Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 www.elsevier.


In-process dimensional inspection sensors
K. Vacharanukul, S. Mekid
The University of Manchester, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, M60 1QD Manchester, UK Received 26 April 2004; received in revised form 17 May 2005; accepted 21 July 2005 Available online 9 September 2005

Abstract The available in-process and in-situ dimensional measurement sensors for quality control inspection of machined component are surveyed in this paper and classified into contact and non-contact types. The various measuring techniques are categorised according to sensors operating principles and explained through representative examples with the essential measurement characteristics. The operating systems encompass optical, pneumatic, ultrasonic and electrical techniques for non-contact measurement. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Length measurement; Laser interferometer; Optical methods; CCD camera; Capacitance; In-process measurement in machine-tools

1. Introduction The next generation of intelligent machine-tools require embedded sensors for positioning and inprocess inspection of workpieces to compensate for machining errors and hence to ensure a production of high quality products at low price and short time. The trend for higher performance will require fast automatic compensation for errors to obtain the true dimensional tolerances, which will

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 161 2003804; fax: +44 161 2003803. E-mail address: (S. Mekid).


be easily facilitated by in-process accurate sensors. Quality control of the manufactured parts is traditionally performed using manual inspection methods and statistical sampling procedures. It has the disadvantages of releasing some defective parts and using an inspection area. To overcome these disadvantages, in-process measurement technique has been proposed over the last two decades to control the quality of workpiece while it is being machined. The trend principle in inspection of workpiece accuracy is the use of a measuring sensor and a control system governing measurement and adjustment of machining parameters. In mass production, the diameter is one of the significant parameters to be inspected. Many

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Definitions of in-process. in-situ measurement and post-process measurement.3. mechanical. S.. . This review will present the different measurement techniques and will address the following essential criteria. This paper continually extends the survey of all papers claiming inprocess and in-situ measurements until 2003.K. For ultra-high precision.g. Most of these methods are non-contact measurements except the mechanical method. Post-process measurement This is the standard inspection mode where the measurement occurs after the machining process is completed and the finished workpiece is removed from the machine.. diameter) measurement techniques have been developed in the last three decades. the post-process measurement is a time-consuming procedure and needs a specific inspection area. 2. It is the actual measurement performed while the workpiece is being machined without any interruptions to the machining process itself. Coordinate Measuring Machine) could be used to inspect the workpiece. has Latin etymology and means in position. Compared to inprocess and in-situ measurement. pressure and humidity. which is held on the machine and the machining process being stopped before starting the measurement. reasons of selecting the optical method are explained. linearity and limitations of the measurement. In-situ measurement According to the Webster dictionary in situ. 3. This paper introduces the definition of in-process. always taking place during the machining process. the components are preferred to be inspected in post-process at specific temperature.1. accuracy over the range of measurement. The recent existing techniques are then reviewed and classified into contact and non-contact measurement. Vacharanukul. repeatability. while in-process measurement and in-situ measurement could be developed with control system to compensate for dimensional errors during the machining process. Also called process-intermittent measurement or on-machine measurement. ultrasonic.2. Specific instrument or machines (e. original position or place. which uses a contact technique. the use of post-process measurement cannot prevent a number of defective workpiece caused by tool wear. in-situ process and post-process measurement There are several techniques to be applied to measure the diameter of workpiece in turning process for example. pneumatic.2]. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 205 length (e. The advantage of non-contact measurement is that the workpieces are not further deformed by contact forces caused by contact sensors depending on the type of material and when measuring with sub-micrometer accuracy. electrical and temperature detection method. 2. in-process measurement. Finally. Moreover. tool deflection and workpiece deflection. 2. Shiraishi [1] reviewed the developed in-process methods from 1961 to 1985 and Yandayan and Burdekin [2] presented a survey of the existing methods from 1986 to 1996. It provides the useful information in real-time measurement. in-situ and post-process measurement. These techniques can be categorised into six methods [1. optical. It is the actual measurement performed while the machined workpiece.g. 2. In-process measurement According to Merriam WebsterÕs dictionary: inprocess means being goods in manufacture as distinguished from raw materials or from finished products. Their concepts of dimensional measurements on turning machines [3] can be classified into three groups. Several techniques could be classified as contact measurements and others as non-contact measurements. Reviews of existing techniques Various in-process techniques have been proposed and developed to measure the diameter of a workpiece in turning.

