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Typical dispersion calculation provide an

Presented by: Mr. Roger Deo

approximate area affected and the average vapour concentration expected. Calculation require a typical release rate of the gas. The atmospheric conditions ( temperature, pressure, wind velocity, time of day), surface roughness, temperature release diameter
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Vapour Cloud Behaviour

Neutrally buoyant gas Positively buoyant gas Negatively buoyant gas Duration of release Instantaneous release (puff) Continuous release (plume) Time varying continuous
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Gaussian Model
This model describes the neutrally buoyant gas released in the wind direction and the wind speed. Dense gas would be diluted when mixed with the fresh air and the behaviour at a particular distance downwind can then be approximated as a neutrally buoyant model which can then be modeled by the Gaussian plume model for a neutrally buoyant gas.
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Factors affecting models

There are a large number of parameters that affect the dispersion of gases
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Atmospheric stability
Weather condition at the time of release have a major influence. The primary factors are the wind speed and atmospheric stability Stability i S bili is normally classified using six ll l ifi d i i PasquillPasquill-Gilford stability classes A F where A represents the least stable condition and F represents the most stable. stable.
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Atmospheric stability Wind speed Local terrain effects Height of the release above ground Release geometry that is point, line or area source Momentum of the material release Buoyancy of the material

A: Extremely unstable B: Moderately unstable C: Slightly unstable D: Neutral E: Slightly stable F: Moderately stable
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Daytime Insolation

Night time conditions Anytime overcast Heavy >4/8 >3/8 cloud cloudiness Overcast F E D D D F F D D D D D D D D

Pasquill PasquillGilford stability classes

Surface Wind Speed <2 2-3 3-4 34 4-6 >6

Strong A A-B B C C

Moderate A-B B B-C BC C-D D

Light B C C D D

Insolation category is determined from the following table

A: Extremely unstable B: Moderately unstable C: Slightly unstable

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D: Neutral E: Slightly stable F: Moderately stable


Wind Velocity
The wind velocity is important since the gas stream will be diluted with successive waves of air. Significant local variation of wind speed is important due to variation in the terrain. Wind data are normally given at a 10m height this is because it is considerable drop in wind speed due friction with the ground.
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An equation for the wind velocity is given:

u 1 z z = ln + 4.5 z u k L 0
(Equation 51)


u the wind velocity (m/s) u. - the friction velocity constant [empirical] (m/s) K Von Karmon constant (0.41) Zo the surface roughness length parameter (m) Z the height (m) L Monin Obukhov length (m)
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Monin Obukhov length

The length is given by
L = u3 0 . 41 g ( H / T )
(Equation 52)

Relation between the Monin Obukhov length and the stability class
Time and Weather Clear night Wind speed [m/s] <3 3 2-4 Cloudy or windy Any 2-6 Sunny

Description Very stable Stable Neutral Unstable Very Unstable

Monin Obakhov length L [m] 10 50 >100 -50 -10

Pasquill Gilfor stability class F E D B or C A



g acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) T- absolute temperature (K) H the surface heat flux (J/m2)
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Surface parameter roughness factor

Terrain Clasification Terrain description Center of cities very tall buildings very hilly or mountaineous region Center of towns villages fairly level wooded area Area with dense but low buildings, wooded area industrial site without large obstacles Distillation columns with other tall equipment pieces

Surface parameter roughness factor contd

Small refineries Cultivated area Smaller equipment over a smaller area Open area with great overgrowth, scattered houses 0.5

Surface Roughness

Highly urban



Urban Residential area Large refineries


Flat land Open sea

Few trees long grass fairly level grass plains Large expanses of water, desert flats Calm open sea, snow covered flats rolling land

0.1 0.001

Sea 0.0001

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If the 2nd term in equation 51 is set to zero, then a simple and wellwell-known power law relation:
u 1 z = ln u k z 0

Wind speed correction factor for Equ. 54 Power law Atmosphere Coefficient, p PasquilPasquil-Gifford Stability class A B C D E F Urban 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.40 0.60

(Equation 53)

Equation 53 can be further simplified into the following if the power law relation and if the velocity is compared to a velocity at a fixed height

z u s = u 10 10

(Equation 54)

Where p is power coefficient (unitless) which is a function of atmosphere stability and surface roughness
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Rural 0.07 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.35 0.55


Dispersion coefficients
The following graphs are used to determine the dispersion coefficients for a continuous release or plume. Also there are recommended pl me equations for the determination of the dispersion coefficients
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Dispersion coefficient for a continuous release or plume for RURAL release conditions




Dispersion coefficient for a continuous release or plume for URBAN release conditions

Recommended equations for plume model

Rural conditions

0.2Ox 0,12x 0.08x(1 + 0.0002x) -1/2 0.06x(1 + 0.001S-x) -1 0.03x(1 + 0.0003x) -1 0.016x(1 + 0.0003x)


