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The Message Extraterrestrials Would Send Humans In An Attempt To Communicate With Them Copyright © January 2012 by Ian Beardsley Edited version with the addition of a summary at the end and implications of the study (the question it poses).

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If extraterrestrial intelligence were to try and communicate with humanity by sending us a message, I would think that message would be 759 in combination with 9/5 (nine-fifths) This study explains why.

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Chapter One: The Unification Of Pi and Phi by NineFifths
Essentially, that which we have discovered is that the solar system (by way of nine-fifths) unifies the two most important ratios in mathematics, pi and the golden ratio. I have often spoken of nine-fifths (9/5) as pivotal to the solar system and nature. It is in the ratio of the orbit of saturn to that of jupiter in their closest approaches to the sun putting the earth at one unit from the sun. It is in the ratio of the solar radius to the moon's orbit around earth. It is in the molar mass of gold to the molar mass of silver. I have shown that the sequence 1.8n = a_n where each successive number is a whole number multiple of 1.8 which is nine-fifths, is a sequence that is pivotal to the structure of the solar system. Two of the most important numbers in mathematics are pi and the golden ratio (phi). pi =3.141 and phi phi = 1.618 I have just noticed if we add respective digits after the decimal in one number to the other, we get: 141 + 618 = 759 In 759 we have the nine of nine fifths and the five of nine-fifths, and the 7 is the average of 9 and five. That is: (9+5)/2= 14/2 = 7 We determine the golden angle by multiplying 1.618 by 360 the degrees in a circle: 1.618(360) = 582.48 We subtract 360: 582.48-360 = 222.48 360-222.48 = 137.52 = the golden angle The golden angle is angle leaves rotate around the stem of a plant as you go down it. We determine the nine-fifths angle: 1.8(360) = 648 360/72 = 5 648-360 = 288 and 288-360=72

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That means if leaves were to rotate around the stem of a plant by the nine-fifths angle, their position would repeat every five times. This frequency of five brings to mind a statement by the Russian scientist Shubnikov: “As to the alive organisms, we have not for them such theory, which could answer the question what kinds of symmetry are compatible or incompatible to existence of living material. But we can note here that remarkable fact that among the representatives of the alive nature the pentagonal symmetry meets more often.” The Nine-Fifths angle is then 72 degrees. This is the separation between petals in a most popular flower petal arrangement: that one in which we see five petals around the stem. Pentagonal symmetry is five-fold. It would appear 9/5 (1.8) brings together pi the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, and phi, the golden ratio, in a most stunning way. Ian Beardsley September 21, 2011 The numbers after the decimal in a ratio are the most important because they are the fraction. In going around a circle, the numbers before the decimal, the whole numbers, no matter what they are take one to the beginning of the circle. We then look at the fraction in the sum of pi and phi, which is, to three places after the decimal, 4.759. That is we look at 0.759: it is close to 0.76 which is 19/25 (nineteen twenty fifths). We multiply it by the degrees in a circle and find it is 273.6 degrees. The number 0.759 times the degrees in a circle are 273.24 degrees. We may want to consider as well that 0.759 is close to three quarters (3/4). We multiply that by the degrees in a circle: It is 270 degrees. Perhaps I should repost just where I found 1.8n in the solar system: My work in my book “The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Phenomenon”, which is one of the books in my book “Psychohistory and Developing a Viable Plan for Humanity” has lead me to organizing my discoveries outlined in “Chapter 49: The Road From Ebla” (which is not the forty-ninth chapter of that book) in the following format, because it brings into light new relationships: P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8,…= Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune,… (OP6/OP5), 10(RP1/RP3), 10(OP1/OP3), 10(OP2/OP3), (OP5/OP3), (MP6/MP8), (OP8/OP7) = 1.8, 3.6, 3.6, 7.2, 5.4, 5.4, 1.8,… Where 10 = (mass of earth)/(mass of mars)

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And O = orbit, R = Radius, M = Mass And the numbers are generated in the sequence: 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… = a_n = 1.8n The purpose of organizing the discovery like this has been a first step in modeling a solar system that would produce the solar system we live in. Ian Beardsley August 18, 2011 A plot of this relationship for the solar system:

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Series1

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Essentially, that which we have discovered is that the solar system (by way of nine-fifths) unifies the two most important ratios in mathematics, pi and the golden ratio. Ian Beardsley Oct 12, 2011 When I write: “Essentially, that which we have discovered is that the solar system (by way of ninefifths) unifies the two most important ratios in mathematics, pi and the golden ratio.” In the preceding passage and I think about it, it makes me wonder if star systems other than that of the Sun-Earth system, have a dynamic structure like this. The dynamic structure makes me think we are here for a reason and are supposed to go out into space. We are at a time when we are beginning to be technologically advanced enough to detect large planets around other stars. However, we have not yet the ability to resolve them into their components and find if they to have such an awe-inspiring structure. If our solar system is the only one in the galaxy that has such an incredible structure, does that mean that we are unique in the Galaxy and are being told as such? Or is it that other star systems where intelligent life is evolving into existence have such structures in their star system that tell them they are here for a reason. Indeed, for me to discover this dynamic structure to our star system required data that could have only been attained with the invention of the telescope and Newtonian classical mechanics. However there is one thing that could have spoke to us before we were not much more than living in caves and chipping stones to make spear points several million years ago: I am speaking of the fact that when we look at the sky, the moon appears to be the same size as the sun. It may be that we will make a breakthrough in technology that will allow us to know whether or not other star systems in our galaxy have dynamic structures like the one I have outlined that speak of the specialness of its inhabitants. The stars of other galaxies being beyond resolution of our finest equipment will leave their structures a mystery for much longer.

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I like to hypothesize that dynamic structures like that which I found in our star system, the solar system, exist because they are telling us we are unique in the galaxy, and that we then have the rest of the galaxy available to us when we learn to travel through it, and, further, that every galaxy has a star amid its billions, where such a structure exists for it, because there is intelligent life in that system, and the life that resides in that system has that galaxy available to them alone. Though, I guess, there are dynamic structures in our galaxy like I am finding in our solar system, but that they belong to stars that host intelligent life, for if not, if our solar system is the only one like this in the galaxy, then we are truly special in the sense that we are the only life that evolved to intelligence in our galaxy, The Milky Way. I feel that unlikely. This discovery of a dynamic structure to our solar system has everything to do with whether we are alone in the galaxy, if not the universe, and whether or not there is some reason for which we are here. Ian Beardsley Oct 12, 2011 I now present the data used for this study (next page):

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O for Earth = 1.495979E13 cm R for Earth = 6,378 km Earth-Moon Separation: 3.84E10 cm Solar Radius: 6.9599E10 cm Molar Mass of Gold: Au = 196.97 Molar Mass of Silver: Ag = 107.87

