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Results and Interpretations


(Example)

based
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Descriptive statistics of overall creativity, Figural, Verbal creativity


and their components for the whole sample
The scores of the whole sample for overall creativity, fig and verbal and their
components were examined in terms of their means, standard deviations, medians,
minimum and maximums.

Descriptive statistics of overall creativity for the whole sample


MEANSN

The composite scores for figural and verbal creativity is obtained by adding the T-
scores of the components of figural and verbal creativity respectively. The means,
std deviation, median, min and max for overall, fig and ver creativity are shown in the
Table above.

From the Table, the mean score is 349.89 and the SD is 50.13 with median,……..
As for fig creativity, the mean… SD… median and the range is from .. to min

Descriptive statistics of components of figural creativity for the whole sample

…….

……………………….
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Descriptive statistics of overall creativity, figural and verbal creativity by sex,


ses and cognitive levels

When the data were analysed according to sex, it was found that boys perform better
than girls on verall creativity. The mean score for the boys is 368.94 while the girls is
333.92 giving a difference of 35,02 between the mean scores of boys and girls. The
data show that SD for boys is 50.47 while the girls is 43.98. The range of scores for
vboys is from minimum of 257.10 to max of 537.79 which is wider than the girls from
232.25 to 448.71.
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As for figural creativity the boys also perform better than girls……. The mean for
boys is…. Median higher….

With regards to verbal creativity, boys again have a higher mean scores …

As for SES …..

As for cognitive levels, …..

The findings for sex, SES and cognitive levels can be summarized as follows:
i) for overall creativity, the mean score for boys is higher than girls. Higher
SES pupils have a slightly higher mean scores than low SES pupils and
formal operation pupils have a higher mean scores than concrete
operation pupils.
ii) For figural creativity, the boys have obtained a higher mean score than the
girls. Low SES pupils,……
iii) For verbal creativity, boys have a higher mean score than the girls. High
SES pupils have a slightly higher mean score than low SES pupils and
formal operation pupils have a higher mean score than concrete operation
pupils.

Descriptive statistics of the components of figural creativity by sex, SES and


cognitive levels.

………………………………………..

Descriptive statistics of the components of verbal creativity by sex, SES and


cognitive levels.

……………………………………….
Relationships among the components of creativity

Two types of ststistical analyses were carried out to ascertain the relationships
among the components of creativity. Firstly, the components of figural and verbal
creativity were subjected to Pearson-product moment correlations. Secondly, a
stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed, using overall creativity as
the dependent variable and the components of figural and verbal creativity as the
predictors.

Intercorrelations among the components of Figural and Verbal Creativity


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Correlations

Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig

N of

From the intercorrelational matrix Table above, Figural originality, fig. elaboration, fig
fluency and fig flexibility were intercorrelated to some extent.

Correlation matrix: components of verbal creativity

…………….

Correlations

F.Ori
F. Elab
F.Fluency
F.Flex
V.Ori
V.Flu
V.Flex
F.Creativit
V.Crea
O Creat

Table above shows that all the correlations are significant at 0.001 level. It can be
noted that correlations between the components of fig creativity and the components
of verbal creativity are generally low…….
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The results of the correlational analysis between the verbal and the figural
components of creativity indicate that these two types of creativities are not related
closely to one another.

Stepwise Multiple Regression Analyses


In the stepwise multiple regression analysis of the data, overall creativity was the
dependent variable and the components of figural and verbal creativity were the
predictors. This method employed allows a prediction equation for overall creativity
to be formulated by choosing one component at a time, first choosing the component
which was the best predictor. Variables were then added step-by-step until no other
variables would make a significant contribution to the prediction equation. For the
inclusion of variables in this stepwise mode, the minimal F-value was 0.01 and the
tolerance level was 0.001.

Table shows that, figural originality is the best single predictor of overall creativity
and alone account for about 60% (Note:look at R Square change = 0.59967) of the
total variance of overall creativity. The table also shows that fig originality together
with verbal fluency (Note: R square change: Fig Ori = 0.599 + Verbal Fluency =
0.29 = 0.90) accounts for about 90% of the total variance of overall creativity. The
remaining 10% are accounted by the rest of 5 components of fig and verb creativity.

Although the 4 components of fig creativity and 3 components of verbal creativity are
highly intercorrelated among themselves, fig orig and verbal fluency are the
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Significant
Predictor
Variables

Figural Originality

Verbal Fluency

Figural Elaboration

Figural Fluency

Verbal Flexibility

Figural Flexibility

Verbal Originality

contributors to overall creativity. Table shows that fig orig is the foremost predictor
and verbal originality is the last predictor to be entered suggest that although
Bruneian pupil who is creative possesses ideational originality but he is reluctant to
verbalise his ideas. This is consistent with the common observation of Bruneian
teachers that their pupils are generally hesistant to speak out their own ideas
especially if these ideas do not conform to the expectations of their parents and
teachers.

Small amount of variance from fig and verb flexibility overlap suggest that Bruneian
pupils who are creative are not flexible due to education system that is exam-
oriented and less on flexibility development of pupils.

