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Question 1. Outline how Mary Montagu discovered a vaccine for smallpox. Answer Mary Montagu discovered a vaccine for smallpox by observing women who performed a procedure that protected children from diseases. They made a small scratch on the child s arm and placed a drop of pus of a mild case of smallpox. The child was infected by the mild disease, but healed quickly. They never developed the serious form of the disease. 2. Describe the symptoms of an allergic reaction. 3. What is a vaccine? The symptoms of an allergic reaction are runny noses and watery eyes. A vaccine is a dead or weakened version of an antigen or pathogen. It is injected into the body so that it can produce antibodies for when the live version invades. 4. Where does the word vaccine come from? 5. Why does a vaccine have to be a specially prepared version of a disease pathogen? The word vaccine comes from the Latin word vacca which means cow. A vaccine has to be a specially prepared version to be dead or weakened because it cannot be too strong to be able to damage the body. If the live one was injected, the body may not be able to ght back in time. 6. What is a vaccine s booster shot? A vaccine s booster shot is an additional vaccine that boosts antibody production and extends the immune system s memory for that antigen. 7. What is the eect of an antihistamine? 8. Describe how an allergy is dierent from an allergen. An antihistamine drug reduce the symptoms caused by the release of histamine. An allergy is an unusually high sensitivity to some substance while an allergen is something that causes the allergy. 9. What is an adrenaline autoinjector and how is it used? An adrenaline auto-injector automatically delivers adrenaline to help reduce the eects of an allergic reaction. You inject it into the thigh. 10. Explain the dierence between AIDS and HIV. AIDS is an infection of the immune system that leads to various health complications and often death. HIV is a powerful pathogen that attacks the immune system itself and can destroy it by infecting helper T cells. AIDS is caused by HIV.

Question 11. Which if the statements on page 117 describe activities that would help to take care of your immune system? For activities that are not helpful, change the statement to make it a helpful activity. Helpful:


B) Wash your hands occasionally. C) Keep your home tidy and neat. D) Avoid smoking. F) Keep your vaccinations up to date. Unhelpful: A) --> Refrain from eating fast food and foods high in sugar. E) --> Get plenty of rest and exercise. G) --> Never get involved in activities that involve sharing body uids with others.

12. For each of the seven things you can do to protect your immune system, describe one specic action you could take.

Eat a well-balanced diet. (Eat according to Canada s Food Guide every day.) Maintain your personal hygienebrush your teeth, shower or bathe, and wash your hands often. (Wash your hands as much as possible) Keep your home clean. (Clean your room regularly) Avoid tobacco and other non-prescription drugs. (Don t be involved in drugs) Get plenty of rest and exercise. (Do your Daily Physical Activity) Keep your vaccinations up to date. (Take shots when necessary) Do not engage in activities that involve sharing body uids with others. (Don t sleep with anyone)