9.2 Maintaining a balance: 1.

Temperature range Background: All organisms are adapted to a particular environment with its characteristic temperature range. The temperature range allows the organism's enzymes to control its metabolism by operating at their optimum efficiency within this range. Some organisms are adapted to live at high temperatures (80 - 100oC) and these are called thermophiles. At the other end of the scale, there are organisms that are adapted to extremely cold temperatures (0-4oC), termed psychrophiles. Most mammals and microbes are adapted to a temperature range 30 - 45oC, averaging around 37oC. The optimum temperature for plants is around 25oC. identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates



Enzymes are biological catalysts. This means that they lower the energy required to start a chemical reaction within a cell but do not get used up by that reaction. Every reaction and process within a cell (metabolism) is controlled by a specific enzyme. Enzymes are globular proteins whose shapes are specialised so that other chemicals (substrates) can form a temporary bond with them. There are two models used to show how an enzyme work: One model used to illustrate the action of an enzyme is the lock-key model. This is where only one small part of the enzyme molecule can form a complex with the substrate. This part of the molecule is called the active site. Only a specific substrate(s) can bond in that site and this makes the enzyme specific to that substrate.


The induced fit model, a more recent modification on the lock-key model, proposes that the active site slightly changes its shape to accommodate the substrate perfectly.

identify the pH as a way of describing the acidity of a substance
y y y y

pH is a scale related to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. A pH value of 0 - 6 indicates an acid solution, where 0 is more acidic than 6, e.g. lemon juice has a pH value of 2, hydrochloric acid has a pH value of 1. A pH value of 7 indicates a neutral solution, e.g. water. A pH of 8 - 14 indicates a basic solution, where 14 is far more basic than 8, e.g. sodium hydroxide (drain cleaner) has a pH of 14, sodium bicarbonate has a pH of 8.

identify data sources, plan, choose , equipment or resources and perform a first-hand investigation to test the effect of: o increased temperature o change in pH o change in substrate concentration on the activity of named enzyme(s)

For this investigation, you need data that will assist you to determine appropriate ways in which each aspect may be researched. Enzymes that could be used include salivary amylase, trypsin and rennin.

Rennin is an enzyme found in the stomachs of young mammals that are still being fed on milk. The rennin 'curdles' or sets the protein in the milk separating it into curds (solids) and whey (liquid).
y y

Plan your investigation using the procedure provided below. When choosing resources, you should be able to buy rennin as a junket tablet from supermarkets.

Procedures to investigate the activity of an enzyme A. To demonstrate the effect of increased temperature: 1. Make a rennin solution by dissolving a junket tablet in distilled water. 2. Add the same amount of rennin solution to a number of test tubes of milk, eg 7 test tubes. 3. Place test tubes in different water baths at temperature ranges such as 0oC, 10oC, 20oC, 30oC, 40oC, 50oC and 60oC. Make sure each water bath is kept at the temperature it has been allocated. 4. Time the interval between adding the rennin and curdling of the milk for each temperature. 5. Note that the variables kept constant in each test tube are the junket solution, the pH of the solution, the type of milk and the quantity of milk in each test tube. 6. Comment on which temperature is the most effective in curdling the milk. Could a different temperature be better?

3. Make a rennin solution the same as was done in A and add pH solution to each with known concentrations of pH solutions from for example pH 3. the enzymes fail to work as efficiently as they should or not at all. explain why the maintenance of a constant internal environment is important for optimal metabolic efficiency y y Enzymes control all the metabolic processes in the body. Add the same amount of rennin solution to each test tube of milk. and the quantity of milk in each test tube. the temperature of 37oC. This allows the enzyme's optimal conditions to be met and the body to work efficiently and kept as stable as possible. Note that the variables kept constant in each test tube are the junket solution. 6. C. the type of milk. To demonstrate the effect of change in pH: 1. Place in a water bath kept at a constant temperature of 37oC. 2. Place in a water bath kept at a constant temperature of 37oC. 3. explain that homeostasis consists of two stages: o detecting changes from the stable state o counteracting changes from the stable state Background . water and salt concentrations. To demonstrate the effect of change in substrate concentration: 1. Time the interval between adding the rennin and curdling of the milk. 5. 4. pH. 2. pH 7 and pH 8. At temperatures and pH values other than the optimum. Comment on which pH is the most effective in curdling the milk. pH 5. the temperature of 37oC. 5.B. 6. recognising where and when modifications are needed and analysing the effect of any adjustments that you make. such as temperature. This includes conditions. gas levels. Time the interval between adding the rennin and curdling of the milk in each test tube. pH 4. Note that the variables kept constant in each test tube are the type of milk. describe homeostasis as the process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment y Homeostasis is the process by which the internal environment is kept within normal limits regardless. of the external environmental conditions. Add the same amount of rennin solution with the varying pH to six test tubes of milk. 4. Make different concentrations of the substrate by diluting the milk using different amounts of powdered milk to get different concentrations. Enzymes work optimally in an environment where their optimum temperature and pH conditions are met. and the quantity of milk in each test tube. Should smaller increments of milk concentrations have been used? y Perform the investigation by using the procedures above and carrying them out. pH 6.