M for Earth = 5.976E27 g

Saturn (minimum distance from sun) = 9.014 AU = 1.348E9 km Jupiter (minimum distance from sun) = 4.951 AU = 7.409E8 km Jupiter (maximum distance from the sun): 5.455 AU ~ 5.4 Astronomical Units

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When I write:
My work in my book “The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Phenomenon”, which is one of the books in my book “Psychohistory and Developing a Viable Plan for Humanity” has lead me to organizing my discoveries outlined in “Chapter 49: The Road From Ebla” (which is not the forty-ninth chapter of that book) in the following format, because it brings into light new relationships: P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8,…= Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune,… (OP6/OP5), 10(RP1/RP3), 10(OP1/OP3), 10(OP2/OP3), (OP5/OP3), (MP6/MP8), (OP8/OP7) = 1.8, 3.6, 3.6, 7.2, 5.4, 5.4, 1.8,… Where 10 = (mass of earth)/(mass of mars)

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I am talking about the following discoveries (which include and go beyond the relationship): [(volume of saturn)/(volume of Jupiter)](volume of mars) =(mercury radius)(earth radius)^2 =[(venus orbit/earth orbit)(earth radius)]^3 =[(mercury orbit)/(earth orbit)](earth radius)^3 =0.37 cubic earth radii 0.37 can be converted to 3.7 by multiplying it by the ratio of earth mass to mars mass because it is close to ten. (earth radius)/(moon radius)= 4(degrees in a circle)(moon distance)/(sun distance) = 3.7 There are about as many days in a year as degrees in a circle. Indeed this phenomenon is tied up in my discoveries that I developed in a fictional story when I wrote: Leonard followed the story of the 33 Chilean miners who were trapped 2000 feet below the earth in a dark cavern for over two months after their mine exit had collapsed. These miners remained courageous, brave, and held onto their humanity throughout the whole ordeal. To Leonard, these men showed what the human spirit was capable of. The government of Chile responded to the emergency with great organization and did a great job. The coping techniques and space food to the miners was provided by the United States Space Agency, NASA. It was a marvel of engineering the capsule engineered by a NASA scientist that brought the miners to the surface. He admired NASA greatly, because of this, because they represented such a positive force in the world, as was demonstrated in the rescue of the miners. There were 33 miners trapped down there, and 33 years of age was the age they say Jesus died and was resurrected. NASA and the spirit and strength of the miners were like a salvation. Yet, the president of the United States had recently shut down NASA as the agency that would send man into space, and had decided to contract the building of spacecraft to private industry. Leonard thought this was a mistake. NASA, and the ESA (European Space Agency) were the most positive forces in his life.

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Since Leonard had begun working on his project several years back, he always felt the planet Neptune held the answer to the salvation of the Earth because of its vivacious, lively, incandescent blue. During the ordeal of the miners, he was thinking about the equation he had developed that he thought was most important, and finally he saw how it showed he was correct. That Neptune held the key to the survival of Humanity. Just as the last (33rd) miner was being pulled out from the collapsed mine and to the surface of the Earth, he had finished writing what he had discovered. He wrote in his Journal as follows: We have an equation for a sequence that shows the Earth straddled between Venus and Mars. Venus is a failed Earth. Mars promises to be New Earth. The equation, that I presented in my work, “The Document”, is: [(Venus-orbit)/(Earth-orbit)][(Earth-mass)/(Mars-mass)]n – (Mars orbital #) = a_n The Mars orbital number is 4. If we want to know what planet in the solar system holds the key to the success of Earth, or to the success of humans, we let n =3 since the Earth is the third planet out from the Sun, in the equation and the result is a_n = 17.6. This means the planet that holds the key is Neptune. It has a mass of 17.23 earth masses, a number very close to our 17.6. The next step is to analyze Neptune, its composition and other factors. He thought he must have been blind. Not only was Neptune the indicated planet, he found it had nearly the same surface gravity of earth. Though it was much more massive than earth, it was much larger and therefore less dense. That was why it came out to have the same surface gravity. Neptune belongs to what one could categorize as a family of planets. The categorization is done by noticing four planets including Neptune have a similar inclination to their orbit. These Four planets are Neptune, Saturn, Earth, and Mars. Earth is the planet where humans originated, Mars promises to be New Earth. It is appropriate that Neptune is in this family of planets because we must set sail upon the cosmic ocean for Mars from Earth, to survive as a species, and Neptune is the Sea God in Roman mythology, which corresponds to Poseidon in Greek mythology. Neptune carried a trident. Kurt Beardsley has told the tale of the Tuareg people, a tribe of the Algerian desert who bears the trident as their symbol from a time before oceans receded there leaving behind desert. It is believed, as he has said, there is an ancient lost library in the mountains they take to, second only to that of Alexandria and holding ancient undiscovered manuscripts. Where does the Neptune equation come from? The following Sequences: Chapter 24: The Document Salvoretti had done it. The structure of the solar system and dynamic elements of the Universe and Nature in general were tied up in the two sequences: 5, 14, 23, 32,…

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and 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… Could he find the connection between the two to localize the pivotal point of the solar system? Yes he could, he took their difference, subtracting respective terms in the second sequence from those in the first sequence to obtain the new sequence: 3.2, 10.4, 17.6, 24.8,… Which is an arithmetic sequence with common difference of 7.2 meaning it is written 7.2n – 4 = a_n The a_n is the nth term of the sequence, n is the number of the term in the sequence. This he noticed could be written: [(Venus-orbit)/(Earth-orbit)][(Earth-mass)/(Mars-mass)]n – (Mars orbital #) = a_n Here is where some of the sequences come from: The Search For The Tarot: Chapter 16 Salvoretti began writing in his journal: We originally thought that 1.8 (9/5) occurred in the solar system and nature, alone. It is the ratio of Saturn orbit to Jupiter orbit in their closest approaches to the sun. It is the ratio of the solar radius to the lunar orbit. It is ratio of the molar mass of gold to that of silver. Then I discovered that approximately twice that value (3.7) was recurrent throughout the solar system and nature. Twice 1.8 is 3.6. I found it occurred in Jupiter, Saturn, Earth, Mercury, and Venus to name a few as 3.7. It occurs here to me we are not just dealing with 1.8 and 3.7, but any whole number multiple of 1.8. We are dealing with: a_n=1.8n Let us try three times 1.8. It is 5.4. Immediately we see it in the most obvious, Jupiter. It is the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. Its furthest distance from the sun in its orbit is 5.455 AU ~ 5.4. We see it in the following (saturn mass)/(neptune mass)=(95.147)/(17.23)=5.522~5.4

