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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, SPORT AND YOUTH OF UKRAINE NIZHYN MYKOLA GOGOL STATE UNIVERSITY

Germanic Philology Department

Structural models of phraseological units in the text of fiction The picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde

Yearly essay Student of the 4 Year Group ED 44/2 Foreign Languages Department Zolotarenko Olha Ihorivna Research Supervisor Candidate of Philology Associate Professor A.M.Trybukhanchyk

Nizhyn-2011

Contents Introduction3 Part 1. The criteria of phraseological units in English...5


1.1. A.V. Koonins classification of phraseological units.5

1.1.1. Primary ways of forming phraseological units on the basis of a free word-group5 1.1.2. Secondary ways of forming phraseological units on the basis of another phraseological unit..6
1.2. V.Vinogradovs division of phraseological units .7 1.2.1. Phraseological combinations7 1.2.2. Phraseological unities..8 1.2.3. Phraseological fusions.9 1.3. Classification by Prof. A.I Smirnitsky .9 1.3.1. One-summit units.9 1.3.2. Two-summit units10 1.4. Classification by I.V. Arnold11 2. Part 2.The structure of phraseologisms12 2.1. Set expressions functioning like nouns (noun phraseologisms)...12 2.2. Set expressions functioning like verbs.14 2.3. Set expressions functioning like adjectives..15 2.4. Set expressions functioning like adverbs..16 2.5. Set expressions functioning like prepositions17 2.6. Set expressions functioning like interjections17

Conclusions18 /Summary..20 List of sources used22 List of dictionaries and reference books.22 List of illustrative literature22

Introduction
There is a great interest in modern linguistics in researching the phraseological system of language from the point of view of formation and developing its different subdivisions. In spite of intensive and fruitful development of theory in home phraseology and foreign linguistics, the question, connected with the status of PhUs in the system of language, still remains contradictory in interpretation. The given yearly essay is the research in the developing of different subdivisions of PhUs and is dedicated to the problem of structural models of phraseological units in the text of fiction The picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde. The novel The picture of Dorian Gray was published by Ward, Lock, and Company in April 1891 and was a success among adherents of the prominent English writer. The topic of the novel is the struggle against ageing of the madly handsome young man, Dorian Grey, with the help of his portrait. It should be noted, that this novel is interesting not only in the cognitive aspect, but in phraseological either: it is rich in a great amount of phraseological units, borrowings, slang expressions. We paid attention to phraseological units which are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech; they exist in the language as ready-made units and help us to understand the history of nation, culture and customs. The aim of the research is to determine structural models of phraseological units in the text of fiction The picture of Dorian Gray. In order to reach this aim we should solve the following tasks:
to determine the criteria of PhUs division; to describe the difference between the structural models of phraseologisms

in The picture of Dorian Gray;


to learn what additional information the PhUs create in the novel.

The object of the research in the given yearly essay is phraseological units, chosen by the method of continuous selection from the novel The picture of Dorian Gray, which serves as the material for research. The subject of the research is the peculiarities of structural models of phraseological units in the text of fiction The picture of Dorian Gray. The practical value of the given essay is explained by the possibility to use its material and received results in practical English teaching in educational institutions of different types.

Part 1. The criteria of phraseological units in English


The vocabulary of a language is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units idioms. We can mention such dictionaries as: L.Smith Words and Idioms, V.Collins A Book of English Idioms etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic), side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a rule, into different semantic groups. Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning. 1.1.A.V. Koonins classification of phraseological units A.V. Koonin classified phraseological units according to the way they are formed. He pointed out primary and secondary ways of forming phraseological units [ 1986: 43-75]. 1.1.1.Primary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group: a) The most productive in Modern English is the formation of phraseological units by means of transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups, e.g. in space technology we can point out the following phrases: launching pad in its terminological meaning is , in its transferred meaning , to link up - c, in its tranformed meaning it means -; b) a large group of phraseological units was formed from free word groups by transforming their meaning, e.g. granny farm ,

