Research can be defined as ³a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information in any branch of knowledge¶. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement.

3.1: OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH: Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. The purpose of research is to discover answer to question through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the hidden truth, which has not been discovered yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling not a number of following broad groupings:  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (Exploratory or formularize research studies)  To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (Descriptive research studies)  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. (Diagnostic Research Studies)  To test a hypotheses of a causal relationship between variables (hypothesis testing research studies)  This research is an amalgamation of both formularize as well as descriptive research, as it reflects on the present satisfaction level of the employees at Ashok Leyland regarding the various training and development programs being conducted here. In the process, it also aims to collect more detailed information on the subject of training and development itself.  3.2: RESEARCH APPROACHES There are two basic approached to research, quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. The former involves the generation of data in quantitative form, which can be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid manner. This approach is further sub-divided into inferential approach is to form a database from which to infer characteristics or relationship of a population. This usually means survey research where a

a synopsis was submitted to the company for approval. Such an approach to research generates results either in non-quantitative form or in the form. singles out the problem. This research follows both the inferential quantitative and qualitative approach. aggregate of the rating of all the questions of a group has been taken to find out the percentage of each response to that group. The subject matter related to the topic. The questionnaires circulated to collect the relevant information have been analyzed ion the basis of rating given to each question and then. The various steps involved in a research process are not mutually exclusive. No literature was available of any study conducted earlier on a similar topic. the purpose of the study is both exploration and description . However.5: REPAIRING THE RESEARCH DESIGN: The function of research design is to provide for the collecting of the relevant information and data with minimal expenditure of effort. not are they separate or distinct.e. Here. After specifying the problem. which are no subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis. manuals etc. books.4: FORMULATING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM At the very beginning the researcher. Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes. ³Outsourcing´ was also examined from the available literature i. the following order concerning various steps provides a useful procedural guideline regarding the research process and has been used to carry out this research: 3. opinions and behavior. 3. Here. for this purpose and extensive study of available literature was done. But the way of achieving all this depends mainly on the purpose of the research. Research in such a situation is a function of researcher¶s insight and impressions. by this review the extent of available of the data of other materials was known and this led to a specification of the problem in a more meaningful context. 3.sample of population is studied to determine its characteristics and it is then inferred that the population has the same characteristics. he / she wants to study in specific terms. The training and development policies were studies from the personal manual as well as some information brochures made available by the training department at Ashok leyland.3: RESEARCH PROCESS FOLLOWED: Research process consists of a series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carryout research and the desired sequencing of these steps. time and money.

7: DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGN: A sample design is a definite plant for obtaining a sample from the given population. 3. 3. Random sampling ensures the law of statistical regulatory i.e. For Size of the sample: this refers to the number of items selected from the universe to constitute the sample.6: THE MEANS OF OBTAINING INFORMATION: In this research case.8: DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAMPLING DESIGNS: Non-probability sampling: It is the sampling which does not offer any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the populations has of being included in the sample deliberately. the time limit was 30 days. it is known as systematic sampling. Systematic sampling: when the sampling is done by selecting every item on the list.. a structure red questionnaire was used with close-ended questions with the exception of three questions that required descriptive answers. It is determined before the data is collected. Sample: The respondents that have been selected for the purpose of the study Sampling unit: the individual unit of the selected sample Sample frame: this contains the list of all the items of the universe. The organizer of the study deliberately chooses the particular units of the universe for constituting a sample on the basis that the small mass that they so select out of huge one will be typical or representative of the whole. . Explanation of the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organized and the reasoning for the selection. the sample has the same composition and characteristics as a the universe. every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Steps in sampling design: Population: All items under consideration in the field of enquiry.3. An element of randomness is introduced by using random numbers to pick up the with which to start. Probability sampling: Under this sampling design. Sample random sampling: This design involves the use of lottery system or the random tables for the selection of the sample. The time available for research 15 days and for the completion of this research. his/her choice remains supreme.

Execution of the Project: This is a very important step in the research process. the first stage may be to select large primary sampling units such as the states. the total area is first divided into a number of smaller non-overlapping areas. This I scaled quota sampling. then districts. The introduction accompanying each copy of the questionnaire made the things even clearer and ensured the required response. Under this sampling. In the questionnaire. then towns and finally. the cost of taking random samples from individual strata is often so expensive that interviewers are simple given quota to be filled from different strata¶s the actual selection of items for sample being left to the interviewer¶s judgment. a number of these smaller areas are randomly selected and all units in these smaller areas are included in the sample Multi stage sampling: a further development of the cluster sampling this techniques is meant for big enquiries extending to a considerably large geographical area like a country. The respondents were made aware of the purpose of the project and the probably benefit of expressing their frank views. The size of the sample of each grade of employee was proportional to its strength in the total populating. The size of the quota for each stratum is generally proportionate to the size of that stratum in the population. the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable. If the execution for the project proceeds along the correct lines. stratifies sampling techniques is generally applied in order to obtain a representative sample. Area sampling: under area sampling. Then. .Stratified sampling: If the population from which the sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogenous group. certain families within the towns. the respondents were asked to express their views on the present scenario regarding the training and development programs and their suggestions for future programs so as to make them more beneficial for the employees. The sample covered all grades of employees. Hence it was necessary to see to it that the project proceeds in the right direction and in the fight manner within the time limits. For the purpose of acquiring the related information for the project a sample of size of 25 was chose by applying the quota sampling technique. Under this population is divided into several sub-groups that are individually more homogeneous the total population and then items are proportionally selected to constitute the sample. Cluster sampling: this sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or the clusters rather than individual elements for inclusion in the sample. generally called geographical clusters. Quota sampling: in stratifies sampling.

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