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Curriculum Manual 31

CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION : Three Current Models


A. Traditional “Oxbridge”

College
Examples:
Raison
d’etre “By the terms of Queen Margaret’s Charter, this
(Justification >>>> Chair was established for the teaching of
for its Divinity in the University of C ….”
existence)
“The Purpose of this College is to Prepare men and
v women for the Ministry of the Church of E…...”
v
v Requirements: 3 years’ residence under tutors
v for the study of chosen subjects:
Subject: Definitions:
DIVINITY Professor: the principal teacher in a field of learning at a
university or college, in charge of his department
Content: and usually occupying a “chair”.
A. Scripture Fellow: a member of the teaching faculty of a university
B. Doctrine college.
C. History Dean: a college fellow with responsibility for undergrad-
D. Pastoralia uate discipline.
Reader: a lecturer in a university.
v Lecture: (the text of) a discourse on a particular subject
given or read to an audience.
v Tutor: a member of staff responsible for the teaching and
v supervision of a certain number of students.
(Derivation: a “caring for” > to” watch over”.)

Professorships / Lectureships

1. Subject “A” Professor “X”

2. Subject “B” Professor “Y”

3. Subject “C” Lecturer “Z”


v
Course Subjects
Autumn Term (Usually 3 terms to each academic year)
1.
2. etc
Tutors
v Supervise the written work of students
Bibliography
Reading Lists Essays
On Topics in the Field of Study

Annual (or bi-annual) Examinations


on all the Course subjects taught
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Notice in this model the emphasis on:


community living (the requirement for so many years’ residence),
the importance given to the role of the teacher (a hierarchy of teaching staff), including
the mentoring of the students, often in a one-to-one relationship, and
the close relationship between the teacher and his subject (the “chair”* established for a
famous teacher to be able to teach a particular subject).

Analysed in this way, it may seem that this traditional approach gives too much emphasis to the teacher
and the subject he teaches. However, the almost “guru” quality of this form of university education has
stood the test of the time and has produced many remarkable scholars and has been the back-bone of the
intelligentsia for many generations. **.

This traditional model is orientated towards a concept of education as an art. Before we look at an
example of a model orientated towards the complementary concept of education as a science, we shall
consider a more pragmatic model that is orientated towards education considered more as a service
agency for both the individual and the community.

B. Contemporary British

College
Clientele Questionnaire
>>>>>
[sent to churches, former students, church leaders, etc]

V What? – How? – Why? – Where? – When? – Who? etc


V
V
V +
V
V Projection of future Needs
V
V Q: In 10 years time what will be the world scenario?
V
V
V

NEEDS to be met by the Programme


1.
2.
3. etc
Course Subjects
1.
2.
3. etc

* The concept of a university “chair” derives from the Muslim practice of giving religious teaching at the foot of one of the
main columns in a mosque. The Ulema would sit on a small stool (his “chair”) and teach to his students gathered around him.
Perhaps this in turn derived from the Jewish practice of teaching similarly in the synagogue. Thus the apostle Paul once sat at
the feet of Rabbi Gamaliel.

** A book published by Oxford University Press to commemorate Pakistan’s 50 years of Independence reviewed many aspects
of life in Pakistan today. Of the 18 writers who contributed articles, 5 were associated with Cambridge University, a
remarkable testimony to the contribution made by this famous example of traditional university education in Europe.
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C. North American

School
Goals >>>>>>>> Categories of Student Development

v 1.
v 2.
v
v 3.

1 Year Programme 4. 3 Year Programme 4 Year Programme


or: or: or:
5. Bachelor Master’s
Diploma Programme
Programme Programme
6.
Programme Objectives:
Programme Objectives: Programme Objectives:
7.
1.
1. 1.
2.
2. 2.
3.
3. 3.
4. 4.

5.

Designing a Curriculum
to achieve (or support the accomplishment of) the above objectives

Course Subjects
[Preliminary listing]
1.
2. etc

Note: Every COURSE has its own written objectives describing which “piece of the pie” (i.e.
the over-all objectives of the programme) is to be accomplished within the course.
Example:
800 Pastoral Theology 3 Credit Hour Course
Autumn 2000 [3 x 12 = 36 class “hours”]

Course Description
2 – 3 line summary of content. [This will be included in the institution’s Catalogue.]
e.g. The call to…duties of… skills needed…difficulties faced in the pastor’s live, etc.

