OF CHRISTIANITY ITS FATE
SPIRIT OF JUDAISM]
With Abraham, the true progenitor of the Jews, the hisof this people begins, i.e., his spirit is the unity, the soul, regutory lating the entire fate of his posterity. This spirit appears in a dif(243)
ferent guise after every one of
battles against different forces or
in a different succumbing to form either as arms and conflict or else as submission to the fetters
by adopting an alien nature or seduction. Thus it appears might
as a result of
of the stronger; this latter form is called "fate." Of the course taken by the development of the
Abraham, of this important period in various routes to revert fr6m barbarism, which followed the loss of
the state of nature, to the unity 1 which had been broken, of this course only a few dim traces have been preserved to us. The impression made on men's hearts by the flood in the time of Noah
human race bewhich men strove by
must have been a deep distraction (244) and it must have caused the most prodigious disbelief in nature. Formerly friendly or tranquil,
the faith the
the equipoise of her elements, now requited race had in her with the most destructive, in-
vincible, irresistible hostility; in her fury she spared nothing; she
made none of
the distinctions which love might have
poured savage devastation over everything. Certain phenomena, reactions to the impression derived from
manslaughter by hostile elements, have been indicated to us by history. If man was to hold out against the outbursts of a
as a unity
the unity of man with nature. For Hegel's conception of this unity life see below, iv.]
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
had to be mastered; and since the whole
can be divided only into idea and reality, so also the supreme unity 2 of mastery lies either in something thought or in something real.
in a thought-product that
built the distracted
ideal together again; his thought-produced 3 and then set everything else over against Being
turned into a [real]
so that in this
to something opposition him ta confine within their limits mastered. This Being promised the elements which were his servants, so that no flood was ever
again to destroy mankind.
living things, things capable
being mastered in
subjected to the law, to the so to restrain themselves as not to kill one another; to
way, men were
the power of this Being overstep these restraints was to fall under and so to become lifeless. For being mastered in this way man was
but while this recompensed by being given mastery over animals; the killing of plants and animals was sancsingle rending of life
tioned and while enmities [between man and nature] which need made inevitable were turned into a legal mastery, life was yet so far respected that men were prohibited from eating the blood of animals because in it lay the life, the soul, of the animals (Genesis
much of this essay. Where two things are utterly hostile to each other, they can come into relationship only if one becomes the master and the other the mastered. Nimrod attempted to be the master of nature, but he failed because he was only a natural reality, part of the nature he wished to dominate. Things
[This distinction between thought and
(which Hegel here calls realities) can be mastered only by thought: "things but he who can think what they are is their master" (Hegel's Philosophy of For the thinker, the subject, things have Religion, Lasson's ed., Part II, ii, p. 5). no self-subsistence; they lose their reality and become "ideal." By conceiving God as one and as a conscious subject and as absolute power in virtue of his has risen above the oriental religions and taken the first subjectivity, Judaism toward a true conception of God as spirit (ibid., p. 58). Cf. below, p. 191 .]
more 3. [Noah's (and Abraham's) ideal is conceived in thought, but it is than a concept, for he ascribes existence to it; i.e., he conceives of God as a thinker who, as thinker, is lord of the realities which are the objects of his
a law and so of coming under its sway.] capable of understanding shall ye not ["But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof,
EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
of the Jews
allowed here to link with the Mosaic
chronicles the corresponding exposition which Josephus
gives of Nimrod's history) Nimrod placed the unity
as the being
realities into thoughts, i.e., to kill
and master them.