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I have already noted that Saturn and Neptune have similar inclinations to their orbit that are only common to Earth and Mars. Thus we are dealing here with the sequence: 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… And with that, we are back to the beginning of this paper with the conclusion: “This discovery of a dynamic structure to our solar system has everything to do with whether we are alone in the galaxy, if not the universe, and whether or not there is some reason for which we are here.” Ian Beardsley October 21, 2011 In Summary, this most beautiful constant in Nature, of nine-fifths, which unifies pi and the golden ratio, the two most beautiful ratios in mathematics, is the most popular arrangement of petals around a flower, and is in the ratio of the molar masses of gold to silver, the most precious of the metals. One could only guess that such would be noticeable throughout the universe and would be noticed by other intelligent life in the universe, and, as such the relationship would be ideal for transmission of a message by other intelligent life forms in the universe to say to the receiver: “I am here and have noticed it”. The curious thing is that it exists in our solar system in the ratio of the orbit of Saturn at its closest approach to the sun compared to the orbit of Jupiter at its closest approach to the sun, mystically putting the Earth at one unit from the Sun (Jupiter and Saturn being the largest and most massive in the solar system, the Earth that planet which harbors intelligent life in the Solar System), and in the ratio of the Sun’s radius to the orbital radius of the moon (moon-earth separation). The question is why does this relationship for pi and the golden ratio of nine-fifths not just exist throughout the Universe in gold, silver, and perhaps flower petal arrangements, but more locally in our solar system? Does it mean humans have some kind of divine specialness in the cosmos? While we can know that the nine-fifths phenomenon would be represented by gold and silver throughout the universe, we currently cannot know whether the inhabitants of other star systems have it in their sun (star) they orbit and a moon that might orbit their planet or in the ratio of the orbits of the largest planets in their star system putting their planet at one unit from their star. The answer to this enigma, I think, must be of extraordinary profundity. Ian Beardsley January 24, 2012

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Psychohistory and Developing a Viable Plan For Humanity
In the first book I develop the preliminaries to an operational psychohistory, the science fiction idea of Isaac Asimov where the future can be predicted with math. In order to do that one also has to have a viable plan for the future. My work in that area, as well as psychohistory is in the book "The Levinson Asimov Clarke Phenomenon". My feeling is a viable plan should be a successful "Project Genesis" where Project Genesis was an Idea in one of the Star Trek movies, or even better the idea of Isaac Asimov of "Gaia" described in his books "Foundation's Edge" and "Foundation and Earth" which were the sequels to his "Foundation Trilogy". My book "Preludes by Ian Beardsley" make clear some of the nuances in "The Levinson-Asimov-Clark Phenomenon". Each of these books can be read in this post by clicking on them. Ian Beardsley July 2, 2011

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Preliminaries For An Operational Psychohistory By Ian Beardsley Copyright © 2011 by Ian Beardsley

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These are a collection of essays that strive to layout the preliminaries to developing an operational psychohistory, which was a science fiction idea of Isaac Asimov.

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The Nature of the Nature of the Universe and History as a Natural Force By Ian Beardsley June 30, 2011

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A journey of a thousand li begins with the first step. – Chinese proverb.

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In Short, the author suggests the creation of a formal system that explains the formal system that explains the universe (physics). This would be in the realm of The Philosophy of Science.
As well we seek and find evidence in support for natural constants that have a natural significance that were generated by historical forces. In this paper, that value is the distance of one mile. As well we form the rudiments of predicting the future with math, a Science Fiction dream of Isaac Asimov, in so far as we have found quantities in history that predict the future.

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The nature of reality is bound by a certain structure governed by reason. This cause of an outcome that matches experience has a Nature itself. In particular we look at the three solutions she (Reason) provides for a physical phenomenon and their nature: 1. The special case solution, which is simpler to solve due to equalities eliminating the effects of particular physical elements. It is precise, but only works in one instance. 2. The General Case solution, which is good for all possibilities of physical elements, which is more involved to solve, but is precise for all cases. 3. The solution in its approximate form for all cases, which is easier to work with than the general solution, but is less accurate. We use History to find a special value that enables us to approach the problem hypothesizing that the value is indeed special because history can at times generate natural constants of natural significance, due to unascertainable forces we hypothesize exist and that, these constants can become part of natural law based on a hypothesized validity to teleological reasoning. The distance we take is the mile because it is an Old English Unit taken to be one third of a league, which was deemed the distance a horse or human could walk in an hour, an hour being one twenty fourth of the time it takes from sunrise to sunrise in Western Europe. As well, one twenty fourth and one third are natural divisions proportioned out by the human psyche, if not practical in terms of calendars made to work with celestial factors involving the sun, moon, and earth in the case of the former. We hypothesize that such distances have natural significance due to their natural origins both physical and psychological.

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The problem in physics that I have chosen to solve is this: A racecar is on a circular track inclined at an angle of theta and one mile in circumference. The co-efficient of friction is 1.2, which has been determined by experiment for asphalt and concrete. At what speed can the racecar go without flying off the track? I use the angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees because they are the angles in special triangles that can be solved trigonometrically neatly and in closed form with a system where a circle is divided into 360 equal units, which happens to be convenient for its divisible properties into whole numbers. I speak of the 30-60-90 triangle and the 45-45-90 triangle. My solutions are (and can be checked for correctness near the end of the paper): Special Case (angle of inclination is 45 degrees)
v = gr

At 45 degrees the opposing forces of friction due to gravity and the centripetal force cancel one another out leading to this simple result. (v is velocity, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and r is the radius of the track). The result is (v=112 miles per hour) General Case (works for all track inclinations)
v 2 = gr sin θ − µ cos θ µ sin θ − cos θ

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Here the Greek letter mu is co-efficient of friction. The result is: (v= 158 miles an hour for a track inclined at 30 degrees).
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Approximation Good For All Cases
v = rgtan θ

Here we have taken the forces due to friction by gravity and centripetal forces to be about the same, thus eliminating the coefficient of friction and making the equation much easier to use. The result is: (v=85 miles an hour for a track inclination of 30 degrees). As my physics professor always taught me, ask, do your results make sense? We look and see that the square root of rg does have units of velocity, and the range of 85 to 158 miles an hour is reasonable for automobiles, but the reader can check my work in the next few pages. We see that the mile of Old English origin related to the speed a human or horse walks predicted the velocity and traction of a twenty first century racecar in the General Solution (158 miles an hour), a comfortable velocity of a 20th century economy car in the Approximation For All Cases (85 miles per hour) and the upper velocity around which a twentieth century economy car drives in the Special Case Solution (112 miles an hour), using as well the special triangles of historic evolution related to the division of a circle into degrees. This is evidence in support of a natural force to history, and as well we have shown that a formal system can be formed that describes the formal system that explains the Universe because for every problem there are three types of solutions each with the same nature. As well we form the rudiments of predicting the future with math, a Science Fiction dream of Isaac Asimov, in so far as we have found quantities in history that predict the future.

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Analysis If we take the general case solution and evaluate it for a track inclined at zero degrees we find the velocity of the automobile is given by:
v = µgr

If derive the result from geometric analysis we get the same result € which is a verification of the validity of the general case solution (math work shown at the end of the study) In this case we find the automobile can go 122 miles an hour without flying off the track. As well we consider how fast a car can go on a track with a circumference of 10 miles to show how different the results are from a car on a track with a circumference of 1 mile. The result is 387 miles an hour. That is three times faster.

