2nd World Engineering Congress Sarawak, Malaysia,22-25 July 2002

 2002 WEC

Effect Of Air Fuel Mixer Design On Engine Performance And Exhaust Emission Of A CNG Fuelled Vehicles
Rosli Abu Bakar, Azhar Abdul Aziz and Mardani Ali Sera
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai Johor Darul Ta’zim, Malaysia rosliab@fkm.utm.my

ABSTRACT: In this study, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of air/fuel mixer on the engine performance and exhaust emission of a CNG fuelled engine. Three types of mixers were fabricated to create the turbulent effect of an air-fuel mixture. The modification is based on the mixing characteristics and turbulent coefficient. For this purposed, a 1.5 litre gasoline based engine has been developed altogether with data acquisition system for engine performance test. Emission results also evaluated. The engine running at 1000, 1500 2000, 2500 and 3000 rpm at wide-open throttle. The results showed that CNG engine produced lower performance compared to that of gasoline. However, the modified mixer affected the performance and the exhaust emission of a CNG fuelled vehicle. On the emission results, the CNG fuelled engine produce lowers CO, CO2 and HC compared to gasoline fuel engine at all speed.

INTRODUCTION Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) that operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel are expected to find widespread use from the standpoint of promoting global environment protection and effective utilization of energy resources. This is because NGVs can be effective in preventing air pollution and global warming and also in coping with the future depletion of oil resources. CNG Properties Natural gas has a low carbon (C) weight per unit of energy. Because of this among others reasons, emissions of CO2 greenhouse gas can be reduced by more than 20% compared with gasoline at equivalent level of work. Moreover, engineout emissions of HC and NOx can also be reduced below the corresponding levels for gasoline engines. One reasons for this is there is a little wall flow fuel in the intake manifold even at low temperature because of the gaseous state of CNG. Another reason is that combustion temperature tends to be lower than with gasoline engine. In addition, CNG was used with methane gas was expected from HC emission count because it is harmless for living things. This was accomplished taking advantage of the HC emission level counted by non-methane hydrogen carbon (NMHC), newly stipulated measurements of HC emission level, and can be reduced by more than 80% compared with gasoline. CNG Engine CNG as an alternative fuel in an engine could be divided into three main types; Dual Fuel (Diesel-CNG), Bi-Fuel (Gasoline-CNG) and Dedicated/Mono Fuel (Mardani, 2001) The main problem to commercialise the CNG engine was the lack of engine performance. The CNG engine, either in dualfuel, bi-fuel or dedicated forms is lower performance compare to that of gasoline. Based on the Maxwell and Jones (1995) works, the average power and torque loss of CNG compared to gasoline is in the range of 3 to 19.7% and

1.6 to 21.6%, respectively. Several factors affecting the low engine power and torque, those are loses in volumetric efficiency, low flame speed and absence of fuel evaporation The previous experimental studies have reported that natural gas burns slower than conventional fuels, such as gasoline and diesel (Andrew and Bradley, 1975 and Duan, 1996). Therefore in other to achieve optimum CNG engine performance, the manufacturers of natural gas IC engine need to make design modification to achieve a faster burn while optimising the engine performance. These modifications should consider two effects: the mixer and the in-cylinder flow motion. Many works have been done in the in-cylinder flow motion such as the effect of swirl and tumble, combustion chamber geometry and spark plug locations. Just to mention, Hill and Zhang (1994) studied the effect of swirl and tumble on combustion in SI engine. While the effect of mixer has not been studied sufficiently in the past (Bo and Furuyama, 1997). In this study, the turbulence flows were generated from the mixer. It is well known that the level of turbulence in the combustion chamber just prior to ignition and during combustion process has an important impact on burning rate of the air-fuel mixture. The level of turbulence in the chamber can be influenced by the chamber design through the degree of swirl imparted to the mixture during the intake process and by the squish motion generated as the piston nears top dead centre (Heywood, 1988). High level of turbulence generation lead to faster burning rates, which can result in improved thermal efficiency and reduced level of exhaust emissions. Since generated turbulence through squish has a complicated and required a high standard of safety, the modification of intake process is chosen to produce turbulence effect. In the first stage, the air fuel mixture is a part of intake process that had studied in this paper.


