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Week 1 Causes of food spoilage and food poisoning
This week you will:     Become familiar with the course Answer questions on the week’s information Learn about keeping food safe Complete some practical activities and write reports on them.

Key knowledge  Causes of food spoilage of food poisoning  Safety and hygiene practises to prevent food spoilage and food poisoning

Key skills  Describe and apply relevant safety and hygiene practises in food preparation to prevent food spoilage and food poisoning Have you registered to access the eBook plus and Study On yet? Your teachers will refer you to this throughout each week. Please read the introduction on pages vii – xi of the text for details on how to do this or pages 0.22 – 0.25 of the zero week in this course book.

Study On

E Book plus

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Important key words related to this week’s work.
Remember to make use of the online glossary & audio glossary for further details. We recommend that you complete your own definitions of terms using the online tool. This will improve your understanding of these terms and help you in your recall and correct application of these words / concepts in the assigned tasks.

Denaturation

Permanent structural change of the protein molecules in food. This can occur by application of heat, irradiation, mechanical action and addition of acids and bases. The ability to swallow and process the food that is being eaten. The reaction that occurs when certain fruits and vegetables are cut and exposed to air, which makes them turn brown.

Digestibility Enyzmatic oxidative browning Enzymes

Chemical substances that act as biological catalysts in plants, animals and micro organisms. They bring about and speed up chemical reactions in foods without becoming actually involved in the reaction. Illness cause by bacterial, chemical or biological contamination of food. Reduction of food quality identified by deterioration in the physical, chemical and / or sensory properties. A range of illnesses of diseases, often diet-related that create a level of consumer concern. Combining a food substance with oxygen resulting in a loss of electrons– either a gain in oxygen or loss of hydrogen. Properties where the senses are used to note particular attributes; colour, mouth-feel, texture, flavour, aroma and appearance. Microbiological damage that occur to the original nutritional value, texture, and flavour of food. The food then becomes harmful to people ad unsuitable to eat.

Food poisoning Food spoilage

Health concerns

Oxidation

Sensory properties Spoilage

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Why do we Cook Food?
Food is cooked for a number of reasons. It improves digestibility, taste, appearance, kills microorganisms, delays spoilage and created new food items or new combination foods. For example: 1. To produce food that people will want to eat 2. When food is cooked it is made safe by the destruction of harmful micro-organisms which in turn extends the life of the product 3. Eating and digestion as well as absorption of nutrients are made easier by changes that take place during cooking.

4. Food is tenderised and the cellulose in vegetables is softened. 5. Some foods will become less bulky as the water in it has evaporated.

The flavour of other foods is greatly enhanced.
For example: 1. When potatoes are cooked, a greater variety of texture is added to foods by softening the cellulose structure. 2. In some cases cooking may improve the colour as in green vegetables 3. Aromas that are released from food during cooking such as onions. Cooking onions smell appetising and this increases the flow of digestive juices. 4. By combining different foods, new flavours and textures can be created. This increases the variety of foods and enables a bland food to be turned into a more appetising one.

Google images 14/09/10

Unfortunately, food preparation can prove to be dangerous to consumers so it is essential that food is handled correctly both in the domestic and commercial arenas.

000 people get an illness from food every day in Australia. It may take up to three days or longer after eating contaminated food to become sick. Knowing how food becomes spoiled or contaminated and how to prevent this is an important part of this course (and every household!). diarrhoea. What do you think are the causes of food spoilage and food poisoning? Make a list of five foods that you consider to be high risk. vomiting. Briefly explain why you think this is the case. Later in this week.1. However. Getting Knowledge Ready 1. as a general rule. large numbers of bacteria are required to cause food poisoning. This can range from mild stomach pains. This is usually called ‘food-borne illness’. 2. Over the next few weeks we will learn about the role of the Australian Government through Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) and the uses of world-class standards to try to ensure that food spoilage and food poisoning is kept to minimal levels. Food Spoilage reduction of food quality identified by deterioration in the physical chemical and / or sensory properties Micro-organisms are naturally present in food.4 Food Safety One of the major issues for any food preparation is food poisoning and food-borne illness. you can come back to this list and compare your ideas and see how correct you were. . It’s important to handle food correctly to avoid contamination. A restaurant can be ruined if it has a serious case of food poisoning. Approximately 11. fever and even death.

