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(Book ID: B1236)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Question 1: Describe the three strategy levels in detail. Answer: Strategy exists at three hierarchical levels in an organization - ranging from the overall business (or group of businesses) through to individuals working in it. Johnson and Scholes define strategy as “Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long term: which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations”. In other words, strategy is about: Market; scope are which markets should the business compete in and what kind of activities are involved in such markets. Advantage is how the business can perform better in such markets. Resources are the skills, assets, finance, relationships, technical competence, facilities required to enable the business to compete. Environment is the external, environmental factors that affect the business‟ ability to compete. Stakeholders‟ expectations are the values and expectations of those who have power in and around the business.
Strategy Levels: Corporate Strategy: It is concerned with the overall purpose and scope of the business to meet stakeholder expectations. This is a crucial level since it is heavily influenced by investors in the business and acts to guide strategic decision-making throughout the business. Corporate strategy is often stated explicitly in a "mission statement". It consists of the kinds of initiatives the company uses to establish business positions in different industries, the approaches corporate executives pursue to boost the combined performance of the set of businesses the company has diversified into, and the means of capturing cross-business synergies and turning them into competitive advantage. Senior corporate executives normally have lead responsibility for devising corporate strategy and for choosing among whatever recommended actions bubble up from the organization below.
Two tools popularly used in the planning of corporate strategy are: • Ansoff matrix • BCG matrix
Business units which are in a more mature stage and are generating significant cash can deliver the cash to the rapidly growing business as required. Requires development of new products for existing customers (Related diversification). If the firm decides to expand in all four areas. It is based on the product life cycle. • Experience of the company with the intended market. . The position of a business on this matrix provides an indication of cash generation and cash consumption. products. The observation that the company’s business units can be classified into four categories based on a combination of market growth and market share relative to the largest competitor is called “growth-share”. and fund mobilisation capacity the company decides to adopt one or more of the four strategies. The fourth strategy provides high growth potentials but requires careful planning and analysis prior to taking any decision. Requires production of new products for new markets (Unrelated diversification). skill of personnel.Ansoff Matrix The Ansoff matrix (originator Igor Ansoff in 1957) presents the product and market choices available to an organisation. Based on management of time availability. but it is imperative to look at other strategic models like Strength Weakness Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis in order to view how the strategy changes in the future. Market growth serves as a replacement for industry attractiveness and relative market share serves as a replacement for competitive advantage. Table : ANSOFF Matrix (Source: Corporate Strategy by Igor Ansoff) OLD Product OLD Market-Market Penetration OLD Product NEW Market-Expansion (Market Development) NEW Product Related Diversification-OLD Market (Product Development) NEW Product Unrelated Diversification-NEW Market The explanations for the four strategies mentioned in the quadrants of Table are as follows: Table : Explanation for Ansoff Strategies Strategies Strategy Market Penetration Market Expansion Product Expansion customers Diversification Markets Explanation Requires an increase of existing market share in existing markets. The table shows the four corporate strategies using an ANSOFF Matrix. Markets may be defined as customers. The limitation of Ansoff matrix is that the matrix tells us one part of the strategy story. some of its businesses could end up being badly managed. It considers two factors: • Newness of the product to the company. BCG Matrix The BCG matrix (developed by Boston Consulting Group in the early 1970s) is another popular tool for portfolio planning. The Ansoff matrix is used to aid decision-making concerned with market expansion and diversification. or items sold to the customers. Requires identification of new customer for existing products.
