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HW-10-SA1-206-HWsolvers Release Notes

HW-10-SA1-206-HWsolvers provides updates to the HyperWorks solver suite. This update replaces the HW-10SA1-205-HWsolvers update.


Finite element solver for linear and non-linear problems


Multi-body dynamics solver


Design and optimization software using finite elements and multi-body dynamics


An hp-adaptive finite element for material flow and heat transfer problems in extrusion and rolling applications

RADIOSS is a state-of-the-art finite element solver uniting implicit and explicit integration schemes for the solution of a wide variety of engineering problems, from linear statics and linear dynamics to complex nonlinear transient dynamics and mechanical systems. This robust, multidisciplinary solver enables designers to maximize performance related to durability, NVH, crash, safety, manufacturability, and fluid-structure interaction, in order to bring innovative products to market faster. RADIOSS 10-SA1-206 again brings much advancement over previous versions, with emphasis in the areas of performance, frequency response analysis, acoustic response analysis, fatigue analysis, and contact modeling.

RADIOSS Bulk Data Format

New Features

Complex Eigenvalue analysis

The modal method of complex eigenvalue analysis is now available.

K2PP, CMETHOD and EIGC entries have been added to facilitate this solution type.

The presence of the CMETHOD and METHOD data selectors within a subcase indicate the modal complex eigenvalue solution is required.

Memory trim for AMLS eigenvalue solution

Memory is released back to the operating system while invoking AMLS for eigenvalue analysis. This feature is termed Memory Trim and may be deactivated using PARAM,MEMTRIM,NO.

AMLS is an external program that requires its own memory and disk space to perform eigenvalue analysis. Without memory trim, the total

memory requirement (T) to perform eigenvalue analysis using AMLS was the sum of the memory required by RADIOSS (R), the memory exclusively allocated for AMLS (A) and other miscellaneous memory requirements; e.g. MIO library requirement, (M). Thus: T = R + A + M. With memory trim enabled, the total memory requirement is reduced to: T = max(R,A) + M.

Memory trim is available only on Windows, LINUX and AIX operating systems.

Hash-table based assembly method

An alternative method for assembling global matrices in FEA analyses is now available. This alternative method lowers the memory requirement for matrix assembly and may be activated by PARAM,HASHASSM,YES.

The hash-table based assembly method reduces the memory requirement of the assembly module by about a factor of 3 for linear static analyses, by about a factor of 5 for eigenvalue analyses, and by about a factor of 7 for frequency response analyses involving material damping.

The reduction in the overall memory requirement is problemdependant. For problems where modules other than the assembly module are dictating the overall memory requirement, using this alternative assembly method will not result in a reduction in the overall memory requirement.

Using the hash-table based assembly method while possibly reducing memory requirements may result in longer run times.

Automatic filtering of results output for acoustic simulation

A new output control, PEAKOUT, has been added that will automatically filter results output for acoustic simulations. Through PEAKOUT a frequency output set is automatically generated based on a user-defined number of peaks.

Enforced displacements supported with AMLS solver

Enforced displacements, velocities and accelerations, defined through the SPCD input definition, are now fully compatible with the AMLS eigenvalue solver.

Powerflow calculation

This is a post-processing option for FRF analysis, tracking the flow of vibrational energy that travels in dynamically loaded structures. It helps with identifying energy transmission paths, vibration sources, and energy sinks.

Both powerflow and structural intensity (defined as powerflow per unit area) results are available as output to the H3D file.

The I/O Option, POWERFLOW, is used to activate this feature.

Directional mass for bushing elements

Directional mass may now be defined on the PBUSH and PBUSHT bushing property definitions.

This behaves in a similar manner to directional stiffness and damping options.

Acoustic sources

A new bulk data input, ACSRCE, is now available, allowing acoustic sources to be represented by scalar loading functions. This removes the need to model the structural details of devices such as audio speakers.

Static element deformation

New functionality allowing for enforced axial deformation of onedimensional elements for static analysis is now available.

The functionality is activated by including a new subcase information entry (DEFORM) in the subcase definition. This subcase information entry references a bulk data entry of the same name (DEFORM).

Element energy output

The output of Element Kinetic Energy (EKE) and Element Energy Loss per Cycle (EDE) has been added. A dmig option allows energies for external superelements to be written to the .out file.