MIXERS AND TURBULENCE FLOW In designing the mixer. two electrically operated solenoid valves for gasoline and CNG cut-off. While the turbulent effect based on guided flow equipment such as van or shroud. supercharge or tubocharge condition. An overall view of the test rig facility. Figure 2 shown the schematic diagram of the experimental rig and the CNG kit. Based on Bo and Furuyama (1997). the CNG operation required some specific condition such as: high compression ratio. Nevertheless. since this is the first 2 . For measurement of exhaust emission at the end of exhaust muffler. Minimum storage system weight To design the optimum CNG engine. The specifications of the test engine used in this work are shown in Table 1. The kit was composed of a gasair mixer unit.2nd World Engineering Congress Sarawak. Operate at high thermal efficiency 3. intake valve close timing and a suitable air fuel ratio. Operate at high efficiency volumetric 2. In this investigation. such requirements should be fulfilled: 1. exhaust gas analyser was used.2 Intake valve open 150 BTDC Intake valve close 530 ABDC Exhaust valve open 570 BBDC Exhaust valve close 150 ATDC EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Figure 1. A 1. Three types of mixers were used which categorised based on mixing characteristic and turbulent effect. Engine Specification Name of Parts Size/type Valve/No. of Cylinder 12V-SOCH/4 Bore x Stroke (mm) 75 x 82 Capacity (cc) 1468 Compression Ratio 9. the multi-venturi type mixer promoted more mixing fuel air in the intake passage. Whereas Mixer 2 applied the pre-chamber and surrounding holes to create turbulent. The pressure transducer and crank angle encoder gave a vital data for the analysis of engine performance. some engine design consideration need to be counted. 11 10 9 8 7 17 16 15 14 13 1 2 12 6 3 5 4 18 CNG Engine Design Considerations 19 20 21 23 22 Intake S t • Supercharge or turbocharge equipment • Turbulent device • Advance Intake Valve Close Timing Combustion Process Exhaust System • High Compression Pistons • Higher Temperature Resistance for Cylinder Materials • Hardened Exhaust valves • Combustion chamber shape and spark plug location • Fast Burn Combustion Chamber Mechanism • New Design of Combustion Chamber • Gaseous Injector • Composite Material • 3 Way Catalyst • EGR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Engine Tested Crank Angle Dynamometer Crank Encoder TDC Signal Dyno controller CNG Kit CNG Tank 9 Burette 10 Gasoline Tank 11 Air Tank 12 Mixer 13 Flowmeter 14 Valve 15 Water Pump 16 Pump Controller 17 Cooling Water Tank 18 Radiator 19 Thermocouple Interface 20 DAQ System 21 Exhaust Gas Analyser 22 Computer 23 Oscilloscope Figure 2.22-25 July 2002  2002 WEC To achieve the optimum CNG engine operation. Produce less emission 5. the experiments have done based on the gasoline engine operation. In order to get the optimum results. The mixing characteristic related to the venturi and size of volume between the nozzle (the fuel outlet passage) and the throttle valve. a CNG conversion kit is used.5 litre engine used in this test was a popular engine in Malaysia. Engine Design Consideration THE METHOD OF INVESTIGATION Experimental Set up The engine was coupled to the dynamometer to dissipate the engine power and to measure the torque produced by the engine at the same time. stage of the project. Operate at high combustion performance 4. a timing advance processor to adjust the CNG and gasoline ignition timing. gas pressure regulator and storage cylinder. Mixer 1 implemented the venturi and nozzle function. Malaysia. Table 2 presented the type of mixers. the CNG fuelled engine is not optimised. Produce peak torque and power at high speed 6. the mixing characteristic and turbulent effect were considered as the bases requirements. To run the engine in gas operation. Mixer 3 is totally different with two more function beside the nozzle: adjustable in surface area and has a fan to generate the turbulent flow. Table 1. advance ignition timing. as can be seen in Figure 1.

This phenomena may happens due to: a. The following conclusion can be drawn from this work: 1. The test was held with two different loads. The turbulent flow increased the homogenous mixture that affected the better combustion performance. Therefore. with smaller outlet area it has given the lower fuel supply that produces the lower pressure rise. the 6 mm reduction of mixer surface is giving the better pressure rise than that of 4 mm. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS EFFECT OF TURBULENT FLOW ON PRESSURE RISE The experimental results showed that Mixer 3 has the highest pressure rise compared to Mixer 1 and 2. because of the slow reaction and low flame speed of methane. the carbon monoxide (CO) and dioxide (CO2) were lower than that of gasoline engine for all engine speed. The unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from CNG fuelled engines are also less than that of gasoline engines. In the future. Since CNG fuel has a higher flammability. the higher surface is the higher-pressure rise produced. the highest air fuel ratio gives the highest pressure rise. carbon dioxide and unburnt hydrocarbons from a CNG fuelled engine against the engine speed follow similar pattern of gasoline engines. However. It also should be noticed that the HC from CNG fuelled engines consists mainly of methane that is not photo chemically reactive. It can be seen on Figure 5 and 6. 3 . The engine was started with 1000 revolution per minute (rpm). Theoretically.22-25 July 2002  2002 WEC The engine was run to get the steady state condition for half an hour. This results have a correlation with Figure 2 that Mixer 2 which has a lower surface are produce slightly lower pressure rise compared to Mixer 1. The same procedures were repeated for different speeds in the range of 1500 to 3500 rpm. b. Mixer 3 produced higher pressure rise compare to those of Mixer 1 and 2. the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) from CNG fuelled engine is extremely lower than any of gasoline engine as can be seen in Figure 7. No 1 Table 1. THE EMISSION RESULTS Emission of carbon monoxide. In the case of Mixer 2. However. Mixer Types Type of Mixers 2 3 CONCLUSION An experiment was undertaken to compare the performance and emission of various mixers on the engine fuelled by CNG and gasoline. As can be seen in Figure 3. The mixing characteristic and turbulent flow play an important role in producing homogenous mixture air-gas that affected in higher engine performance. EFFECT ON AIR FUEL RATIO The experiments also showed that the air fuel ratio affected the CNG engine performance. The experiment proved that the petrol has a higher engine performance.2nd World Engineering Congress Sarawak. hence pressure rise. at which stage the torque. the difference happens due to lower density effect and un-appropriate operating conditions. Higher air fuel ratio also increased the thermal efficiency of the engine. implementation of higher air fuel ratio. in some cases even lean and ultra lean burn. compared to CNG operation as can be seen in Figure 2. pressure and exhaust emission were measured. As can be seen in Figure 4. the combustion could not be completed before the exhaust valve opens. This can attribute to a high HC. respectively. this mixing characteristic and turbulence area will be studied further especially that related to the intake flow. Malaysia. due to low carbon content. the HC emissions from CNG fuelled engines should be lower due to the gaseous from which gives an excellent mixing. Figure 2 also showed that Mixer 2 was slightly lower compared to Mixer 1. As already explained before. EFFECT OF MIXER SURFACE AREA The experiments also showed that the mixer surface area affected the engine performance. will make a higher benefit. hence the highest engine performance.