It concerns strategic decisions about choice of products. • Cash cows: These are low-growth businesses or products that have relatively high share in markets. Eventually their growth slows down and they become cash cows. exploiting or creating new opportunities etc. In such a case. Market growth rate (vertical axis) provides a measure of market attractiveness. • Question Marks: These are businesses or products that have low market share. only if profit is there. • The matrix depends heavily on the breadth of the definition of the market. We must note that any tool used for strategy planning has some limitations and no tool is exclusive for strategy planning. meeting needs of customers. but operate in relatively higher growth markets. They may generate enough cash to break even. They have the potential but may require substantial investment to increase the market share at the cost of more powerful competitors. in case of the BCG matrix. the definition of a market makes the difference between a dog and a cash cow.Reletive Market Share (Cash Generation) Figure : BCG Growth-Share Matrix Figure shows that relative market share (horizontal axis) serves as a measure of Starts Business Units (SBU) strength in the market. Business . a dog. Some limitations cited for the BCG matrix model are as follows: • In industry attractiveness. Sometimes. but rarely. Cash cows continuously manage to yield profit and generate strong cash flows which are needed for starting firms. but have very low market share in the overall industry. Business Unit Strategy: This strategy is concerned more with how a business competes successfully in a particular market. For example. Often they need heavy investment to sustain their growth. Other factors are overlooked. Four types of SBUs are identified using the four quadrants of the matrix: • Stars: These are high-growth businesses or products competing in markets. an SBU may help other SBUs to gain advantage. it is difficult to get reliable data on the market share and market growth rate. relative market share is only one factor. gaining advantage over competitors. They are relatively strong compared with the competition. • As per framework each SBU is independent of others. An SBU may dominate its small position. market growth rate is only one factor and in competitive advantage. • Dogs: These are businesses or products that have low relative share in unattractive low-growth markets.
but also selects a small segment of the market to provide goods and services. the management of specific brands. Operating strategies concerns the relatively narrow strategic initiatives and approaches for managing key operating units(plants.Operating strategies add further detail and completeness to functional-area strategies and to the overall business strategy. distribution centres. sale of a product to only a Government department. the customer realises value based both on product features and a low price. For example. The key focus here is crafting responses to changing market circumstances and initiating actions to strengthen market position. lower costs for buyers by ensuring better quality thereby leading to lesser breakdowns. which integrates low cost and differentiation strategy. A fifth strategy is also adopted sometimes. Here. and develop strong competitive capabilities. geographic units) and for specific operating activities with strategic significance (advertising campaigns. subject to review and approval by higher-ranking managers. Orchestrating the development of business-level strategy is the responsibility of the manager in charge of the business. . and Website sales and operations). supply chain-related activities. • Focussed low cost: The firm not only sells its products at lowest price. people etc. Operational Strategy: It is concerned with how each part of the business is organised to deliver the corporate and business-unit level strategic direction. • Focussed differentiation: The firm not only competes with rivals based on differentiation. by raising perceptions of buyers of the customer support provided by the firm by responding quickly.strategy concerns the actions and the approaches crafted to produce successful performance in one specific line of business. • Differentiation: The firm provides value to customers by delivering products with unique features and characteristics rather than with the lowest price. processes. The four generic strategies to establish a competitive advantage over industry rivals are as follows: • Cost leadership: The firm offers products to customers at the lowest price essentially by tight control over production and overhead costs. Lead responsibility for operating strategies is usually delegated to frontline managers. but also selects a small segment of the market as in focussed low cost strategy. Southwest Airlines is an example of a company that adopts this strategy. build competitive advantage. For example. Operational strategy therefore focuses on issues of resources.