The main parts of the friction-roller instrument comprises friction-roller wheel with encoder. By counting the pulse signals in a revolution of the rotator. When the cutting tool touches the workpiece. 2(a). the encoder generates pulse signals. The accuracy of the diameter measurement seems to vary linearly from 0. Contact measurement The contact measurement has a sensing part in contact with a workpiece. Fig. The friction-roller wheel contacts with the rotator surface along which it rotates by friction force. The cutting tool is used as the contact probe itself. hall switch with magnet and a computer. The workpiece will be machined in several passes. . Although the accuracy of the friction-roller type and the calliper-type method are not high enough. The friction-roller type instrument [4. Mechanical method is one of the contact techniques. the workpiece diameter is inspected along its length using the on-machine measurement technology. Vacharanukul.1. the complete loop current occurs and sends the output current to a separate amplifier circuit to produce a switching signal. The fine touch sensor consisted of an electric coil to generate an electromagnetic field and a separate amplifier circuit. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the outer diameter measurement of rotator in operation. This accuracy is limited mainly by the friction-roller and the characteristics of the ball switch.206 K. Before starting a measurement. the diameter of the rotator is numerically evaluated. Liu [3] improved a repetitive measurement and compensation system to reduce workpiece diameter error using electrical techniques. When friction-roller wheel rotates. so that the tool offset is recorded. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 3. 1. After each machined pass. Schematic diagram of the outer diameter measurement of rotator in operation. A new on-machine workpiece measurement with a Q-setter and a fine touch sensor was developed. the rotator has to be cleaned from oil as it causes measurement errors. [5] use a friction-roller technique to measure the outer diameter of rotator in operation. Yun et al. which triggers the tool to stop automat- Rotator Magnet Friction-roller with encoder Hall switch Sensor of circumference Monolythic computer Fig.1 mm to 1 mm for a range of diameter from 1 m to 5 m. an electrical method has been developed for contact measurement. S.5] and the calliper-type method are some examples of the mechanical methods applied to measure the diameter of a workpiece in in-process measurement. 2(b) shows an onmachine measurement with a fine touch probe. as shown in Fig. The Q-setter was used in the cutting tool set-up. Fig. Recently. they have been widely used to measure large-scale diameter workpieces.

which is sent from the transmitter to the surface of the workpiece and collected by the photodiodes or CCD cameras.e. This technique produces Doppler Shift frequency by detecting scattered light from a rotating workpiece surface to determine the circumferential velocity of the rotating workpiece. 2. In this report. Q-setter and fine touch sensor: (a) Q-setter and (b) on-line measurement with fine touch sensor [3]. 3 shows the schematic overview of the laser Doppler in-process measurement system (LDIMS).2]. which is about 3 lm over the workpiece length of 100 mm. Various techniques have been developed within the non-contact principle. Different points are measured in the same way to obtain the error distribution along the machined workpiece length. pneumatic method and electrical method because of the new techniques developed recently. The Doppler Shift frequency. S. a is the angle between two crossing beams and k is the wavelength of the laser beam. Non-contact measurement Non-contact measurement has no sensing part in contact with a workpiece. The optical and ultrasonic methods have been continually developing in their accuracy and resolution.K. Vacharanukul. Optical methods For in-process measurement.. not in-process measurement according to the definitions given earlier. ically.2. . The maximum error was reduced by 90% after the second pass. 3. light-gauging method. Fig. However. fd. The deviations between the desired diameters and the on-machine measurement workpiece diameters are calculated and used to modify the nominal depth of cut of the next compensation pass. this system is an onmachine workpiece measurement. Yandayan and Burdekin [6] developed a new in-process measurement technique based on the Laser Doppler effect.2. These techniques have been classified into four methods in this paper depending on their operations as mentioned previously. light focusing. This section will consider four methods. A new tool offset is recorded and the diameter of the workpiece is calculated and compared to the tool offset during the tool set-up. The type of the material inspected could affect the accuracy of the measuring system as it could alter the principle of measurement (i. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 207 Fig. optical methods are based on non-contact measurement using light. light-spot detection and machine vision. ultrasonic method. magnetic field). According to light focusing techniques. The information of the workpiece diameter obtained by the light is analysed and evaluated. Its accuracy depends on the geometric errors in three axes of the CNC machine. optical method. 3.1. related to the circumferential velocity is given by fd ¼ 2v sinða=2Þ ð1Þ k where v is the circumferential velocity of the workpiece passing through a measuring volume. the optical methods are divided into four groups [1.

