is done to re-stretch and stabilize the fabric close to the desired width. the finish processing of stretch denim containing spandex follows closely the operational sequence used for conventional non-stretch denim with the exception of relaxation and heat-setting steps.Figure 5 Stretch Denim Fabric: • • • Primary considerations in weaving of stretch denim are fabric design and construction. Generally speaking. recovery and dimensional stability and to meet the fabric width requirement. Weft supply package must be uniformly wound. width. • • The weft yarns should be fully stretched during weaving to prevent the formation of kinks. The fabric should be heat-set on a pin-tenter with much care given to width control and heat distribution. Finishing: Stretch denims with spandex are finished to obtain the desired stretch.5 cm tape with alternate yarn floats on the face and back is preferred in order to prevent selvedge from rolling or curing in loose denim structures. it is important to carefully control processing condition of relaxation and heat-set procedures. and 21 .

Ensure the fabrics. possess the same level of shrinkage. cutting and stone wash processing for such fabrics. fabric has very high shrinkage (normally higher than 13%). or come from a same piece of denim.6 kPa) nip pressure. and this result in a denier reduction that corresponds to a reduction in power and reduction in width retraction. No-Heat setting Denim Some times. steam and fed onto a compression blanket at 80 PSI (551. the set width for “filling stretch” fabrics should be 5-15 percent higher than the desired width to account for any additional shrinkage that may occur in wet processing. In this way. To prevent curling or edge folding. In this case. fabrics are first subjected to a fine water spray. lower shrinkage Figure 6 Heat-setting temperatures for woven range from 360-385°F (182-196°C) and are chosen according to the desired performance properties of the fabric. which makes up of a piece of garment. the garment defects related to shrinkage variation could be reduced remarkably. Special care must be taken in garment sizing and pattern design. stretch denim does not pass through heat set process and directly go to garment manufacturers. During the heat-setting stage. the selvage should be constructed to accommodate the width shrinkage. More severe heat-set conditions (higher temperature or slower speed) can produce denims with lower stretch. high shrinkage variation and width variation. Because a small amount of shrinkage remains in the spandex after setting and because heat-setting does not prevent the cotton fiber from shrinking.7 kPa) steam PSI 22 . the spandex is held under tension.stretch level. Sanforizing In Sanforizing. A Palmer unit operating at 120 (827.

Modify selvage pattern with alternate floats on face and back. higher hot water temperature. Sanforize. Reduce heat set temperature or time. Preheat set. fill yarn Selvage Curling • Fabric Width Variation • • 23 . Use Heat Set spandex. • • • • Chose heat set procedure routine. During Sanforizing. Use more than two packages of yarns as fill yarns. Allow fabric more relaxation. sew line uneven and garment manufacturing difficult. Cutting selvage on the loom. Reduce spandex draft. • Make as much as possible comedown during relaxation process by adapting less tension. Keep tension uniform in package rewind. High wash shrinkage and variation could cause garment size variation. more processing time in hot water. the better. The less shrinkage. Their consequence on garment manufacture and consumer application and the prevent methods are also presented.pressure. fabrics get relaxation in both warp and weft directions. • • • • Increase selvage width. completes the treatment. FABRIC QUALITY PROBLEMS: Following are most of fabric quality problems frequently met in stretch denims containing spandex. Higher heat set temperature and longer time. PROBLEM Low Fabric Stretch • • • High Wash Shrinkage • CAUSE AND REMEDY Redesign fabric structure with wider greige width or less yarn end density. which results in lower shrinkage.

the chlorine bleach process can cause significant deterioration in stretch/recovery properties and it is as the customer’s own risk to treat fabrics/garments in this way. If chlorite bleach used. • • Do not use chlorite bleach agent. Wet fabric right before skewing operation. • Fabric Skew • • • • • Power Lost after Bleaching • Heat set fabric. • • Select Chlorine Resistant type of spandex. • • Higher denier of spandex. keep pH value between 11-13. Alternating S and Z twisted yarns in weft. Twist set or steam set core spun yarns. process temperature and time under low level . Table 3 24 .tension. Select proper skew adjustment amount for skewing mechanism during finishing operation. Fabric skew could cause jeans with twisted leg. As with all elastane. weaving tension. Use 3GT polyester to get the stretch which have good chlorine resistance properties (but mind it that they are not spandex). strictly control chlorite content. Use less or no heatset finishing routine.

all denim jeans are sold by the customers were unwashed i. attractive look and faded appearance as well as feel and comfort to garment. Stone washing 3. the indigo dyed has a poor rubbing fastness. Over a few last decades various garment. ring dyeing effect is created . Tint Wash 25 . Rinse Wash (desizing) 2. Neutralization 5. only desized and without any special washing . Due to these reasons denim garment shows a unique ‘faded look’ and attractive rich blue shade after subsequent repeated washing and wearing.e. During sizing the warp threads are sized in order to sustain a considerable strain and abrasion during weaving.WET PROCESSING OF DENIM Washing of Denim When cotton yarn is dyed with indigo.the outer layer yarn is coated with indigo and the core of the yarn is remains un-dyed . Complete removal of size is absolutely essential for subsequent washing of denim. There is normally based upon starch.washing technique have been developed to create a variety of fashions in denim.Furthermore. Today’s increasing fashion leads to development of different types of washing and other chemical treatments of denim garments for smoother and softer handle.All these garments are fade out with normal wear and home laundering to become perfectly fit for wear.. until 1980. Wet Processing: The wet processing of denim consist of following wash treatments 1. Bleaching washing 4.