the chef. processing or storage it is important to follow correct procedures in order to prevent. p3) Read Perraton et al Text Chapter 1 Maintaining safety in Australia pages Chapter 1. eliminate or reduce the possibility of food spoilage occurring.1. 2010.5 Microbial Contamination (spoilage) Getting Knowledge Ready Below is a very easy to follow diagram showing how micro organisms can be transferred. the butcher.2 Microbial contamination and growth pages 11-19 What is food spoilage? Whether it is the farmer. There are three main categories of food contamination or food spoilage:  Microbial contamination (spoilage)  Chemical contamination (spoilage)  Physical contamination (spoilage) . the home cook or the shop assistant in the delicatessen. at all stages of food production. Food spoilage happens when the sensory properties of food deteriorate but it is not contaminated and may therefore not be harmful to eat. Can you think of ways each of these aspects can generate a problem in the food world? Microbiological: the multiplication of microorganisms (Lasslet & Collins. the green grocer.1 Introduction pages 4-10 Chapter 1.

These are naturally occurring. salts. Enzymatic browning is the process where enzymes in plant foods come into contact with oxygen and turn a brown colour. A pathogen will cause food poisoning whereas.1. animals and microorganisms. Microorganisms can be classified as spoilage organism and pathogens. .com/images/Fight_Bacteria_chart. http://www. solvents.foodsafetycertification. (accessed 140910) Causes of food spoilage Food deterioration is caused by enzymic activity within the food.jpg . moist food left at room temperature. moulds viruses and bacteria (Lasslett & Collins. They are proteins or chains of amino acids present in foods. microbial activity and oxidation (the reaction of components with the air). and enzyme concentration. spoilage organisms will cause the deterioration of the product but not necessarily causing food poisoning. They bring about and speed up chemical reactions in foods without becoming involved in the reaction. Enzymes are responsible for the over-ripening and spoiling of foods such as bananas. 2010. Enzymes Chemical substances that act as biological catalyst in plants. The perfect environment for deterioration is exposed. The four major groups of microorganisms that cause problems in the food industry are yeast. cooking.6 Microbiological contaminants are the major spoilage risk factors for all of us! Not only do microbiological contaminants spoil foods. An even more perfect situation is cooked food left to cool for a long period of time. They are affected by temperature. p3). Enzymes appear naturally in food such as fruit which cause fruit to ripen. but they are also a health risk. which cause ripening and deterioration. pH.

yeast can cause spoilage in other products such as tomato paste and fruit juices. Bacteria can be prevented by reducing the moisture content of food.6C.0 to 6.4). cheeses and is very useful in food production but in other instances. This is why it is important not to work with food when sick. p6). which may be caused by bacteria or parasites found in food. Mould is a common cause of food spoilage and is very visible.7 Oxidation is when oxygen reacts with the enzymes in (usually exposed) food and creates browning. 2010. Some moulds are used in the manufacture of food.1. parasites. Moulds are generally easily spotted. e. however. they will grow and reproduce by a process known as binary fission. Yeast can be very important in the production of foods such as bread and in beverages such as beer. they do not cause illness in humans.g. . Viruses do not grow or multiply in food but they survive on food. Microbial activity or the growth of micro-organisms (viruses. and moulds) causes food spoilage or possible poisoning. e. Pathogens are the types of ‘germs’ that cause food poisoning. They are usually destroyed by temperatures above 51.borne viruses are even smaller than bacteria and can only be seen under a microscope. vegetable oil. Bacteria in cheese making are extremely beneficial but some bacteria are harmful to our health. by adding concentrated sugar or salt solutions and heating at the same time.g.au/nova/030/030key.htm Gastroenteritis: An infection or irritation of the stomach and intestines. These are typically spread by the faecal-oral route so personal hygiene and thorough hand washing is essential to prevent them from spreading.science. These are known as pathogenic or diseasecausing bacteria. it is possible for one bacterium to become 262. While yeasts can spoil food. After six hours in optimal conditions. temperatures of around 30C and slight acidity – pH 4.org.3. Viruses passed through food from infected people. rotavirus and Norwalk virus. Also most bacteria cannot survive in acidic conditions below pH 4.g.4 . If bacteria are supplied with food.5 (vinegar ranges from pH 2. it mould can produce toxins that can make people very ill. Their activity is slowed down by refrigeration and freezing.144 bacteria. Having said this. some spores of certain moulds require temperatures of more than 100C to be fully destroyed. Viruses that may be carried on food include hepatitis A. Most moulds favour moisture. Parasites can be found in animal flesh and are destroyed by thorough cooking. (Lasslett & Collins. a cut apple or rancidity. Contaminated foods can transport viruses like hepatitis A and gastroenteritis from one person to another. e. Common examples of food poisoning bacteria are Campylobacter and Salmonella. For details on food safety issues in Australia try the Australian Academy of Science website at: http://www. bacteria. Bacteria cannot be seen with the naked eye but are everywhere around us. water and warm temperatures. Botulism (sometimes fatal) is an illness caused by the poisonous toxic waste produced by bacteria called Clostridium botulinum.0. Food.