However. the circumference of the workpiece equals to the multiple of the number of pulses counted per revolution and the interference fringe spacing. up to 300 mm. Vacharanukul. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 Fig. Regarding light-gauging detection. according to the work of Novak (1981) [7].208 K. Therefore.5 lm. The workpiece circumference can be directly converted to the actual workpiece diameter using a constant factor. 3. which is given by s¼ k 2 sinða=2Þ ð2Þ Thus. using ÔpiÕ relationship the workpiece diameter can be obtained from its circumference. In LDIMS technique. Qibo [8] proposed the extended method to measure the dimensions of large-scale workpieces which reduce the AbbeÕ . the signal output is composed of a series of digital pulses with a constant period. It is almost proportional to Doppler signal pulses number counted from the spindle rotation and estimated to be 0. The period between each pulse is related to the rotation of the workpiece surface through a distance equal to the interference fringe spacing. which is about ±20 lm over a range of 80–100 mm and a corresponding repeatability of 5 lm. The main limitation is mainly due to weak signal filling technique inducing extra pulses and other error sources (e. the circumference of the workpiece is represented by the integration of the circumferential velocity and the time period obtained from the angular rotation of the workpiece.g. The mechanical arms cause the AbbeÕ effect (angular errors are amplified by the distance from the source). First. S. The accuracy claimed is 10 lm over a range of 280 mm with a repeatability of 3 lm. There have been two new techniques developed to extend the Novak work. is limited by the mechanical arms that hold the optical parts. Schematic of LDIMS [6]. the measuring range. the accuracy of this system. which is derived from a known diameter of a masterpiece used for calibration at the beginning of the set up. Consequently. vibration of the tool holder of the machine tool). The resolution of LDIMS technique is dependent on the spacing of the interference fringes..

4—pentagonal prism. a grating displacement-measuring system and fine mechanical systems. 4 shows the configuration of the method and its application in large-scale workpiece measurement. Fig. the AbbeÕ error is greatly reduced and straightness and position errors introduced by the slide-way are eliminated. The signal is then analysed and calculated to determine the diameter of the machined part. Zhang et al. The method of inspection is based on laser-scanning measuring technology and grating displacement-measuring technology. the off centre of the rotating mirror and temperature variation. optoelectronic transfer electronic systems and a main controller. 10—signal processors. The second beam. as the sensor size is quite large. two laser-scanned receivers. 5 shows the overall structure of the system. The measuring principle of this system is as follows. The configuration of the method and its application in large-scale workpiece measurement. Vacharanukul. optical systems. The double-edge laser-scanned measuring system consists of two laser-scanned emitters. 8—positioning chocks.01 mm and ±20 lm respectively over the range of 1000–2000 mm with a repeatability of 8 lm. 5—carriage. 4. 1—Single-mode fibre laser collimator. which is reflected at an angle of 90° with respect to the incident beam. One beam is defined as a reference datum line for adjusting the position of the measurement head.K. The linearity was not reported in this type nor the repeatability. this technique needs accurate mechanical design to put all the optics in the exact positions and the two measuring parts must be parallel to each other to reduce errors. the measuring system measures directly the diameter of workpiece and it is independent of target surface reflectivity. scan separately the two edges of the machined part and enter each opto-electronic receiver. The system comprises a double-edge laser-scanned measuring system. Fig. 7—quadrant photodiodes. [9] presented a doubleedges laser-scanned large diameter online dynamic measurement and control system to measure and control diameter in measuring range of 1000– 2000 mm. the unequal distances between every reflected surface of the rotating mirror and the central axis. The two scanning beams. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 2 4 6 5 209 3 1 8 7 8 7 10 9 10 Fig. which are parallel to their optical axis. 3—measurement head. error using a heterodyne laser interferometer. the error of the focal length of scanning optical system. 9—workpiece. Moreover. 6. A laser beam from a single-mode fibre laser collimator is split into two beams by a pentagonal prism and reflected on a quadrant photodiode. out of focus. Furthermore. The resolution and the accuracy of the system is 0. The grating displacement-measuring system is used to extend the measuring range of the system due to the limitation in the measuring range of laser-scanned measuring instruments. The main factors affecting the accuracy have four aspects. S. the optical collimation characteristics of the scanning system. cannot measure the workpiece below 1000 mm in diameter. and the measurement errors of the grating displacement systems. is used as a measuring line. This is the advantage of this method in inspecting large workpieces with high accuracy. scanning speed errors. however. . The measurement range is improved to 1000 mm with a measurement uncertainty less than 5 lm. the laser beams from two laser sources are scanned by the rotating mirrors turning at an angular speed x and go through the scanning optical system. 2—slide-way. It. The diameter of the workpiece is determined when the measuring line passes through the centres of the other two quadrant photodiodes attached at both ends of the position chocks. With this new method. Second. The grating displacement-measuring system is composed of two grating reading heads and a grating digit displaying meter.