Desizing: Complete desizing and preparation is the first step in denim wet processing. waxes and lubricants. Benefits of cellulosic treatment: The general benefits of cellulosic treatment includes • Prevention of fuzz and pill 26 . Hydrolysis is generally carried out by using dilute mineral acid or enzyme. The word Bio Wash is understood as a washing down treatment of textile materials. enzymes will be wasted. streaks and lines may be set in garments. The denim fabric has sized warp yarns coated with a film of starch. binders. An acid may cause degradation of cotton. The size is normally based on starch. In the enzyme process. When amylase starts action with starch. Enzymatic desizing is most effective and popular method used. which involves an enzymatic treatment. desizing is carried out by using enzyme amylase. transform and synthesize natural material from one form into other.e. which hydrolysis the starch of sized warp. If denim is not properly desized. then the stone washing process will not be completed successfully. desizing and finishing stage. Amylase the starch splitting enzyme acts only on the basic constituents of starch while the inner cotton fibers remain intact. During sizing the warp threads are sized in order to sustain considerable strain and abrasion during weaving. In the field of denim washing enzymes play a significant role at the pre-treatment stage i. PVA. Enzymes are very specific and effective in their action and act only on starch without effecting cellulose. the starch is converted into sugar which further oxidizes into maltose and then finally goes into glucose which is soluble in water. Bio technology: The majority of industrial applications of biotechnology are based upon fermentation process using microorganisms and enzymes to digest. This the basic advantage of enzymatic desizing. The degradation of insoluble starch can carried out by hydrolysis or by oxidation. Complete removal of size is absolutely essential subsequent washing of denim.

A pumice stone ideal for an excellent stonewash process should be white. especially on seams and edges. and increases production costs. Stone washing exposes strong abrasion marks. cleaned. Freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with stones. A further disadvantage is water pollution problem during the disposal of liquor. To overcome the drawbacks of stonewashing. the Biostoning technique is used nowadays. the quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control. washed. but no harsh stiff or board. The pumice abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper. The handle is comfortably soft and full.e. As the wash cylinder rotates. the cloth fibers are repeatedly pounded and beaten as the tumbling stones ride up the paddles inside the drum and fall back down onto the fabric. containing stone dust. Stone washing is the classical washing procedure which is supposed to give denim the character of having already been worn for a long period of time and having been washed several times. 27 . Pumice stone has been used since the introduction of stone washed jeans in the early 1980s. Many problems are associated with stone washing of indigo denim garments i. rounded and free from foreign stones and impurities.• • • • • Increased smoothness Softness Increased luster and superior color brightness Improved handle Fashionable wash-down effects Stone Washing: During the washing of denim garments the surface dyes removal by abrasion is enhanced by stones. It provides the same effect as traditional stone washing. Heavy abrasion can damage the quality of the products and the life of the equipment. removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.

" Back staining happens when loosened dye particles redeposit onto the back surface of the fabric. 28 . Advantages of Biostoning: The enzymatic washing has the following advantages over the stone washing: • Biostoning is by far the most economical and environmentally friendly way to treat denim. Superior garment quality with respect to softness. Enzymes have been used in the textiles industry since the turn of the century to remove starchy and waxy residues from raw materials and to give fabric a uniform finish. and consumes less energy. minimum damage to the machine and garment. Biostoning relies on the action of enzymes to modify the fabric surface.The enzyme hydrolysis the cellulose into substances which can be easily removed resulting in attractive blue shades. The enzymes used in Biostoning are known as "cellulases" which attack primarily on the surface of fiber leaving its interior intact yielding the desired look and softer finish. causing discoloration. In the early days. chemical conditions. • • Reproducible effect are obtained under controlled conditions in terms of Allows 30-50% more garment load degree of fading. non-corrosive to equipment and non-polluting to environment. fluff removal and Process is user friendly. It provides the lighter and cleaner working conditions and environmentally friendlier processes. Back staining. surface smoothness and soft hand. • • • Enzymatic washing prevents damage of machines and the garments. eliminating the removal of dust from washed garments. can be accomplished under mild physical and improve quality. The indigo is washed out of blue yarn in denim and it may stain the white yarn.Biostoning: "Biostoning" was introduced in Europe in 1989 and then quickly adopted in the US the following year. luster. one problem with Biostoning was "back staining. However the prevention is done by controlling the pH of dye bath.

and drain lines is avoided.• Labor intensive clean up of stone from fabric. fast and efficient but harsh to environment and denim. machine. For this purpose. Indigo is easily destroyed by sodium hypochlorite at temperature of 40-50c.The bleaching effect can be enhanced by using acid. At first the Acid Wash process involved soaking pumice in Industrial Strength Chlorine however it was discovered that potassium permanganate was more controllable and just as strong an oxidizer. Potassium permanganate is more effective at temperatures of 20-30c. Neutralization: After the bleaching process it is necessary to clean up the garment which is done by neutralization. Depending upon the desired bleaching. Latest trend is to use the enzymes for controlled bleaching. strong oxidative agents such as sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are used during washing. Conventional hypochlorite bleaching of denim is cheap. different quantities of bleaching agent are used. Pumice stones are simply marinated in it and then it is vacuum packed to the required moisture level. Acid washing: Acid washed denim is chemically processed denim that stripped the top layer of color off to a white surface with the undertones of navy blue remaining in the jeans. Bleaching Wash: Denim garments are bleached in order to achieve light shades. So an anti-chlorination agent is used for this purpose. The garments are then treated with these stones to get the required faded look. The process is followed by rinsing and softeners are applied to increase the softness and to confer a smoother appearance.After bleaching residual hypochlorite has to be removed because apart from the formation of unpleasant odour. fiber damage and yellowing will arise. But it is not used for stretch denim as it may damage the Lycra core. The neutralization is done either by using sodium bisulphate or hydrogen peroxide 29 . It actually produces the whiteness and brightness in fabric.