Within 8 hours one bacterium can multiply into approximately 17 million bacteria. The above illustration was taken from Heath et al. . 5. Bacteria can cause food poisoning if they have the right conditions! A moist environment Sufficient time to grow A low acid environment Warm temperature 2. especially chicken and then cutting another food. It is very important to keep hot food hot (above 60 °C) and cold food cold (below 4°C).net. 4.safefood. without washing the board is one of the greatest dangers. Cutting raw food. Poisoned food may look just like normal food and may not smell or taste any different. p 23.8 Bacterial growth 1.au for a list of food poisoning bacteria. A food supply – foods such as milk. 2008. Bacteria can double their number every 10 to 30 minutes in the right conditions. cream. meat. Cross-contamination is one of the biggest dangers for food poisoning.1. poultry and rice Many require oxygen (exposure to air) 3. Try the Bug bible on the Australian Food Safety Campaign website at: http://www.

many chemicals are added to food as part of the production process. pests. pesticides. During the growth cycle of foods. Dirt or small objects can find their way into food via transportation of the food. fungicides.1. injury or discomfort.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/shr/lowres/shrn142l. handling and in the home. Manufacturers use chemicals to preserve food. Some chemicals can even find their way into food accidentally. Many plants contain naturally occurring poisons which can cause symptoms such as vomiting. from the farm where they are grow and during processing and manufacturing. These are naturally occurring poisons which that are added to food. Chemical Contamination There are two types of chemical contaminants or spoilage of food.jpg) Causes of food contamination Contamination is the presence of something harmful in food or drink that creates a risk of illness.9 (http://www. . Food can be contaminated by chemicals. Residue from crop spraying can be found on fresh food.cartoonstock. A number of moulds produce toxins (mycotoxins) that stay in the food when the mould is removed. dirt. growth hormones and antibiotics are often uses. chemicals such as insecticides. pets. nausea and headache. diarrhoea. food waste or small objects. Chemicals are used in food production.

food spoilage can occur. processing or storage areas.1. paints etc can all be spread to food during the processing stage. enhance flavour. cleaners. If the maximum levels are exceeded. the quality of these raw materials. Physical Contamination (spoilage) Physical contamination includes all foreign objects or physical matter that should not be present in food. Some chemicals are permitted to be used in the processing of food to preserve it. The types of foreign spoilage than can be found in food is influenced by the types of raw material used. the processing method used and the types of materials found in the food preparation. p 7) Chemicals can also be accidentally added to food during processing: solvents. . inks. Most people at some stage have found something foreign in their food. This will be covered in much more detail in week 2 when we address the roles of FSANZ and AQIS and related regulations.2010.10 (Lasslet & Collins . colour or for nutritional value.