The output signal from the photo detector is sent to the measuring circuit. system 2 and received by the photo detector at P1. a low pass filter to reduce the influence of the selfexcited and the forced vibration. The measuring principle of the new method is shown in Fig. which consists of bridge circuit to compensate the temperature. Because the photo detector detects the displacement of image. a DC amplifier and an adder circuit. The photo detector detects the displacement of the image and converts it in form of a resistance change. The image of the laser spot is magnified by the optical Fig. Shiraishi [10] proposed and developed a new non-contact method to measure diameter for in-process measurement. The output voltage is proportional to the workpiece deviation in diameter. the laser spot moves to a new position (O2) and the movement of the image on the photo detector (P2) relates to the movement of the laser spot. Vacharanukul. The overall structure of the system [9]. This measuring system has the limitations of surface roughness and the size of photodiode. The measuring system is mainly composed of a laser unit. The linearity and the repeatability were not reported. 5. When the workpiece diameter changes. optical systems and photoconductive cells. For the light-spot detection. The laser beam passing through the optical system 1 reflects the workpiece surface at O1. the size of the photodiode has an influence . A compensating system has been introduced to compensate for systematic errors. 6. Principle of measurement [10]. 6. S. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 Fig. The accuracy of the measuring system is within ±10 lm in a range of 72 mm.210 K. The output signal from the measuring circuit is obtained as a voltage change.

CCD cameras can be divided into CCD matrix or line scan cameras [11]. Fig. to improve its accuracy a good quality lens and a powerful source (e. 7. the cooling system and two Camera 1 Illuminator 2 workpiece Shadow Camera 2 Illuminator 1 Fig. Fig. non-contact measurement of hot rolled tube of size up to 66 mm in diameter. respectively. Fig.. The measurement system consists of a CCD camera with fixed focus. The diameter of the hot tube will be known from the production of the number of pixels and the given magnificent factor. The resolution of the technique depends on the number of pixels on the CCD. The measurement system uses two line scan cameras and two illuminators. therefore the steel housing. a laser source) should be applied to get a better image and the good contrast between darkness and brightness. 15–25 lm) for a workpiece diameter of 30–50 mm. The workpiece diameter is evaluated as the product of the number of clock pluses counted in the periods of dark image and the length of a pixel. better optics have to be used to obtain better image. which is used to capture an image of a workpiece.g. This measuring system using CCD is an onmachine measurement technique. [12] proposed in 1984 a new technique for diameter measurement using a CCD camera. Takesa et al. 8 shows the schematic diagram of the system. Through the lens. This new technique uses the image amplifier factor. S. heat and dirt. The accuracy for this method is within 0.. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 211 on the measuring range of the system. a light source (fluorescent lamp) and a microcomputer. This technique is used to measure the displacement so that the exact workpiece diameter should be known before starting to machine. Vacharanukul. Their applications involve measuring visible and infrared light (400–1000 nm). CCD sensors are based on a combination of point cells of photodiodes. View of the measurement system [12]. On going development on CCD technology will come up with an increase in the resolution and accuracy of the machine vision methods. 8.K.e. the image of the hot rolled tube is formed on the CCD arrays. focal distance and the image length on CCD to calculate the diameter of workpiece. Furthermore. The CCD detects the contrast between the workpiece and the background by scanning the total length of the CCD corresponding to the clock pulses and sends the video signal to the microcomputer. The laser beam must be normal to the workpiece surface. Harding [13] described an online. . the main component is a charge coupled device (CCD). Schematic diagram of the system [13]. It is considered as a short measuring range. The line scan cameras are fitted on the mobile platforms to provide 2-dimensional movement around the tube. Due to the light source in opposite position of the CCD camera. This measurement system is affected by hard knocks. the dark image of the workpiece occurs. The image length on CCD is determined by counting the number of the pixels on the CCD. In machine vision techniques.05% (i. 7 shows the measurement system. To achieve better accuracy.