Direct dyes are used commonly for this purpose. Dyes of different color are used for the process. It gives the temporary color to the fabric which can be easily washed and removed.Tint Wash: Tinting is a partial dyeing process. Important considerations: In order to achieve quality processing. It is just used to give the required color to the fabric. particular attention should be paid to the following parameters • • • • Liquor to good ratio PH control Temperature control Closely controlled process time 30 . The color of the dye used is according to the customer requirement.

energy. or a change in environment that either allows the goods to relax or forces the fabric to move in a given direction. width. particularly in warp direction. subsiquently when the fabric is thoroughly wetted it tends to revert its more stable dimensions which results in the contraction of yarns. • • • • Hygral expansion Relaxation shrinkage Swelling shrinkage Felting shrinkage Hygral expansion: It is a property of fabrics made from fibers that absorb moisture. It is a reversible change in dimensions which takes place when the moisture regain of a fabric is altered. Shrinkage is a dimensional change in a fabric or garment caused by an application of a force. this stretch may be increased and temporarily set into the fabric. For a cotton fabric. Following types of dimensional change are generally recognized. The fabric is then in a state of dimensional instability. Types of shrinkage: There are a no of different causes of dimensional change. When yarns are woven into fabrics they are subjected to considerable tensions. This effect is usually greater in warp direction than in weft direction. Relaxation shrinkage can affect any fiber type. 31 . In subsequent finishing processes such as calendaring. and thickness. shrinkage relates to the loss of the length and/or width dimensions. in particular fabrics made from wool. Some of which are connected to one another.SHRINKAGE The term shrinkage can simply be defined as a change in the dimensions of a fabric or garment. This dimensional change may be in a positive (growth) or negative (shrinkage) direction for fabric length.

Construction shrinkage is defined as the amount of dimensional change in a fabric based solely on the construction variables used to create the fabric. Swelling shrinkage: It results from swelling and de-swelling of the constituent fibers of a fabric due to the absorption and desorption of water. Some techniques have more impact than others. Processing Shrinkage: All processing steps in a finishing and garment wet processing plant affect the dimensions of a product. This means that shrinkage is affected by the construction parameters of the fabric. The type of shrinkage measured at this point is defined as construction shrinkage. finishing treatments and physical restraints within the structure. These steps create processing shrinkage. Length and width 32 . Felting shrinkage: It results from the frictional properties of component fibers which cause them to migrate within the structure.Relaxation shrinkage: It is the irreversible dimensional change accompanying the release of fiber stresses imparted during manufacture which have been set by combined effect of time. Shrinkage and the cause of shrinkage can be further defined or broken down into two different types: • • Construction shrinkage Processing shrinkage. Construction Shrinkage: After cotton fabric is constructed on a knitting machine or weaving loom. which can be defined as the dimensional change that a process adds to or removes from the construction shrinkage of a fabric. and it is also affected by the forces applied in processing in the dyeing and finishing departments as well as the apparel manufacturing facility. These characteristics or conditions affect various specifications including shrinkage. it has inherent characteristics based solely on the yarn construction variables used. This behavior is normally considered to be significant only for fibers having scale on their surface such as wool.

Thermoplastic fibers can be set if they are deformed at a comparatively high temperature and then allowed to cool in the deformed state. The manner by which fibers are oriented in a yarn will affect certain properties of the fabric including shrinkage. Factors affecting shrinkage: There are many factors that relate to shrinkage. Some of this shrinkage is composed of elastic shrinkage and can be easily recovered while some of the change in dimensions may not be recovered. methods are used to attempt to overcome processing shrinkage and reduce construction shrinkage. In today’s modern finishing plants. Most often. The dimensions of fabrics can become set while they are deformed if they are subjected to a suitable process. Fibers that absorb water can be set if they are deformed while in the wet state and then dried at those dimensions.dimensions are both affected. and the fabrics may either be stretched or consolidated. Therefore. because they cannot be heat set to attain stability. During relaxation shrinkage it is temporary set that is released. the relaxation of fabrics made with cotton fibers requires either mechanical and/or chemical means for stabilization. because the elastic limits of the fabric as constructed have been exceeded. These include the • • • • • • • Fiber type Yarn size and type Construction variables Wet processes Finishing procedures Apparel manufacturing techniques Garment care methods Cellulosic fibers are not as easily stabilized as are thermoplastic synthetics. The comfort and overall appeal of cotton has resulted in greater demand by the consumer and by usage in the textile industry. Cotton singles yarns of high twist will usually yield higher 33 . It is generally the case that deformation that has been set can be released by a more severe treatment that than the setting treatment. the length is stretched and the width is reduced during finishing process. The set may be temporary or permanent depending on the severity of the setting conditions.

shrinkage values than yarns of lower twist levels and will certainly yield greater skewing or torqueing. Different constructions can have significantly different shrinkage characteristics. Finishing procedures may reduce or increase the dimensional stability of the fabric. If relaxation dryers, compactors, and/or cross linking agents are used, then the residual shrinkage after wet processing can be reduced Figure 7

Apparel manufacturing processes often increase the level of shrinkage in a fabric. The laying down of the layers for cutting and the physical manipulation of the panels in sewing are examples of where shrinkage values can be increased. In fact, garments comprised of different fabric constructions may have some panels relax with handling in cut-and-sew while other panels may grow. Garment care labeling and laundering practices will have a direct influence on shrinkage performance. If the label calls for line or flat drying, then mostly elastic shrinkage will affect performance.

