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# TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

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## Submitted by: Mahavir singh 2011amd3403

3. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS Objective: To identify basic technology, manufacturing process and to obtain estimates of fixed investments, manufacturing cost and initial set up cost of company. It has the 18 following steps 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Identification of alternative technologies available Choice of technology Estimation of plant capacity Estimation of inventories Details of manufacturing process Selection of manufacturing equipment Selection of material handling equipment Selection of maintenance equipment Design of organization Estimate man power Estimate space for production space Estimate space for offices and services Prepare plan layout Building needs Build or rent option Building general location Building actual location

18)

Manufacturing plan

3.1 Identification of alternative technologies available: It is further categorized as follows 3.1.1 Level of automation a) Full automation b) High level automation c) Medium level automation d) Low level automation e) No automation Based on the cost factor here I am selecting medium (semi) level of automation for my product. 3.1.2 Alternative manufacturing process for a given level of automation The main parts of the product are as follows ROTATING RACK This is the assembly where electrodes will be placed for baking. The rotating rack has been designed considering the present status of the trolleys and convenience of the operator. The electrodes are placed in circular fashion. There will be three such racks in every gas oven and no compromise has been made over the no. of electrodes that can be baked in a single time. RACK DIAMETER

First of all the inner and outer diameter of the rack are needed. As this mechanism makes no compromise over the number of electrodes that can be kept compared to the current status of rectangular racks, so the diameter calculation is dependent on dimensions of conventional rack. Length of 1 rectangular rack= 90cm On an average 25 such racks are stacked one over another hence total length= 2250cm Further there are 4 such stacks placed at one time in the rack. So mean diameter of the circular rack = 90cm Now as the maximum length of electrodes to be placed is 45cm so Inner dia= 44cm Outer dia= 136cm Three strips each of thickness 5mm and thickness 1cm run parallel between outer and inner diameters at equal distances from each other. OD, ID and three strips have been joined to each other with four bars CONNECTING RODS, SHAFTS AND PLATES Cases of axial loading give stress as = F/A In case of moments acting, axial stress was calculated using the relation x= Mc/I where xis the axial stress resulting from bending M is the moment of force C is distance from neutral axis I is the second moment of area For the case of shear,

xy=

F/A

Finally the principal stresses are calculated using Mohrs circle, particularly for 2D case 2 2 1 , 2 = ( x+ y)/2 +/- {([( x- y)/2] + xy } For all the connecting rods, shafts, plates Von Mises theory of failure of ductile material was used. According to this formula Sy/N ( 12+ 22+ 32- 1 2- 2 3- 3 1) Where, 1 , 2, 3 are principal stresses Syand N are yield strength and factor of safety BEARINGS In rack assembly: Angular contact ball bearings were selected as the load is both axial and radial. For this purpose bearing catalogues technical help from www.skf.com were taken. Finally one 7217BECBM bearing was selected. In base assembly: Spherical roller thrust bearings are best option for this operation. Here heavy axial load with little radial load is taken by the bearing. Two bearings of designation 29420E will serve the purpose very well. These was also selected after doing proper static and dynamic load calculations as per the catalogues given at www.skf.com ASSEMBLY This assmebly itself consists of several parts. The parts used in this assembly are:

Rack : This is the part where electrodes are actually placed. The outer and inner diameter are kept keeping in mind the current status of no. of electrodes baked in one single cycle. Special attention has been given to convinience of operator as loading of electrodes can be done standing at one place only. Furthe all the standard sizes of electrodes can be accomodated in the rack.For this a rotating mechanism has been in corporated in the rack itelf.The material that will be suitable for this operation, as calculated from stress analysis is hot rolled 1045 steel as per AISI standards. Rack base: The rack base will serve the purpose of supporting the rack and allowing its rotation. The base has been optimized considering the present status of trolleys. So the same trolleys can be used for this rack also. Outer shaft : this is ahollow shaft coupled with a spline i.e. central shaft. Central shaft: it is a spline which has to be coupled with power shaft for power transfer from power shaft to hollow outer shaft. Bearings: The bearings used here are angular contact ball bearings. The bearings have been selected by proper static load and dynamic load calculations. Here one such bearing will be used and designation is 7217BECBM Rack top: Rack top will serve the purpose of holding other end of the central shaft on which rack rotates.