One of the main measurement error sources in these methods is the diffraction of the laser beam at the endpoints of the workpiece. Configuration of the set up for measuring a cylinder diameter [14]. 9. Machine vision technique measures an outer diameter of a workpiece by using a laser beam to scan across the surface of the workpiece and the image is focused on CCD sensors. two gratings (G1. . Fig. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 on-line cleaning air supplies are used to prevent these effects. which projects onto the surface of the workpiece. which extends the triangulation principle. By applying the light-slit method with a variable optical base and an adaptable distance system. 11. 10. which are movable along the base. the diffracted light at the endpoints inherits the information of the endpoint position in sinusoidal form. in-process measuring system for roll-bending process to measure the diameter of large cylindrical workpiece. LD2). The image from this arrangement is a rectangle. 9. the measuring system can adjust itself to varying measuring distances with a wide range of 500 mm up to 2000 mm. the external pyrometer is employed to measure temperature of the tube thus a correction factor for the cold diameter is computed. With this new technique. Vacharanukul.212 K. To overcome the problem Sasaki et al. The measurement error is less than 0. The diagram for measuring a cylinder diameter is shown in Fig. 10 shows the principle of the light-slit method. the light-slit method uses a light plane. Fig. as shown in Fig. Mabberg and Paschen [15] pre- Fig. milling and grinding process. [14] proposed a new method using a laser beam with sinusoidal intensity distribution. The image is detected by CCD camera. Multiple light-slit with variable optical base [15]. it is Fig. which is a limitation for this method but could be exploited in inspecting micro-artefacts. Therefore. Unlike the triangulation principle that uses a light beam. G2) and two lens systems (L1 to L5) are used to produce two sinusoidal intensity distributions (P1. sented a non-contact. The measuring system uses four laser heads and one CCD camera.3 lm for a range of 4 mm in diameter. 11. P2) with two different periods in order to extend the measuring range. Two lasers (LD1. Also. The accuracy and repeatability were not reported. S. A number of the existing techniques have mostly been developed for turning. The endpoint position is then extracted. The principle of this measuring system is based on the light-slit method. The principle of the light-slit method [15].

the Kalman filter was designed to predict the radial error at the cutting point based on the delayed measurement. REFC was designed to compensate for the radial error due to the time-varying deflection caused by the cutting force. This is considered as in-process measurement for dry environment. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 213 possible to scan the cylindrical workpiece.K. The reflected image is captured by CCD camera through the optical amplification system. This paper has focused on the control technique part more than the measuring part. a stepper motor with a controller to activate the actuator and a predictive system based on a neural network. The measurement accuracy of the sensing system is about 10 lm for a single diameter of 25 mm. which moves along the bar at a constant velocity. The only average accuracy given by the authors was about 14 lm for a single diameter of 49 mm. The principle and structure of the optical non-contact system for blind hole measurement [16]. not depending on its orientation. hence the difficulty to assess this technique. the structure of the new measuring technique can Fig. To compensate for the radial error. The output signal from the optical sensor was one of the . It is suggested that the accuracy of the radius estimation is less than 1. These changes were assumed to be the effects of tool flank wear. The PI controller was then designed based on the model. The system consisted of an optical fibre transducer. To compensate for the sensing delay. a time-varying analytical model of the deflection. light-gauging detection. [17] developed a radial error feedback control system (REFC) for bar turning in CNC turning centers. The analytical model for uniform bars was derived based on vibration theory while finite element method can be used to develop a model for non-uniform bars. light-spot detection and machine vision technique. printed on a reticule in the projection system. As a result. an imaging system. Furthermore. Fan et al. The eccentricity error and parallelism error may cause the measurement error of the system. the rectangular image represents a fraction of the whole workpiece so the error occurs due to the circle approximation. in-process measuring system are the accuracy of the driving system and the intensity of the laser lines. However. there was a finite distance between the cutting point and the measuring point. 12 illustrates the principle and structure of the optical non-contact system for blind hole measurement. The principle of the system is the projection of the high precision circle pattern. Vacharanukul. an optical amplification system and CCD camera system. The significant limitations of the noncontact. ovality and cylindricity of blind holes. a proportional integrator (PI) controller and a Kalman filter were designed. However. [18] developed an on-line system to monitor tool wear and control workpiece dimensional deviations in turning. Machine vision techniques have also been applied in an inside diameter measurement. 13 shows the schematic diagram of the experimental set-up. Apart from light focusing technique. Choudhury et al. the sensing delay occurred. Fig. S. many techniques using optical sensor to control accuracy of the workpiece have been lately developed in terms of monitoring tool wear. which increases the measurement sensitivity and accuracy of the optical non-contact system. Fang and McClure [16] developed an optical non-contact system to measure the diameter. Fig. 12. REFC used a laser sensor to measure the diameter of the workpiece in real-time. The image processing is applied to calculate the radius of curvature. ovality and cylindricity of through hole. The tool wear was indirectly monitored by constantly monitoring the changes in the workpiece diameter. Moreover. a projection system. The optical non-contact system mainly comprises a lighting system.5 mm over a range 500– 2000 mm. onto the wall of the blind hole. which is an important parameter in mechanical production as well as an outside diameter. be rearranged to measure diameter. The machining accuracy was improved by 95% using REFC technique.