22-25 July 2002  2002 WEC 2.) Figure 3.9 8. Effect of Mixers and Petrol on cylinder Pressure Engine Speed (rpm) 30 25 Pressure (bar) 20 15 10 0 mm 2 mm 4 mm 6 mm 2000 rpm Figure 5. 4. CO2 and HC for all operating conditions compared to petrol. 35 30 Pressure (bar) 25 20 15 10 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pressure (bar) 11 10 8.) Petrol Mixer 3 Mixer 2 Mixer 1 3000 rpm Figure 4. The power reduction occurred due to initial condition of the operating engine was not optimised for CNG fuel running. In the overall. The CNG fuelled engine produced less power than that of found to be follow the similar pattern of gasoline engine.2 1500 rpm -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 Crank Angle (deg. the CNG fuelled engine required some modification that will be studied further. Effect of Engine Speed on CO2 4 . Effect of Engine Speed on CO 40 38 36 34 % vol CO2 5 0 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 1500 2000 2500 Mixer 1 Mixer 2 Petrol Crank Angle (deg. The CNG operation produced.) 5 0 20 15 10 5 0 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Figure 2. Malaysia. Effect of Mixer Surface Area On Cylinder Pressure 3000 3500 Engine Speed (rpm) Figure 6. as expected. 3. lower emission of CO.2nd World Engineering Congress Sarawak. to reach the optimum performance. Nevertheless. the CNG fuelled engines have a great possibility to be comparable to that of gasoline since it has clearly advantages in reducing the emissions and cheaper price. Effect of Air Fuel Ratio on Cylinder Pressure 35 30 25 Mixer 1 Mixer 2 Petrol % vol CO -200-150-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 Crank Angle (deg.

20. IMechE Seminar Publication. (1995) “ Alternative Fuels: Emissions.C.. Effect of Swirl and tumble on combustion in spark-ignition engine.5 L Engine Performance And Emission Using Gasoline And Natural Gas Fuel” Malaysian Science and Techmology Congress 2001 Maxwell T. Using Natural Gas in Engines: Laboratory experience with the use of natural gas fuel in IC engines.2nd World Engineering Congress Sarawak.G. JSAE Review 18.E. Sci. p. J. Mc Graw-Hill. p. P.T. and Bradley. (1996) Heywood. Energy Combust. New York. p. Malaysia. The burning velocity of methane-air mixtures. 373-429 (1994) Mardani Ali Sera and Rosli Abu Bakar (2001) “The Comparison Study On 1. Effect of Engine Speed on ppm HC ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to express their thanks to Wong Hong Mun and Phuah Puan Seng for helping the experimental rig and fabricated the mixer and the Ministry of Science. A. S.” USA Society of Automotive Engineers: SAE Inc. REFERENCES Andrew.Y. D. Technology and the Environmental of Malaysia for funding the project by the Intensified Research Priority Area (IRPA) Grant. and Zhang. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. D. Flame. 57-82 (1997) Duan. (1988) Hill. p. Visualization of natural gas-air mixing flow in the mixer of a CNG vehicle. 5 .B. 275-288 (1975) Bo Yan Xu and Mikio Furuyama. Proc. 24.22-25 July 2002 300 250 200  2002 WEC Mixer 1 Mixer 2 Petrol ppm HC 150 40 30 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Engine Speed (rpm) Figure 7. Comb. and Jones J. Economics and Performance.39-46.

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