BASE The rotating outer shaft rests on the bearing mounted on base. Due to the rotation of this shaft, the rack rotates. Now this assembly also consists of several parts. Hub: This part of the assembly remains stationary and serves the purpose of griping the outer race of bearings. It rests in a bore made in the ground. The hub remains stationary due to frictional force and takes in all the vibrations in the mechanism. Power shaft: This is a hollow shaft that rests on two spherical roller thrust bearings. It is rotated by a drive chain from the bottom. The shaft has been made hollow for weight reduction and hence reduction in power required to rotate the assembly. Proper arrangement has been to accommodate bearings. Further, it has been provided with splines to prevent any relative rotation between central shaft and power shaft

Bearings: The assembly uses two spherical roller thrust bearings. These types of bearings were selected because these can take high axial loads with moderate radial loads also. The bearings have been selected by proper load calculations and two bearings of designation 29420E have been used DRIVE CHAIN

To rotate the whole assembly, there must be some power source. But as motors need free circulation of air for cooling, so a drive chain has to be used. The major components of this drive chain are: Motor: The motor is required to rotate the rack. So it has been selected considering the torque required to do so. The motor used is 3HP A.C. motor @ 1440rpm. The rpm of the motor will be controlled by a VFD Sheaves: Sheaves are mounted on driver and driven shaft with the help of keys. These will be timing sheaves as in this case the rpm is very less. Timing belt: Here due to low rpm V or flat belt cant be used. So a timing belt is used for purpose of power transmission. Keys: Two keys are used to couple the driver and driven sheaves on respective shaft. VFD: VFD or variable frequency drive is used to alter motors rpm by changing operating frequency. Here due to space constraints, the speed ratio cant be attained entirely by drive chain. So a VFD is necessary. A single VFD is sufficient to control rpm of all the motors used

3.1.3 Alternative manufacturing equipment for a selected process a) Automatic CNC capstan lathe b) CNC radial drilling machine c) Welding machines d) Assembly machine to assemble various parts like bolts, nuts, etc. e) Assembly machine to assemble complete system parts like bearings, wheels, weighing system. 3.2 Choice of machines or technology: Selection of technology based on following factors a) Rate of production: rate of production is decided based on the demand of the product in the market b) Quality of the product: quality of the product is decided by the customer. Good quality product gives high reliability and durability. For producing good products very sophisticated machines are required this increases cost of the product. c) Cost of the product: cost of the product directly related to quality of the product and tolerance of various parts in the product. Sophisticated machines are required to produce minimum tolerance parts. The choice of machines for my product are given in the below table

Type of mafg Parts process produced Machine shop Machining of circular column,rod Rod cutting & supporting rod bending frame, shop Sheet metal cutting shop Welding shop base plate, strips Circular angle and middle strips Producing holes in sheet

Level of Machines used automation Medium Automatic CNC capstan lathe-4 CNC milling m/c3 High Power saw machine-6 no.s Rod bending m/c2 no.s Medium Power press machine-2 no.s High Metal arc welding machine-3

Drilling shop

Brought out Bearing parts(std.parts) Assembly shop Bending shop Complete product Circular angle and middle strips

No Portable driller-2 automation no.s Hand drilling m/c3 no.s Bearings-SKF High Medium Assembly machines-10 no.s Bending machine-5 no.s

3.3 Plant capacity: No of parts produced per day in a plant depends on the level of automation of the plant, technology of the machines available, number of machines available and working hours of the plant etc.