0.22x(1 + O.OOOlx) -I/2 0.16x(1 + O.OOOlx) -I/2 O.lIx(1 + O.OOOlx)-I/2 0.08x(1 + O.OOOlx) -I/2 0.06x(1 + O.OOOIx) -I/2 0.04x(1 +O.OOOIx) -l/2


Urban Conditions
A-B C 0.32x(1 + 0.0004.:) -1/2 0.22x(1 + 0.0004.:) -1/2 0.16x(1 + 0.0004.:) -1/2 O.lIx(1+ 0.0004X) -1/2

0.24x(1 + O.OOlx) -l/2 0.2Ox 0.14x(1 + 0.003x) -1/2 0.08x(1 + O.OOlS-x) -1/2

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Instantaneous release or puff model

Stability classes for puff dispersion

Stability class A B C D E F x ory 0.18x0.92 0.14x0.92 0.10x 0 10x0.92 0.06x0.92 0.04x0.92 0.02x0.89

z 0.60x0.72 0.53x0.78 0.34x 0 34x0.71 0.15x0.70 0.10x0.65 0.05x0.61





Instantaneous release (Puff model) (Puff

Concentration as a function of x, y, z and t
C(x,y,z,t) = 1 y exp 3 2 y (2) 2 xyz G 1 z H2 + exp 2 z

Instantaneous release model

C(x, y,z) - time average concentration (mass/volume) G* - total mass of material released (mass)

x, y, z - dispersion coefficients in the x,y, and z

directions (length) y - cross-wind direction (length) crossz - distance above the ground (length) H - release height above the ground (length)
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1 z +H2 2 z
(Equation 58)

If the coordinate system is fixed at the release point then the previous equation should be multiplied by this factor.
1 x ut 2 exp 2 x u wind speed (length/time)
(Equation 59)

Instantaneous release

Determination of isopleths
The boundary at a fixed concentration can be determined by the following equation
C ( x,0,0,t ) y = y 2 ln C (x,y,0,t )
(Equation 60)


t - time since the release (time) x - downwind direction (length) The factor (x-ut) represents the width of the puff (xDispersion 27

y is the off-centre distance to the isopleth (length) offC(x,0,0,t) is the downwind centreline concentration (mass/volume) C(x,y,0,t) is concentration at the isopleth (mass/volume)
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Determination of isopleths
1. 2.

Specify a concentration, C* for the isopleth Determine the concentrations, C(x,0,0,t), along the x-axis directly downwind from the release. xDefine the boundary of the cloud along this axis. axis Set C(x,y,0,t) = C* in equation 60 and determine the value of y at each centreline point determined in step 2. Plot y values to define the isopleth using symmetry around the centreline.
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This provides a continuous release of material, the solution requires the rate of release, atmospheric conditions and the height above ground
C (x , y , z ) =

Plume model


(2 )

1 y 2 exp 2 y z y u

1zH exp 2 z

1z+H + exp 2 z


(Equation 61)

Where C(x, y,z) - average concentration (mass/volume) G - continuous release rate (mass)

x, y, z - dispersion coefficients in the x,y, and z

directions (length) u wind speed (length/time) y - cross-wind direction (length) crossz - distance above the ground (length) H-release height above the ground level plus plume rise (length)
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Plume model
Where u is the wind velocity, the location of the maximum concentration is found using:

Z =

H 2
z y

(Equation (Eq ti n 62)

And the maximum concentration is:

C max =
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2G e uH 2

(Equation 63)

Determination of the virtual point source

1. Assume that all the dispersion coefficients become equal at the virtual source

2. Assume that xv = yv = zv . Then from equation 64:

G y (x v ) z (x v ) = * uC

(Equation 65)

G y (y v ) = z (z v ) = C uC

( q (Equation 64) )

The determination of the yv, zv are added to the actual downwind distance x, to determine the dispersion coefficient y and z for subsequent computation.
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Then xv is determined by a trial an error approach. The effective distance downwind for subsequent calculations by using equation (61) is determined from (x + xv)

3. For large downstream distances the virtual distance will be negligible and the point source model is used
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Logic Diagram for Gaussian Dispersion

DEFINITION OF SOURCE Release rate of Total Mass Release Elevation Source Type: Point, Line, Area LOCAL INFORMATION Wind Speed, Atmosphere Stability Urban or Rural Terrain Specify Isopleth Concentration

Specify Time Determine Puff Location Calculate Centerline Concentrations Determine Isopleth Location Determine Isopleth Area

Puff or Plume?

Specify Location of Interest: x, y, z Calculate Centerline Concentrations Determine Isopleth Location

Determine Isopleth Area

More Special Steps to Define Cloud Shape?