Troyan horse , ; c) phraseological units can be formed by means of alliteration , e.g. a sad sack , culture vulture - , , fudge and nudge ; d) they can be formed by means of expressiveness, especially it is characteristic of forming interjections, e.g. My aunt!, Hear, hear ! etc.; e) they can be formed by means of distorting a word group, e.g. odds and ends was formed from odd ends; f) they can be formed by using archaisms, e.g. in brown study means in gloomy meditation where both components preserve their archaic meanings; g) they can be formed by using a sentence in a different sphere of life, e.g. that cock wont fight can be used as a free word-group when it is used in sports (cock fighting), it becomes a phraseological unit when it is used in everyday life, because it is used metaphorically; h) they can be formed when we use some unreal image, e.g. to have butterflies in the stomach - , to have green fingers - -, etc.; i) they can be formed by using expressions of writers or politicians in everyday life, e.g. corridors of power (Snow), American dream (Alby), locust years(Churchil) , the winds of change (Mc Millan). 1.1.2. Secondary ways of forming phraseological units on the basis of another phraseological unit. They are: a) conversion, e.g. to vote with ones feet was converted into vote with ones feet; b) changing the grammar form, e.g. Make hay while the sun shines is transferred into a verbal phrase - to make hay while the sun shines; c) analogy, e.g. Curiosity killed the cat was transferred into Care killed the cat;

d) contrast, e.g. cold surgery - a planned before operation was formed by contrasting it with acute surgery, thin cat - a poor person was formed by contrasting it with fat cat; e) shortening of proverbs or sayings e.g. from the proverb You cant make a silk purse out of a sows ear by means of clipping the middle of it the phraseological unit to make a sows ear was formed with the meaning ; f) borrowing phraseological units from other languages, either as translation loans, e.g. living space (German), to take the bull by the horns(Latin) or by means of phonetic borrowings meche blanche (French), corpse delite(French), sotto voce (Italian) etc.; 1.2.V.Vinogradovs division of phraseological units By the classification of Academician V.Vinogradov phraseological units are divided into three groups: phraseological combinations, phraseological unities and phraseological fusions [ 1946:45-69]. 1.4.1Phraseological combinations are often called traditional because words are combined in their original meaning but their combinations are different in different languages, e.g. cash and carry - self-service shop, in a big way in great degree etc. It is usually impossible to account logically for the combination of particular words. It can be explained only on the basis of tradition, e.g. to deliver a lection (but not to read a lecture). In phraseological combinations words retain their full semantic independence although they are limited in their combinative power, e.g. to wage war (but not to lead war), to render assistance, to render services (but not to render pleasure). Phraseological combinations are the least idiomatic of all the kinds of phraseological units. In other words, in phraseological combinations the meaning of the whole can be inferred from the meaning of the components, e.g. to draw a conclusion, lo lend assistance, to make money, to pay attention to. In phraseological combinations one of the components (generally the component which is used figuratively) can be combined with different words, e.g. to talk

sports, politics, business (but to speak about life), leading worker, leading article (but the main problem), deadly enemy, deadly shot (but a mortal wound), keen interest, keen curiosity, keen sense of humor ( but the great surprise). Words of wide meaning, as to make, to take, to do, to give, etc. form many phraseological units, e.g. to take an examination, to take a trip, to take a chance, to take interest, to make fun of, to make inquiries, to make a statement, to make friends, to make haste. Sometimes traditional combinations are synonyms of words, e.g. to make inquiries = to inquire, to make haste=to hurry. Some traditional combinations are equivalents of prepositions, e.g. by means of, in connection with. Some phraseological combinations have nearly become compounds, e.g. brown bread. Traditional combinations often have synonymous expressions, e.g. to make a report=to deliver a report. Phraseological combinations are not equivalents of words. Though the components of phraseological combinations are limited in their combinative power, that is, they can be combined only with certain words and cannot be combined with any other words, they preserve not only their meaning, but all their structural forms, e.g. nice distinction is a phraseological combinations and it is possible to say nice distinctions, nicer distinction, etc., or to clench ones fist (clenched his fists, was clenching his fists, etc.). 1.2.2. In phraseological unities the meaning of the whole can be guessed from the meanings of its components, but it is transferred (metaphorically or metonymically), e.g. to play the first fiddle - to be a leader in something, old salt -experienced sailor etc. The meaning of the whole word combination is not the sum of the meanings of its components, but it is based on them and the meaning of the whole can be inferred from the image that underlies the whole expression, e.g.