Course Texts
1.
2.
3. etc
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Course Objectives

1. In this course the student will learn this content…. [Know]


e.g. the duties expected of a congregational pastor
a)
b) etc

2. By the end of this course, the student will be able to perform…


e.g. a celebration of the Lord’s Supper Do]
a)
b) etc

3. By the end of this course the student will understand….


e.g. the nature of a sacrament Understand]
a)
b) etc

4. By the end of this course the student will have developed his / her…
e.g. standard of personal preparedness before leading
worship [Be]
a)
b) etc.
Course Outline

Tues Sept 15th Introduction / Assignments

Thur Sept 17th Definitions

Sat Sept 19 The Call to Ministry

etc

Course Assignments

1. Reading
2. Written Assignment (Essay)
3. Projects – interview 3 pastors about Topic A

Course Grading

1. End of term Exam

2. Term Paper
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MISSION STATEMENTS

The need to be very clear about what we are trying to achieve over-all is now recognised by the secular
world as well as by Christian organisations. Nowadays banks and even CocaCola have their own
mission statement which they share with employee and customer alike.

Actually this is not really a new discovery. European Universities had it before the Reformation. (See
the examples of a College Raison d’etre at the beginning of Section A: Traditional “Oxbridge”.) They
just did not call it their “Mission Statement”!

What is the function of such a statement? What does it set out to do? And what are its characteristics?

The purpose of a Mission Statement is to make clear what is the reason for the existence of the
organisation or institution. For what purpose was it founded? It sets out to state in clear language what
it is trying to achieve. It does not try to describe each and every aspect of its work, nor does it try to
convey its particular ethos or way of doing things. That should be done somewhere else, in an
advertisement, a constitution or a prospectus. The Mission Statement simply states the essential mission
of the organisation.

So a Mission Statement should be short – not more than 4 dozen words, clear – not complicated by
technical language, and memorable. It should also of-course win the approval of all those involved in
the organisation. When Gujranwala Theological Seminary held a Strategic Planning exercise to plan for
the next 5 years, the 20 or so Board members, Faculty and Students involved began by formulating in
groups of five a suitable Mission Statement for the Seminary. When eventually the four working groups
collated and agreed the final Statement there was spontaneous applause as all present together
recognised the essential nature of their Seminary’s work. The wording went as follows:

The mission of Gujranwala Theological Seminary


is to train, develop and equip men and women
called by God
for ordained and other ministries

DISCUSSION
What do you find attractive and compelling about the above Mission Statement?

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What are the various components of this Statement?

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EXERCISE:
1. Write your own Mission Statement for your institution or organisation. (Either do this in small
groups or individually.) Remember to make it brief, clear and memorable.

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2. Now bring your various drafts together and compile an agreed Statement.

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Before we consider next the construction of objectives, let us first compare our thinking with the aims
and ethos of some North American colleges, as expressed in their recruiting advertisements.
Note: These are not Mission Statements, but rather statements of ethos and general approach. They
have the purpose of attracting attention. All the same, they tell us a lot about the institutions concerned!
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SEMINARY PROFILES
Below are extracts of advertisements for various American Seminaries. Taken from a recent issue of
Christianity Today, they illustrate differing emphases in Seminary training. Not all portray an ethos we
necessarily would wish to share, but some could nudge us to further thought about our own goals.

Columbia Biblical Seminary


Dedicated professors who will push you academically,
lead you spiritually,
and give you a rock-solid grounding in God’s Word.
You need to develop the spiritual character that comes
from applying what you learn to your life,
and by being held accountable to a body of believers
through personal discipleship and the highest standards of conduct.
So if you want to have an impact in the world,
choose the seminary that can have the greatest impact on you.
Fuller Theological Seminary
Our professors not only excel in the classroom, but are out there in the world, pastoring
churches, engaging in mission, practising psychology
e.g. Minister of a big church + chaplain to a high school football team. Subject: NT
Work among the poor: Subject: urban mission.
i.e. equally active on campus and in the community.
We practice what we teach.