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Psychohistory and Shelters By Ian Beardsley July 1, 2011

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To form the preliminaries to an operational psychohistory, which would be the science of predicting the future with mathematics, a science fiction vision of Isaac Asimov, we look at some of shelters constructed by humans through time, and the historical forces that brought them about.

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Reason applied to principle yields the possibilities provided by the Universe, or what we could call Nature. In this way the human mind operates such that history is shaped in terms of the definitions, axioms, postulates, theorems, categories and structures we create out of its constraints, which in the broad sense is you only get as much as you put into something.
The human existence is a story of the struggle to survive. As such we find neat tricks, symmetries and patterns that provide more practical, easier solutions to meet those ends, which are maximizations found within the constraints: the most you can get for a given amount spent. Consider the lean-to. Perhaps one of the oldest shelters devised by the human mind to protect one from the elements. It was given to us by the universe in the idea that the right triangle translated horizontally allowed humans to simply lay branches and long leaves at an angle between one point above and one below and simply carry out the pattern horizontally. The triangular cross section of this structure is the most stable type there is. Here drawn is a lean-to (next page).

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Before agriculture, that is, before settling in communities where humans farmed and ranched, humans were wanderer-gathers, gathering seeds and berries, following the game. As such they set up camps, took them down and moved again. The Universe provided as a solution to the nomadic way of life a set of structures that fall in the family of mathematical geometries called solids of revolution as the author likes to see it. This involved rotating different kinds of lines around a central axis. That is what all of these structures have in common. They are the tipi of the Native American, the Mongolian yurt and the Eskimo’s igloo. The tipi is an inclined line rotated around a central axis, which is thereby conic. The yurt is a vertical line rotated around a central axis, which is thereby cylindrical, and the igloo is a quarter of a circle rotated around a central axis, which is thereby spherical. On the next page we show a drawing of these three forms that were a product of reason applied to principle to solve a situation yielding forms nature had hidden from the human species, until their reason grouped these nomads into a common way of life.

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With the advent of agriculture, civilizations formed and communities adopted a more straight-line type of construction that fell under the family of mathematical shapes we call the regular tessellators. They simply are the square, the equilateral triangle, and the regular hexagon, all though extensions of these principles are used, such as the rectangle. The principle behind this family is that they are geometries of equal angles, equal sides that can tessellate, where tessellate means can tile a surface without leaving gaps. Such a city is drawn on the next page:

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These are other forms that should be properly considered.

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Psychohistory And Food By Ian Beardsley July 1, 2011

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The forces that determine how we live depend on the nature of the universe we live in and the way we think. While the author has explored the nature of shelters, mathematically, that leaves us with the subject of food. The author is not a biologist, but a physical scientist, and can only draw upon his own experience to explore this subject. A biologist should provide a more in depth analysis. Humans get their energy from the food they eat. These foods occur in three forms, each with a different nature: 1. Proteins: such as meat, they provide a great deal of energy, but it is dispersed over a long period of time. 2. Carbohydrates: such as grains, they provide much energy, but it does not last as long as proteins do. However, they process sooner after eating them. 3. Sugars: such as found in fruits, they give a person a lot of energy quickly; it does not last as long as carbohydrates, let alone proteins. It has been the author’s experience that eating a quarter to a half a pound of meat does leave him full,
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but not too full, and he could with that walk ten miles, set up camp, and build a fire. These are proteins eaten in such quantity that would serve to follow game, therefore. The author feels with a carbohydrate, such as a comfortable portion of bread, he could go on a three to five mile outing from camp and back and still have energy to work on stone spearpoints, build a fire and cook a portion of meat. Lastly, sugar – such as a piece of fruit – can give one that burst of energy required to cook a meal when falling short.
Psychohistory And History As Data By Ian Beardsley July 2, 2011

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History is full of definitions, words, and names whose origins are sometimes unknown. For example, why is a gallon called a gallon, and why is it defined to be the volume it is? There are forces at work that generate these definitions, words, and names. We create a data base for history on all of this, and write a computer program, or an algorithm for one, that sorts out that in history which can be quantized and searches for connections between the data elements that suggests a historical flow based on human thought as applied to physical characteristics of that provided by nature. We call the algorithm “The Historical Identity Matrix”. Here is how it works. Input: Molar Volume (volume of a mole of gas at standard temperature and pressure, where a mole is a standardized quantity of atoms, compounds, or molecules). Output: 22.4 Liters per Mole (Liter = L) Input: Gallon Output: 4 quarts (qt) Input: molar volume in quarts Output: (22.4 mol/L)(946 mL/qt)(1000L/mL)=21.19 mol/qt There are 21.19 moles per quart 21.19/22.4 = 0.95 1-0.95 is less than a tenth. Would you like to continue? Input: Yes

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Output: quart = liter Input: Lead Output: Pb is the chemical symbol for lead meaning plumbum because the Romans made their plumbing from lead. Input: density of lead Output: p = 11.4 grams per mL (11.4 g/mL)(lb/452 g)(946mL/qt) = 23.86 pounds of lead per quart Input: lead and molar volume Output: (23.86 lb/qt Pb)/(21.19 mol/qt) = 1.126 1.126 – 1 is about a tenth. Would you like to continue? Input: Yes Output: (lb/qt)Pb = molar volume in qt = molar volume in L That reads “Pound per quart of lead equals quart which equals liter,” Input: generate historical flow Output: One Gallon is four quarts. A Gallon is a measure of combustible fuel (gasoline) in The United States. We have: Lead => Plumbing => Romans (Pb) => water (mL) => Europe (L) =>New World (qt): (A thousandth of a Liter or one milliliter (mL) is a gram of water).

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The Historical flow generated by the computer may represent the history that was, or the history that could have been, and one can ask: if not, why? Or did it deviate, where and why or does it have something to do with the actual history.