11 SEND WORK FOR SUBMISSION Activity 1.1 Food Contaminants Chemical Contaminants Foreign Contaminants Physical Contaminants 1. How could this result in chemicals accidentally spoiling food? What practices should be adhered to in order to avoid this spoilage? Chemical contaminant How could this accidentally spoil food What practices must be avoided to avoid this spoilage? .1. Chemical Contaminants Think of the cleaning practices that you put into place in the kitchen.

(you may need to suggest multiple practices)  Add another example that you can think of that may pose a common risk to consumer . Foreign Contaminants Make a list of foreign contaminants that could occur in each of the situations below. Eggs from free range farm Canned tomatoes Lasagne made in a restaurant Salad sandwich made at school 3. Physical Contaminants The table on next page lists a variety of common physical contaminants that can and have been found in food. Consider all the stages of production. processing and storage.12 2.1.  Explain the effect of the contaminant on the food handlers and the food consumer  List the possible sources of the physical contaminant  Suggest hygiene practices that need to be put into place to ensure that these food contaminants do not end up in food.

1.13 Contaminant Glass Effect of the contaminant Source of the contaminant Hygiene and safety practices Stone Metal shards Bone Rat Hair Egg shell Glass Rat Plastic Fingernail .

(Perraton. spend between 5°C and 60°C the less are the chances of food poisoning. 2010. it should be kept either below 5°C or above 60°C. Thoroughly wash and dry hands when preparing food. frozen. Cook minced meats. poultry.14 Food Temperature Danger Zone Keep your food in the 'right' zone! A basic rule-of-thumb is to keep ‘high-risk’ foods in the right temperature zone for as long as possible. et al. Keep chilled foods cold at 5°C or colder and hot food hot at 60°C or hotter. When in doubt. or hot foods straight home in insulated containers. Remember the shorter the time foods. food should not be allowed to remain in this temperature zone for any longer than possible. foods past their use-by dates or foods in damaged containers or packaging. food should not be allowed to stay within these temperatures for any longer than is possible. particularly cooked foods.gov. If food is to be served hot after cooking it should be kept above 60°C where most bacteria die. Avoid high-risk foods left in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than 4 hours. Ten easy steps to safe food…           Buy from reputable suppliers with clean premises. Most bacteria that cause food poisoning grow at temperatures between 5° and 60°C. To prevent bacterial growth. Use separate and clean utensils for raw foods and ready-to-eat foods. .health.1.au/foodsafety/rscs/te mperature ( accessed 150910) Reheating should ensure that the Core Temperature (centre) of the food reaches 75°C. Keep high-risk foods out of the Temperature Danger Zone. throw it out. If the food is not to be eaten immediately after cooking. For this reason. This is called is the TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE because this is the temperature range in which food poisoning bacteria is more likely to grow at rapid rates.vic. Take chilled. The same precaution should be taken with fried and barbecued meats. particularly chicken bought from take-away food shops. Avoid leaving high-risk foods in the Temperature Danger Zone http://www. it should be cooled in the refrigerator to below 5°C where bacteria stop growing. p 13) Temperature danger zone is between 5° C and 60°C. fish and sausages thoroughly. Avoid spoiled foods. Keep raw foods and ready-to-eat foods separate. If this type of food is not to be eaten straight away.

 Knowledge Check 1. bread or fruit. List the ways which microorganisms can be transferred Cross-contamination Read Perraton Text Pages 11 . Thermometers are a crucial tool in the food industry as they provide an accurate gauge for food temperature.1 °C. it is essential that these tools are accurate to + / .17 (carefully!) Cross-contamination is one cause of food poisoning. The Food Industry thermometers need to have a range of at least between 100°C and -20°C and they need to be calibrated regularly.1. The other ways that bacteria can be transferred to food are through unwashed hands and equipment. It is important that the thermometer used to take the temperature is accurate. For this reason. Note that the process is not all that difficult but it is an important procedure that needs to be carried out on a regular basis in order to ensure food safety. Read Perraton Text Page 15 Take particular note of the process involved in calibrating a kitchen thermometer. The dirt or bacteria is destroyed in the cooking process for the meat but not for the raw food. surfaces or equipment. Define the term food spoilage.15 Calibrating a thermometer. As you can appreciate. 2. Outline and explain the three types of food spoilage 3. The biggest problem is when dirt from unwashed vegetables or bacteria from uncooked meats touches foods to be eaten raw such as salads. . consumers and in turn the food business concerned. It happens when pathogens are transferred between food. a variation of even only 1-2 degrees can have significant consequences on food safety.