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In denim industry the shrinkage is the major problem. The excessive shrinkage level is undesirable for the fabrics to be made into the garments and is usually controlled in finishing processes.

Compressive shrinkage:
This is a mechanical finishing process that is used in denim industry. Compressive shrinkage is defined as any operation performed to improve the fabric appearance or function by physical manuplation, Steam or heat may be accompanied the physical manipulation; however chemicals and other lubricants are seldom used. The method includes drying, compaction, and/or chemical processes. Fabric properties affected by the process are • • • • • Luster Smoothness Softness Residual shrinkage Hand In a few mills compressive shrinking of denim fabric is carried out in a separate range. A heavy duty shrinkage machine is used for shrinking of denim fabric up to 14 – 17%.While others use the integrated finishing range. Integrated finishing and shrinkage: In integrated finishing range finishing of denim fabric is carried out in a single range. In this process the fabric is first passed through the brushing and singeing unit to remove the loose fluff and lint from fabric surface and then padded to apply finish to the fabric. Many different softeners and finishes are available which are suitable to denim fabric. The fabric is then stretched by passing through two pulling devices and then skewed. After skewing it is passed through the drying cylinders for partial drying of fabric. Subsequently the fabric runs through a compressive shrinkage unit followed by drying and calendaring.

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Sanforizing: Mechanical compacting is one method of reducing residual shrinkage. The process forces the yarns closer together and fabric becomes thicker and heavier. As a result of this the net residual shrinkage reduces. The term Sanforized is a registered trademark and is used to market the fabric that meets certain shrinkage specifications. Fabric is passed through the sanforizer head followed by the steam heated cylinders used to set the Sanforized or shrinked fabric. The key to any compacter is head where the force is applied to move the parallel yarns closer together. More length of fabric must be fed into the Head than the delivered one. A sanforizer actually uses a thick rubber blanket running against a steam heated cylinder. This thick blanket goes over a small diameter roller which stretches the convex surface of blanket. Fabric is passed outer the stretched blanket and the fabric and blanket come together in contact with the steam heated cylinder. At that point the rubber surface contracts to its original length and is forced to contract an additional amount as it forms the concave configuration of heated drum ultimately the yarns in fabric become closed.

Parameters for process control:
The main parameters that affect the shrinkage level are • • Moisture Pressure between the roller and rubber belt

Due to the continuous stretching and relaxing of blanket, heat is generated. The blanket is then cooled by spraying water on it after the fabric has been delivered through the unit. The degree of shrinkage is controlled by the thickness of blanket. For better results the degree of compactness is pre-determined which is done by characterizing the shrinkage behavior of fabric by laundering. Degree of compacting should not exceed the degree of shrinkage.

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Temperature Relative humidity Time Kenmore Vascator 21oC ± 1oC 65% ± 2% 4 hours before wash and 4 hours after wash Conditioning of Samples: Machines used for 3HL Three home Laundering borate ECE Liquid Detergent 37 . After marking samples were conditioned Next the samples were washed by three home launderings (3HL). In the end. Samples: • • • • • • • Recipe: Chemicals Sodium Quantity per 1g/l 3. samples were again conditioned. The samples were over-locked to avoid fraying during washing. Then the samples were marked with the help of AATCC standard scale with the help of textile marker.85 g/l 45 ml 25inch × 25inch Marked at 18inch × 18inch.SHRINKAGE EVALUATION CONSTRUCTION SHRINKAGE • • • • • • • Samples were made of the fabric manufactured mentioned earlier. After drying. shrinkage was measured for both warp and weft dimensions.

After the completion of second cycle.Conditions: Temperature Time 40o for stretchable denim 60o for rigid denim 67 min for every washing cycle Procedure: • • • • • • Water and chemicals were loaded in the machine. After one complete washing cycle fabric samples were unloaded and dried. the samples were again dried and the cycle was repeated for the third time. Shrinkage percentage was calculated in both warp and weft directions by using the formula: Shrinkage % = Change in length × 100 Original Length 38 . Then the machine was put into running position and samples were washed under the above mentioned conditions. Shrinkage Test: • • After washing and conditioning the fabric samples were measured on marks with the help of same scale. Then the samples were again put into the machine and the whole procedure was repeated. Samples were also added.

84 -12.91 70 + 3. Fabric no. These are made up of the yarns having elastomeric core.7 Weft -13 -24.91 Picks/inch 40 40 40 40 Table 4 Weave Type 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z-twill 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z-twill Shrinkage (%) Warp -6.3 -21.5 -7.Shrinkage in Rigid and Stretch Denim • • Denim fabric without any stretch properties are known as rigid denim.9 10 Ne 2 14 Ne 0 -1 Shrinkage (%) behaivior of Rigid n Stretch Denim in warp Shrinkage (%) -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 10 Ne 14 Ne Rigid Lycra Figure 8 39 . 1 Count Fabric Type Rigid Lycra Rigid Lycra Denier+ draft 70+3.23 -2 -3. Stretch denim fabrics have pronounced values of stretch.