analogies. process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to develop a model of a feedback mechanism Background The body has some effective mechanisms to alter body temperature. y y A receptor detects a change in some variable in the organism's internal environment. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord and the PNS consists of the sensory nerves and the effector nerves. sweat glands. y y y Gather samples of feedback mechanisms from biology texts. When the environmental temperature begins to exceed a comfortable level for the body. Nerve impulses pass this information from the receptors to effector neurons then onto effectors. Analyse and use the information to design a creative model to represent a feedback mechanism. heat can be expelled by sweating or radiation of heat from the skin. If receptors in the skin detect heat. e. If a mechanism is activated. for example. they relay information via the nerves to the hypothalamus. This triggers the sympathetic nervous system to dilate skin capillaries and activate sweat glands. These responses can be activated by heat receptors. Process the samples to identify the common elements of each system. the body can respond by shivering or by contracting the skin. Evaluate the validity of your sources by checking the reputation of the sources and by looking to see how consistently the information compares. or it might be a conceptual model. activate the sympathetic nervous system to shut down skin capillaries and sweat glands and activate food metabolism in the liver to produce heat. . the body must have some way of detecting stimuli that indicate a change in the body's internal or external environment. are used. The model might be a physical model. based on an analogy. To increase heat. An appropriate response occurs that counteracts the changes and thus maintains the stable environment. temperature sensors in the skin detect the temperature change and a sensory neuron conducts a nervous impulse to the hypothalamus found in the brain. from scientific journals or from the Internet. such as the operation of a thermostat in a refrigerator or an air conditioning system. To reduce temperature.g. If skin temperature is still low. the hypothalamus may activate thyroid hormones to increase metabolic rate. may be based on a see-saw action. In this way. sensory neurons in the skin pick up a decrease or increase in temperature of air surrounding the body. Often. it will operate until receptors indicate that the optimum temperature has been reached. When receptors in the skin detect a low temperature. outline the role of the nervous system in detecting and responding to environmental changes y The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). gather. a negative feedback mechanism is activated to stop the original action. which also contains receptors sensitive to the heat of passing blood. shivering to generate heat in muscles. the body can maintain a stable body temperature. endocrine glands and muscles. for example. such as blood vessels.For a state of homeostasis to exist.

Describe adaptations or responses of the organisms that assist temperature regulation. . Below 0oC. IUCN (The World Conservation Union). the great majority of living organisms are found in the . where skin is thinner. All invertebrates and fish. so that heat can be easily dumped to the outside. USA Crocodilian Biology Crocodile Specialist Group Website. Endotherm or ectotherm Adaptation or response to temperature regulation Australian organism compare responses of named Australian ectothermic and endothermic organisms to changes in the ambient temperature and explain how these responses assist temperature regulation Endotherms y y In hot conditions.identify the broad range of temperatures over which life is found compared with the narrow limits for individual species y Life. and blood supply is closer to surface. and the alpine pygmy possum (alpine dweller) Ectotherms derive most of their body heat from their surroundings. Museum of Zoology. Some sites to get you started are: A land of lizards University of Texas. cells risk ice crystals forming in them and above 45oC. in some form. The large ears of the rabbit-eared bandicoot provide a large surface area to pass excess heat when it is burrowing during the heat of day and when it is active at dusk. analyse information from secondary sources to describe adaptations and responses that have occurred in Australian organisms to assist temperature regulation Background Endotherms derive most of their body heat from cell metabolism. Michigan. the rabbit-eared bandicoot (desert dweller). Australian endotherms include: the kangaroos and the platypus (temperate regions). can be found at extremes ranging from . proteins within cells may denature. Evaporation from saliva promotes the loss of heat from the blood. Species Survival Commission y You can analyse the information by designing a table like the one below.2oC to +40oC range and for each individual species the range is even narrower. Mammals and birds are endothermic animals. Austin. Ann Arbor. Australian ectotherms include the blue-tongued lizard. However.40oC to +120oC. Texas. the green tree frog and barramundi. the red kangaroo licks the inside of its paws. USA Alpine Pygmy possum University of Michigan. reptiles and amphibians are ectothermic.

A watery medium Background: Blood is the transport medium of mammals. each containing an iron atom. Antarctic ice fish produce antifreeze (glycoproteins) that prevent ice formation. They are much smaller than white blood cells and more numerous. extracellular ice formation causes dehydration. This process involves reducing the temperature of body fluids below their usual point of freezing and as a result. a complex protein molecule consisting of four polypeptides. They contain the protein haemoglobin. Insects in alpine areas.Ectotherms y y y y Magnetic termites (Amitermes meridionalis) pack the walls of their mounds with insulating wood pulp and align their mounds north-south to maximize exposure to the sun in the mornings and evenings when the air is cooler and to minimize exposure during heat of day. tend to be smaller. . ice crystals do not form and destroy the cells. as a rule. As many important enzymes that are involved in photosynthesis and respiration are embedded in plant membranes. It maintains the internal environment of all organs as it supplies material to every cell in the body and removes the unwanted substances that cannot be allowed to accumulate in cells. From the Preliminary course. The iron atom has an affinity for oxygen molecules. Bogong moths are able to avoid their bodies freezing by supercooling their tissues. When haemoglobin is combined with an oxygen molecule. Red blood cells are unique in that they do not contain a nucleus and have a biconcave shape. plants have to develop a compromise between access to gases for photosynthesis and access to gases for respiration by keeping their stomates open and cooling by evaporation. Some plants can tolerate freezing temperatures as low as . recall that blood consists of 55% plasma. In cold conditions.2 Maintaining a balance: 2. The other components of the blood are red and white blood cells and platelets. identify some responses of plants to temperature change y y y Plants can be damaged at temperature extremes when enzyme structures are altered or membranes change their properties. extremes of temperature can be a major problem. darker and use basking behaviours to absorb what heat is available. In hot desert conditions.50oC by altering their solute concentrations and through the lack of ice-nucleating sites in cells to prevent intracellular freezing. 9. Plants carry dissolved mineral nutrients in the xylem vessels and carry food (mostly glucose) in phloem tubes. This risks dehydration of the plant. it is called oxyhaemoglobin. a straw-coloured liquid of which 90% is water.