Did you know? Vomiting and diarrhoea are the body’s way of elimination the harmful substances for the digestive tract. p12) Outbreaks of food poisoning Food poisoning is an illness that is brought about as a result of eating harmful foods. Are you surprised by these outbreaks? 2. diarrhoea and abdominal pains or cramps.2010. These can include vomiting.16 Take particular note of the diagram on page 12 of Perraton text which shows why people are the most likely source of contamination either as a healthy carrier or bacteria or as vehicles than transport bacteria from one place to another. Conditions required for microbial growth include Food Moisture levels Temperature range Time Oxygen levels pH (Perraton. This prevents the poisons from entering the blood stream. Read the graph closely.1. Types of food poisoning Infective food poisoning is the result of bacterial or microbes that infect the body’s tissue after the food is eaten. Refer to the 4 case studies mentioned (dot points) 1. A number of symptoms occur as a result of consuming such harmful foods. Read this to become familiar with each of the 5 key types listed. Knowledge Check Read Perraton Text page 5. The main bacteria that infect the body after consumption are  Salmonella  Eschericilia coli ( often referred to as E Coli)  Listeria monocytogenes  Campylobacter The table overleaf provides a comprehensive list of the different sources of food poisoning and the relevant details relating to each. What are the general trends surrounding this issue?  + .

Why is this the case? 3. commercial caterers (12%) and private homes (12%) (Source FSANZ). incubation periods and high risk foods. why? . there is a number of high profile cases of food poisoning to remind us that it really is an issue for those who    Store food Handle food Prepare food Did you know: In 2008 the most common settings in which food poisoning outbreaks occurred were restaurants (43%). Students should try to familiarise themselves with the most significant food poisoning types listed over the page. Getting Knowledge Ready 1.17 Each year in Australia. Take special note of the symptoms. Which type of food poisoning is the most dangerous to humans? 2. Do you think the age of the victim could play a part in this? If so.1.

food. diarrhoea (not vomiting) 1-5 hours 6-24 hours  Vomiting.1. particularly reheated rice. must be cooked thoroughly  Difficult to destroy with normal cooking methods Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus 1-7 hours 6-24 hours Clostridium perfringens A rod shaped bacterium that forms a spore Bacillus cereus  This type of food poisoning has the same characteristics of a toxic and an infective food poisoning  Clostridium perfringens does not produce toxins when it is multiplying at warm temperatures but when the food is eaten the bacteria forms spores and a toxin that causes the food poisoning  Toxic food poisoning 8-22 hours 12-24 hours  Abdominal pains. cats and dogs  Carried by food handlers and spread to food through coughing. cornflour and spices  Not easily destroyed by heat (Lasslett & Collins. sneezing and uncovered wounds  Raw meat  Cross-contamination  Root vegetables or vegetables with soil  Food preparation workers can also carry this in their intestines and it is spread to food through poor personal hygiene Destruction  Readily destroyed by heat  Readily destroyed by heat  The toxin that it produces in food is heat resistant.3 Food Poisoning Infective or toxic Type  Infective food poisoning  Toxic food poisoning Incubatio n period 12-36 hours Duratio n of illness 1-8 days Symptoms  Fever.  Cereal product. occasionally diarrhoea. abdominal pains. therefore. vomiting  Vomiting. abdominal pain. rats. headache. 2010 p 12) .18 TYPES OF FOOD POISONING Table 1. diarrhoea. abdominal pains. diarrhoea Means of access to food  Found in foods of anima origin  Carried by birds. mice.