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Buckets, Bushels, and Bales By Ian Beardsley July 6, 2011

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Predicting the future involves human psychology and the name humans give things, which often have to do with the biological and physical characteristics of humans and nature. A volume of a gallon could have come to be called a bucket, but it did not. We look at why. Today a bushel is a volume of dry mass, usually agricultural abbreviated bsu or bu. It is equal to a volume of 4 pecks or what is 8 gallons. The word derives from the 14th century word buschel or busschel, meaning a box. We see the psychology of this is in the word box, because it carries things, and grains need to be carried. A bushel was originally a capacity for grain. Often, nature and what a human could carry became a standardized measure by a King or Queen, but started out deriving from the biology of a human, the nature of nature, the language people spoke and how they how used language. A bushel weighed 64 tower pounds where a tower pound was the weight based on the weight of a silver penny in 757 AD minted by King Offa who defined the tower pound as well. His silver penny weighed 22 and one half grains, or troy grains, which was based on weight of a seed of cereal (a seed of grass) in the case of the troy grain; this was based on a seed of barley. Not only does the weight of barley depend on the millions of years of evolution that created it, it depends on the mass of an atom of silver, which was derived by the dynamics of a star because elements were forged in stars. The grain is an Old English measurement of weight, which is abbreviated gr and is equal to 64.79891 milligrams. (64.79891 mg)(1 g/1000 mg) = 0.0647981 grams (0.0647981 g)(1 kg/1000 g) = 0.000064799 kg One Kilogram (kg) is 2.20 pounds (lb)

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(0.000064799 kg)(2.20 lb) = 0.000142558 lb = 1 grain (22.5 gr/silver penny)(0.000142558 lb/gr) =0.00342 pound per silver penny A tower pound was 5400 grains. We calculated a grain above, so: (0.000142558 lb/gr)(5400 gr/(tower pound) =0.77 lb/tower pound Finally we write: (64 tower pounds/bushel)(0.77 lb/tower pound) = 49.28 lb/bushel This says a bushel in Medieval England weighed 49.28 pounds and was a box of barley. This says a lot about what a person would carry, and in a sense could carry, and tells us how human strength and the nature of barley determined the size of a box in Medieval England. We can look at how today words are defining sizes and weights and what they can say we are willing to carry, or how much we can carry. A bale of hay is about three to four feet long by 24 by 18 inches square and can weigh from 60 to 130 pounds. Perhaps one day humans will call a dry volume in agriculture a bale which is: (3)(12 inches)(24 inches)(18 inches) = 15,552 cubic inches That is a psychohistorian may predict that in the 22nd century humans will call 15, 552 cubic inches a bale abbreviated ba.

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According to Isaac Asimov (in his fiction portrayal), if a psychohistorian makes this prediction public, the odds of it happening will go down. But it could be that the bale would become a standardized unit of measurement for dry volume based on 15,552 cubic inches of rye or fescue weighs about 60 pounds, because it is something manageable for a young man to lift onto a flatbed trailer, and stack some 10 feet high. We see as well that the human story is an unfolding of the Universe, its physical properties and biological. So perhaps psychohistory should consider the history of the stars and galaxies and evolution and the human story as one thing.

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Homework Assignment: Read “Preliminaries For An Operational Psychohistory” and create a system of units based on a way of life. Explain its benefits. While in High School I worked on ranches bucking hay (rye and fescue) and throwing sheep and trimming their hooves, as well as rounding them up and catching them to be sheared. I will start with the idea that a bale of hay is about 3 feet by 24 inches by 18 inches. Therefore: 3(12 inches)(24 inches)(18 inches) = 15,552 cubic inches (in^3) And we say: (one bale = 15,552 cubic inches) When a bale was opened, one could take it apart into flakes that were about 3 inches thick. Therefore: (3 inches)(24 inches)(18 inches) = 1,296 cubic inches (in^3) 15,552/1,296 = 12 and we can therefore write (one bale = 12 flakes)
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When bucking hay one has to lift the bale about three feet off the ground and set it down on a flatbed trailer about two and one half feet high. The bales weighed about 60 pounds each, give or take 10 pounds, when rye and fescue. We will then call our units of energy the energy required to lift a 60-pound bale of hay three feet. (earth gravity is 32 ft/sec^2 or 9.8 m/sec^2. There are 2.20 lb/Kg and 0.3048 meters/ foot. Therefore:

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We use mgh (mass-gravity-height) (60 lb)(kg/2.20 lb)(9.8 m/s^2)(3 ft)(0.3048 m/ft) = 244.39 Newton-meters = 244.39 Joules Therefore (one buck = 244 Joules) We would after shearing sheep stuff the fleeces in a long burlap sack and take them to the feed store to be weighed, and cash in on the price per pound. One could say on the average a fleece weighed 12 pounds. Therefore my units of mass are (one fleece = 12 pounds) One could say working on a ranch their reach could be important. I measured the length of my arm to be from armpit to tip of the longest finger about 2 feet two inches. In my system of units, I will round that to two feet and measure length in arms. Therefore (one arm = 2 feet = 24 inches)
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Benefits of my system are that energy (one buck) is related to the natural strength of a young man. The arm is 24 inches, the bale has twelve flakes; twelve is the most divisible number into whole numbers for its size (called smallest abundant number). The 24 inches are divisible two times evenly by the 12 inch foot. The magic number 12 appears as well in the unit of mass called a fleece. – Ian Beardsley July 14, 2011

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The Coupling of Mars and Earth Not only have I found evidence in support of the idea that we are not alone in the Universe and that we are here for a reason, I have found information pointing to some of what the reason we are here, may be. It is, it would seem, in part, to colonize Mars. Here I develop my discoveries along those lines in a story I was writing: Salvoretti: “Tara, I can’t get over what you said earlier that two of the Pythagorean Solids have volumes, one of nine tetrahedra and the other of five tetrahedra. There are only five Pythagorean solids and two of them have volumes the same numbers as the distance to Jupiter and Saturn in their closest approaches to the sun if the earth is at one unit from the sun! This means the tetrahedron represents the earth because it has a volume of one. This is interesting because the solar radius to the earth-moon distance is 9 to 5, and 9 to 5 is the molar mass of gold to the molar mass of silver.” “Why is this so incredible? It is incredible because the tetrahedron also has four faces and Mars is the fourth planet. It is appropriate that the tetrahedron couples earth and mars, further, in that it is four faced (mars is the fourth planet from the sun), and each face has three vertices (earth is the third planet from the sun). You may not think that is incredible but consider categorizing the planets with the smallest abundant number, twelve. Smallest abundant number means it is the most divisible for its size. Twelve is divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 a whole number of times. The sum of these numbers is 16, which is greater than 12. Mars is the fourth planet out from the sun. Twelve divided by four is three, and the earth is the third planet out from the sun. Thus once again the earth and Mars are coupled.” “I can couple them again. Elements are atoms, and the numbers of particles that constitute them determine the element, and its relative mass, or “molar mass” as it is called. The atmosphere of Mars is mostly CO2, about 95 percent. The earth atmosphere is more than 90 percent oxygen and nitrogen. I calculate CO2 to have a molar mass of 44.01 and earth air to have a molar mass of 28.5756. The Mars orbital distance compared to the earth orbital distance is about 1.5. The molar mass of CO2 compared to the molar mass of air is about 1.5. That is the mars-sun distance is to the earth-sun distance as Martian air is to earth air.” “It goes further than that. If the earth surface gravity is 1, that of Mars is 0.380. That is a ratio of 2.63. The molar mass of oxygen gas (O2) what we breath, is 32.00. The molar mass of carbon, the basis of life as we know it, is 12.01. That is a ratio of 2.66. That says it takes about the same energy to lift a mole of carbon on earth, as it does to lift a mole of oxygen (O2) on mars the same distance.” “Earth and Mars are yet further coupled:” “The earth atmosphere was once mostly carbon dioxide (CO2) like the mars atmosphere is today, until plant life came along and started converting the carbon dioxide into oxygen, using light from the sun and in the process making the most fundamental sugar, glucose (which is at the bottom of the food chain). A process called photosynthesis.”