d) • Establish and maintenance of project quality. Below are few important roles & responsibilities of a Project Manager: responsible for managing the project. t) • Understanding the design: All the basic design requirements should be understood. allocating and utilising resources in a proper manner and maintaining a cooperative. q) • Understanding end user requirements: End user requirements of the project of the project should be understood as the clients and the end users may be different. For example. The design and design process should be developed along with the development of contract documentation. For example if the project is for a bank ATM. execute and finalize projects according to strict deadlines and within budget. c) • Maintain the project staff’s technical skill and efficiency. f) • Develop project charter and obtain approval for the same. b) • Understand and apply the organisational project policies and procedures. objectives. e) • Identify and procure the project infrastructure needs. motivated and successful team. Answer: a) Various roles undertaken by a Project Manager: The role of the Project Manager is to plan. • Develop and present milestone during review briefings. The project has to be planned keeping the timelines. It should be clearly understood. The functional brief should be developed including the design brief preparation. r) s) • Understanding the project scope: The scope of the project defines the project tasks. . and provide training when required. This includes acquiring and coordinating the efforts of team members and third-party contractors or consultants in order to deliver projects according to plan. g) • Define project goals. b) List and explain in brief the qualities of a Project Manager. The project should be developed keeping the end users who are going to use the project. objectives and success criteria. n) o) The following describes the roles undertaken by the project manager: p) • Understanding the client requirements: The client requirements form the basis of the project. if the project is for the bank then their requirements should be clearly understood by the project manager to deliver the project to suit their requirements. planned and executed so that the project is developed to suit the client needs. The project manager is also responsible for handling the work of consultants. i) j) l) • Identify and document project assumptions. The planning process and obtaining relevant approvals should be managed. h) • Identify and document project constraints. k) • Serve as a focal point for project related communications. then the end-users should also be considered if they are going to use the ATMs for their transactions. m) • Ensure that Information Technology security is met.Question 2: a) Describe the various roles undertaken by a Project Manager. • Identify and secure project team resources. The project should be defined according to the client requirements and the project should be managed accordingly. The role & responsibilities of a Project Manager is little complex and needs to be explained elaborately in clear terms for each project. output and the delivery date in mind.
leadership is not about bullying people. b)List and explain in brief the qualities of a Project Manager. Even as I make this statement. So what are the leadership qualities that a project manager should have? Should he be skilled or compassionate? Or maybe he needs to be a good communicator or a visionary? There is not right answer and there is no wrong answer. it is about getting people to respect you with your leadership skills and qualities. Only when there is vision is there going to be real involvement on the part of the project manager and thus involvement on part of the team members. v) w) To summarise. Communication skill: Most would say communication is the most important skill of a project manager and some would beg to differ. You do not lead by hitting people over the head – that’s assault.u) • Communicating: The client should be given regular reports which are relevant and meaningful. a vision of how to get things done and a vision of the near future of the project. The project progress report should be included in the project delivery kit. Project Manager is the ‘God’ of his project and he is the one who decides the success of the project. People should want to be lead by the project manager. Without • Realising the benefits • Analysing scalability. How apt these words by Dwight D Eisenhower are. a vision of what he wants the project to be like. not leadership. Vision: Every project manager should have a vision. Also the client should be pre-informed about any likely delays/problems. And he needs to be able to convey this vision to his team members. This is when the team members and project manager start feeling like a part of the organization and not just the project. the project manager’s role includes the following activities: x) • Defining the scope y) • Planning and sequencing of the activity z) • Planning for the resource aa) • Developing the schedules bb) • Estimating the time cc) • Estimating the cost dd) • Developing the budget ee) • Controlling the budget ff) • Controlling the quality gg) • Analysing risk hh) • Managing risks and issues ii) jj) ll) In a bit exaggerating terms. For example it may be required to send project status report every week. But communication is an integral part of the leadership qualities. interoperability and portability • Maintaining customer relationship kk) • Documenting the work . here is a list of some leadership qualities for a project manager.
the project manager should know what he is doing and should be able to guide the rest of the team. He should be able to hold and pull the team together to work under different conditions. Only then will people follow him and respect his decisions. The project manager is ultimately responsible for setting standards. Honesty: Call it honesty. There needs to be commitment and optimism involved. The actions of the project manager set an example for the rest of the team members. Persuasion and negotiation are all a part of communication and the project manager’s qualities. Also this shows that the project manager trusts the team in doing tasks. To put it simply. A good project manager needs to understand or empathize with the fact that there is a life outside the work place and that people are not machines without emotions. integrity or loyalty. Compassion: Do not mistake empathy or compassion for sympathy. Problem solver: . because they need to feel he is doing it for the project. He should be able to recognize skills and expertise of his team members and assign or delegate tasks according to those. Trust inspires confidence. ethically and otherwise for the rest of the team. Delegation: The project manager should be able to handle delegation with ease. There are times when things do not go as expected in such a case the project needs to maintain his cool and be composed irrespective of the amount pressure he is under. These two words are independent of each other. Composed: We do not live in a perfect world. The project manager has to be passionate about the project. This shows good leadership and strength in character. Skill and knowledge: There needs to be some skill and knowledge that the project manager needs to have. Empathy means to understand.communication the project manager cannot lead. he should have enthusiasm and the right attitude. The project manager needs to practice before preaching and to lead by example. Team building: The project manager should also be a team builder. lacking dedication. The team starts as a group of strangers and needs to be made into a core group of people. Communication not only allows for great leadership but also for openness and relativity. the project manager needs to have it all. Passion: A project manager without passion is one that is simple put.