are transported in the plasma. Lipids are carried with phospholipids and cholesterol in a protein coated package called a chylomicron. To gather information to estimate the size of blood cells. If you don't have a grid slide. you will have to learn an appropriate technique for estimating. Note what size each grid is and when you focus the slide. count the number of grids across the diameter of the field of view. Oxygen attaches itself to haemoglobin in the red blood cells. becoming a complex called oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2 ). Some is attached to haemoglobin molecules in red blood cells and a small percentage is transported in plasma as dissolved CO2. making sure you take readings of the initial pH of the distilled water. perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the pH of water y Perform your investigation. If there is part of one grid. amino acids and various vitamins.identify the form(s) in which each of the following is carried in mammalian blood: o carbon dioxide o oxygen o water o salts o lipids o nitrogenous waste o other products of digestion y y y y y y y Most carbon dioxide enters the red blood cells and is combined with water to form bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). Basic procedure Using a data logger with a pH probe. Other products of digestion. perform a first-hand investigation using the light microscope and prepared slides to gather information to estimate the size of red and white blood cells and draw scaled diagrams of each y y y To perform this investigation. Revise how to focus the microscope using low power (LP) first and then going to high power (HP). use a plastic ruler so you can see the millimetre lines under the microscope. you need to go through the steps for using a light microscope that you learned in the Preliminary course. put it on the stage of the microscope and focus the microscope on low power. This experiment can also be performed using universal indicator paper and an indicator colour chart to estimate the pH at various stages of the experiment. Salts are carried as dissolved ions in the plasma. Liquid water is the solvent making up 90% of the plasma. The nitrogenous wastes (urea. such as sugars. take readings of the change in pH of 100 mL of distilled water as exhaled air is bubbled through it over a two-minute period. If your school has a grid slide. estimate what . uric acid and creatinine) are dissolved in blood plasma.

5 mm. The human body adapts to what is effectively oxygen deprivation by initially increasing heart rate. If the grids are one millimetre apart. The diameters of the low and high power fields are inversely proportional to their magnification. At high altitudes. breathing rate. Look for larger cells with clearly defined and stained nuclei and draw several. Helsinki. A good source of information on the components of blood is the Australian Red Cross. Most of the oxygen is carried by haemoglobin in the red blood cells. analyse information from secondary sources to identify the products extracted from donated blood and discuss the uses of these products Background When blood is donated. blood is not able to absorb as much oxygen as at sea level. are impaired. then turn to HP and see if you agree with the first estimate. you see less in the field of view. such as oxygen carrying capacity. Blood Bank Service web site: Different Donation Types Australia . then density of capillaries. Thus. the presence of haemoglobin in red blood cells in blood increases the blood's capacity to carry oxygen. Red blood cells in a blood vessel Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science (BECS) Centre of Excellence in Computational Complex Systems Research. so if you saw twenty cells across the diameter under LP. you will see one quarter of the field that you saw in HP than you saw in LP. you might estimate that the diameter of the LP field of view is 1. or where more than 20% of blood has been lost and there is a decrease in blood pressure. it can be used almost immediately as whole blood or it can be separated into its components. estimate the size using the above method. browse over the field looking for some white blood cells. which is 1500 m. Once you have drawn a few red blood cells. Finland Blood cells Wadsworth Center. The net effect is that these organisms are more effective operators in a given environment than their competitors. Draw a scale bar to indicate the size of the cells. Organisms with blood (containing haemoglobin) are able to deliver oxygen to cells more efficiently than other organisms with blood that has no haemoglobin. then the number of red blood cells (more haemoglobin). Once you have focused on some red blood cells under LP.y y y fraction it is. New York State Department of Health explain the adaptive advantage of haemoglobin y y Oxygen is not very soluble in water and so cannot be carried efficiently dissolved in the blood plasma. Whole blood is given to patients where major functions of the blood. Draw several cells and draw a scale bar. you would see approximately five of the same cells under HP. When you go from LP to HP. If your LP magnifies 100X and the HP magnifies 400X.

