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Electric Arc Welding - Paresh Goel (09010339)

Welding Process Electrode Shielding Gas Filler Metal operation Arc is generated manually by contact to surface. Subsequent burning of coating generates shielding gases and metal gets deposited. Application 1. Used in repair and maintenance work. 2. Used in construction of steel structures and industrial fabrication. 3. Used for welding thick sheets using multiple passes. 1. Used for welding dissimilar metals. 2. Used extensively in aircraft and aerospace industry. 3. Used for root pass in pipe welding. 1. Used for a wide range of metals. 2. Used as magnetic-flux MIG process for welding medium and high carbon steels. Advantages 1. Cheapest welding available. 2. Portable due to absence of external shielding gas. 3. Can be used for welding outdoors. 4. Can be used for all positionswelding. Disadvantages 1. Has low efficiency due to stub loss. 2. Time consuming as it requires restarts after continuous replacement of electrodes. 3. Requires high level of operator skill. 4. Leads to a low surface finish-weld due to slag.

Shielde d metal arc welding

Consumable Coated Electrode

Gases generate d from burning of flux covering

The electro de acts as filler


NonConsumable Tungsten Electrode

Inert Gases such as Argon and Helium is supplied externall y

Filler rod is separat ely used

Can be used manually or automated as distance between electrode and metal is constant


Consumable Metal Electrode

Inert gas is separatel y provided

The electro de acts as filler

Good for automatic as well as manual welding

1. Has self-cleaning property and hence 1. Expensive because is very useful in of use of tungsten case of Al. electrode and shielding gas. 2. Can be used for 2. Cannot be used in a wide range of windy and drafty metals. environment. 3. Results in high 3. Slower than quality weld as welding with there is no slag. consumable electrodes. 4. Can be easily automated. 1. Can be easily automated 1. Weld quality is not 2. Long welds can as good as TIG due to be made without spatter. interruptions 2. Cannot be used for 3. Spot welding can outdoor applications. be done just from one end 3. Cannot be used with AC power supply. 4. Can be used for all positionswelding.

Plasma arc torch welding

Non consumable electrode

Inert Gases such as Argon,He lium,CO2

Filler rod is separat ely used

This arc is transferred to the work piece using plasma gas in a shielded environmen t.

1. Used for welding of surgical instruments, needles, wires, bulb filaments, thermocouples and aerospace industry. 2. Used in tool and die repairing and strip metal welding.

1. High precision welding due to stable and concentrated arc. 2. Ideal for low amperage welding applications with possibility of short weld times. 3. Smaller heat affected zone and high quality weld. 1. Safety equipment not required as the arc is hidden. 2. High quality spatter free welds are obtained. 3. Involves use of high currents and hence high metal deposition rates. 4. Two electrodes or more electrodes can be introduced to increase speed and deposition. 1. Can be used with external shielding gas to produce high quality welds due to dual shielding. 2. Can be used to develop desired metal chemistries by adding appropriate alloys in the flux.

1. Very Expensive. 2. High operator skill required. 3. High local distortion due to high heat concentration. 4. Produces high level of noise. 5. Requires high amount of inert gas. 1. Can be done only in horizontal and vertical position. 2. Requires additional handling and equipment for ever y welding pass. 3. Low mobility of equipment due to bulkiness. 4. Results in excessive heat buildup due to high currents leading to distortion and brittleness. 1. Leads to porous welds as the gases from the core dont escape the welded area. 2. Results in a melted contact tip. 3. Expensive electrodes.

Submer ged arc welding

Consumable Electrode

Granular flux is spread over the welding surface (Oxides of Mn, Si, Ti, Ca etc.)

The electro de acts as filler

Initiation of arc is done in an environmen t of granulated flux. Electrode is fed continuousl y and fusion of metal takes place under the flux heap. Generally it is semiautomatic.

1. Used for joining low alloy, high strength, low and medium carbon steels. 2. Used in fabrication of pipes, boiler pressure vessels, rail road tank cars and similar structures.

Flux core arc welding

Consumable Electrode with a flux core

Gases generate d from burning of flux present in the core

Contin uously fed electro de

Good for automatic as well as manual welding

1. Welding of steel structures and automotive industry. 2. Used for high nickel alloys, Wear facing/surfacin g alloys.

Arc stud welding


Ferrule ceramic device is used to protect an arc around the stud

Stud gets consu med and embed ded in the weld pool

Stud mounted in a gun is joined to a flat plate once arc is generated. The ferrule is removed when the joining is complete. Can be easily automated Initiation of arc is done in a shielded environmen t of CO 2 and continuous arc leads to formation of molten metal pool joining the work pieces. Initiation of arc is done which leads to melting of flux and metal. After short circuiting, arc extinguishes and heat is generated due to resistance of molten metal.

1. Used extensively in the automotive and shipbuilding industries. 2. Used in the installation of insulation, corrugated roofing, panels, planks, covering and ferroconcrete works. 1. Used for welding thick sheets (12-75 mm) of steels, Al, Ti alloys. 2. Used in construction of ships, bridges, ships, pressure vessels, storage tanks, and pipes. 1. Used for joining heavy plates, forgings and castings. 2. Preferred over thermite for uniform thickness and tapered applications. 3. Used for heavy steel structures and nuclear vessels.

1. Economical and very fast method of joining pins, bolts to a plate or a structure. 2. Good for welding thin sheets. 2. Produces strong and pressure tight joints. 4. Can be used for all positions.

1. Limits the size of stud because the stud design must permit chucking of the stud for welding.

Electro gas welding

Consumable Flux cored Electrode

CO2 + Gases generate d from burning of flux

1. Single-pass welding. 2. Results in good impact strength of the weld. 3. Involves easy restarting.

1. Inappropriate for welds of thickness greater than 75mm. 2. Results in spatter and flash due to constant presence of arc. 3. Results in porous welds in case of high thickness. 1. Expensive for low thickness applications. 2. Difficult for closing cylindrical welds. 3. Results in large grain sized structure. 4. Carried out in vertical uphill position.

The electro de acts as filler

Electro slag welding

Consumable Electrode

Molten slag is used to shield metal

1. Can be used to weld plates of thicknesses up to 450mm in a single pass. 2. Gives extremely high deposition rates. 3. No spattering or intense arc flash due to extinguishing of arc.

The electro de acts as filler