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# BELT DRIVES

1. Introduction Belt drives are used to transmit power, from one shaft to another by means of pulleys, which rotate at the same speed or at different speeds. The amount of power transmitted depends upon the following factorsa) b) c) The velocity of the belt The tension under which the belt is placed on pulleys. The arc of contact between the belt and the smaller pulley.

Idler (Jockey) are also used in belt drives. Idlers are pulleys or sheaves fitted to all drives wherever necessary. They do not transmit motion. They are used for following purposes a) b) c) d) e) 2. To increase contact of belt with pulleys thus reducing the slippage. To provide take up for fixed center drive. To turn the direction. To clear obstruction To provide constant pressure when spring loaded idler is coupled.

Theory Velocity ratio of a belt drive It is the ratio between the velocities of the driver and the follower or driven. It may be expressed mathematically as discussed below : If D1 = Pitch Diameter of the driver pulley D2 = Pitch Diameter of the follower pulley N1 = Speed of the driver in RPM N2 = Speed of the follower in RPM

Length of the belt that passes over the driver in one minute = D1 N1 Similarly length of the belt that passes over the follower in one minute
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= D2 N2 Since length of the belt that passes to the driver and driven in one minute is equal D1 N1 = D2 N2 N2 D1 Velocity Ratio = -------- = -------N1 D2 3. Types Mainly four type of belts are used. a) Flat belt The cross section of these belts is flat. They are used for moderate speeds. b) Circular belts Its cross section is circular. These types of belts are relatively less used. c) Timing belts On these belts there are teeth, which matches with the corresponding teeth of the timing pulley. When belt slippage is not acceptable and positive drive is required, timing belts are used. d) V belts

V Belts are made in trapezoidal section .The cross section of V belt is shown below. The power is transmitted by wedging action between the belt and V groove in the pulley. b
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## Cushion Section Cover Compression Section

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According to Indian Standards the V belts are made in five sections i.e. A, B, C, D and E. From A to E the belt width and thickness increases and simultaneously horsepower range also increases. So V belts are designated by its type and its nominal inside length e.g. A 914, is the belt & its nominal inside length is 914mm. Belt Type A B C D E b mm 13 17 22 32 38 t mm 8 11 14 19 23
Pulley V Belt

Recommended Power Range (kW) 0.5 - 3.75 1.5 - 15 11 - 75 37.5 - 150 75 - 260

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As shown in the figure a clearance must always be there at the bottom of the groove of the pulley. The power is transmitted by wedging action between the belt and the pulley. 4. Maintenance For proper life of the belts and to avoid slippage, the alignment of the pulley should be correct and tension should be proper. Belt Tensioning To facilitate the installation and removal of the endless V-belts and to adjust its tension as it stretches out, the mounting of one of the pulleys, usually the motor pulleys has provision for movement square to the shaft axis.

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Proper tensioning is very important in the case of the belts. If tension is less then it will result in the belt slippage and higher tension will result in more power consumption. For measuring the belt tension following methods are generally used in all types of belts. 1) 2) 3) After giving the tension, a load is applied on the belt and its deflection is measured . Before giving tension to the belt two points are marked on the belt and after giving the tension its elongation is measured. With the help of belt tension gauges, tension can be measured. These gauges measure the deflection corresponding to the tension. In multiple V belt drives, all the belts stretch at the same rate so that the load is equally divided between them. When one of the belts of a set breaks ,the entire set should be replaced at the same time. If only one belt is replaced the new unworn and unstretched belt will be more tightly stretched and will move with different velocity. Always provide guard on the belt drives. Belts should always be stored in single or triple coils. These may be hung loosely or laid flat. Avoid tying belts with string during storage.

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b) c) d)

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