FFP contains all coagulation factors in normal amounts and is free of red cells. USA 2007. (These website were last accessed 2 June 2009). Information from an organisation. is likely to be more reliable than information from an individual who is not affiliated to any organisation. RBCs may also be used to help replace cells lost following significant bleeding. Some blood products Red blood cells (RBCs) RBCs help patients who need to be able to carry more oxygen. analyse information from secondary sources to identify current technologies that allow measurement of oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide concentrations in blood and describe and explain the conditions under which these technologies are used. Factor XIII and Factor VIII when no other option is successful. fibrinogen. Some countries may be ahead of other countries so making . You will also need to describe and explain the conditions under which the different technologies are used.Uses of blood can be found at Science clarified . It is used for patients who require immediate clotting effects. y Analyse the information so that it fits under the headings Products of blood and Use of the product. like the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists. University of Oxford. y Analyse the information to make a generalisation about current technologies being used. Platelet concentrate Platelets are essential for the coagulation of blood and are used to treat bleeding caused by conditions or diseases where the platelets are not functioning properly. The Internet is more likely to carry information about current technologies than reference books. replacement of the clotting proteins. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) FFP is used mainly to provide blood components that coagulate the blood. Here is a place to begin. Scroll down to Separation of blood components. white blood cells and platelets. Cryoprecipitate anti-haemophilic factor Cryoprecipitate AHF is a concentrate of clotting proteins and is used for the treatment of von Willebrand disease (similar to haemophilia). The information from the Internet will come from different countries. UK (This site last accessed 12 June 2008) Assess the reliability by comparing with information from different sources. such as those undergoing warfarin therapy (blood thinning) or when massive transfusions have taken place. Pulse oximetry Nuffield Department of Anaesthetists.

there was nothing to replace donor blood. there is no guarantee that something similar to the HIV crisis will not occur in the future. analyse and present information from secondary sources to report on progress in the production of artificial blood and use available evidence to propose reasons why such research is needed Background Blood transfusions have been the subject of medical research for centuries. Monitoring oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration One method used by hospitals to monitor blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in patient's blood is to use a pulse oximeter. In the early 1900s. making donor blood much safer. you will need to keep in mind the above point about reliability. When moving through a membrane.generalisations will avoid the problem of some information contradicting other information. which include the history. such as HIV and hepatitis. The sensor emits a light signal that passes through the skin. However. there was little interest in artificial blood as there did not seem a great need. With the transmission of the virus during transfusions. successful transfusions were carried out as an understanding of blood components were understood. Sensitive screening tests have now been developed for potential infective organisms. Furthermore. Pulse oximetry is used to monitor the level of oxygen in a person's blood during heavy sedation or anesthesia. artificial breathing machine. civil and international conflicts and natural disasters. and transmits the information to the pulse oximeter. Another method of analysing blood gases is with arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis machines. The colour of the blood changes according to the amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the blood. current research and uses of artificial blood substitutes in blood transfusions. A reading is given in a percentage form. An Internet search on artificial blood will provide links. earlobe or toe. A cable connects the sensor to the pulse oximeter machine. although they are still not ready for widespread use. This device is also used when a person is on a ventilator. The sensor measures the amount of light absorbed as it passes through the tissue and blood. so artificial blood became a priority for research. in sleep laboratories. Some sites you could start with are: Artificial blood Royal Society of Chemistry 2011 . A small clip with a sensor is attached to the person's finger. when checking the body's response to different medications or to monitor a person with asthma or who is having trouble breathing. Blood that is high in oxygen is bright red while blood low in oxygen is a darker colour. during stress testing. Better blood substitutes are still needed. Up until the HIV crisis in the 1980s. These can measure the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a sample of blood by monitoring the rate of diffusion of these gases through artificial membranes which are permeable to these gases. oxygen in the blood produces an electrical current while carbon dioxide changes the pH of the solution. There is a continuing shortage of donor blood to help the victims of emergencies. There are now available safe and effective blood substitutes for certain applications.

In the pulmonary system. Blood travels in the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle to the lungs where carbon dioxide is released into the alveoli of the lungs. smooth muscle to contract the vessel and connective tissue to allow for expansion. oxygen is delivered to the cells and carbon dioxide is picked up. Veins carry blood back toward the heart. except the lungs. You could present the information as a speech to fellow students. and as this blood circulates in capillaries. as they have to allow diffusion of materials through their wall to reach the cells found in the tissues in which the capillary is located. are also picked up from the liver and transported in the blood to the kidneys. This saves time and allows on-the-spot transfusion. Why research on artificial blood is needed Some advantages of artificial blood could include the following: y y y Pasteurisation could be used to remove all pathogens. Artificial blood can be stored for more than one year. There would be no need for cross-matching and typing as the artificial blood contains no blood-group antigens. carbon dioxide is decreased and oxygen levels increased. compared with about one month for donor blood using standard methods. Use the available evidence to propose reasons why research on artificial blood is needed. smooth muscle and connective tissue. Blood flowing to the small . consider the two types of artificial blood. describe the main changes in the chemical composition of the blood as it moves around the body and identify tissues in which these changes occur y y y The blood circulates through two systems in the body: the pulmonary system and the systemic system. In your analysis. Other waste products. the layers are not as thick. They have thick. In the systemic system. The veins also contain valves that prevent the backflow of blood. Arteries do not pump blood. blood flows from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. but elastic walls.Perflurochemicals y Wikipedia y y Analyse the information you have gathered to identify examples of the interconnectedness of ideas concerning artificial blood. Oxygen is picked up from the alveoli and diffused into the red blood cells to then be taken back to the heart. However. Capillaries have walls that are only one endothelium cell thick. one based on chemically modified haemoglobin and the other based on perfluoroorganic compounds. Veins have the same three layers as the arteries: endothelium. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. capillaries and veins in relation to their function y Arteries carry blood away from the heart under high pressure and so must have a structure that can withstand the pressure. So via the pulmonary system. blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body. compare the structure of arteries. They carry the same quantity of blood as the arteries but not at the same high pressures. This is then ultimately released out of the body. and then returns. such as urea. made up of three tissue layers: endothelium as a lining.