MATT1 in heat transfer analysis

Added support for MATT1 for heat transfer solution sequence.


Binary output of grid participation factors

PFGRID will now output grid participation factors to the H3D file. Previously, these results were output to the punch file.

Output generalized mass and stiffness

These are output for each eigenvalue to both .out and .op2 files. In the .out file, two extra columns have been added to the eigenvalue/frequency table providing the generalized mass and stiffness.

Grid point stress for shells output to MNF file

Grid point stresses are output for both solid and shell elements when GPSTRESS output request is present in addition to the .mnf file

creation request (OUTPUT, ADAMSMNF).

Changed defaults for MODEL output

Default for MODEL is NONE when CBN method is used for CMS run.

Output strain energy for external superelements

Added dmig argument to ESE output request. Energies for external superelements are written to the .out file.

Review unconnected structures in HyperMesh

When AMLS fails to run due to unconnected structure in the model. We will output HyperMesh command files allowing the user to review the unconnected structures. *.amls_unconnected.cmf for unconnected structure *.amls_singularity.cmf for singular grids

Performance improvements for DMIG generation runs

Several H3D DMIG output improvements have been implemented, improving the speed and memory usage.

Performance improvements for MIO on AIX

Several changes were made to the invoke script that will improve performance with MIO on AIX operating system.

Performance improvements for acoustic analysis

Adjustments were made to the solution process for acoustic analysis problems resulting in reduced run-times.

Performance improvements when using frequency dependant bushings

Adjustments were made to the look-up procedure for frequency dependent bushings resulting in reduced run-times for problems using PBUSHT input definitions.

Resolved Issues

Fatigue analysis

In version 10.0, if MAT1 cards with MATFAT extensions were not listed in the input file, in ascending order, by MID, and were not listed before all other MAT1 cards without MATFAT extensions, an error termination occurred. This problem no longer occurs.

The issue related to the processing of stress results for fatigue analysis has been resolved. This issue was observed in problems where insufficient RAM allocation required stress data to be stored in scratch files.

The repeat number for fatigue sequences now correctly takes effect when linear super-positioning exists.

Modal participation and AMLS

Modal participation results are now correct when using the third party

AMLS eigenvalue solver.

SDISP output request

Modal participation displacement output (SDISP) to the PUNCH and OUTPUT2 formats is now correct when the PHASE option is selected.

Structural modal participation with AMLS

Previously, when running with AMLS, it was necessary to request displacement output (DISPLACEMENT) for the same grid set for which modal participation output is requested (PFMODE). This is no longer necessary.

Limit number of viscous resvecs calculated

Too many viscous resvec's can slow down the solution time. A default limit of 1000 is now established. This limit can be adjusted using PARAM,MAXDAMP (default=1000). A WARNING message is issued if MAXDAMP is exceeded and no viscous resvec's are calculated.

Large number of residual vectors calculated for RBE3 elements when running with AMLS

Previously, when running with AMLS, if there was a need to calculate a residual vector for the dependent degree-of-freedom of an RBE3, we used to create a residual vector for each independent degree-offreedom. This issue was resolved by creating only one residual vector at the dependent degree-of-freedom.

AMLS generic files written to and read from AMLSDIR

Previously, the AMLS generic files were written to and read from the current working directory, often resulting in poor i/o performance. This issue is resolved and these files are now written to and read from the AMLSDIR.

Temperature dependent materials for CTRIA elements

Previously, the determination of the temperature dependent material properties for CTRIA elements was incorrect. This issue is resolved and the appropriate material properties are used.

Convection for tetra elements

Previously, there was an issue when convection was applied to side 2 of a tetra element. This issue is resolved.

Flexible body generation

Flexh3d and ADAMS mnf formats do not support local coordinate systems. Therefore CMS vectors are now output to these formats with reference to the basic coordinate system only, instead of the grids output coordinate system.

Requested in-core solution running as min-core

Corrected undesired behavior where, for large models, a requested incore eigenvalue analysis was being run with min-core settings.

Internally generated inertia relief MPCs being incorrectly used with other subcases.

In previous versions, if multiple subcases existed, without MPC references, and where one subcase was using inertia relief; internally generated MPCs (used for inertia relief) were incorrectly used in those

subcases that didnt have an MPC reference.


