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Discourse Analysis


Grammatical Ellipsis
Cohesion Conjunction

Lexical Reiteration synonyms or
(general nouns)


Lexical Cohesion:

 Reiteration: a. Repetition b. Synonyms or near-synonyms c.

Superordinates / hyponyms d. General nouns

The ascent
Examples: I´ll now turn to the ascent of the peak. The climb is perfectly easy.
The task
The thing

There´s a boy climbing that tree.

a. The boy´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care.
b. The lad´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care
c. The child´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care.
d. The idiot´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care.

There´s a boy climbing that tree.

a. The boy´s going to fall if he doesn´t take care (identical reference)
b. Those boys are always getting into mischief. (inclusive reference)
c. And there´s another boy standing underneath. (exclusive reference)
d. Most boys love climbing trees. (simply unrelated)
(Examples from Halliday and Hasan´s Cohesion in English, pp. 279/283)

There was a fine old rocking-chair that his father used to sit in, a desk where he
wrote letters, a nest of small tables and a dark, imposing bookcase. Now all this
furniture was to be sold, and with it his own past.
(From Michael McCarthy´s Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers)

 Collocations:
The candle flame flickered in the wind.

How important is lexical cohesion for translation?

I knew John Kennedy. John Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you are no John
(From a televised face-to-face debate in 1988 American Presidential election campaign as
quoted by Hatim & Mason in Discourse and the Translator, 1990)

There´s water through many homes – I would say almost all of them have water in
them. It´s just completely under water. (the words of an American county supervisor,
following a flash flood as reported in the Gainesville Sun, 20-12-78 / Hatim & Mason,

... Le rapport de M. Tricot insistait d´ailleurs sur cette ambiguité. Le conseilleir d´Etat s
´est ainsi longuement interrogé sur la signification de la phrase “anticiper les actions de
(Le Monde 18.9.85)

... Mr. Tricot´s repport, moreover, emphasised this ambiguity. He was persistently
questioned about the meaning of the phrase “anticipate the actions of Greenpeace”...
(The Guardian, 18.9.85)

I am now more than glad that I did not pass into the grammar school five years ago,
although it was a disappointment at the time. I was always good at English, but not so
good at the other subjects!!

I am glad that I went to the secondary modern school, because it was only constructed
the year before. Therefore, it was much more hygienic than the grammar school. The
secondary modern was light and airy, and the walls were painted with a bright, washable
gloss... One day, I was sento over to the grammar school, with a note for one of the
teachers, and you should have seen the mess! The corridors were dusty, and I saw dust
on the window ledges, which were chipped. I saw into one of the classrooms. It was very
untidy in there.

I am also glad that I did not go to the grammar school, becuase of what it does to one´s
habits. This may appear to be a strange remark, at first sight. It is a good thing to have an
education behind you, and I do not believe in ignorance, but I have had certain
experiences, with educated people, since going out into the world.
(Muriel Spark, 1958, You Should Have Seen the Mess!)

Scampi Provencale

Ingredients Method
1 onion, chopped 1. Fry the onion and garlic gently in the
1clove of garlic, chopped butter or margarine until cooked but
25 g (1 oz) butter or margarine now browned.
1 375 g (15 oz) tin tomatoes, drained 2. Add tomatoes, wine, seasoning,
4 15 ml (table)spoons dry white sugar and parsley, stir well and
seasoning simmer gently for 10 minutes.
pinch sugar 3. Drain the scampi well, add to the
1 15 ml (table) spoon parsley, chopped sauce and continue simmering for
200 g (8oz) frozen scampi, thawed about 5 minutes, or until they are
just heated through.
4. Serve with crusty French bread, or
boiled rice.

Serves 4.