At normal levels. it prevents a build up of carbonic acid. without tearing the plant material. while looking under the LP magnification of your microscope. By removing excess carbon dioxide. decide what is an appropriate stain. from roots toward leaves. outline the need for oxygen in living cells and explain why removal of carbon dioxide from cells is essential y y Cells require oxygen in the process of respiration: Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy (in the form of ATP) Carbon dioxide is a waste product and must be removed to maintain the normal pH balance of the blood. You may choose to stain the material. and therefore increasing breathing rate and depth. Glucose is circulated in the blood stream to all cells in the body for respiration. y Xylem: The transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism is currently the theory that accounts for the ascent of xylem sap. describe current theories about processes responsible for the movement of materials through plants in xylem and phloem tissue Background From your Preliminary course. in particular sugars. If so. Gather first-hand data by drawing the samples. Phloem transports organic materials. Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart via the inferior and superior vena cava. you should recall that the transport system in plants involves phloem and xylem. choose equipment or resources to perform a first-hand investigation to gather firsthand data to draw transverse and longitudinal sections of phloem and xylem tissue y y y y y Talk to your teacher to help you decide which are the best plants to use for this activity. Cohesion is the ³sticking´ together of water molecules so that they form a continuous stream of molecules extending from the leaves down to . The instruments you choose will depend on their availability at school. (after excess removal of carbon dioxide) the carbon dioxide bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) equilibrium is an important mechanism for buffering the blood to maintain a constant pH. It is better to draw just a few cells and do them as accurately as possible than draw many cells that don't show clearly the differences between xylem and phloem vessels. Put the cut pieces in water. then mount them on a slide. which causes the lowering of the pH.intestines collects the products of digestion and transports them to the liver. Perform the investigation by doing transverse and longitudinal cuts on stems of the chosen plants. This sap is mainly pulled by transpiration rather than pushed by root pressure. which should include sharp instruments so you can do a clean cut. Carbonic acid forms when carbon dioxide dissolves in water. Xylem transports water and mineral ions upward only. Cover the slide with a cover slip. up and down to where the material is needed or for storage. One way of doing this is to embed the plant in material like a carrot or potato or if available in wax. Obtain the plants by students bringing them from home or if necessary obtain them from a nursery. Choose appropriate equipment.

where sugar is taken to be used or stored. Water pressure is now raised at this end of the tube. . 9. it flows at the same rate as the water. water and waste products Background information: Plants and animals carry out the normal functions for living on a daily basis. they could kill the organism. use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products y Use the diagram below as a visual resource to identify the regions of the kidney. This is passive transport. y y Before starting. perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection. Water molecules also adhere to the cellulose molecules in the walls of the xylem. Sieve tubes between phloem cells allow the movement of the phloem sap to continue relatively unimpeded. The building up of pressure at the source end. it leaves the phloem tube. As sugar is dissolved in the water. Gases.y the roots. If these wastes aren't disposed of. such as a sheep's kidney. causes water to flow from source to sink. These metabolic reactions are chemical reactions that accumulate wastes.g. Step 3: At the sugar sink. in plants. The model has the following steps. If a mammalian kidney. pulling the stream of molecules continuously along.2 Maintaining a balance: 3. Phloem: The pressure-flow mechanism (or Source to Sink) is a model for phloem transport now widely accepted. the next molecule moves upwards to take its place. leaving by osmosis and thus the water pressure in the tube drops. Water follows the sugar. Step 1: Sugar is loaded into the phloem tube from the sugar source. As water molecules are removed by transpiration in the leaf. e. Carry out a risk assessment by listing any potential dangers involved in this procedure and then say how you will avoid these dangers. they require gases such as oxygen for respiration and. the leaf (active transport) Step 2: Water enters by osmosis due to a high solute concentration in the phloem tube. is available. perform a dissection of it. Florida. or use the models provided on these Internet sites. To do this. carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Lauderdale. consider safe working practices. Video of kidney dissected USA Broward Community College Ft. and the reduction of pressure at the sink end.