Numeric labels are now output correctly.

Complex eigenvalue analysis

Error message generated when CMETHOD is not referencing a valid EIGC entry. When performing input file compression (running RADIOSS with compress command line option) PCOMP definitions were being written with negative material ids in previous versions.

File compression


Gravity and centrifugal loading on CBARs with pin flags was incorrect in previous versions.

New I/O Option Entries


K2PP matrix selector has been added. Selects direct input stiffness matrices, which are not included in normal modes.


POWERFLOW activates powerflow calculation and output.


The PEAKOUT command can be used in the I/O Options section to create an automatic frequency set for output based on the number of user-defined peaks.

New Subcase Information Entries


Complex eigenvalue extraction data selector has been added. This data selector references a EIGC bulk data entry.


Static element deformation data selector has been added. This data selector references a DEFORM bulk data entry.

New Bulk Data Entries


Complex eigenvalue extraction definition has been added.


Acoustic source definition has been added. Only SLOAD references are supported.


Static element deformation definition for 1D elements has been added.


Limits the number of viscous resvecs calculated.


Defines when AUTOSPC is performed when running with the external eigenvalue solver, AMLS.


Defines whether or not to automatically constrain out all unconnected grids when running with the external eigenvalue solver, AMLS.


Defines a multiplier for K2PP matrix references.


Activate/Deactivate memory trim when running with the external eigenvalue solver, AMLS.


Defines whether or not to error out for negative diagonal mass or inertia terms.


Defines whether or not to use hash-table based assembly method.

Enhanced I/O Option Entries


Added type and dmig arguments for ESE output control.

Enhanced Bulk Data Entries


Fields for directional masses have been added.


Fields for mass vs. frequency table references have been added.

Known Issues

DTI,UNITS and superelement generation

DTI,UNITS input is not supported with CMS nodal formulation. An error message is generated when DTI,UNITS is present in an input file requesting generation of CMS superelements.

Conversion factors used for length, when generating flexh3d output, are incorrect

Flexh3d output is only valid with the length unit mm. Therefore we will error out when units of length other than mm are defined. PARAM,FLXHW10,YES may be added to the input to avoid this error termination, but then the resulting flexh3d output is only valid when used with other HyperWorks 10.0 products where the selected units of length are the same.

RADIOSS Block Format

New Features


RADIOSS to RADIOSS: Multi-domain. Allows you to couple two or more RADIOSS runs; significant time savings could be obtained, in case the domains have different time-steps. RADIOSS toMadymo MPP indirect coupling improves scalability.


Spotweld with HEXA formulation with automatic time step adjustment; specific material law and failure model is available.

Spring with tabulated loading/unloading functions.


General type20 contact: solves surface to surface, node to surface and includes edge treatment. It is recommended for solids as it allows zero-gap contact. It has a softer behavior than type7, which is designed to solve particular situations where type7 was dropping timestep or adding mass on nodes. It is available for explicit solution only. For Non-Linear implicit solution type5 contact is available. RBE2 element allows direct mapping of equivalent element in Bulk Data format. LAW59 (CONNECT) Connection Material to model spotwelds, welding lines, etc. LAW66 Visco Elastic Plastic Piecewise Linear Material; allows separate input for tension and compression; includes strain rate based on plastic strain rate; it is compatible with /VISC (Prony series). LAW72 (HILL_MMC) Anistropic Hill material law with a modified Mohr fracture criteria. LAW76 Semi Analytical Model for Polymers (SAMP) with userdefined functions for the work-hardening portion for tension, compression and shear (i.e. plastic strain vs. stress). LAW82 Hyper elastic material law. It is compatible with solid elements only and in can be used to model polymers and elastomers. VISC Viscosity

Kinematic conditions

Materials and failure models

TH output for element group



Direct data conversion from Bulk Data to Block for RBE2 and RBE3 elements

New convergence criteria: displacement, force and energy combination

Improved performance: new line search method (for analysis W/O contacts)

Improved time step control: 1. Fix Points input 2. Divergence Criterion input



/INTER/TYPE21 + Thermal conduction

/INTER/TYPE7: new gap option (lgap=3) enabling gap to be defined as a function of the mesh size

/INTER/TYPE20: new flag (Fpenmax) enables releasing the contact if the penetration is higher than user defined value.