40 . So stretch denim tends to shrink more when it acquires relax state. as core-spun yarn undergo more tensions during yarn manufacturing and weaving of fabric.Shrinkage (%) behaivior between Rigid n Stretch denim in Weft 0 -5 Shrinkage (%) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 10 Ne 14 Ne Lycra Rigid Figure 9 Conclusion: By comparing the fabrics. it was concluded that stretch denim shrinks more than rigid denim.

5 -4.25 -22.91 70+3.Shrinkage in Strecth Denim due to varying Picks per Inch Shrinkage Warp Weft -6.5 -5 -4.91 70+3.5 No.91 70+3.91 40 40 40 44 44 44 Table 5 1 2 Weave Type 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill Shrinkage in Warp due to Picks per inch 0 -1 Shrinkage (%) -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 40 Picks per inch 44 Picks per inch 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 lycra slub Figure 10 41 .5 -20.13 -24.5 -19.91 70+3.12 -5.91 70+3.37 -4. of Observations Count 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 lycra slub 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 lycra slub Denier+Draft Picks/inch 70+3.5 -23 -22.

Due to more picks per inch. shrinkage percentage will decrease. 42 . there will be less space for the yarns to relax after swelling that’s why shrinkage decreases. of picks per inch.0 -5 Shrinkage(%) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Shrinkage in weft by varying Picks per inch 40 picks per inch 44 picks per inch 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 lycra slub Figure 11 Conclusion: By varying the picks per inch in different stretch denim fabrics. Due to Increase in no. shrinkage percentage is varied.

5 -5 -4.25 40+3.5 -18. Count 10 Lycra Denier+ draft 70+3.5 -20.13 -24.25 Picks 40 40 40 40 40 40 Table 6 Weave Type 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z twill Shrinkage (%) Warp Weft -6.91 40+3.91 70+3.91 40+3.91 70+3.S Shrinkage due to varying Draft and Denier Fabric no.75 -18.23 -4.2 -23 -22.87 -4.24 40+3.12 -6.24 10 Lycra 10 Spandax 10 Lycra slub Figure 12 43 .77 1 10 Spandax 10 Lycra slub 10 Lycra 2 10 Spandax 10 Lycra slub Shrinkage (% ) in Warp due to Draft+Denier 0 -1 Shrinkage (%) -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 70+3.

0 -5 S h r in k a g e (% ) in W e ft d u e to D r a ft+ D e n ie r Shrinkage(%) -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 7 0 + 3 .2 4 10 Lycra 10 Spandax Conclusion: Denier and draft values directly affect the shrinkage behavior of stretch denim.9 1 4 0 + 3 . more will be shrinkage. The level of stretch-ability of yarn depends on the given draft and fabric made of highly stretched yarns will relax more and hence the shrinkage % of fabric will increase as there are more tensions on the yarns. More is the draft values. 10 Lycra slub Figure 13 44 .

13 -24.Shrinkage due to varying Weft Count No.91 70+3.4 -4 Weft -23 -22.91 70+3.89 -21. of Observations Count Type of Yarn Lycra Denier + Draft 70+3.91 Table 7 Picks/inch 40 40 40 40 40 40 Weave Type 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill Shrinkage Warp -6.91 70+3.5 1 10 Single Spandex Lycra Slub Lycra 2 14 Single Spandex Lycra Slub 0 -1 Shrinkage (%) in Warp due to Weft Count Shrinkage (%) -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 10 Single 14 Single Spandex -7 Lycra Lycra Slub Figure 14 45 .5 -19.13 -21.1 -4.91 70+3.91 70+3.12 -6.5 -5 -4.

Shrinkage in weft due to Weft Count 0 Shrinkage (%) -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 10 Single 14 Single Spandex Lycra Conclusion: By comparing the fabrics having same construction (picks per inch) but different counts. there is more swelling in the yarns which tends to contract the fabric. Lycra Slub Figure 15 46 . we concluded that coarser the yarn count more will be the shrinkage in fabric. Due to the coarse yarn counts.

4 -6.6 Cotton lycra Poly lycra Shrinkage (%) Figure 16 47 .5 -6. Count Fabric Type Denier + draft Picks/inch Weav e Type 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z twill Shrinkage (%) Warp -6.1 Weft -23 -19.91 Table 8 40 40 Shrinkage (%) in Warp due to Yarn Type -5.1 -6.3 -6.9 -6 -6.2 -6.5 -6.91 70+3.Shrinkage Due to varying Yarn Types Trial No.8 1 10 Ne 2 Cotton lycra Poly lycra 70+3.

-18 Shrinkage (%) -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 Shrinkage (% ) in weft due to Yarn T ype Cotton lycra Poly lycra Figure 17 Conclusion: We concluded that fabric made of cotton Lycra will shrink more than poly Lycra. 48 . hence there is more shrinkage in fabric. This is due to the reason that cotton has more affinity for the water than polyester so it will absorb more moisture which results in more swelling of yarns.