Many molecules and all ions important for the life of the cell are carried in an aqueous solution and these diffuse to reaction sites through the water in the cell. urea and uric acid. particularly nitrogenous wastes that are the by-products of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids. If they are not removed their concentration in the cell increases. Most cells die when the water content is changed significantly. It is critical for proper functioning of these reactions that the amount and concentration of water in the cell be kept constant. It is the waste product of most aquatic animals. interfering with normal metabolic activity. Ammonia is the immediate product of break down of amino acids ² no energy is . ammonia. explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function y y Water is the solvent for metabolic reactions in living cells. Nitrogenous wastes have the ability to change the pH of cells and interfere with membrane transport functions and may denature enzymes. use available evidence to explain the relationship between the conservation of water and the production and excretion of concentrated nitrogenous wastes in a range of Australian insects and terrestrial mammals Background The following provides general information for the waste products. Metabolic wastes are the product of metabolic reactions.y Identify the parts of the kidney using the diagram above as a guide. explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity y y Metabolic wastes. either by diffusion or in very dilute urine. are toxic to cells and must therefore be removed quickly. including many fish and tadpoles. Metabolic reactions within the cell can occur only in solution where water is the solvent. This inhibits the reactions that produce them. Ammonia is very toxic and must be removed immediately.

Organism Terrestrial Waste or aquatic product(s) spinifex hopping mouse of Central Australia terrestrial urea in a concentrated form Explanation The animal lives in a very arid environment. It is a source of water loss for these species. It drinks very little water and excretes urea in a concentrated form.required to make it. It is highly soluble in water. This allows them to survive in very arid environments Insects are covered with a cuticle impervious to water. so that water can be conserved. but being less toxic than ammonia. However. many reptiles. Urea is toxic. but 10 000 times less toxic than ammonia. It is thousands of times less soluble than ammonia or urea and has low toxicity. It is highly soluble in water and diffuses rapidly across the cell membrane. sharks and some bony fish. it needs large quantities of water to be constantly and safely removed. insects and land snails. It is a more complex molecule than urea so it requires even more energy to produce. and some other terrestrial animals. It is the waste product of mammals. so it can be safely stored in the body for a limited time. which means that little water is expended to remove it. terrestrial wallaroo (Macropus robustus) concentrated urine Insects terrestrial uric acid . It is the waste product of terrestrial animals such as birds. but also of adult amphibians. Euros have a very efficient excretory system that recycles nitrogen and urea to make a very concentrated urine. so can be safely stored in or on the body for extended periods of time. They conserve water by producing a dry paste of uric acid. Uric acid is less toxic than ammonia or urea. it can be stored in a more concentrated solution and so requires less water to remove than ammonia. Ammonia does not diffuse quickly in air. Euro. It is made from amino acids but requires more steps and energy to make than does ammonia. This is a great advantage for survival.

uric acid is produced. Maryland. which is a dry urate waste requiring no water to remove and with low toxicity so that it can be kept in the body for long periods of time. Euro University of Michigan. USA (These websites last accessed 22 December 2005. such as the Bilby (Macrotus lagotus).) analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals. marine fish and freshwater fish. Use available evidence to examine cause and effect relationships such as the lack of water and the production of water-efficient waste removal and use this to write an explanation of the relationship between the conservation of water and the production and excretion of concentrated nitrogenous wastes in a range of Australian insects and terrestrial mammals. USA y Estrella Mountain Community College. marine fish and freshwater fish Some summary information is provided in the box below. an adaptation for conserving water. Excretory system of different animals Arizona. such as the table below. Excretory product and concentration Environmental reason Type of organism terrestrial mammal marine fish freshwater fish y Analyse the information by making generalisations about urine concentration of terrestrial mammals. Port Augusta. More commonly. . Find out how a range of Australian insects and terrestrial mammals excrete nitrogenous wastes. USA Mulgara The Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden. South Australia Kowari Animal Info. Australian terrestrial mammals that live in predominantly arid areas.y y There is a fine balance between the use of water to remove nitrogenous wastes and conservation of water in the body. Avondale. Here are some starting points. Some insects excrete ammonia as a vapour across the body surface rather than as a solution of urine. must produce very concentrated urine and tolerate high levels of urea in their systems. Present the information through use of an information organising device.

It plays a central role in homeostasis.e. This helps conserve water and excrete the excess salt they gain from their hyperosmotic environment. i. Freshwater fish The freshwater environment is hypo-osmotic to the internal environment of fish. o In freshwater fish. not the nitrogenous wastes. It maintains the precise balance between waste disposal and the animal's needs for water and salt. The marine environment in which the fish lives is hyperosmotic to the internal environment. the kidneys excrete small quantities of isotonic (same concentration as sea water) urine. . relying on random movements of molecules. explain why the processes of diffusion and osmosis are inadequate in removing dissolved nitrogenous wastes y Diffusion and osmosis are both examples of passive transport. This results in an osmotic gradient in which water is gained by the fish from the environment without drinking and salts are lost by diffusion. Osmosis only deals with the movement of water and thus would only allow water to move out of the body. i. Marine fish The loss of water to the external environment is a problem that all marine fish must deal with. o In marine (salt water) environments.e. forming and excreting urine while regulating water and salt concentration in the blood. Ions are excreted by specialised glands. the kidneys work continuously to excrete copious quantities of dilute urine. marine fish and freshwater fish Terrestrial mammals Terrestrial mammals must work to find water and they are surrounded by air into which water quickly evaporates. This results in an osmotic gradient in which water is lost from the fish to the environment while ions are gained by diffusion. The role of the kidney in fish is dependant on the environment of the fish. which also has a very low salt concentration. Diffusion is too slow for the normal functioning of the body and does not select for useful solutes.Summary: Differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals. Water conservation is of prime concern and these animals cannot excrete large quantities of water for the removal of metabolic waste. there is a higher salt concentration in the water than inside the cells. there is a lower salt concentration in the water than inside the cells. This helps to remove excess water gained from the hypo-osmotic environment. Ions are absorbed in the gut and by active uptake across the gills. identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals y y The kidney is an organ of the excretory system of both fish and mammals.