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“Glucose is C6H12O6. I calculate glucose has a molar mass of 180.16 and water, which covers most of the surface of the earth, chemical formula H2O, I calculate has a molar mass of 18.016.” “180.16 divided by 18.016 is about 10 and the earth is about 10 times as massive as mars. That is, glucose is to water as the earth mass is to the mass of mars.” “You are probably wondering why I am so amazed that Mars and earth are so coupled empirically. Well the planet Mercury is too hot to support human life because it is so close to the sun, Venus has the same problem. But the earth is the next planet out and the right distance from the sun to be not too warm to support life._The next planet after the earth is Mars, and it may be cold, but not too cold to colonize, or even one day terraform (make habitable for humans). The next planet after Mars is Jupiter, not just too cold, but mostly gas, so there is nothing solid to stand on. The next planet, Saturn, even colder and mostly gaseous as well. The trend continues on to Neptune and Uranus. Pluto is just this cold little dwarf planet, whose thin atmosphere collapses when it is further from the sun.” “You see then why I am so amazed Mars and earth are coupled by these numbers, they actually have one thing in common, solid planets, not climatically too hot for humans, or too cold.” “These numbers that couple Mars with earth, seem to say the planet is there as a stepping stone to the stars, that it is time to wade out into the cosmic ocean, to use the metaphor of Carl Sagan, or sink. That is, for some reason we have what we need, but a challenge has been put to us. We have to overcome our problems, like spending money and resources on war instead of space exploration. Space exploration can solve the economic crisis. Colonizing Mars would generate a massive industry that would create work here on earth in every sector, for everyone, and, it would all be paid for by the resources that are out there in the solar system. As Cabal says to Passworthy in Things to come by H.G. Wells:” ““And if we’re no more than animals, we must snatch each little scrap of happiness, and live, and suffer, and pass, mattering no more than all the other animals do or have done. It is this, or that. All the universe or nothing. Which shall it be Passworthy? Which shall it be?”” “I believe we are at that time in history, and the NanoFET marks it. Brian Gilchrist is working on the NanoFET idea. Field Effect Transistors are used to charge light nanoparticles, so they can be ejected out the back end of a ship with a series of magnetic fields made by stacks of microchip components, much the same way charged particles are accelerated by electromagnets in a particle accelerator. The nanoFET ship can reach 90% the speed of light, theoretically, if built light and outside the earth’s gravity. Of course the ship is a starship that would take more than four years to reach the nearest star, but used to go to mars might only take a couple hours or so.”

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Here is the data processed for the preceding passage: Earth air is about 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. We can treat both as diatomic molecules. The molar mass of nitrogen gas (N2) is 2(14.01) and the molar mass of oxygen gas (O2) is 2(16.00). So Earth Air = 2[(16.00)(0.21) + (14.01)(0.78)] = 28.5756 The martian atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide (CO2). This gives: CO2 = (12.01) + 2(16.00) = 44.01 The average orbital distance of mars from the sun compared to the average orbital distance of the earth from the sun is 1.5 and 44.01 divided by 28.5756 is 1.5, or 3/2 in other words. Is what this says is that, the mars-sun distance is to the earth-sun distance as martian air is to earth air. The earth atmosphere was once mostly carbon dioxide (CO2) like the mars atmosphere is today, until plant life (and other photosynthesizers) came along and started converting the carbon dioxide into oxygen, using light from the sun and in the process making the most fundamental sugar, glucose (which is at the bottom of the food chain). A process called photosynthesis. Well glucose is C6H12O6, which gives a molar mass of: C6H12O6 = 6(12.01) + 12(1.008) + 6(16.00) = 180.16 And water (H2O) covers most of earth and is essential to life, its molar mass is: H2O = 2(1.008) + (16.00) = 18.016 180.16 divided by 18.016 is about 10 and the earth is about 10 times as massive as mars. That is, glucose is to water as the earth is to mars.

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I have found more reason that the planet Mars represents the success of humankind in this passage:

Gentelmen, further, Mars is New Earth. I have done this:
We know that 9/5 occurs in many mysterious ways in nature, including Saturn’s distance from the sun of 9 (closest approach) putting Jupiter’s at five (closest approach), and the earth at one. Let us consider a balance. If two weights of equal mass are placed on opposite ends of a balance, then to be balanced the fulcrum must be placed at the center. But if one mass is increased, then the fulcrum will have to be moved closer to the heavier end if the balance is not to tip. This is the Law of Levers. It states that the masses are inversely proportion to their distances from the fulcrum. To write it mathematically, M1/M2=L2/L1 Or, equivalently (M1)(L1)=(M2)(L2) If we consider the time when Saturn and Jupiter, the two most massive bodies in the solar system are in opposition, that is when they are on opposite sides of the sun and facing one another, then by the above information they are separated by 14 units. Jupiter is 3.34 times as massive as Saturn. By our law of levers above, that means L1/L2=3.34 L1+L2=14 Thus 4.34L2=14 and L2=3.2258 14-3.22=10.77=L1 Mars orbital distance is 1.5 The saturn-fulcrum distance minus the mars orbital distance is: 10.77-1.5=9.2~9 is saturn’s closest approach to the sun. Mars, then, is the cosmic fulcrum. It is the one planet worth terraforming for colonization. It is then aligned metaphysically with its physical characteristics.

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It is worth noting: Chapter 31: The Document A look inside the journal of Leonard August 9, 2010 Entry: Topic: Pivotal Point Of The Solar System (M_j)(L_j)=(M_s)(L_s) Saturn orbit = 9 Jupiter orbit = 5 9-5=4 L_j + L_s = 4 318L_j = 95L_s 95/318 = (L_j)/(L_s) L_s = (4-L_J) 95/318 = (L_j)/(4-L_j) (95)(4-L_j) = (318)(L_j) 380 – 95L_j = 318L_j 380 = 413L_j L_j = (380)/(413) = 0.92 5 = 0.92 = 5.92 ~ 6 Thereby The Cosmic Fulcrum between Jupiter and Saturn in another arrangement is six astronomical units from the sun, or about one astronomical unit from Jupiter. The Earth is about one astronomical unit from the sun. Jupiter is a failed star and it would seem the Earth orbits it as a ghost. This is interesting because in 2001: A Space Odyssey by Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, character Dave Bowman goes to Jupiter and encounters a ghostly image of the Earth.