91 2 10 70+3.5 -5 -4.91 1 10 70+3. of Observations Count Denier Weave Picks/inch + Draft Type 40 40 40 40 40 40 Table 9 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 3/1 Ztwill 2/1 Ztwill 2/1 Ztwill 2/1 Ztwill Shrinkage (%) Warp Weft 10 lycra 70+3.91 spandex 10 lycra 70+3.91 spandex 10 lycra 70+3.Shrinkage (%) due to varying Weave Type No.91 slub -6.7 -4 -23 -22.4 -4.91 slub 10 lycra 70+3.38 -21 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 Shrinkage(%) in W arp due to W eave T ype Shrinkage (%) 3/1 Z-twill 2/1 Z-twill 10 lycra 10 spandex 10 lycra slub Figure 18 49 .13 -24.7 -19.5 -18.12 -5.

50 .S h rin k ag e (% ) in W e ft d u e to W e av e T yp e 0 -5 Shrinkage (%) -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5 10 spandex 10 lycra slub 10 lycra 3 /1 Z-tw ill 2 /1 Z-tw ill Figure 19 Conclusion: The results shows that stretch denim fabric wuth 3/1 twill shrinks more than 2/1 twill denim as 3/1 twill has loose structure and more spaces.

5 -4. 1 2 Count 10 Lycra 10 Lycra slub Denier+ draft 70+3.91 70+3.91 Picks Weave Type 3/1 Z twill 3/1 Z twill Shrinkage (%) Warp -6.Shrinkage (%) due to Slub Yarns Fabric no.12 Weft -23 -24.5 40 40 Table 10 S h rin k a g e (% ) in w a rp in L y c ra an d ly cra 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 10 Lyc ra 10 Lyc ra s lub Shrinkage (%) Figure 20 51 .

So due to more swellness. Conditions: Temperatur e Time 40oC.5 -24 -24. shrinkage in yarn will be more. 3HL was done.Shrinkage (%) in weft in Lycra and Lycra slub -22 Shrinkage (%) -22. 49oC.5 -25 10 Lycra 10 Lycra slub Figure 21 Conclusion: Slub swells more when soaked in water.5 -23 -23. For studying washing conditions like temperature. washing cycles and washing types. PROCESSING SHRINKAGE • • • • Samples were taken as for construction shrinkage For finished fabric. But time was studied in Industrial washes. 40 min. 55 min 52 . 3HL washing was done at same conditions as in construction shrinkage. 60oC 25 min.

INDUSTRIAL WASHES: Rinse Wash: Recipe Chemicals Detergent (CP) Softener (Belfacin) Quality 100ml 200ml Enzyme (Aquazyme) 50ml Acid Conditions: Time Temperatur e pH 15min 60~70oC 6~7 400ml Stone Wash: Recipe Chemical Old Stone New Stone Enzyme ( Valumax ) Acid Water Quantity 5 kg 5kg 150kg 400ml 120 gallon 53 .

Conditions Time Temperatur e pH Bleaching: Recipe Chemicals Water Bleaching Powder Bleaching Liquid (H2O2) Conditions: Time Temperatur e Neutralization: Recipe CHEMICALS Sodium Meta bisulphite (Na2S2O5) Water QUANTITIES 350ml 150 liter 10min 50oC Quantity 150litre 300 g 500ml 30~40 min 60oC 5~6 54 .

2 6. F1 F2 F3 Warp Count 9.Tint Wash: Recipe: CHEMICALS QUANTITIES Direct Dye Salt Softener (NI) Water Conditions: Time Temperatur e 10min 70oC 0.3 9 Weft Count 14/1+30D 16/1+40D 9/1+70D Table 11 Ends/inc h 64 68 64 Picks/inch 48 44 45 Weave Type 2/1 RHT 2/1 RHT 2/1 RHT 55 .5gm 1kg 60ml 150 liter FABRICS USED FOR PROCESSING SHRINKAGE Fabric No.

8 -0.Shrinkage (%)due to varying Washing Time Fabric No.8 10.44 -1 -1.3 -5.8 -10.9 Weft -5.7 11.8 F3 11 11.5 -5 F1 10. Weight (oz per sq.5 -10.9 -4.3 -4.3 Time (min) 25 40 55 25 40 55 25 40 55 Table 12 Shrinkage % Warp -0.1 -10.3 56 .5 11.4 F2 11.5 -5.5 -1.4 -2.8 -3.5 -2.5 10.9 -1. yd) 10.

57 .Shrinkage (%) in warp due to Washing time 0 Shrinkage (%) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 25 40 T ime (min) 55 F1 F2 F3 Figure 22 Shrinkage (%) in weft due to washing time 0 Shrinkage (%) -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 25 40 Time (min) F1 F2 F3 55 Figure 23 Conclusion: The comparison of shrinkage % at different washing times shows By increasing the washing time.shrinkage % tends to increase.

8 -11. yd) (oC) Shrinkage % Warp -0.3 -5 10.6 F2 11.8 -6.6 10.7 -2 -2.7 F3 10.7 11.5 F1 10.6 -3.1 -6.4 -1 -1.9 11 40 49 60 40 49 60 40 49 60 Table 13 58 .9 -2.Shrinkage (%) due to varying Temperature Fabric No.8 10.4 -11.6 -2.9 Weft -5.3 -10.9 11.4 -1.4 -2.9 -1. Weight (oz Temperature per sq.

Shrinkage (%) in warp due to Washing Temperature 0 Shrinkage (%) -1 -2 -3 -4 40 49 Temperature ( oC) 60 F1 F2 F3 Figure 24 Shrinkage (%) in weft due to Washing Temperature 0 -2 Shrinkage (%) -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 Temperature (oC) 40 49 60 F1 F2 F3 Figure 25 59 .