either with the team or the project itself. .An efficient project manager should be capable of solving any and all problems.
project stakeholders are “individuals and organizations actively involved in the project. According to Stanford Research Institute. stakeholders are “those groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist”. Project Manager: Project manager is the interface between the customer and other internal stakeholders. service or facility based on customer requirements and to deliver it to the customer. The project manager holds the responsibility for the successful implementation of the project and is an important stakeholder. Answer: a) Major types of stakeholders in a project: According to PMI’s guide to PMBoK. Hence. Customer: Customers are the internal or external group of individuals who directly affect the project. The major stakeholders of a project are: Project Manager Customer Performing Organization Project Team Members Sponsor Society Below figure depicts a diagrammatic representation of the major stakeholders of a project. the project team must consider all requirements of the customer while creating the deliverable.Question 3: a) Describe the major types of stakeholders in a project. The aim of the project is to create a product. The customer can be any one of the following: Internal customer: . b) Describe the major type of Organizational structure in Detail. or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion”.
Therefore. the line of control is clear. In addition. It defines a clear Superior-Subordinate relationship. uses team building skills to ensure that the team members work as a team. Organizational structure has a significant impact on the functioning of a project manager. There are three types of organizational structures: 1) Functional organization: It is a hierarchical structure. acting as a link between the project and the performing organization. suppliers or contractors. there are several other stakeholders like project owner. the project contributes towards achieving the corporate goals of the performing organization. Project Team Members: Team members working in their individual areas of expertise play a crucial role in the success of the project. distributors and wholesalers. The accounts department is the internal customer. therefore. The sponsor may be a senior executive of an organization or a junior manager with formal authority who is responsible for the project thus.e. b) Describe the major type of Organizational structure in Detail.g.. when an engineering firm finances a plant it is in the designing or construction field. The naming or grouping of stakeholders is primarily an aid to identify individuals or organizations who view themselves as stakeholders. fund providers. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities may overlap. External customer: They are individuals or organisations that pay for and use the final product. Each department carries out work in its area of specialization . For example. The project manager. Sponsor: The sponsor is an individual or a group within or external to the parent organization who arranges the financial resources in cash or in kind for the project. For example. government agencies and media outlets and the society. They work directly with or under the project manager depending on the organization structure adopted for the project. Performing Organization: The performing organization is the enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in performing the work of the project. To enable successful completion of a project. i.They are individuals within the parent organisation. the role of the engineering firm changes from performing organization to sponsor for the projects undertaken by the designing or construction company. it is important that the resources required for project implementation flow freely from the organization to the project. the IT department is assigned to provide a software package for the accounts department. Intermediate customer: They are external to the company but not the final user of the product e.
marketing. administration. the engineering department handles only the design development phase of the product. If a new product is to be developed. . In a manufacturing organization.and employees in each department work with its respective expertise within the department's line of control. the different departments are production. 3) Matrix-based organizations: It is the combination of the features of functional and project-based organizational structures. If answers to questions concerning manufacturing. engineering. Functional departments exist in this organization. marketing or quality control are found. quality control. The project manager directs work and sets priorities to employees assigned to the project manager for the project. which implies that the functional staff member reports to both project manager and their functional manager. This constitutes a dual reporting system for each functional staff member. the query is passed on to the respective department through formal communication channels. personnel ands so on. project managers and functional managers have equal authority. In this type of organizational structure. but the groups working in these departments report directly to the project manager in the execution of various projects. finance. 2) Project-based organizations: These are designed to provide near total authority to the project manager.