to get on ones nerves, to cut smb. short, to show ones teeth, to be at daggers drawn. Phraseological unities are often synonyms of words, e.g. to make a clean breast of= to confess; to get on ones nerves= to irritate. Phraseological unities are equivalents of words as 1) only one of components of a phraseological unity has structural forms, e.g. to play (played, is playing, etc.) the first fiddle (but not played the first fiddles); to turn( turned, will turn,etc.) a new leaf ( but not to turn a newer leaf or new leaves); 2) the whole unity and not its components are parts of the sentence in syntactical analysis, e.g. in the sentence He took the bull by the horns - attacked a problem boldly there are only two parts: he the subject, and took the bull by the horns -the predicate. 1.2.3.In phraseological fusions the degree of motivation is very low, we cannot guess the meaning of the whole from the meanings of its components, they are highly idiomatic and cannot be translated word for word into other languages, e.g. to pull ones leg - to deceive; at sixes and sevens - in confusion; a mares nest - a discovery which turns out to be false or worthless; to show the white feather -to show cowardice; to ride the high horse - to put on airs. Phraseological fusions are the most idiomatic of all the kinds of phraseological units. Phraseological fusions are equivalents of words: fusions as well as unities form a syntactical whole in analysis. 1.3. Classification by Prof. A.I Smirnitsky Prof. A.I.Smirnitsky worked out a structural classification of phraseological units, comparing them with words. He points out one-summit units which he compares with derived words because derived words have only one root morpheme. He points out two-summit units which he compares with compound words because in compound words we usually have two root morphemes [ 1959:16-17; 1986:119] . 1.3.1. Among one-summit units he points out three structural types; a) units of the type to give up (verb + post positive affix), e.g. to art up, to back up, to drop out, to nose out, to buy into, to sandwich in etc.;

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b) units of the type to be tired . Some of these units resemble the Passive Voice in their structure but they have different prepositions with them, while in the Passive Voice we can have only the prepositions by or with, e.g. to be tired of, to be interested in, to be surprised at etc. There are also units in this type which resemble free word-groups of the type to be young, e.g. to be akin to, to be aware of, etc. The difference between them is that the adjective young can be used as an attribute and as a predicative in a sentence, while the nominal component in such units can act only as a predicative. In these units the verb is the grammar centre and the second component is the semantic centre; c) prepositional - nominal phraseological units. These units are equivalents of unchangeable words: prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs , that is why they have no grammar centre, their semantic centre is the nominal part, e.g. on the doorstep -quite near, on the nose - exactly, in the course of, on the stroke of, in time, on the point of etc. In the course of time such units can become words, e.g. tomorrow, instead etc. 1.3.2. Among two-summit units A.I. Smirnitsky points out the following structural types: a) attributive-nominal, such as: a month of Sundays, grey matter, a millstone round ones neck and many others. Units of this type are noun equivalents and can be partly or perfectly idiomatic. In partly idiomatic units (phrasemes) sometimes the first component is idiomatic, e.g. high road, in other cases the second component is idiomatic, e.g. first night. In many cases both components are idiomatic, e.g. red tape, blind alley, bed of nail, shot in the arm and many others. b) verb-nominal phraseological units, e.g. to read between the lines, to speak BBC, to sweep under the carpet, etc. The grammar centre of such units is the verb, the semantic centre in many cases is the nominal component, e.g. to fall in love. In some units the verb is both the grammar and the semantic centre, e.g. not to know the ropes. These units can be perfectly idiomatic as well, e.g. to burn ones boats, to vote with ones feet, to take to the cleaners etc. Very close to such units are