. Water. Both diffusion and osmosis are examples of passive transport. when a salt moves to an area of high salt concentration from an area of low salt concentration. water returns via the interstitial fluid from the tubule to the capillary in the process of osmosis. amino acids and vitamins are all small enough to be moved into the glomerular filtrate. the ions in the blood (Na . HCO3.5 L per hour. The chemical composition of the body fluids is precisely regulated by the control of solute reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. K+. If no water were reabsorbed human would soon dehydrate. In some cases. + o Active transport: Depending on their concentration. Cl. Passive transport involves no expenditure of energy as the materials follow the natural concentration gradient. process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare the process of renal dialysis with the function of the kidney y y Gather information on renal dialysis using books and digital technology. The reabsorption of the ions Na+. active transport is required..occurs at different rates depending on feedback from the body. Blood cells and proteins are too large to be removed. ions (Na+. In the mammalian kidney. You could use a table like the one following.distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney y y Active transport involves an expenditure of energy on the part of the organism.e. This filtering process is non-selective and therefore many valuable components of the blood must be recovered by reabsorption.e. usually because the substance is moving against the concentration gradient. Ca2+. All glucose molecules. o Passive transport: Once filtration has occurred in Bowman's capsule. explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition y y y y Filtration of the blood occurs in Bowman's capsule where high blood pressure in the glomerulus forces all small molecules out of the blood into the capsule. K+. urea. movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Process the information by comparing the dialysis machine with the kidney and matching the parts of the dialysis machine to the structure of the kidney. although the kidneys do not regulate their concentrations. Water is reabsorbed in all parts of the tubule except the ascending loop of Henle. Cl. Some poisons and certain drugs are eliminated from the body in this manner. H+ and HCO3) can be transported to cells in the nephron tubule and then secreted by the cells into the tubule. This occurs along the length of the tubule. both active and passive transport processes occur. including the Internet.). loop of Henle and distal tubule.. Cl. K+. i. losing water at a rate of around 7. gather. Reabsorption takes place selectively at various points along the proximal tubule. Ca2+ and HCO3. The amount of water reabsorbed depends on feedback from the hypothalamus. i. glucose. amino acids and most vitamins are recovered.

as in the nephron. Its function is to regulate the transfer of sodium and potassium ions in the kidney. Water then flows from the nephron into the blood by osmosis. sensors in the heart cause the hypothalamus to reduce the production of ADH in the pituitary. the hypothalamus causes the pituitary to release ADH. This results in a lower blood volume and larger quantities of more dilute urine. The artificial tubing allows only water and small solute molecules to pass through it into a dialysing solution that surrounds the tube. and. The machine continually discards used dialysing solution as wastes build up in it. the dialysis machine separates molecules from the blood removing some and returning others. Information from Davita.Dialysis machine artificial tubing dialysing solution Kidney Nephron distal tubule y Analyse the information by determining the outcomes of the dialysis process and showing whether the kidney is more efficient at osmoregulation and excretion than the dialysis machine. . such as bicarbonate ions (HCO3. When sodium levels are low. As the blood circulates through the dialysis tubing. like the nephrons of the kidney. decreasing the amount of water reabsorbed in the kidney. outline the role of the hormones. Those substances needed by the body.) diffuse from the dialysing solution into the blood (reabsorption). Two healthy kidneys filter the blood volume about once every half-hour. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) controls water reabsorption in the nephron. The patient's blood is pumped from an artery through tubes made of selectively permeable membrane. Dialysis is a much slower and less efficient process than the natural processes found in a healthy kidney but it is a lifesaver for those people with damaged kidneys.com . The resulting urine is more concentrated. urea and excess salts diffuse out of it instead of leaving by pressure filtration. aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood y y Aldosterone is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. This dialysing solution is similar to the interstitial fluid found around nephrons. Summary: Comparison of the process of renal dialysis with the function of the kidney Dialysis means separation in Greek. This results in the homeostatic balance of blood pressure. allowing more water to be absorbed from the urine into the blood. When levels of fluid in the blood drop. This increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water. When there is too much fluid in the blood. aldosterone is released into the blood causing more sodium to pass from the nephron to the blood.

