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Grammatical Cohesion Lexical Reference Ellipsis Substitution Parallelism Conjunction Reiteration repetition synonyms or near-synonyms superordinates (general nouns)
Reiteration: a. Repetition b. Synonyms or near-synonyms Superordinates / hyponyms d. General nouns c.
The ascent Examples: I´ll now turn to the ascent of the peak. The climb The task The thing It There´s a boy climbing that tree. a. The boy´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care. b. The lad´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care c. The child´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care. d. The idiot´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care.
is perfectly easy.
There´s a boy climbing that tree. a. The boy´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care (identical reference) b. Those boys are always getting into mischief. (inclusive reference) c. And there´s another boy standing underneath. (exclusive reference) d. Most boys love climbing trees. (simply unrelated) (Examples from Halliday and Hasan´s Cohesion in English, pp. 279/283) There was a fine old rocking-chair that his father used to sit in, a desk where he wrote letters, a nest of small tables and a dark, imposing bookcase. Now all this furniture was to be sold, and with it his own past. (From Michael McCarthy´s Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers) Collocations:
Example: The candle flame flickered in the wind.
How important is lexical cohesion for translation?
I. I knew John Kennedy. John Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you are no John Kennedy: (From a televised face-to-face debate in 1988 American Presidential election campaign as quoted by Hatim & Mason in Discourse and the Translator, 1990) II. There´s water through many homes – I would say almost all of them have water in them. It´s just completely under water. (the words of an American county supervisor, following a flash flood as reported in the Gainesville Sun, 20-12-78 / Hatim & Mason, ibid. III. ... Le rapport de M. Tricot insistait d´ailleurs sur cette ambiguité. Le conseilleir d´Etat s ´est ainsi longuement interrogé sur la signification de la phrase “anticiper les actions de Greenpeace”.,, (Le Monde 18.9.85) ... Mr. Tricot´s repport, moreover, emphasised this ambiguity. He was persistently questioned about the meaning of the phrase “anticipate the actions of Greenpeace”... (The Guardian, 18.9.85) IV. I am now more than glad that I did not pass into the grammar school five years ago, although it was a disappointment at the time. I was always good at English, but not so good at the other subjects!! I am glad that I went to the secondary modern school, because it was only constructed the year before. Therefore, it was much more hygienic than the grammar school. The secondary modern was light and airy, and the walls were painted with a bright, washable gloss... One day, I was sento over to the grammar school, with a note for one of the teachers, and you should have seen the mess! The corridors were dusty, and I saw dust on the window ledges, which were chipped. I saw into one of the classrooms. It was very untidy in there. I am also glad that I did not go to the grammar school, becuase of what it does to one´s habits. This may appear to be a strange remark, at first sight. It is a good thing to have an education behind you, and I do not believe in ignorance, but I have had certain experiences, with educated people, since going out into the world. (Muriel Spark, 1958, You Should Have Seen the Mess!) V.
Scampi Provencale Ingredients 1 onion, chopped 1clove of garlic, chopped 25 g (1 oz) butter or margarine 1 375 g (15 oz) tin tomatoes, drained 4 15 ml (table)spoons dry white seasoning pinch sugar 1 15 ml (table) spoon parsley, chopped 200 g (8oz) frozen scampi, thawed Method 1. Fry the onion and garlic gently in the butter or margarine until cooked but now browned. 2. Add tomatoes, wine, seasoning, sugar and parsley, stir well and simmer gently for 10 minutes. 3. Drain the scampi well, add to the sauce and continue simmering for about 5 minutes, or until they are just heated through. 4. Serve with crusty French bread, or boiled rice. Serves 4.