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word-groups of the type to have a glance, to have a smoke. These units are not idiomatic and are treated in grammar as a special syntactical combination, a kind of aspect. c) phraseological repetitions, such as: now or never, part and parcel , country and western, etc. Such units can be built on antonyms, e.g. ups and downs, back and forth; often they are formed by means of alliteration, e.g. as busy as a bee. Components in repetitions are joined by means of conjunctions. These units are equivalents of adverbs or adjectives and have no grammar centre. They can also be partly or perfectly idiomatic, e.g. cool as a cucumber - partly, bread and butter perfectly. 1.4. Classification by I.V. Arnold Phraseological units, the same as compound words, can have more than two summit (stems in compound words), e.g. to take a back seat, a peg to hang a thing on, lock, stock and barrel, to be a shadow of ones own self, at ones own sweet will. Phraseological units can be classified as parts of speech (syntactical classification). This classification was suggested by I.V. Arnold. Here we have the following groups: a) noun-like phraseologisms denoting an object, a person, a living being, e.g. bullet train, latchkey child, redbrick university, Green Berets; b) verbal phraseologisms denoting an action, a state, a feeling, e.g. to break the log-jam, to get on somebodys coattails, to be on the beam, to nose out , to make headlines; c) adjectival phraseologisms denoting a quality, e.g. loose as a goose, dull as lead; d) adverbial phraseological units, such as: with a bump, in the soup, like a dream , like a dog with two tails; e) prepositional phraseological units, e.g. in the course of, on the stroke of; f) interjectional phraseological units, e.g. Catch me!, Well, I never! etc.; In I.V. Arnolds classification there are also sentence equivalents, proverbs, sayings and quotations, e.g. The sky is the limit, What makes him tick, I am easy.

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Proverbs are usually metaphorical, e.g. Too many cooks spoil the broth, while sayings are as a rule non-metaphorical, e.g. Where there is a will, there is a way.

Part II The structure of phraseologisms


2.1. Set expressions functioning like nouns (noun phraseologisms):
1. N+N: maiden name the surname of a woman before she was married;

brains trust a committee of experts or a number of reputedly wellinformed persons chosen to answer questions of general interest without preparation.
2. Ns + N: cats paw one who is used for the convenience of a cleverer and

stronger person (the expression comes from a fable in which a monkey wanting to eat some chestnuts that were on a hot stove, but not wishing to burn himself while getting them, seized a cat and holding its paw in his own used it to knock the chestnuts to the ground); Hobsons choice, a set expression used when there is no choice at all, when a person has to take what is offered or nothing (homas Hobson, a 17th century London stableman, made every person hiring horses take the next in order).

God's truth-

In the novel this PhUs is used when Alan found out about the murder that Dorian committed crime and told that he would certainly be arrested. Nobody ever committed a crime without doing something stupid that is Gods truth. (p. 166)

King's weather

In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Basil was finishing the picture of Dorian. It was Kings weather. The light was bright, so it didnt take much time to finish his masterpiece.(p. 23)
3. N+ prep+ N:

on the verge of

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In the novel this PhUs is used when the painter described his first meeting with Dorian Grey. He had always been his own master; had at least always been so, till he had met Dorian Gray. Something seemed to tell him that he was on the verge of a terrible crisis in his life.(p.6)

the wonder of wonders-

In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Harry told Dorian how terrible it was to become old and lose your beauty. People said sometimes that beauty was only superficial. Harry thought beauty was the wonder of wonders. It was only shallow people who judged by appearances.(p.21)
4. N+A: knight errant (the phrase is today applied to any chivalrous man

ready to help and protect oppressed and helpless people).


5. N+ and+ N: lord and master husband; all the world and his wife

everybody; rank and file the ordinary working members of an organization (the origin of this expression is military life, it denotes common soldiers); ways and means methods of overcoming difficulties.

a matter of life and death -

In the novel this PhUs is used when Dorian asked Alan, a scientist, to help him in destroying the portrait. He said to him that it was a matter of life and death.(p.164)

beauty and the beast

In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Harry first saw the terrible acting of Sibyl, he made a conclusion that she wasnt worth meeting with Dorian. He compared them with a beauty and the beast.(p.70)
6. A+N:

green room- the general reception room of a theatre (it is said that formerly such rooms had their walls colored green to relieve the strain on the actors eyes after the stage lights) In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Dorian came to