.2 Listeria Case Study PMI Chart .19 SEND WORK FOR SUBMISSION Activity 1.1. You may want to consider the questions as you complete the chart overleaf Plus: Is there any progress that can be noted in the incidence of Listeria amongst the different groups of people? Minus: What negatives can be identified within the data for particular Listeria affected groups. Interesting: What are some of the things you have learnt about Listeria that you did not know previously. (Many students refer to this as the ‘surprising’ column because of aspects of which they were previously unaware .hence the ‘surprising’ label).

et al.20 (Perraton.1. 2010. p14 ) .

2 Listeria PMI Chart PLUS MINUS INTERESTING .1.21 SEND WORK FOR SUBMISSION 8.

22 Preventing food spoilage and food poisoning When working with food. come into contact with other food.  Immediately wash all implements used in the preparation of raw meat and poultry with detergent and hot water. eliminate or reduce the micro-organisms by thermal processing or hearting. these are enforced by three levels of government. 2010. This will be further covered in week 2 Control Micro-organisms There are three basic means of controlling micro-organisms in food products. Inhibit the growth of micro-organisms by      having a low PH reducing the moisture content reducing the time held in the danger zone adding preservatives storing at a low temperature (Lasslett & Collins.1. . before handling new food.contamination with good hygiene and sanitation practices 3. hygiene. Prevent cross . A plastic or glass chopping board is best for meat.  Wash fruit and vegetables in cold running water. Destroy. sanitation and safety practises must be implemented in order to prevent food spoilage and food poisoning from occurring. freezing or drying 2. p 17) To avoid food poisoning – five basic rules When working with food. knives. or their juices. These are to: 1. Food handlers are legally responsible for ensuing that they follow workplace hygiene procedures. after finishing food preparation and before serving. other implements and bench top wipers for different food types. hygiene sanitation and safety practices must be implemented in order to prevent food spoilage and food posing from occurring Clean it  Always wash hands before starting food preparation. This can be done by using separate chopping boards. Separate it  Prevent cross-contamination by never letting raw meat or poultry.  Keep pets away from food and food preparation areas and equipment.

au/handling. it only slows down their growth.  Refrigerate or freeze cooked food in shallow pans rather than deep pots to allow quick cooling. meat and vegetable salads. This applies particularly to seafood.science.  Refrigerate perishable food as soon as possible after cooking. You may be reluctant to do this but modern refrigerators can cope with the load.  Remember that refrigeration does not kill bacteria.  Keeping dinners 'warm' is not a good idea. desserts and cakes containing cream or imitation cream. Provided the dish is covered you will not frost up the refrigerator. Cool it  Refrigerate raw meat and poultry as soon as possible after bringing it from the shop. Source: http://www.  Serve food to be eaten cold direct from the refrigerator. Cook it  Most pathogenic bacteria don't survive cooking at high temperatures.23 Control temperature  Keep food out of the Temperature Danger Zone. cover and reheat thoroughly to 75°C to kill any bacteria that have survived in the food during cooling and refrigeration.htm . Thaw it in the fridge.au/nova/030/030box04.afisc.  Cook rolled roasts.htm and http://www.foodscience. Keep the temperature above 60°C. minced meats and poultry until there is no trace of pink in the juices. Cook food to an internal temperature of 75°C.  Never thaw frozen meat and poultry at room temperature. or cool and refrigerate.1. quickly under cold running water or in the microwave.csiro.  Place hot food directly in the refrigerator to cool.  If reheating leftovers. rice salads.org.

1. 2. Explain what is meant by ‘temperature danger zone.1. List the 6 conditions required for microbial growth 1. What is the temperature range for the temperature danger zone? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ .24 SEND WORK FOR SUBMISSION Activity 1. You may need to go back over the course work as well as your text book. 5 3. 6.3 Test your understanding Test your understanding by answering the following questions. 2. 4.

Consider what you ate for lunch.1. pasta. Spores may be found in rice.g. chicken Condition causing likely problem Unrefrigerated therefore in temperature danger zone Change required to reduce food risk Use ice pack / thermal lunch bag 5. dried herbs and spices. How might this risk be addressed if you were preparing fired rice for service? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ . List the foods that provide a suitable environment for the growth of micro-organisms and indentify the relevant condition of growth. What could be done to reduce the risk of food poisoning? 4.25 3. Food E.