The relationship between creativity and the Independent variables

The analyses of the relationship between creativity and the independent variables
of sex, SES, cognitive levels, IQ, academic achievement, self concept, learning
styles, father’s influence, mother’s influence and home environment were
investigated using the following ways:
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1. Correlationsl analyses between overall creativity, fig, verbal creativity, their


components and IQ, academic achievement, self concept, learning styles,
father’s and mother’s influence and home environment.
2. 3-way ANOVA using overall creativity, fig, verbal and their components of
creativity as dependent variables, and sex, SES and cognitive levels as the
independent variables.
3. Stepwise multiple regression analyses with overall creativity, fig, verbal as
the criterion variables and all the independent variables as the predictors.

Correlational analyses between overall creativity, figural, verbal creativity their


components and the independent variables.

Overall creativity, fig and verbal creativity and their components were correlated with
IQ, achievement, self-concept, learning styles, father’s and mother’s influence and
home environment were presented below.

Correlational analyses between overall creativity and the independent variables.

Correlations

IQ
Achievement
Self-concept
Left Style
Right Style
Integrated style
Father’s influence
Mother’s influence
Home environment

No of cases:

Correlation coefficients of overall creativity with IQ, achievement and self-concept


although low but significant at p < 0.001. The rest are not significant.

Correlational analyses between figural creativity and the independent variables


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From the Table, fig elaboration is significantly related to IQ (r=0.16, p < 0.001),
achievement, self concept, left style and mothet’s influence….

Results imply that pupils who are high achievers and intelligent are able to elaborate
their ideas better than low achievers. Results also suggest that…..

Correlational analyses between verbal creativity and the independent variables

…………………………………..

Analyses of Variance using overall, figural and verbal creativity and their
components as dependent variables

To ascertain the differences in overall creativity, figural and verbal creativity and their
components between boys and girls, between high and low SES students, and
between concrete and formal thinkers, a three-way analysis of variance was carried
out.

3-way ANOVA using overall creativity as the dependent variable


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Source

Main Effects

SEX
SES
COG LEV
2-way Interactions

SEX
SEX
SEX

3-way Interactions

SEX SES

Explained

Residual

Total

From the Table, there is a significant difference between the performance of boys
and of girls with respect to overall creativity. The F ratio for sex as an effect is
40.015 which is sig at p < 0.05. A comparison of the mean scores for the boys and
girls (descriptive) reveal that the boys are more creative than the girls. This is
consistent with Bruniean society where boys are encouraged to be adventurous and
outgoing whereas girls are expected to behave in a more subservient and passive
role.

Results show that cognitive levels and SES are not significant effects on the
overall creativity of the pupils.

3-way ANOVA using Figural creativity as the dependent variable

……………

3-way ANOVA using Verbal creativity as the dependent variable

…………….

3-way ANOVA using Figural Originality as the dependent variable


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……………

3-way ANOVA using Figural Elaboration as the dependent variable

………………

3-way ANOVA using Figural Fluency as the dependent variable

……….

3-way ANOVA using Figuiral Flexibility as the dependent variable

……..

3-way ANOVA using Verbal Originality as the dependent variable

.................

3-way ANOVA using Verbal Fluency as the dependent variable

……………..

3-way ANOVA using Verbal Flexibility as the dependent variable

………………

Stepwise multiple regression analyses of overall creativity, figural creativity


and verbal creativity

Three sets of stepwise multiple regression analyses were carried out using overall
creativity, figural creativity and verbal creativity as criterion variables and all the
independent variables as the predictors. All the predictors are entered step by step,
one at a time until no other variables would make a significant contribution to the
prediction equation.

Stepwise Multiple Regression Analyses of Overall Creativity


using Overall creativity as the criterion variable and all independent variables (sex,
Academic achievement, Learning style) of this study as the predictors.
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Significant
Predictor
variables

Sex

Academic
Achievement

Integrated
Learning Style

From the table, sex is the best single predictor of overall creativity which account for
about 12% of total variance of overall creativity. Academic together with sex
account for 15% of total variance of overall creativity. When the third predictor is
added to the predictor equation, the total variance is about 17%. The remaining 83%
of the total variance of overall creativity is not accounted for.

Results indicated that sex differences contribute quite substantially to the variance of
overall creativity scores. This finding confirms the results of 3-way ANOVA where
sex is shown to be a highly significant effect on overall creativity.

Results also suggest that there is a large portion of variance of overall creativity is
unaccounted for. There may be other factors or variables which affect the creativity
of the pupils and which are predictors of their overall creativity.

Stepwise multiple regression analysis using Figural creativity

Using figural creativity as the criterion variable and all independent variables as the
predictors.
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Significant
Predictor
Variables

Sex

Table shows that sex is the best and only predictor of Figural creativity and it
accounts for about 5% of the total variance of figural creativity. Remaining 95% of
total variance is unaccounted for.

Resaults show that sex differences contribute to the total variance of Figural
creativity and confirms the results of 3-way ANOVA where sex is significantly
affecting Figural creativity. Large portion of the variance of Figural creativity is
unaccounted for suggesting other factors or variables are affecting the figural
creativity of the pupils.

Stepwise multiple regression analysis of verbal creativity


using Verbal creativity as the criterion variable and all the independent variables as
the predictors.

Significant
Predictor
Variables

Academic
Achievement

Sex

Results show that academic achievement and sex differences contribute


substantially to the variance of verbal creativity score. This result confirms the 3-way
ANOVA where academic achievement has been shown to be significantly correlated
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with verbal creativity together with sex contributed about 25% of the total variance of
verbal creativity. A large portion of the variance is unaccounted for indicating there
are other factors which may have to be taken into consideration when one attempts
to predict verbal creativity.