6 11.69 -11.7 -1.3 0 -0 .1 -4. yd) 10.37 -1 -0. Weight (oz per sq.73 -3.38 -6.Shrinkage (%) due to different Washing Cycles Shrinkage % Fabric No.5 -3 Shrinkage (%) 1 HL 3 HL W a s h in g C yc le Figure 26 60 .8 F3 10.7 10.4 -1.5 -2 -2 .9 3 HL Table 14 S h rin kag e (% ) in w arp d u e to W ash in g C ycles F1 F2 F3 Washing Cycle 1 HL 3 HL 1 HL 3 HL 1 HL Warp -0.5 -2.6 Weft -2.4 F1 10.53 F2 11.5 -1 -1 .62 -1.

61 . of washing cycles.Shrinkage (%) in weft due to Washing Cycles 0 -2 Shrinkage (%) -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 1 HL 3 HL Washing Cycles F1 F2 F3 Figure 27 Conclusion: The cmparison of shrinkage % at different washing cycles shows that shrinkage % tends to increase by increasing no.

7 11.9 F3 11.3 -5 F1 10.4 -11. Weight (oz per sq.7 -1.7 F2 11.6 Washing Type 3 HL Industrial Wash 3 HL Industrial Wash 3 HL Industrial Wash Table 15 Shrinkage (%) Warp -1 -1.9 Weft -6.6 -3. yd) 10.8 -3.3 62 .9 -2.Shrinkage (%)due to Washing Type Fabric No.8 -11.1 -5.8 10.8 -1.

5 -4 -4.5 -1 Shrinkage (%) -1.Shrinkage (%) in warp due to Washing Types 0 -0.5 -2 -2.5 Washing Types F1 F2 F3 3 HL Industrial Was h Figure 28 Shrinkage (%) in weft in Washing type 0 -2 Shrinkage (%) -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 Washing Type F1 F2 F3 3 HL Industrial Wash Figure 29 Conclusion: As industrial washing compose of many washing types and cycles with varying washing conditions.5 -3 -3. so sometimes the shrinkage values are higher for industrial wash. 63 .

FABRIC 1: Washing Type Rinse Wash Rinse + Stone Wash Rinse + Stone Wash + Softener Rinse +Stone + Tint Wash Rinse + Stone + Tint Wash + Softener Table 16 10.6 -1.Shrinkage % due to different Industrial Washing Types First Wash: First wash may include any of these washing types depending upon desired look and properties as demanded by the customer: • • • • • Rinse Wash Rinse and Stone wash Rinse and Stone wash with softener Rinse and Stone wash with tint.9 Weight (oz per sq.5 0 -6. yd) 10.5 -1.3 -7.4 -7. Rinse and Stone Wash with tint and softener.6 64 .9 10.5 -7.8 10.5 -1.4 Weft -4 10.2 Shrinkage % Warp 0.

The second wash includes: • • • • • Rinse and Bleach wash Bleach wash with Neutralization Bleach wash and Neutralization with Tint wash Bleach wash and Neutralization with Softener Bleach wash and Neutralization with Tint and Softener Fabric 1: 65 . any one or more of the following washes can be done according to the look and properties demanded by the customer.Shrinkage in Fabric Sam ples due to D ifferent w ashing types Shrinkage (%) 2 0 -2 -4 -6 Rinse+Stone+Tint Rinse+Stone+Tint -8 Wash + Softner Rinse+Stone Rinse Wash Rinse+Stone -10 W rp a W ft e Wash + Softner Wash W s in Ty es ah g p Wash Figure 30 Second wash: After first wash.

6 -1 -1.5 Shrinkage % Warp -1.3 10. 66 .1 -1.5 -5.Washing Type Rinse + Bleach Wash Bleach Wash + Neutralization Bleach Wash + Neutralization + Tint Bleach Wash + Neutralization + Softener Bleach Wash + Neutralization + Tint + Softener Table 17 Shrinkage (%) in Fabric Sample due to Different Washes 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 hW ac Ble er int er en en +T of t o ft on +S +S ati n int l iz tio tra +N +T za ue ch al i on +N ea ati etr u h Bl l iz ac tra +N ue Bl e ch +N lea B h ac Ble h as l iz tra ue on ati Weight (oz per sq.4 -4.9 10 10.3 -1.3 Weft -4. The different washing types depend upon the customer requirement.4 -6 Shrinkage (%) Warp Weft Rin + se Figure 31 Conclusion: Shrinkage behavior is different for the different industrial washes depending the procedure and combination of washes under which fabric go through.3 -5.4 10. yd) 9.

Samples: Cut sample size 18 inch × 2 inch (18 inch along weft) Test length 10 inch 67 .25 inch from one side and 0. Stretch and growth are most important parameters for stretchable fabrics.75 inch from the other side. Then weight was removed and extension in the length of sample was measured.STRETCH EVALUATION The fabrics woven with the warp or weft combination yarns having elastomeric cores are stretched. heat set and finished under particular conditions to provide the resultant fabric with an elastic stretch. Test length of 10 inch was marked on each sample in centre. Growth relates to the degree to which the textile material fails to return to its original orientation after the relaxation of the tension which was used to impart the stretch. The change in length is measured as growth of sample. This increase in length is noted as stretch of sample. Seams were made on both folded ends of sample. After measuring the increase in length. The sample tends to recover its original dimensions. fabric sample was allowed to relax for 1 hour. Measuring the Stretch and Growth: Procedure: • • • • • • • • • Three samples were taken of each trial fabric. There are many factors that affect the stretch ability of stretch denim fabric. The samples were hanged for half an hour in vertical direction with a dead weight of 3 pounds. Stretch is defined as how much extension is imparted to the textile material and has it returned spontaneously to its original orientation. Samples were folded 1.