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The Early Earth Atmosphere And Its Connection To The Planets Here we show that key substances responsible for life on Earth are connected to the planets by simple but important geometries. Study 1 An interesting family of substances is methane (CH_4), ammonia (NH_3) and water vapor (H_2O). Methane is tetrahedral in structure, a carbon atom surrounded by 4 hydrogens. Ammonia is trigonal pyramidal, a nitrogen atom surrounded by 3 hydrogen atoms, and water vapor is triangular, or bent, an oxygen atom surrounded by two hydrogens. These represent stable structural systems as they are all systems of triangles, which are the only stable polygons. These substances combined under energy with hydrogen gas form amino acids, the building blocks of life. The core atoms of these molecules, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, are all in period two of the periodic table and follow directly one after the other, and are all in amino acids, the hydrogen as well. It is a hypothesis of astrobiology that amino acids formed in the protoplanetary cloud before the earth ever formed. In this sense we may have our origins in deep space. Is what I mean by structural systems is that there are only three structural systems, the tetrahedron, the octahedron, and the icosohedron. They are the only stable solids, that is non-collapsing flex corners whose faces are triangles. Most compounds are something other than these, like pentagons with linear off shoots for example, that comprise the wrong number of atoms to make a "solid" unit, and I mean solid as in the pythagorean solids, the geometric term. Both methane and ammonia make different variations on the tetrahedron, a pythagorean solid. When plants perform photosynthesis, they combine carbon dioxide with water and release oxygen. The reaction is: CO_2+2H_2O--CH_2O+O_2+H_2O As can be seen a sugar is made. Important to most plants to do this is Nitrogen. Nitrogen (N_2) is the most abundant gas in the earth atmosphere, comprising about 78.03% of it. We now calculate the molecular masses of these special gases: CH_4=(12.01+4(1.01))=16.05 NH_3=(14.01+3(1.01))=17.04 CO_2=(12.01+2(16.00))=44.01 H_2O=(2(1.01)+16.00)=18.02 N_2=(14.01+14.01)=28.02 O_2=(16.00+16.00)=32.00 We now form some ratios between these molecular masses:

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(O_2)/(CH_4)=32.00/16.05=1.992~2 (NH_3)/(CH_4)=17.04/16.06=1.061~1 (CO_2)/(O_2)=44.01/32.00~1.4=sqrt(2) (CO_2)/(N_2)=44.01/28.02~1.6=(sqrt(5)+1)/2=phi (O_2)/(H_2O)=32.00/18.02=1.776~sqrt(3) Notice that these values are given by the sequence: |2cos(pi/n)| n=(1,2,3,4,5,6)(pi/n)radians Observe: 2=|2cos(pi)| 0=|2cos(pi/2)| 1=|2cos(pi/3)| sqrt(2)=|2cos(pi/4)| (sqrt(5)+1)/2=phi=|2cos(pi/5)| sqrt(3)=|2cos(pi/6)| Geometrically sqrt(2) is the ratio of the side of a square to its radius. Phi is the ratio of the chord of a regular pentagon to its side. Sqrt(3) is the ratio of the side of an equilateral triangle to its radius, and 1 is the ratio of the side of a regular hexagon to its radius. The square, the regular hexagon and the equilateral triangle are the tessellating regular polygons.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 n actual fit

4

4

2

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CH

2/ CH

CO 2/

2/

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CO

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Study 2 Jupiter: failed star: vector associated with it x-5 = 0 (fifth planet) (x^2) – x - 1 = 0 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) – 2x + 4 = 0 This gives x = (1+3i) and (1-3i) where (i) is the square root of negative one. In the complex plane these are the vectors <1, 3> and <1, -3> Again we see Jupiter pointing to the earth (3 in the (i) axis, earth the third planet) Venus: failed earth: vector associated with it x-2=0 (second planet) (x^2) – x – 1 = 0 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) – 2x + 1 = 0 (x – 1)(x – 1) = 0 This gives x = 1 In the complex plane this is the vector <1, 0>. Note: Venus is represented by the regular hexagon because its side divided by its radius is one. Mars: promises to be new earth: vector associated with it x-4=0 (fourth planet) (x^2) – x – 1 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) –2x + 3 = 0 This gives x = 1 + sqrt(2)i and x = 1 – sqrt(2)i In the complex plane these are the vectors <1, sqrt(2)> and <1, -sqrt(2)> Note: Mars is represented by the square because its side divided by its radius is the square root of two. Earth: successful life bearing world: vector associated with it x-3=0 (third planet) (x^2) – x – 1 = 0 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) – 2x +2 = 0 This gives x = (1 + i) and x = (1 – i) where (i) is the square root of negative one. In the complex plane these are the vectors <1, 1> and <1, -1> Note: The vectors <1, 1> and <1, -1> have the angle of 45 degrees and negative 45 degrees associated with them. Such angles are the angles made between the sides of a square and its diagonal. The components of such vectors are sides of a unit square. It is appropriate, somehow, that earth is represented by the unit vectors because it is a successful life bearing planet, perhaps the only one, or the most so by far, in the solar system. Here we see mars and earth are again coupled as they have their representation in the same form, the square, in different ways.

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We combine Study 1 with Study 2 and find Venus, Earth, and Mars have associated with them ratios of compounds such that the following table results. Venus: failed Earth: Vector magnitude 1 Associated Compounds: (NH_3)/(CH_4) Are prominent compounds in the early earth atmosphere. Earth: Successful life bearing world: Vector magnitude sqrt(2) Associated Compounds: (CO_2)/(O_2) CO_2 prominent in early earth atmosphere O_2 prominent in contemporary earth atmosphere Mars: Promises to be New Earth: Vector magnitude sqrt(3) Associated Compounds: (O_2)/(H_2O) These compounds pivotal to life on Earth. All of these compounds combined with hydrogen gas under energy form amino acids, the building blocks of life.

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Mathematical Formulae: Appendix 1 Formulas Derived from the Parallelogram Remarks. Squares and rectangles are parallelograms that have four sides the same length, or two sides the same length. We can determine area by measuring it either in unit triangles or unit squares. Both are fine because they both are equal sided, equal angled geometries that tessellate. With unit triangles, the areas of the regular polygons that tessellate have whole number areas. Unit squares are usually chosen to measure area.

Having chosen the unit square with which to measure area, we notice that the area of a rectangle is base times height because the rows determine the amount of columns and the columns determine the amount of rows. Thus for a rectangle we have:

A=bh

Drawing in the diagonal of a rectangle we create two right triangles, that by symmetry are congruent. Each right triangle therefore occupies half the area, and from the above formula we conclude that the area of a right triangle is one half base times height:

A=(1/2)bh

By drawing in the altitude of a triangle, we make two right triangles and applying the above formula we find that it holds for all triangles in general.