• Lightness: It complements the importance of the tasks as well as provides options to resolve them. • Structure: The structure of the organisation will have a set of specifications. It is that ability of understanding the uncertainties and the things forth coming without the use of any rational processes. It is vital to have a stronger intuition that enables to sense what the other members are feeling and thinking. • Big picture. This requires that the manager of the project have good communication skills and believe in listening skills than talking skills. • Intuition: Intuition is very important part of maintaining a good Project Management process. However. Effective Project Management process adopts various customs and ways in order to correspond and share the relevant information such as conducting meetings and informal conversations with the relevant and concerned people such as with the other members of the team. It is the foundation of emotional intelligence. This leads to strong team results and team maintenance.Question 4: List and describe in brief the various qualities of the project management process. limitations as well as certain guidelines that has to be followed. small actions: It is very essential for a good Project Management process to visualise things in a broader perspective. Commitment ensures that there are fixed allotted timings for every activity to be performed in the process. It is required for the deeper understanding of the project with ease and also to delegate the technical aspects training to the other members participating in the project team. the clients and other senior officials of the project. • Commitment: The commitment of the project manager is responsible for holding the team together to pull the project to meet its delivery dates successfully. • Versatility: The primary qualities of a Project Management process include flexibility to any kind of environment. It is required that the members of the team are also given the authority to make shared decisions regarding developing the project. • Being Considerate: Being considerate infers that a task allotted to the members of the team can be well completed in the allotted time. It requires versatility that enables the project manager to change any decisions with respect to resources and other constraints quickly. It gives a clear picture of the people who are assigned to the specific tasks. • Discipline/focus: It is very essential to be self focused and disciplined to maintain the moralities and ethics of self and the company. The members of the organisations are expected to work effectively within the defined framework and structure of the organisation. It should provide abilities to create enthusiasm and appeal in the process. Thus. . This leads to thinking in a wider range meanwhile paying attention to the details of the project. the loyalty and humbleness of the manager will further take the project team to meet its objectives defined. It ensures that no employee is heavily loaded with unnecessary work he is not responsible for. it requires good communication skills to interact with the team members in order to establish the clear expectations of the clients. • Knowledge: Knowledge is an important part of the Project Management process. Answer: The various qualities that a good Project Management process should encompass are as listed below: • Creativity: A good Project Management process should be creative that facilitates integrating various categories of the project into a unified structure. parameters.
over which it has lesser control. changes in purchasing. and might include population shifts.W. Periodic SWOT analysis facilitates the generation of ideas. long product development cycle. heavy debt burden. patents.O. These are the company's core competencies. and others. THREATS: External conditions those are HARMFUL to achieving the objective. One of the most fundamental tools for strategic market planning is the use of SWOT analysis template to evaluate potential business success. is an abbreviation for Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats. Conversely. the following questions are answered before arriving at a decision on a strategy or project: • What is our (that is our organisation”s) strengths? How can we take advantage of them? • What weaknesses do we have? How do we minimise the effect of them? • What opportunities does this market offer us? How can we capitalise on them? • What threats exist that may impact our success? How can we deal effectively with these? It is a process of checking the company”s internal workings. which are relatively easier to identify and control than outside factors. examining opportunities and threats are a part of environmental analysis that is. It is also be used for screening of ideas. and include proprietary technology. and could include a specialty niche skill or technology that suddenly realizes a growth in broad market interest. Answer: a) SWOT Analysis as a Strategic Planning tool: S. the company must look outside of the organisation to determine opportunities and threats. This simple tool. b) Net Present Value (NPV) as a Project selection criterion. developed at Stanford University in the late 1960's. weak management. OPPORTUNITIES: External conditions those are HELPFUL to achieving the objective. and others. STRENGTHS: Attributes of the organization those are HELPFUL to achieving the objective. resources. In SWOT. changes in governmental or environmental regulations. and can include obsolete equipment. serious competitive barriers. WEAKNESSES: Attributes of the organization those are HARMFUL to achieving the objective. is an extremely powerful ingredient in the recipe for business success. and others. market position.Question 5: Write a short note on the following: a) SWOT Analysis as a Strategic Planning tool. no clear strategy. .T. Weaknesses are conditions within the company that can lead to poor performance. poor product or market image. Opportunities are outside conditions or circumstances that the company could turn to its advantage. skills. Threats are current or future conditions in the outside environment that may harm the company.