Improved performance. /INTER/TYPE11 + /SURF/PART EXT + TETRA10

Materials and failure models

Fabric material (LAW58): initial time step is computed on reference mesh instead of initial mesh.

Viscosity (Prony series) is now available in hyper-elastic material /MAT/OGDEN.



Reaction force on nodes submitted to BCs

Pressure (/ANIM/VECT/PCONT) for Type18 Contact Interface

Number of failed layers in ANIM file for solids

Stress and strain tensors output for tetra4 and Irot=1


Total strain formulation for shells allows you to obtain smoother and more regular shape for deployed airbags when using Reference Metrics and Small Strain (LAW19). /LAW58 + reference metrics + inflation time > 0 - The new flag Isens allows to activate both reference metrics and inflation at a given time, using the same sensor.


Easier data conversion from Bulk Data to Block: RBE2 and RBE3 are now available (both for implicit and explicit).

New convergence criteria: Displacement, force and energy combination

Improved performance: New line search method

Improved time step control: Fix point and divergence criterion

Improved accuracy for buckling analysis: Pressure loading

Scratch files management for BCS Solver.

NLimplicit: Improved convergence using multi RBE2 with the same master node + hierarchy. Improved error messages.


Drilling DOF in QEPH shell element.


Advanced Mass Scaling: alternative solution to standard mass scaling to reduce elapsed time

XFEM for cracks propagation: performance improvements (CPU cost significantly reduced)

Improved Starter performances, especially for huge models (several million elements).


Input deck examples for material laws

New Starter Keywords /INTER/TYPE20 general contact for single surface, surface to surface, node to surface treatment, including edge treatment. Zero gap is allowed; recommended for solids. /MAT/LAW59 (CONNECT) Connection material that can be used to model spotweld, welding line, glue or to model laminate plane for composite material. /MAT/LAW66 Visco Elastic Plastic Piecewise Linear Material /MAT/LAW72 (HILL_MMC) Anistropic Hill material law with a modified Mohr fracture criteria. /MAT/LAW76 Semi Analytical Model for Polymers /MAT/LAW82 Hyperelastic material law (modified Ogden law)

New Engine Keywords /ANIM/NODA Generates animation files containing nodal scalar data /IMPL/DIVERG/n Divergence criterion input for better time step control.

/IMPL/DT/3 - Implicit Time Step Control based on Riks Method /IMPL/DT/FIXPOINT Fix point user input for better time step control /IMPL/LSEARCH/n Line search method improves performances (analysis w/o contacts) /IMPL/LSEARCH/OFF Deactivates line search for non linear implicit analysis /IMPL/PSTIF/OFF Deactivating load (pressure) stiffness matrix. /IMPL/SBCS/OUTCORE Forces BCS (Boeing solver) to use

minimum in-core memory. /IMPL/SBCS/MSGLV Specifies message level for BCS (Boeing solver) /IMPL/SBCS/ORDER Reordering method for BCS (Boeing solver) /IMPL/SHPON Improves the convergence of implicit nonlinear analysis with warped shell elements (QEPH) /IMPL/SHPOFF Improves implicit nonlinear analysis performances with warped shell elements (QEPH), if rigid rotations are small

/QEPH/V11: QEPH bug fix (otherwise fixed in v11 only).

Other Keywords


Modified Starter Keywords /MAT/LAW42 (OGDEN) New flag for viscosity /SUBMODEL Additional keywords supported /TH Updated documentation to include the improved composites post-treatment plus additional variables for output in /TH/ACCEL

/INISHE/ORTHO or /INISH3/ORTHO - Describes the initialization of orthotropy direction for shells element per element.

Modified Engine Keywords /ANIM/VECT/CONT2 Tied contact forces output /DT/Eltyp/Keyword3/Iflag Defines the Engine input for Advanced Mass Scaling /IMPL/NONLIN/N Non linear implicit solution

Resolved Issues


Thermics + adaptivity + dynamic condensation

Interface TYPE2 with master curvature (Spotflag=30)

Interface TYPE20: automatic segment edges adjustment in case of impact with solid element.

Interface TYPE11 + TETRA10 + /SURF/PART/EXT

TYPE7 and TYPE11 + Inact=6: non-zero initial contact forces


Solids with 16 and 20 nodes: possible Engine error

/PROP/SPR_BEAM: error if 3


node is aligned with the spring.