We draw a regular hexagon, or any regular polygon, and draw in all of its radii, thus breaking it up into congruent triangles. We draw in the apothem of each triangle, and using our formula for the area of triangles we find that its area is one half apothem times perimeter, where the perimeter is the sum of its sides:

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A=(1/2)ap

A circle is a regular polygon with an infinite amount of infitesimal sides. If the sides of a regular polygon are increased indefinitely, the apothem becomes the radius of a circle, and the perimeter becomes the circumference of a circle. Replace a with r, the radius, and p with c, the circumference, and we have the formula for the area of a circle:

A=(1/2)rc

We define the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter as pi. That is pi=c/D. Since the diameter is twice the radius, pi=c/2r. Therefore c=2(pi)r and the equation for the area of a circle becomes:

A=(pi)r^2

(More derived from the parallelogram)

Divide rectangles into four quadrants, and show that

A. (x+a)(x+b)=(x^2)+(a+b)x+ab B. (x+a)(x+a)=(x^2)+2ax+(a^2) A. Gives us a way to factor quadratic expressions. B. Gives us a way to solve quadratic equations. (Notice that the last term is the square of one half the middle coefficient.)

Remember that a square is a special case of a rectangle.

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There are four interesting squares to complete.

1) The area of a rectangle is 100. The length is equal to 5 more than the width multiplied by 3. Calculate the width and the length. 2) Solve the general expression for a quadratic equation, a(x^2)+bx+c=0 3) Find the golden ratio, a/b, such that a/b=b/c and a=b+c. 4) The position of a particle is given by x=vt+(1/2)at^2. Find t.

Show that for a right triangle (a^2)=(b^2)+(c^2) where a is the hypotenuse, b and c are legs. It can be done by inscribing a square in a square such that four right triangles are made.

Use the Pythagorean theorem to show that the equation of a circle centered at the origin is given by r^2=x^2+y^2 where r is the radius of the circle and x and y the orthogonal coordinates.

Derive the equation of a straight line: y=mx+b by defining the slope of the line as the change in vertical distance per change in horizontal distance.

Triangles All polygons can be broken up into triangles. Because of that we can use triangles to determine the area of any polygon. Theorems Branch 1 1. If in a triangle a line is drawn parallel to the base, then the lines on both sides of the line are proportional. 2. From (1) we can prove that: If two triangles are mutually equiangular, they are similar.

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3. From (2) we can prove that: If in a right triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the base to the right angle, then the two triangles on either side of the perpendicular, are similar to one another and to the whole. 4. From (3) we can prove the Pythagorean theorem. Theorems Branch 2 1. Draw two intersecting lines and show that opposite angles are equal. 2. Draw two parallel lines with one intersecting both. Use the fact that opposite angles are equal to show that alternate interior angles are equal. 3. Inscribe a triangle in two parallel lines such that its base is part of one of the lines and the apex meets with the other. Use the fact that alternate interior angles are equal to show that the sum of the angles in a triangle are two right angles, or 180 degrees. Theorems Branch 3 1. Any triangle can be solved given two sides and the included angle. c^2=a^2+b^2-2abcos(C) 2. Given two angles and a side of a triangle, the other two sides can be found. a/sin(A)=b/sin(B)=c/sin(C) 3.Given two sides and the included angle of a triangle you can find its area, K. K=(1/2)bc(sin(A)) 4.Given three sides of a triangle, the area can be found by using the formulas in (1) and (3). Question: what do parallelograms and triangles have in common? Answer: They can both be used to add vectors.

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Trigonometry When a line bisects another so as to form two equal angles on either side, the angles are called right angles. It is customary to divide a circle into 360 equal units called degrees, so that a right angle, one fourth of the way around a circle, is 90 degrees. The angle in radians is the intercepted arc of the circle, divided by its radius, from which we see that in the unit circle 360 degrees is 2(pi)radians, and we can relate degrees to radians as follows: Degrees/180 degrees=Radians/pi radians An angle is merely the measure of separation between two lines that meet at a point. The trigonometric functions are defined as follows: cos x=side adjacent/hypotenuse sin x=side opposite/hypotenuse tan x=side opposite/side adjacent

csc x=1/sin x sec x=1/cos x cot x=1/tan x We consider the square and the triangle, and find with them we can determine the trigonometric function of some important angles. Square (draw in the diagonal): cos 45 degrees =1/sqrt(2)=sqrt(2)/2 Equilateral triangle (draw in the altitude): cos 30 degrees=sqrt(3)/2; cos 60 degrees=1/2 Using the above formula for converting degrees to radians and vice versa:

30 degrees=(pi)/6 radians; 60 degrees=(pi)/3 radians. The regular hexagon and pi

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Tessellating equilateral triangles we find we can make a regular hexagon, which also tessellates. Making a regular hexagon like this we find two sides of an equilateral triangle make radii of the regular hexagon, and the remaining side of the equilateral triangle makes a side of the regular hexagon. All of the sides of an equilateral triangle being the same, we can conclude that the regular hexagon has its sides equal in length to its radii. If we inscribe a regular hexagon in a circle, we notice its perimeter is nearly the same as that of the circle, and its radius is the same as that of the circle. If we consider a unit regular hexagon, that is, one with side lengths of one, then its perimeter is six, and its radius is one. Its diameter is therefore two, and six divided by two is three. This is close to the value of pi, clearly, by looking at a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. The sum of the angles in a polygon Draw a polygon. It need not be regular and can have any number of sides. Draw in the radii. The sum of the angles at the center is four right angles, or 360 degrees. The sum of the angles of all the triangles formed by the sides of the polygon and the radii taken together are the number of sides, n, of the polygon times two right angles, or 180 degrees. The sum of the angles of the polygon are that of the triangles minus the angles at its center, or A, the sum of the angles of the polygon equals n(180 degrees)-360 degrees, or A=180 degrees(n-2) With a rectangular coordinate system you need only two numbers to specify a point, but with a triangular coordinate system --- three axes separated by 120 degrees -- you need three. However, a triangular coordinates system makes use of only 3 directions, whereas a rectangular one makes use of 4. A rectangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest numbers, and a triangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest directions for its axes. The rectangular coordinate system is determined by a square and the triangular coordinate system by an equilateral triangle.

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Papers in which I am listed as co-author (Beardsley I.S.) •

• • 1986 _Kemp J. C.; Henson G. D.; Kraus D. J.; Carroll L. C.; Beardsley I. S.; Takagishi K.; Jugaku J.; Matsuoka M.; Leibowitz E. M.; Mazeh T.; Mendelson H._SS 433: A 6 year photometric record_Astrophys. J. 305, 805 (1986) • Department of Physics, University of Oregon • 1986 _Kemp J. C.; Henson G. D.; Kraus D. J.; Beardsley I. S.; Carroll L. C.; Duncan D. K._Variable polarization and activity in Arcturus_Astrophys. J. Lett. 301, L35 (1986) • Department of Physics, University of Oregon 1986 _Kemp J. C.; Henson G. D.; Kraus D. J.; Beardsley J. S.; Carroll L. C.; Ake T. B.; Simon T.; Collins G. W._Epsilon Aurigae: Polarization, light curves, and geometry of the 1982–1983 eclipse_Astrophys. J. Lett. 300, L11 (1986) Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene •

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