………….4 About the course (refer to study design material in zero week) This work can be done on a word processor and emailed to your teacher. Unit 3: ………………………………………….25 the ‘Breakdown of coursework and tasks’. Unit ___ Outcome ___………………………………………….% Outcome 3: ……………. …………………………………………………………………………………… What percentage of the final score is attributed to each of the outcomes? Unit 3 Outcome 1: …………….26 SEND SEND STUDENT DECLARATION FROM INTRO WEEK PAGE 0.% Please print your email here in CAPITAL letter ……………………………………………………………………………………….assessed coursework? See page 0. Unit ___ Outcome ___………………………………………………………. Did you complete Food and Technology Unit 1? Did you complete Food and Technology Unit 2? YES YES NO (Circle) NO Which of the outcomes from Units 3 & 4 are determined as school. 2.% Outcome 2: ……………. 3.…………. 4.. Which outcomes in each unit make up the School-Assessed Task? Unit ___ Outcome ___ Unit ___ Outcome ___ What is the SAT comprised of? ……………………………………………………….% Outcome 3: ……………. Unit ___ Outcome ___………………………………………….% Outcome 2: ……………...% Unit 4 Outcome 1: ……………. Unit 4: ………………………………… How are they assessed? 1. .31 WORK FOR SUBMISSION Activity 1.1...………….% The examination: ……………. Unit ___ Outcome ___………………………………………….

Food for VCE Units 3&4. you can approach your local library and see if they carry these references. Food and Technology Units 3 & 4. Similarly. & C.. . If you are home based students. Food & Technology Units 3 & 4. Melbourne. H..Pearson. Melbourne 2010 Heath. The Leading Edge VCE Units 3&4. you should ask school librarians if one or more of these texts can be purchased for your use.27 References used this week and recommended reading Text Perraton G.1... Pearson. Lasslett. 2010 If you are a school based student. Jacaranda. et al. you can request that one or more of these references are purchased for borrowing. & S. H. Food & Technology Harcourt Education. Melbourne. Tully Food Solutions. Tully Food by Design. Cambridge. McKenzie and L. H. G. McKenzie and L. 2010 Boddy. H. Melbourne 2008 Lasslett S. Collins. Melbourne 2007 Heath. 2nd edn . Book 2.

1: Food Contaminants 1. please make sure that you clearly label your work with your  Name. and keep this as your own record.28 Checklist This week. you should have submitted this work to me.  Teacher name  School number (if applicable) This will ensure the work get to the right person as quickly as possible. If you mail your work.2: Listeria Case Study 1.  Unit 3.  END OF WEEK 1 .3 Test your understanding 1. page 0.      Student declaration.4: About the course Please make sure you keep a copy of this work Attach your responses to the cover for the Week and send in for assessment.  DECV number.1.31 1. Please tick the items you have sent.

31 1. SCHOOL NO. please explain why not. or problems with your work that you would like to share with your teacher.2: Listeria Case Study 1. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Use the space on the back of this sheet if you have any questions you would like to ask.3 Test your understanding 1. Please state which ones will be completed next week in the space below.1. STUDENT NUMBER ___________________ SCHOOL NAME _______________________ STUDENT NAME ______________________ 66401 [66401] 1 SUBJECT YEAR/LEVEL TEACHER Food and Technology Unit 3 12 WEEK ________________________ [ZX] PLEASE ATTACH WORK TO BE SENT. 1.29 315 Clarendon Street.1: Food Contaminants.4: About the course * remember all practical reports need to be submitted by the end of week 2. page 0. If you have not included any of these items. SEND Please check that you have attached:      Student declaration. Thornbury 3071 Telephone (03) 8480 0000 FAX (03) 9416 8371 (Despatch) Toll free (1800) 133 511 Fix your student barcode label over this space. NOTE: Please write your number on each page of your work which is attached to this page. .

30 YOUR QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS DISTANCE EDUCATION CENTRE TEACHER’S COMMENTS DISTANCE EDUCATION CENTRE TEACHER .1.

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