LAW19 + zero stress flag + reference metrics + SPMD: initial stress was remaining even if the zero stress flag was activated. This could lead to premature bag unfolding (before injector activation).

The function defined in the vent holes were not time shifted when the flag lttf was activated.

FVMBAG + CPB,CPC different from zero.


Plastic strain output for brick20, H8C, HSEPH, PA6 (thick shell)+smstr>0

Tensor output for Ishell=12 and MAT25

Temperature and density for FVM

Stress and strain TH output for solids (composites). Rigid wall energy output.

Too large size of Starter output file with Ipri=0

Incomplete TH output with SPMD + SPH

Materials and failure models

/LAW58: low initial time step (it is now computed on reference mesh instead of initial mesh)

/LAW59 (hexa spotwelds) + failure

/LAW65: corrections to prevent possible core dumps in RADIOSS Engine SOL_ORTH + SKEW/FRAME

/LAW70: improved stability

/XFEM: improved stability for fracture propogation

/LAW38 + cutoff stress + Ismstr=10

/LAW25 + Gamma_INI, Gamma_Max (delamination values).

/LAW51: improved stability

/LAW2 + Eps_Max: not active for /PROP/TYPE18

/LAW72: incorrect strain values

Kinematic conditions

/DT/NODA/AMS + RBODY with imposed velocity or displacement

/PROP/TYPE33 (KJOINT) + functions associated to translational stiffness and viscosity coefficients

Initial state

Tetra4R (parabolic tetra)


BSC solver does not run if scratch area is not defined: it now has the same I/O as RADIOSS Bulk Data format.

Error messages improved: incompatibility with /ADMESH, etc.

Resolved convergence issue: with spring-back after trimming QEPH + orthotropic laws SPMD + /TYPE2 + Ispot=1

NLimplicit: /RWALL + mix solver (engine error)

Beams + large rotations: incorrect stress

Incorrect contact force (TYPE7, 10 and 11) in Anim output.

Improved stability on WIN7.

Stamping analysis

The memory issue related to adapted meshes used in stamping analysis that occasionally resulted in a core dump on WinXP 32-bit and 64-bit platforms has been resolved.

New Features/Enhancements

Script Usub Support

Matlab script

Python script

Enhanced co-simulation

Robustness and performance were enhanced.

Co-Sim API added for RTW and 3


party solver co-simulation.

Higher order (up to 2 security.


order hold) co-sim were added for enhanced

Enhanced command support

Almost all model elements can be used as command. Flexible body can be modeled as rigid by setting rigidified=TRUE.

Rigidified flexible body

Rigidified flexible body can be turned to flexible body in subsequent analysis (but not vice versa).

Adjustable global properties for flexible body

Mass and inertia can be adjusted for flexible body in the XML file.

Accessible from usub via MODSET function

Improved HSTIFF/NSTIFF solution

Robustness and performance were enhanced.

Nodal velocity/ acceleration support in H3D

Different units in FE and MBD models are now supported

Different units can now be specified in the OS FE and MS MBD model.

New Force_StateEqn or YFORCE/YFOSUB element

Speed enhancement in the solver

Quasi-static and transient analysis performance has been enhanced.

Resolved Issues

Initial velocity solution

Initial velocity solution has been upgraded and now outputs to log file.

IF expression

The problem when IF expression executing all three branches failed when a non-execution branch evaluated an invalid expression at that instant has been resolved. The issue was related to a case where IF failed when evaluating failure on LOG(0), which is part of a branch that is not supposed to be executed based on the IF values.

Single input single output entities

The problem that occurred when multiple Single Input Single Output entities existed in the model has been resolved.

DAE solver statistics

The issue related to DAE solver statistics resets after solver attempts to restart an integration has been corrected.


SYSFNC('JOINT') called from usersub yielding 2x the joint reaction force issue has been corrected.

Comma separated values

Differences no longer exist between 32 and 64 bit solutions when a user sub utilizes a file with comma separated values.


Co-simulation with MotionSolve has been significantly enhanced.

Improved IV solution

In a few cases, previous IV solution can produce spurious results. This has been fixed.

SYSFNC(FORCE) called from CONSUB or REQSUB without

VM/WM support for models in ADM format is now available.