This production rate should be more than the forecasting demand of the product done earlier. According to the forecasting done earlier, the demand of the product in the market is calculated. That is 15000 per month. So plant capacity at least 500 per day. Based on plant capacity the numbers of machines in a plant are selected. 3.4 Estimation of inventories Inventories for various parts listed as below a) Inventory for raw material b) Inventory for finished products c) Inventory for work in process parts d) Suppliers inventory Based the number of components, subassemblies in a single product and the number of products to be produced per day, the inventory is calculated Inventory estimation for raw material: the inventory for raw material is calculated. Raw material Circular tube of dia 62 mm Sheet metal of t = 3 mm Circular tube of dia 15 mm Circular rod of dia 11 mm Circular rod of dia 25 mm Inventory per day in tons 0.760 1.360 0.225 0.430 0.617

Inventory for finished products: as per the demand of the product in the market, the inventory for finished products per day is 150 For continuous production there is no work in process inventory Suppliers inventory : supplier inventory is maintained for standard parts, it is given in the below table.

## Inventory per day in quantity 600

Process chart: This process chart describes the sequence of various operations involved in producing a complete product
Inspection of raw material

## Testing the product

Painting

Inspection of painting

## Movement of the finished products to stores

Store

3.6) Selection of manufacturing equipment: CNC lathe machine: Specifications: Capacity: Swing Over Bed 470 mm Swing Over Carriage 300 mm Distance Between Centres 550 mm Maximum Turning Diameter 236 mm Maximum Turning Length 485 mm Spindle: Chuck Size 200 mm Speed Range 50-3500 RPM Turret: No. of Stations 8 Maximum boring bar dia 40 mm

## Tool Cross Section 25 x 25 mm

CNC milling machine: Specifications: Traverses, X x Y x Z (mm) 560 x 410 x 460 Table Working Surface (mm) 900 x 410 Spindle Nose to Table Top (mm) 150 610 Spindle Speed 150 6,000 rpm Cutting Feed Rate (All Axes) 1 5,000 mm/min Rapid Traverse Rate (X,Y) 15,000 mm/min Rapid Traverse Rate (Z) 12,000 mm/min Positional Accuracy (mm) 0.005 Repeatability (mm) 0.003 Power saw machine: semi automatic type

Specifications: Cutting Capacity 250 & Sq. 230 X 230 mm, Blade Size 3760 X 27 X 0.09 mm, Drive Motor 3 H.P. Hydraulic Motor 1 H.P., Coolant Pump 0.15 H.P. Machine Operations Hyraulic Cutting Speed 22,44,66,88 m/min (4 step SPZ- pully), Band Tension Manual Overall Size LxWxH 1975 X 600 X1730 mm Machine Weight 450 Kg.

## Power press machine:

Specifications: Supplier : SJR Machinery Co., Ltd. (india) Force -160 N Shut height-200 mm Stroke length-60 mm No. slide strokes-60 per min main motor-1.1 Kw,1500 rpm Metal arc welding machine:

Specifications: Supplier: JKARC Arc Welding Machine(india) Technical Data Transweld 400 Mains supply, V/Ph, Hz 415/2 Lines of 3, 50 Open circuit voltage, VAC (Max) 80 Welding current range, A 50 - 400 Output at 60% duty cycle, A 300 Class of insulation H Type of cooling Natural Air

## Dimensions, l x w x h, mm 600x410x720 Weight, Kg 115 Drilling machine:

Specifications: Supplier-Bohle drills , America Type-Pico drill 100 Tilting of head ( ) 180 deg about axis of the axis of the Arm (A) ie head Swivelling. Maximum drill bit size-15 mm Spindle-ISO 15 MT5 Spindle movement-150 mm Range of feed : 0.063mm/rev. to 0.60mm/rev. Material hanlding equipments are as follows Hand trolley

Spanners:

Screw drive:

Hammers

Hand saw

Vacuum cleaners

Dust bins

R&D

Machining shop

Welding shop

Assembly shop

Painting shop

Stores

HR department

Accounts office

## Security and safety

Service department

Canteen

## Transportation and logistics

Hospital

Recreational club

3.10, 11&12) Estimation of man power, space for production shops and offices: Area (sq. yard) (including Department Manpower future expansion 60%) R&D 1-Manager , 200 2-designer engineer 2-drafts man Machining shop: 4-lathe m/c, 3 8-Engineers, 1500 milling m/c, 6-cutting m/c, 220-M/c operators bar bending m/c Welding shop: 3 m/c 5-welders 400 Sheet metal cutting and drilling 6- M/c operators 600 shop:2-press m/c, 3-drilling m/c Heat treatment shop 1-Engineer 1000 6-operators Assembly shop-10 M/c 4-Engineers 1500 20-operators Quality control shop 1-Engineers 400 3-helpers Painting shop-3 m/c 5- M/c operators 600 Stores HR department Accounts , purchase and sales offices Security and safety 5-workers 1-GM, 1-AGM, 5-Excutives 3-accountants 5-puchase officers, 3-sales officers 1-head, 101000 600 600 300

securities Service department 2-electricians, 2water services men, 5-sweepers 1-chef, 5-helpers 5-drivers 1-general surgeon 2-nurses 2-trainers 3-workers Total = 400

Canteen Transportation and logistics Hospital Recreational club Garden ,swimming pool, parking

## 1200 200 400 1200 3000 136

Total = 15100 Area for feature expansion of the company is 60% of area So total area of the company comes around = 15100 + 0.6 x 15100 = 24160 sq. yard 3.14) Building needs: The needs of the buildings are as fallows: i. power and water facilities ii. Special flooring construction for heavy production equipment. iii. Shock and vibration isolation of certain areas of machining. iv. Large areas of unobstructed floor space. v. Surrounded by Security wall vi. Enough space for Vehicle Travel vii. Proper Ventilation 3.15) Build or Rent option:

Here I am considering build option because the product has good demand in the market and the product can survive long time in the market. 3.16) Building general location: In the general search of the plant location, the places preferred are a. Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh b. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh c. Gurgaon, Haryana. Bhopal and Hyderabad are highly industrial areas. Therefore, the initial set up cost will be high if I start my plant in these cities. Hyderabad is just growing in industrial sector. Therefore, it is better to start my plant in Gurgaon. 3.17) Building actual location: After searching for proper site location for my plant, I finally decided to start my plant in industrial area Gurgaon, near New delhi, Haryana. Gurgaon is a growing industrial hub. It is at 15km away from railway station. This place is selected because of the facilities provided at that place. 3.18) Manufacturing plan: a) Nonrecurring cost Sr. no 1 2 3 Element Land Building construction Needs of the building Cost/unit(Rs.) Quantity 800 24160 Total cost (in lakhs) 193.3 300 10

4 5

Safety Fire indicators First aid Machinery CNC lathe CNC milling Drilling M/c Cutting M/c Welding M/c Painting M/c Press M/c Assembly M/c Installation cost Material handling Trolleys Fork lifts Maintenance equipment Grinding machine Tools, spare parts etc. Office equipment Fixtures and furnitures const. like roads, lawn

4000

50

4 3 5 6 3 3 2 10

3000 1,00,000

20 10

50,000

8 9

Cost/unit (Rs.)

Quantity

## Total cost (in lakhs) per month

Material cost Steel Bearings Wheels Strain gauge Display Sheet metal Coolant, etc 35000/1 ton 150 50 130 200 40000/1ton 1.451/day 450/day 1350/day 450/day 150/day 1.36/day 0.507 x 30 0.67 x 30 0.675x 30 0.58 x 30 0.30x 30 0.544 x 30 0.05 5000 15000 3000 3000 18000 4000 3000 61 19 8 19 3 18 8 3.05 2.85 0.24 0.57 0.54 0.72 0.24

Direct labour M/c operators Engineers Material handling Maintenance Manager Office staff Cleaners etc.

5000

10

## 0.50 0.4 = 105.84 lakh

Total per month Total nonrecurring cost = 588.45 lakh Total recurring cost = 105.84 lakh per month