68 .5 Growth % 3 4.3 Table 18 Stretch % 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Variation in stretch % due to weave type 2/1 Z Twill Weave type 3/1 Z Twill Figure 32 Conclusion: 3/1 weave will show more stretch ability than 2/1 weave due to loose structure of 3/1. F1 F4 Weave type 2/1 Z Twill 3/1 Z Twill Stretch % 17 26.Testing conditions: • • Temperature Relative humidity 21oC ± 1oC 65% ± 2% Stretch % due to different Weave Type: Fabric No.

stretch % increases.25+7 0 D raft and D en ier Figure 33 Conclusion: By increasing the draft level.9 1+7 0 3 . The yarn having more draft of lycra used in denim.25+70 Table 19 15.2. 69 . 1 Count 10 Lycra 10 Lycra Draft + denier 3.1.7.3 3 25 V ariation in S tretch % du e to different D raft an d D enier Strech% 20 15 10 5 0 3 .91+70 Stretch Growth % % 20. will result in more stretchability. Stretch % due to Draft and Denier: Fabric No.5 4 2 3.

3 3 1.Variation in Stretching % due to Heat Setting Heat setting temperature:180oC Fabric No. The polymer structure of lycra is set for longer duration.2 Variation in stretch % with heat setting times 20 Stretch % 15 10 5 0 65 85 Heat setting time (sec) Figure 34 Conclusion: By increasing the heat setting time. 70 . the stretch % decreases. Time (sec) Stretch % Growth % 65 F1 85 Table 20 17 11.

Bow and skew are more visually displeasing in colored. Positive skew: The right tail is longer. for example. 1. dying. The distribution is said to be right-skewed. These defects may cause sewing problems in such fabrics and draping problems in finished products. to prevent trouser leg twisting.SKEWNESS Denim is made up of twill weave. This fault is known as skewness. The distribution is said to be left-skewed. In some cases a specified amount of skew is needed. Skew is defined as a fabric condition resulting when filling yarns are angularly displaced from a line perpendicular to the edge or side of the fabric. Filling yarns normally appear as straight line at right angles to the edge or side of fabric while skewness is straight line distortion of marked filling yarn. finishing or the other operations where a potential exists for uneven distribution of tensions across fabric width. Testing method for measuring skewness: Apparatus: • • • • Measuring stick or steel tape Rigid straightedge Flat surface Fabric inspection table 71 . the mass of the distribution is concentrated on the right of the figure. When denim garments are washed then a fault appears in the fabric which affects the appearance and serviceability of garments. Negative skew: The left tail is longer. Skew can be induced during the fabric manufacturing. 2. patterned fabrics such as plaids and horizontal stripes rather than in solid colors because the contrast makes the distortion more prominent. Matching plaids from distorted patterns may create serious problems for the garment manufacturer or home sewer. the mass of the distribution is concentrated on the left of the figure.

4 72 . The skew percentage was calculated by the given formula: Skew % right hand = skew distance (right) * 100 Fabric width Skew % left hand = skew distance (left) * 100 Fabric width Testing Results: No. of Obs. A straightedge was placed across the width perpendicular to selvedge such that it coincided with the lowest point on the fabric at which the marked yarn meets one of the selvedge edges. Filling yarn was marked across the width.91 70+3. 1 2 Count 10 Lycra 10 Lycra Denier + Draft 70+3.91 Picks/inch 40 40 Table 21 Weave Type 3/1 Z twill 2/1 Z twill Skew (cm) 7.8 5 Skew movement +3 ~ -3 -1. • The distance parallel to the selvedge between the straightedge and marked yarn was measured and was recorded including the skew direction. The samples were placed on a plain surface.Procedure: • • • • Three samples from each fabric of 100 cm width were taken.2 0.

That’s why filling yarns displace at the angular positions.Skewness due toWeave Type Skew Movement 0.5 3/1 Z twill Weave Type 2/1 Z twill Figure 35 Conclusion: 3/1 twill shows more skew as it is comparatively more loose weave then 2/1 twill. 73 .5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.

But if higher stretch level is required then the Lycra percentage increase up to 3% and higher heat setting time will be required. During the customer use the care labels should be strictly followed. 74 . By increasing one pick per inch the shrinkage percentage can be decrease up to 2%. The fabric is made according to the customer required stretch level. But the major shrinkage occurs in first wash (rinse wash and stone wash). Wash type is selected according to the customer requirement of fabric appearance and shrinkage %. With increase of lycra percentage and coarse count shrinkage tends to increase while increase in picks per inch decreases the shrinkage percentage. If it is required that the residual shrinkage of 3 ~4 % with 40 denier Lycra. to avoid adverse shrinkage in the garment that may effect the serviceability of the garment. So Lycra draft and denier are changed accordingly. So it is desired to control the shrinkage during the finishing processes rather than by varying the construction variables.CONCLUSION & RECOMENDATIONS From results and discussion it was concluded that different factors effect the shrinkage behavior of stretch denim. With every new wash the shrinkage percentage gradually increases as one upon the other washes are done. then the preferred lycra percentage should be one percent with 40 ~ 42 picks per inch with compact structure and heat setting for 65 seconds at 180oC.

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