This was giving incorrect results and has been fixed.


RSPDP deactivate issue

Deactivate is not deactivate before since the action was not deactivated.

PITCH angle sign issue fixed

Writing and translating large files

There was a crash issue when writing huge MRF files (over 2 GB) and translating to ABF and PLT files. This has been fixed.

Altair OptiStruct is a finite element and multi-body dynamics software that can be used to design and optimize structures and mechanical systems. OptiStruct uses the analysis capabilities of RADIOSS and MotionSolve to compute responses for optimization.


Constraint screenings

When buckling responses are considered in an optimization problem, the default for DOPTPRM, MAX_BUCK is now set at 15; a warning is issued when DOPTPRM, MAX_BUCK is less than 15.

When buckling responses are considered in an optimization problem, a warning is issued when GBUCK is not defined and auto constraint screening is active.

Design variable references supported for MAT4 and MAT5

Thermal materials MAT4 and MAT5 may now be referenced on DVMREL# cards.

Resolved Issues

PSHELL material Optimization

MID1 is allowed to be not designed while MID2, MID3, and MID4 are.

Maximum Constraint Violation

Composite manufacturing constraints are now included for sizing optimization.

Ply-based composite material definition

For laminates of more than 9 plies, ply orientations are now correctly identified as ply thicknesses by all output routines. Improper printing and crashes when using OUTPUT, SZTOSH no longer occur.

The mechanism used to detect designable properties whose values changed during an optimization no longer fails for negative values (noticeably negative orientations). The output of updated properties to the .prop file is no longer affected.

EXCLUDE option now works for elements referencing ply-based composite material definitions.


Minor correction made in the calculation of pressure sensitivities with direct method.

Corrected sizing sensitvity for thermal loading.

Corrected gravity and centrifugal loading sensitivities on CBARs with pin flags.

Material Sizing

Corrected behavior of DVMREL


Corrected behavior, related to alternative shape optimization algorithm, that was, in some instances, causing the software to crash.


Corrected behavior, related to DLINK2, that was causing the software to crash on HP-UX ia64 platform.

New Features and Enhancements

Metal Extrusion

Bearing friction model

Updates to the bearing friction model to improve friction behavior at the die bearing region based on extrusion data of twenty five different profiles.

Flow stress plots

The H3D result file exported by the solver includes the flow stress data.

Loads on tool surfaces

It is no longer required to include a tool mesh in the analysis to get the loads on the workpiecetool interface for purpose of doing stress analysis using RADIOSS. Even for models with just workpiece, HX will now export the pressure loads on the workpiecetool boundary faces. This file can be used to map the loads on the tool mesh in the HyperXtrude user profile and to do tool stress analysis using RADIOSS.

Strain computation

Modifications to strain computation to account for dead metal zone to eliminate spurious high values in this region.

Viscoplastic friction model

Changes to the viscoplastic friction model improve the accuracy.

Bearing profile

Improvements to bearing profile friction computations improve the accuracy of stick/slip behavior. Exported H3D results file will include weld strength. The HyperXtrude solver compares the pressure and flow stress data to predict this measure.

Weld strength

Nose cone prediction

Profile deformation analysis predicts the nose cone under steady state analysis. However, the standard free surface analysis will be performed for the transient analysis.

Improvements to temperature prediction

Changes were implemented to avoid excessive heating due to stress work in the bearing and profile region.

Files for automatic report generation

The HyperXtrude solver automatically writes a file (*.rpt), which is used by the HyperXtrude user profile for report generation.

Polymer Processing

Roller surface BC

A new boundary condition to model the extruded profile moving on a roller surface moving/rotating at a specified speed has been introduced.

Viscosity plots

The H3D result file exported by the solver now includes the viscosity data.

Residence time

Results computed now include residence time.

Viscoelastic model

Criminale-Ericksen-Filbey model, which uses first and second normal stress coefficients to consider effects of viscoelasticity, has been implemented. This model is well suited for polymer extrusion.


Pressure prediction

A pressure smoothing step has been added to improve the quality of pressure prediction in models made of non-hexahedral meshes.

Resolved Issues

Numerical instability

Numerical instability in solving the energy equation in advection dominated flows is now removed.

Unit conversion error

Unit conversion error in the force balance table has been fixed.