Sybil to the green room after her awful acting. He was angry with her. She

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explained that she was in love, that was the reason for bad acting, but Dorian didnt listen to her and broke their relations.(p.75)

old boy- In the novel this PhUs is used when Dorian recollected his university and

that happy time, when love was the background of romance. Alan Campbell, and old boy of Dorian, had very close relations with him.(p.161)
7. N+subordinate

clause:

ships

that

pass

in

the

night

chance

acquaintances-

beauty that is in the eye of the gazer-

In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Harry told Dorian how terrible it was to become old and lose your beauty. People said sometimes that beauty was in the eye of the gazer and the real beauty was the soul of a person.(p.21) 2.2. Set expressions functioning like verbs:
1. V+N:

to have the best of

We find this PhUs during the conversation between the artist and Harry. It ran that it was better not to be different from ones fellow, and there was a fatality about all physical and intellectual distinction, so the ugly and the stupid have the best of it in this world.(p.3)

to take a delight in doing smth.-

In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Basil told Harry about his relations with Dorian, that he thought he was charming to him, and they sat in the studio and talked of a thousand things. Now and then, however, he was horribly thoughtless, and seemed to take a real delight in giving Basil pain. (p.11)

to hit the mark-

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In the novel this PhUs is used when Harry told Dorian about peoples sins, needs and the way of life at that time. He said that Mr. Gray himself, with his rose-red youth and his rose-white boyhood, he had had passions that had made him afraid, thoughts that had filled him with terror, day-dreams and sleeping dreams whose mere memory might stain his cheek with shame. Harry had merely shot an arrow into the air. He didnt know if he had hit the mark or not.(p.18)
2. V+ (ones) +N+(prep): to snap ones fingers at

to get rid of smb. (smth.)-

In the novel this PhUs is used when Basil said that annoying Lady Barton didnt let him go home and began to get acquainted with everybody that evening. Basil could not get rid of her.(p.7)

to make fun of smb.- -

In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Sibyl and her brother Jim were going to have a walk, and she informed him that he would have to say goodbye to some of his friends - to Tom Hardy, who had given him that hideous pipe, or Ned Langton, who made fun of him for smoking it.(p.61)

to fall in love with smb.-

In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Sibyl wished her brother had been a sheep-farmer and one evening, as he was riding home, he saw the beautiful heiress being carried off by a robber on a black horse, and began chase, and rescued her. Of course, she would fall in love with him, and he with her, and they would get married, and come home and live in an immense house in London.(p.64)
3. V+ one+ N: to give one the bird to fire smb.

take one's chance-

In the novel this PhUs is used when Jim on the last day of his leaving took his chance to walk along the park with his sister. He didnt care what his friends said about it.(p.62)

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2.3. Set expressions functioning like adjectives:


1. A+ and+ A: high and mighty- 2. (as)+ A+ as+ N: as old as the hills, as mad as a hatter.

as cold as marble- In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Dorian killed

Bazil, he realized his mistake after some time, but it was late, his body was as cold as marble.(p.192)

obstinate as a mule-

In the novel this PhUs is used when Dorian asked Alan, scientist, to help him in destroying the portrait. He said to him that it was a matter of life and death. But Alan was obstinate as a mule. Dorian had to threaten Alan with the letter.(p.164) 2.4. Set expressions functioning like adverbs. In the novel we have discovered a big group containing many different types of units, some of them with a high frequency index, neutral in style and devoid of expressiveness, others expressive.
1. N+ N: tooth and nail

now and then- occasionally In the novel we find this PhUs in the situation when Basil told Harry

about his relations with Dorian, that he thought he was charming to him, and they sat in the studio and talked of a thousand things. Now and then, however, he was horribly thoughtless, and seemed to take a real delight in giving Basil pain.(p.11)
2. Prep+ N: by heart, of course

at ones ease - We find this PhUs during the conversation between the artist and Harry.