an acoustic objective lens and a cylindrical acoustic lens as shown in Fig. the on-line system could control the workpiece dimensional accuracy within 30 lm. The cylindrical acoustic lens is used to detect displacement between the acoustic objective lens and target surface due to the astigmatic effect. The measuring method of the new ultrasonic sensor is as follows.214 K. The authors did not mention any measurement charac- .2. However. However. 14. Using this predicted value. [19] proposed a new ultrasonic displacement measuring method based on astigmatic focus error detection. Generally. the control system is used to compensate for this change in workpiece dimensions. The others were cutting speed. Moreover. Mitsui et al. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 Fig. S. an ultrasonic detector. The sound pressure distribution changes according to target surface displacement. Vacharanukul. input parameters for the neural network program. It is assumed that the principle of astigmatic focus error detection could provide high accuracy during cutting and grinding operation. At the cylindrical acoustic lens. The new sensor mainly comprises an ultrasonic transmitter. The neural network predicted the flank wear in terms of its length. the accuracy of the workpiece is not good enough for the stringent needs in the market. an ultrasonic beam from the transmitter reflects the target surface and reaches the cylindrical acoustic lens. this new ultrasonic technique didnÕt claim any accuracy. The signals employed are generally outside the frequency range of human hearing. it may be difficult to set the optics up because the ultrasonic beam is invisible to the naked eyes. feedrate and depth of cut. This new technique is suitable for wet environment and its output is independent of target surface reflectivity.2. The principle of an astigmatic focus error detection is experimentally evaluated by measuring the sound pressure distribution on the detector face. the reflected wavebeam profile will be refracted so that it converges at the quadranttype ultrasonic detector face in a form of sound pressure distribution. Moreover. Therefore. 3. Ultrasonic methods Ultrasonic methods use wave propagation principles and produce digital output. an ultrasonic sensor uses the pulse-echo technique to generate a sharp acoustics pulse and change it into a sound wave form. a half-mirror. 13. Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up [17]. this technique is not a real-time measurement because of the delay time due to the measuring position behind the cutting point.

2. teristics for this sensor but according to previous ultrasonic techniques [19] the resolution is in the range of 2–20 lm. Pneumatic methods The pneumatic method can be defined as the measuring system that measures the pressure drop in the gap between the measuring head and the workpiece and converts it into an electrical signal. The output from the sensor. 15(b) shows the measurement procedure of stepped profile that can continually be measured using one of the three sensing nozzles. Schematic diagrams of ultrasonic measuring system and measuring principle [19]. The dimensional error of the workpiece was measured by monitoring any deviation in distance between the workpiece surface and the sensing head. Fig.K. The pneumatic technique is suitable to measure small distances. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 215 Fig. 3.25–0. which was the sum of backpressure from three sensing heads. Fig. . The main advantage of the technique is that the continual flow of air through the measuring head can blow away cutting fluids and swarfs. 15(a) shows the schematic of the pneumatic proximity sensor. 14. is proportional to the distance between the workpiece surface and the sensing head within the linearity range of 0.3. S. Shiraishi and Yasui [20] developed a new pneumatic proximity sensor with three same diameter sensing nozzles for a stepped profile workpiece. Pneumatic proximity sensor: (a) diagram of the pneumatic proximity sensor and (b) measurement procedure for a stepped profile [20].38 mm. 15. Fig. Vacharanukul.