USA y Present the information as a discussion. Here is an Internet site to get you started in your search. as the salt concentration of body fluids in an osmoconformer changes. marine mammals and most fish are osmoregulators. is compensated for by a change in pH. and therefore do not maintain homeostasis. In contrast. Organisms that must tolerate wide fluctuations of salinity are said to be euryhaline. with the tidal movement and mixing of fresh and salt water. define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations y y y y y Enantiostasis is the maintenance of normal metabolic and physiological functioning. A replacement hormone. various body functions are affected. in the absence of homeostasis. which increases the efficiency of the same enzyme. Eventually.present information to outline the general use of hormone replacement therapy in people who cannot secrete aldosterone Background Hypoaldosteronism is a condition where people fail to secrete aldosterone. such as the activity of enzymes. One strategy to withstand such changes in salt concentration is to allow the body's osmotic pressure to vary with that of the environment. For normal functioning to be maintained. this can result in heart failure. All organisms living in an estuary experience large changes in salt concentration in their environment over a relatively short time span. are said to be osmoconformers. . maintaining homeostasis regardless of the osmotic pressure of the environment. Addison's disease National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. which reduces the efficiency of an enzyme. with clearly identified issues and or points provided for and against the use of the therapy. However. fludrocortisone (Florinef). Addison's disease is the name of a disease with these symptoms which include high urine output with a resulting low blood volume. is used to treat this condition but a careful monitoring must be maintained to avoid fluid retention and high blood pressure. Organisms that do this. as blood pressure falls. another body function must be changed in a way that compensates for the change in enzyme activity. Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers. One example of enantiostasis is when a change in salt concentration in the body fluid. in an organism experiencing variations in its environment.

Poster: Salinity American Society of Plant Biologists. Some plant species to look for are eucalyptus. many of our plants have evolved to withstand periods of drought. Do certain families of plants use the same or similar methods or is the environment the plants live in more important in determining the methods of salt regulation? The two sites below will start you on your search. The salt accumulates in the leaves and is toxic. Avicennia marina. Some coastal plants.process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments y y y Process information you have gathered. Another mechanism involves the efficient control of transpiration. has special salt glands in its leaves that excrete salt. Look for plants that occur in areas where water conservation is important. Other mangroves exclude salts at their roots through ultrafiltration and a third mechanism is to store salt in leaves and then drop the leaves. from the Internet or biology books about salt regulation of different plants in saline environments. For example. cacti and other succulents. USA Description of Australia's marine environment and its status. So. spinifex and mulga. Australian Government Summary: Coping with salt Most plants cannot tolerate high salt concentrations in the root zone as it leads to water stress. you should have some plants you can observe that grow nearby. by selecting the most relevant information and discarding peripheral information that is not as relevant. Another form of salt stress can occur in salt laden air such as in coastal environments. casuarinas. Analyse the information to see if there is a pattern of processes for regulating salt. Water. perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water y This first-hand investigation is easily performed as an observation exercise. Salt marsh plants also have mechanisms for salt regulation. using local specimens. The grey mangrove. Halophytes are plants that can tolerate higher levels of salt in their environment. which prevents small water droplets from entering the leaf. Use the evidence from your analysis to develop a discussion of the processes used by different named plants for salt regulation in saline environments. thus removing excess salt and Sporobolus virginicus has salt glands on its leaves. Some mangroves have small leaves hanging vertically to reduce the surface presented to the sun and thus reducing transpiration. Heritage and the Arts. paper barks. such as the Norfolk Island pine. Enzymes are inhibited by Na+ ions. Coastal saltmarshes: undervalued and locally threatened Department of Environment. Sarcocornia quinqueflora accumulates salt in the swollen leaf bases which fall off. As Australia is a dry continent. . have a mesh of cuticle over their stomates. no matter what part of NSW you live in.

Plant Adaptation Adaptation Adaptation of leaves of stems of roots How this adaptation conserves water reduces transpiration reduces transpiration Casuarina leaves reduced to scales cladodes Eucalyptus waxy leaves. change the reflectiveness of their leaves during leaf development so that they have highly reflective leaves during summer .y Gather information by observing and recording structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water. leaves hang vertically Cactus stems store water Describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss y y You will recall from the Preliminary course that the leaves of plants contain stomates or small pores that allow the exchange of gases essential for respiration and photosynthesis. Here are a few adaptations to look for: o o o o o o o o the location and the number of stomates the arrangement.g. Many plants have adaptations to assist in the conservation of water. Plants in arid areas have to balance the need for CO2 with the need to conserve water. e. Atriplex. These gases include water vapour. as in many acacias o some salt bushes. Your recording could best be done using a table like the one below. shape and size of the leaves phyllodes or cladodes rather than leaves presence of a thick waxy cuticle hairy leaves leaves reduced to spines leaves rolled inwards the reflective nature of the leaf surface. If stomates are open. there will be a loss of water by transpiration and evaporation. Adaptations of Australian xerophytes (plants adapted to dry conditions) include: o hard leathery. needle-shaped leaves with reduced surface areas such as in Hakea sericea (needlebush) and coastal tea trees o use of phyllodes for photosynthesis rather than leaves that would lose water by transpiration. as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide.

y Eucalypts avoid high radiation in the middle of the day by hanging their leaves vertically to present less surface area to sun o heat loss is greater for small leaves or highly dissected leaves than it is for larger leaves and many Acacias have fronds of bipinnate leaves waxy cuticle prevents evaporation in many Eucalypts. o .

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