Wheaton College Graduate School


An educational experience that challenges students
to integrate personal faith with academic disciple.
Providing students with the knowledge and skills
to help build the church,
confront social problems,
and bring a Christian perspective to any endeavour, anywhere in the world.

Beeson Divinity School


We pledge to nurture one another toward full maturity in Christ.
We believe the missionary mandate
should inform every aspect of a theological education.
We commit ourselves to a pattern of theological training which emphasises
The disciplines of the Christian faith,
a life of prayer and worship,
witness and discipleship,
and social compassion with justice and peace.

Denver Seminary
Emphasis on hands-on learning directed by experienced mentors.
Innovative approach to knowing, being and doing.
We borrowed it from the best!

DISCUSSION
Make a List of points in these advertisements (above and on the other side) that appeal to you.
How you could adapt them to your programme? Write a “profile” advertisement for your institution..
PTO
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Haggard Graduate School of Theology


Doctor of Ministry
with an emphasis in spiritual formation.
Start a “change reaction” in your church! – with Richard Foster.
By design, the program allows for new ideas and perspectives.
It takes into account how very individualised ministry can be.
Growth and learning are always reciprocal
- rooted in a solid scriptural foundation,
- tirelessly seeking truth and understanding.

Western Seminary Seattle


Reading is fundamental.
We teach out students to “read” on three levels:
the Bible,
the human soul
and today’s culture.

International School of Theology


You will be personally mentored by faculty.
Helping students apply what they are learning
to their own intimate relationship to God
as well as their current and future ministries
has been a passion of Dr Alan Scholes’ throughout his career.

The Master’s Seminary


‘A young seminary student once asked me what the secret is to a great sermon.
My answer wasn’t what he expected. “Stay in your chair until the hard work is done.”
I stand by that. There’s nothing magical about being an effective student and
communicator of the Bible. Its’ a skill you learn, cultivate, then put to work. God’s
Word deserves nothing less, God’s people need nothing more.’ - John Macarthur

The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary


Most seminaries will have you read good books.
But here at Southern Seminary, you’ll sit in classes taught by the authors.
That’s because professors in our School of Theology are writing
the texts that are setting the pace in theological education.

Alliance Theological Seminary


Students focus on three areas of development.
The Person Phase causes students to establish skills
in understanding the biblical text
and authentically apply it to their lives.
The Church phase gives students a clearer picture
of the nature and mission of the church they are callled to serve.
The Ministry Phase allows student to apply these new perspectives
to specific issues and needs in ministry.
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CONSTRUCTING OBJECTIVES
Suppose we take the over-all purpose of Theological Education to be: “the educational
furtherance of God’s Kingdom”. Upon this basic statement of general intent we could construct more
measurable objectives for each domain.
Cognitive: To be able to list and explain the significance of…
e.g. “10 major tenets of the Christian Faith”;
“4 key teachings of Scripture concerning the Kingdom of God”.
Functional: To be able to perform (in the field)…
e.g. “the preaching to a rural congregation of a sermon on God’s grace that is both
Biblical and contextual.”
“the leading of evening worship in a busti (poor street community).”
Affective: To be able to demonstrate (by behaviour and attitude)…
e.g. “godly concern for a bereaved church member whose unbelieving son
is killed in a road accident and offer counsel with integrity.”
Sapiential: To be able to…
e.g. “in a case of congregational schism (split), interpret Scripture with relevancy
and insight into the purposes of God for his Church.”
“counsel a husband whose wife has recently left him about how to cope with
infidelity in the light of God’s will for his people in marriage.”
A Nursing Example for Course Construction
As an example of how this four-fold approach might be applied to a course, let us look at some
examples of learning objectives in a training course for nursing sisters:
Cognitive domain: Listing and being able to explain aspects of the anatomy, physiology
and medical conditions of a patient.
Functional domain: Enabling junior staff to work well with supervised practice.
Affective domain: Demonstrating care for the self-esteem and morale of the patient.
(Note: in this area the modelling given by the tutor is very significant.)
Sapiential domain: Understanding the patient / doctors / colleagues / maids / superiors;
the nature of the illness and its effects upon the patient.
DISCUSSION
What is the pre-determined goal of our whole training programme?

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What are the main objectives in each learning domain that will, if achieved, enable our students
to reach this end?

Cognitive
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Functional
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Affective
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Sapiential
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