16. . However. 4. It is not easy to set up the three probes in their reference positions and to define their distance. chips. one major disadvantage of the sensor was the occurrence of the unmeasured zone due to the finite diameter of the sensor head. With the compensation technique the measurement errors are within a limit of 15 lm over a range of 32– 54 mm. The workpiece material must be electromagnetic for reluctance techniques and electrical for capacitance and eddy-current techniques. thermal effects could slightly affect the measurement. it should be difficult to apply this technique to industry companies as it occupies a large space around workpiece. However. the surface of the workpiece can be traced using three servo measurement units. a stepping motor for controlling linear carriage. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 The accuracy of the pneumatic sensor was within 5 lm over a range of 30–100 lm. Moreover. Geometrical relations of the MTPT method [21]. Each unit is composed of a non-contact displacement probe (proximitor) for gap sensing. capacitance and eddy-current techniques. Fig. It is a new non-contact technique to measure diameter through three servo measurement units as shown in Fig. Fan and Chao [21] proposed the moving three- probe technique (MTPT). As shown in Fig. there are several disadvantages arising from the contact measurement where scratches. the controlled linear carriage will move the probe to remain within the measuring range and the digital LVDT will record the amount of this variation of movement. carrying the probe for surface tracing. S. The sensor is used to measure the average dimensional error of the workpiece by monitoring the distance between the workpiece surface and the sensing head.4. It means that the sensor is not applied to measure the workpiece diameter. this technique was applied only to the finish process of workpiece and it is not suitable for step workpieces. especially friction-roller methods [4. such as reluctance. Also. Consequently. and a displacement transducer (LVDT) for real-time recording of the carriage position.2. Moreover. Vacharanukul. 16. 16.5] are still used to measure large-scale diameter workpieces.216 K. the feedrate of each process is carefully controlled. the displacement probe (the eddy-current type proximitor) detects the gap between the probe and the machined surface. The main limitation of electrical methods using reluctance. However. Concluding remarks Some of the contact measuring methods. 3. To avoid contact between the probe and workpiece. capacitance and eddy-current techniques is the material of workpiece. the material property of the machining workpiece must be conducted with electricity. The equation used to determine the diameter is given D1 ¼ 2L1 À L2 þ L3 À 2C 1 þ C 2 À C 3 À 2h1 þ h2 À h3 ð3Þ The accuracy of measurement is ±15 lm. If the radius of the workpiece varies over the measuring range of the probe. Electrical methods Electrical methods are non-optical and noncontact measurements using electrical field techniques.