It ran that it was better not to be different from ones fellow-men, and there was a fatality about all physical and intellectual distinction, so the ugly and

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the stupid have the best of it in this world. They can sit at their ease and gape at the play.(p.3)

at any rate- -

We find this PhUs in the novel in such passage: For every sin that Dorian had committed, a stain would fleck and wreck its fairness. But he would not sin. The picture, changed or unchanged, would be to him the visible emblem of conscience. He would resist temptation. He would not see Lord Henry any more would not, at any rate, listen to those subtle poisonous theories that in Basil Hallwards garden had first stirred within him the passion for impossible things.(p.75)
3. Prep+ N+ or+ N: by hook or by crook- by any means 4. Conj+ clause: before one can say Jack Robinson- extremely quickly or

suddenly 2.5. Set expressions functioning like prepositions:


1. Prep+ N+ prep: in consequence of

It should be noted that the type is often but not always characterized by the absence of the article e.g. by reason of on the ground of.

from the psychological point of view-

In the novel this PhUs is used when after meeting with Dorian, Basil had the new manner in art, the fresh mode of looking at life, so from the psychological point of view, his behavior was interesting.(p.120) 2.6. Set expressions functioning like interjections. These are often structured as imperative sentences: Bless (ones soul)! God bless me! Hang it (all)! Take your time!

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Conclusions
As a result of our analysis of PhUs, we have come to the following conclusions. The specificity of phraseological analysis confirms its complicated, derivational, diverse character, which is explained by the place occupied by the phraseological system in the general system of language, its secondary, derivational character compared with the two primary constituent system the lexical and the syntactical systems. Thus the phraseological system is based on the means of different levels of language. Primarily these are lexical and grammatical means. Furthermore it is necessary to remark that human factor has a great role to play in the lexical components of English phraseological system as PhUs serve for evaluative, emotional, expressive, subjective naming of things and concepts. It is a fact that most PhUs are connected with man, with different spheres of his activity. It is easy to understand that many praseological groups serve to denote or express extreme situations or states of man which evoke high personal interest and emotional apprehensions. Thus we dare conclude that the phraseological system of the language under analysis can be explained in the first place by anthropocentric social factors. There are different combinations of words. Some of them are free, others are fixed, limited in their combinative power. The combinations of words, which are fixed (set-expressions) are called phraseological units.

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A free combination is a syntactical unit, which consists of notional and form words, and in which notional words have the function of independent parts of the sentence. In a phraseological unit words are not independent. They form setexpressions, in which neither words nor the order of words can be changed. Free combinations are created by the speaker. Phraseological units are used by the speaker in a ready form, without any changes. The whole phraseological unit has a meaning which may be quite different from the meaning of its components, and therefore the whole unit, and not separate words, has the function of a part of the sentence. Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning. In the course of our analysis of the structural models of PhUs from the novel The Picture of Dorian Grey we have come across various types of models which lie of the basis of the PhUs used by the author. We have distinguished between PhUs functioning like nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and singled out the most typical phrase-building models. The noun-like PhUs have such structures as N+N, Ns + N, N+prep+N, N+A, N+and+N, A+N, N+subordinate clause; the verbal PhUs - V+N, V+postpositive, V+and+V, V+(ones)+N+(prep), V+one+N, V+subordinate clause; the adjectival PhUs - A+and+A, (as)+A+as+N; the adverbial PhUs - N+N, Prep+N, Adv+prep+A+N, Prep+N+or+N, Conj+clause; the prepositional PhUs - Prep+N+prep; and the interjectional PhUs.

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. , ,

, , . , . , . , , -, . , . , . , . . , . , .

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, , , . . . , N+N, Ns + N, N+prep+N, N+A, N+and+N, A+N, N+subordinate clause; - V+N, V+postpositive, V+and+V, V+(ones)+N+(prep), V+one+N, V+subordinate clause; - A+and+A, (as)+A+as+N ; - N+N, Prep+N, Adv+prep+A+N, Prep+N+or+N, Conj+clause; Prep+N+prep .

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List of sources used


1. .. . .,1973.-

876.
2. .. . .:

,1986. 336.
3. ..

// .1819-1844- .,1946-470.
4. http://www.scribd.com/doc/14151065/Structure-and-Classification-of-

Phraseological-Units

List of dictionaries and reference books


5. - / . .. . 4- ., . . .: .., 1984. -944 . 6. - /. .. . .::2005.-995.

List of illustrative literature


7. Oscar Wilde The picture of Dorian Gray L., 2010.-216.