2. 2. After this analysis.The SWOT analysis framework is summarised in figure. 3. the next step is to rank the strengths. The grid is also known as a SWOT Strategic Alternatives matrix or a TOWS Strategic Alternatives matrix. Opportunities (O) Threats (T) 1. strategy formulation and implementation. Table shows the SWOT profile. 3. Table shows a two-by-two grid to determine the company”s strategic fit. Table : TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix Matrix 1. Table: SWOT Profile Strengths(S) What do you do well? What unique resources can you draw on? What do others see as your strengths? 1 2 3 4 Opportunities(O) What good opportunities are open to you? What trends could you take advantage of? How can you turn your strengths into opportunities? 1 2 3 4 Weaknesses(W) Where do you have fewer resources than others What could you improve? What are others likely to see as weaknesses? 1 2 3 4 Threats(T) What trends could harm you? What is your competition doing? What threats do your weaknesses expose you to? 1 2 3 4 SWOT analysis is only the first step in developing and implementing an effective organisational strategy. opportunities and threats and to document the criteria for ranking. weaknesses. . A SWOT analysis leads to the generation of a SWOT profile which is used as the basis for goal setting.
Weaknesses (W) 1. unit cost is substantially reduced by adopting high production volume. it measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows. and is a standard method for using the time value of money to appraise long-term projects. For example. 2. In the case when all future cash flows are incoming (such as coupons and principal of a bond) and the only outflow of cash is the purchase price. the converse process in DCF analysis . Technology superiority: DRL outperformed its competitors in the drugmanufacturing industry because of their technology based on research and development. finance. both incoming and outgoing.Strengths ( ) 1. ST “Maxi-Mini” Strategy Strategies that use strengths to minimise threats. the NPV is simply the PV of future cash flows minus the purchase price (which is its own PV). customised service and so on. 3. is defined as the sum of the present values (PVs) of the individual cash flows. This is a very popular and valid method for selecting a project from the financial viewpoint. Some factors that companies use to enhance NPV are: Government policy. in present value terms. and accounting. Product differentiation: This is achieved by innovative product features. Economies of scale: In manufacturing. WO “Mini-Maxi” Strategy Strategies that minimise weaknesses by taking advantage of opportunities. the net present value (NPV) or net present worth (NPW) of a time series of cash flows. WT “Mini-Mini” Strategy Strategies that minimise weaknesses and avoid threats. The NPV of a sequence of cash flows takes as input the cash flows and a discount rate or discount curve and outputs a price. NPV is a central tool in discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis. Net Present Value (NPV) as Project Selection Criterion: NPV is the present value of the future revenues after deducting future costs. Used for capital budgeting. For example. and is more widely used in bond trading. once financing charges are met. 2. b) Net Present Value (NPV) as a Project selection criterion: In finance.taking a sequence of cash flows and a price as input and inferring as output a discount rate (the discount rate which would yield the given price as NPV) . SO “Maxi-Maxi” Strategy Strategies that use strengths to maximise opportunities. 3. special tax benefits and exemptions for an industry or a location. . high quality products. and widely throughout economics.is called the yield. petroleum refining. steel production. and mining.
