Verb Patterns

1) Subjective Complement Pattern a) NP + Vc + NPsc Eg. Mary is a teacher b) NP + Vc + Adj Eg. Mary is pretty Mary is nice (Adj. indicating behaviour) (*These examples are ambiguous in isolation. To disambiguate: Eg.#1 be + Adv. of time look ( + Adv. of time) Eg #2 use the progressive or the infinitive: Mary is being nice. Mary be nice! (this indicates temporary state) c) NP + Vc + ADVsc Eg.#1 Susana is here Eg.#2 The food is here Eg.#3 The meal is today 2) Intransitive Pattern NP + Vt + (ADVadj) Eg. Birds fly It* is late It* is raining It* is a long way to NY Detergents sell well This horse runs well

a) FN + Vc + FNsc b) FN + Vc + Adj.

Ej. Mary es maestra Ej. Mary es linda (permanent state) Ej. Mary está linda (temporary state)

c) FN + Vc + ADVsc

Ej.#1 Susana está aquí Ej.#2 La comida está aquí Ej.#3 La comida es hoy

Nconcrete => estar

Nevent => ser Ej. Los pájaros vuelan. Es tarde. Llueve. Hay un largo camino hasta NY. Los detergentes se venden bien. Este caballo corre bien. ó Este caballo es de buena monta.

FN + Vi + (ADV)

* Why do we have to mention the Subject in English. Chomsky: because there are no inflections of the verb in English, therefore, there are no indicators of person. That’s why we have an obligatory explicit subject. In Spanish, the Subject is duplicated in the desinence of the verb. *2 ergative sentences: the door opened, the stone moved => Es más natural poner el verbo antes del sujeto en español: se abrio la puerta, se movio la piedra. 3) Transitive patterns a) NP + Vt + NPdo I will see Peter tomorrow I made a chocolate cake last week Peter killed a bear Peter killed John b) Vt  Prepositional verb. Eg. Look after (The particle cannot be moved)  Phrasal verb Eg. Put up = erect Put off (the particle is stressed and it can be moved) Exception: see sb. Off *see off sb. I couldn’t put up with Mary in England = I couldn’t stand her = I couldn’t lodge her c) Word order: NP + Vt + PRONdo I saw him 4) Transitive Directional Pattern NP + Vt + NPio + NPdo NP + Vt + NPdo + for/to + NPio In informal English, in oral discourse, there is a tendency to omit the particle “to” as in: Give it ø me She had me ø do it In English the OI is post verbal

a) FN + Vt + (DET: a) Fnod Voy a ver a Peter... (el OD personal siempre es preposicional) Hice una torta de chocolate la semana pasada Peter mató un oso Peter mató a John

Lo ví FN + Vt + a FNio + FNdo a) Entregó un regalo a los novios. b) Les entregó un regalo a los novios. “b” es más natural en la variedad rioplatense. Se (=le) lo dí ayer: In Spanish it’s preverbal. Leísmo: Le ví. / Le llamé Laismo: La pegaba. Omisión de la preposición “a” para evitar ambigüedad: Entregó ø la niña a sus padres Le presentó ø su mujer a Juan Pedro le vendió a María a Juan.

5) Objective Complement Pattern: emphasizes factual meaning. a) NP + Vt + NPdo + INFoc a) FN + Vt + INFoc + FNdo I made Peter come (Verb: Complex Transitive. Hice venir a Pedro Predica algo del objeto) Lo hice venir. Ó: Vt + Noun Clause Hice que Pedro viniera. b) NP + Vt + NPdo + INGoc b) FN + Vt + FNdo + ANDO/ENDOoc I saw the child climbing the stairs. Ví al niño subiendo las escaleras. Praphrasing: I saw that the child was climbing the stairs. Wrong paraphrasing: I saw the child who was climbing... I saw the child while he was climbing... NP + Vt + NPdo + ADJoc I found the class empty (no ambiguity)



I found the empty classroom. 6) Indefinite Equational Pattern a) There + be + NP + ADV Eg. There are some books on the table. You cannot use “the”. It must not be preceded by a Definite article. There is some milk in the fridge (This doesn’t mean that there is a little milk) Idea of uncertainty: There must be some pen over there. He must be in some place in Afrika. For Emphasis: You’re some friend! (with intonation) Some weather!

FN + Vt + FNdo + ADJoc Encontré el aula vacía (ambigüedad: Encontré que el aula estaba vacía Encontré el aula que estaba vacía

a) Hay + FN + ADV Eg. Hay unos libros sobre la mesa.

Debe haber una lapicera por ahí. Debe estar en algún lado de África. ¡Qué buen amigo, eh! ¡Qué tiempo horrible!

Exception: The case when you can use “the” In a list: There is the butler, the maid, the Tenemos / está el mayordomo, la mucama, chauffeur. etc. There is the garden to water, the car to wash Hay que / Falta regar el jardín the food to cook. There + be + the + abstract noun Existe la posibilidad de que llegue tarde. There’s the danger that + NCLAUSE in apposition: the ceiling will collapse. There’s the possibility that I might arrive late. There’s the rumour that she’s resigning. Corre el rumor de que va a renunciar. There’s always the misusing of wine that leads to drunkenness. b) There + be + NP + to INF. b) Hay + FN + que hacer There are many things to do. Hay muchas cosas que hacer. (Hay + que + INF = obligación.)

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