International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 15 (1999) 85. • None of the existing techniques can measure more than one parameter with one sensor. Therefore. Proceedings of SPIE 4077 (2000) 317. Precision Engineering 11 (1989) 27. [6] T. It is widely applied in length measurements. Development of a laser Doppler system for in-process evaluation of diameters on . p. could damage the sensing part of sensors. • The temperature always affects the measuring accuracy. especially the optical methods. Burdekin.-Q. Zhixiang. Measurement of the outer diameter of rotator in operation. Laser was first invented in 1958. The measuring speed of contact measurement is lower than that of non-contact measurement. • Non-contact sensor. • They are not suitable to measure large diameter workpieces. From the advantages and disadvantages of each method reviewed through above. Electrical. Moreover. Also. • They cannot measure all types of workpiece profiles on turning machine. Due to its characteristics. Evaluation of accuracy of in-process gauging of diameters by rolling method. Yun. the temperature of the machining process can affect the accuracy of the sensor and this issue has to be seriously addressed using compensation techniques. Despite the great number of sensors developed for non-contact measurement.N. non-contact methods have been continually developed. Shiraishi. variable or stepped profiles. M. to overcome the limitations and compromise the requirements. the laser has a sufficiently well defined frequency and constant amplitude oscillations. its applications have been drastically developed in many fields. [2] T. • No technique can achieve sub-micron accuracy. Ivanov. could deform inducing measurement errors. the workpiece material. such as fixed. • Using simple method to ease the set up and operating. [5] Z. which has to be systematically minimised. In laser scan technology. Most of the proposed non-contact methods are based on displacement techniques. S. [3] Z. Therefore. The light-gauging techniques have ´ an important error source. the light focusing technique in optical methods is chosen to be applied to a new sensor for in-process measurement because it can achieve high accuracy and high resolution as well as high frequency due to its high speed if fast data acquisition systems are deployed. M. Repetitive measurement and compensation to improve workpiece machining accuracy. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 217 etc. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 37 (1997) 1423. Yandayan.. the limitations from the existing techniques could be summarised below: • Most of the measurement techniques are not inprocess measurements. the requirements of a new sensor are: • In-process measurement system. Scope of in-process measurement. Liu. • Size of the sensors is quite large. in: Measurement Techniques C/C of IzmeritelÕ Naia Tekhnika. Burdekin. W. [4] B. 2000. Ultrasonic methods for diameter measurement are still in research process. To achieve the narrower tolerance of machined parts. vol. • Independent of ambient temperature but take into account material expansion. In-process dimensional measurement and control of workpiece accuracy. monitoring and control techniques in machining processes—Part 2: Inprocess techniques for workpieces.K. Xianyao. non-contact measurement techniques are considered. • Small size and lightweight. They need to compare the results to a known standard diameter workpiece. depending on elastic properties. the Abbe error. the scanning speed depends upon the limit on angular speed of the mechanical parts. References [1] M. From the technical literature above. 43. • Inexpensive. • Sub-micrometer accuracy and high resolution with fast response. Vacharanukul. Yandayan. 123. using one sensor. • Some techniques must be difficult to set up and others have complex structures. pneumatic and ultrasonic sensors measure a small variable displacement between the sensor head and the workpiece surface. L.

[19] K. Yasui. M. C. Annals of CIRP 30 (1981) 473. Radial error feedback control for bar turning in CNC turning centers. Hashimoto. G. [17] C. S. Harding. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 125 (2003) 77.H.Z. Sensing of workpiece diameter. [21] K. K. V. A. Yajima. F. M. Fujimori. non-contact gauging of tube diameter and shape. H. Fan. Tani. Annals of CIRP 28 (1979) 333.W.H. Krishna. 1998. Tsukamoto. Novak. Non-contact in-process measurement of large cylindrical workpiece with adaptation to changing measuring distances. Sasaki. Fan. X. M. Liu. McClure. V. Measurement of diameter using charge coupled device (CCD). Production Engineering V/1 (1998) 135. In-situ measurements of large external diameters by a heterodyne laser interferometer. Proceedings of SPIE 4223 (2000) 35. Proceedings of SPIE 3185 (1997) 125. Zhang. Yang. Y. K. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] . Development of a new displacement-measuring ultrasonic sensor based on astigmatic focus error detection-measuring principle and its demonstration. H. B. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 129 (2002) 653. Fu. [18] S. vibration and out-off-roundness by laser-way to automate quality control. A. Chao. C. Measurement on the move. p.R. Y.G. [20] M. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 123 (2001) 10. Li. Shiraishi. In-process measurement of dimensional error for stepped workpiece profile. The measurement and control of diameter in large-scale part processing.K. Part B. Takesa. Koike. X. Howah. Mekid / Measurement 38 (2005) 204–218 computer numerical controlled turning machines. Mitsui. Mechanical Working and Steel Processing Conference Proceedings.C. T.-p. O. A. S. Measurement of cylinder diameter by using sinusoidally vibrating sinusoidal gratings. Y. Xu. Sato. 559. Shiraishi. On-line monitoring of tool wear and control of dimensional inaccuracy in turning. Line scan cameras in multiple sensor systems. Precision Engineering 13 (1991) 27. In-process dimensional control of the workpiece during turning. In-process control of workpiece dimension in turning. Annals of CIRP 33 (1984) 377. [15] W. Collins. Fang.K. L. Precision non-contact measurement of blind holes by machine vision technology. Precision Engineering 20 (1997) 93. Jain. Journal of Engineering Manufacture 212 (1998) 183. AISE Steel Technology (2001) 48. [16] Z. Suzuki. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 120 (1998) 202. Wang. E. Paschen.218 K. H. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Vacharanukul. Choudhury.Y. Mabberg.P. Qibo. Proceedings of SPIE 4416 (2001) 35. L.

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