Human Resource Management includes various processes that are vital to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project. budgets. which finally leads to a quality project. the project teams are only used for a defined period of time. Answer: Project Human Resource Management: Project Human Resource Management is a subset of Project Management that includes various processes that are essential and are required for making the most effective use of the people involved with the project. The main process involved with the HR Management process includes: Acquiring the project team. Important factors that are considered during the process of acquiring the team are: The project manager should efficiently discuss and induct others who are in a position to supply the required Human Resources in a project. Sometimes. determining availability of resources. Acquiring a project team is the process of acquiring the specific people needed to accomplish all phases of the given project. It declines the probability of success and eventually results in project cancellation. Acquiring a Project Team: The members who belong to different groups and functions and are allocated to the activities of the same project. derivation of clear and concise project organisation charts.Question 6: Describe in brief the Human resource management process in a project. and cost). However. project teams are usually agile in organisations. and updating the staffing management plan. The process refers to increasing competencies of individuals and building up team spirit. they are disbanded when the project is complete. Failure to obtain the essential Human Resources for the project will affect project agenda. These factors include a series of environmental factors (such as work experience. A team can be divided into sub-teams if required. Selection of team mates involves certain concerns which need to be evaluated. A number of factors are considered while deciding the team members. Developing a Project Team: Developing a project team is a process of enhancing interaction among the team members and also the project manager. due to the nature of the specific formation and disbandment. and formulation of a thorough staffing management plan. Generally. form a project team. Developing the project team. availability. Once the team is properly staffed. Managing the project team. consumer satisfaction and quality. However. . Ultimately the team members will bring all the specific qualifications and capabilities to the project team. the next steps (or outputs) of the process involve staffing out assignments to the team. the project management team has control over the selection process.
and momentum builds as members have to lead the project team. The five stages of team development are: Forming: Forming involves knowing every team member individually. . They find out about each other and know who’s who. Adjourning: Adjourning implies completion of the project so that the team is ready for a new one. industry and culture while at work. there should be good communication among the team members. There is a struggle for project team control. this leads to quality output and meeting delivery schedules with reduced cost. Project managers should administer the development of the project team. The team members blend into their roles and focus on completing the project work as a team. solving issues. The team members are inclined to work independently. and coordinating changes to enhance overall project performance. The management should also support the project managers. providing feedback. without losing their individuality. Project managers should encourage feedback from the team. Managing the team is one of the most critical aspects of project management. The project manager should provide effective review and good support to the team staff. provide new goals for the team to compete and achieve. The project team may experience variance in language. Open communication between the project manager and team reduces conflicts. The project manager should encourage building competencies among the team members and reward them accordingly. thus reducing conflicts. To enhance trust among team members. Projects are done in diversified environments. Norming: Norming is working together. monitoring team performance. To develop cohesiveness in the project. During this phase. socialising. Managing a Project Team: Managing a project team is the process of delegating responsibilities and tasks. The team develops a strong commitment to the team’s goal and work to achieve it. To allow sharing knowledge among team members.To achieve project success. and providing constructive criticism. the team members figure out the hierarchy of the team and the informal roles of team members. Performing: Performing means smooth movement of project development by a well-organised project team. This stage promises action. The project manager should create the relevant environment for teamwork. The goals for developing a project team are: To develop technical knowledge about the project. The project stakeholders should provide the required support to the development of the project team. The project team should be dedicated to the project and the team members should work together. Storming: Storming involves the actual Project Management process.
Team roles and responsibilities .Assessment of team performance .Work performance . Building co-operative working relationship and ensuring effective communication among all members of the project team.Project staff allocations . Providing effective performance review and appraisal to inspire the project team.Assets of organisational process . Monitoring team spirit.Recommended corrective actions .Requested changes .Staffing management plan updates .Project performance reports Tools and techniques for managing a project team: Inspection and discussion Project performance reviews Managing conflicts Issue log Output of managing a project team: .Recommended preventive actions . Inputs for managing a project team are: .Staff management plan .Updating of organisational process asset .Key aspects of managing a project team are: Assigning work and observing the commitment level in each team member.Project organisational plan .
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