could no longer be dangerous to men. He put himself in a state of defense against it, "a rash man and one boasting in the strength of his arm. In the event of God's having
(245) so far to master nature that
mind to overwhelm the world with a flood again, he threatened to neglect no means and no power to make an adequate resistance to Him. For he had resolved to build a tower which was to be far
higher than the waves and streams could ever rise and in this way to avenge the downfall of his forefathers" (according to another
was to have been
the very survivors of the flood.) "He persuaded men that they had acquired all good things for themselves by their own courage and
strength; and in this way he altered everything and in a short time founded a despotic tyranny." He united men after they had become mistrustful, estranged from one another, and now ready to scatter. But the unity he gave them was not a reversion to a cheerful social
which they trusted nature and one another; he kept them
together indeed, but by force. He defended himself against water by walls; he was a hunter and a king. In this battle against need,
therefore, the elements, animals, and
to endure the law of
the stronger, though the law of a living being. Against the hostile power [of nature] Noah saved himself
and himself to something more powerful; Nimhimself. Both made a peace of necessity with the
foe and thus perpetuated the hostility. Neither was reconciled with 7 after it, unlike a more beautiful pair, Deucalion and Pyrrha, who,
from Alexander Polyhistor as follows "Eupolemus says in his book Concerning the Jews that the Assyrian city Babylon was first founded by those who escaped from the flood, and that they were giants and built the historically famous tow:
[Praeparatio evangelic* ix. 17
(Nohl). In this passage Eusebius quotes
[Schimres always the word which Hegel uses in connection with Greece. he uses it in the sequel, it is always of Greek life that he is thinking.]
had forsaken their fatherland too. these beautiful relationships of his youth
8 (Joshua xxiv. even Terah. he spurned. The first act which made Abraham the progenitor of a nation is a disseverance which snaps the bonds of communal life and love.
etc. made a peace of love. Now. was no longer given
the imaginatively conceived gods of their former had left behind. while the others by their gentle arts and manners won over the less civilized aborigines and intermingled with them to form a happy
to be free
and gregarious people.
bloom of youth. The entirety of the relationships in which (246) he had hitherto lived
nature. when love.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
the flood in their time.
9.e." In another draft (Nohl. independent man. carried these gods forth with them. to nature. injured indeed but not lost. goes in quest of a new fatherland in order to flourish and enjoy itself there. 2). Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time. Abraham
not to love. born
be a wholly self-subsistent. in the plains of Mesopotamia.. in order to
Abraham.. and they served other gods.. invited
men once again to friendship with
made them forget their need and their hostility in and pleasure.
in order to live in pure.' i.
youth already left a fatherland in his father's company. as
Those others. to be an overlord himself...
from these very relationships. 368). p. unions. he assumes that their religious
the Greek.. he tore himself free altogether from his family as well.
in Chaldaea. ["And Joshua said unto all the people . but
they forsook it in battle...
wanted to be
loving. without the grief which after a wrong or an outrage signifies love's enduring need.]
life. they went in quest of a soil where they would be free and they sought it that they might love. He did this without having been injured or disowned.e. Hegel interprets this relationship of Abraham's forebears to "other gods" as one "animated by 7 life at that time was simimagination.
which had carried Abraham away from
Cadmus. the father of Abraham.. and made their age the mother of a newworld. were the progenitors of joy more beautiful peoples. beautiful.]
he would have become attached to them and might have
adopted them as parts of his world. a necessary requirement for him and his cattle. but he did not tarry in them with the love which would have made them worthy of the Divinity and parshade he soon
again. the fate which would have proffered him a stationary com-
with others. The country was so populated beforein his travels he continually stumbled on men already preunited in small tribes. as (247) in opposevil.
ing the five kings. When surrounded by mightier people.
Egypt and Gerar. The land was simply given over to his cattle for grazing.
on earth. he reviously quired their corn indeed. this was the spirit of self-maintenance in strict opposition
the product of his thought raised to be the unity
dominant over the nature which he regarded as infinite and hostile (for the only relationship possible between hostile entities is mastery of one by the other). and he made this conspicuous by a physical peculiarity imposed on himself and his posterity. He was
alike. Had he done so. he
about him with the sword. He entered into no such tics. appearances of his perfect Object on High.
legal footing. The groves which often gave him coolness and
them he had theophanies. With his herds Abraham wandered hither and thither over a boundless territory without bringing parts
of it any nearer to him by cultivating and improving them. an extorted property. to have nothing whatever to do with them.
on him. from the good-
was laborious. he bought. yet nevertheless he struggled against his fate. as in
plicities. The water slept in deep wells without living
movement. yet not so far removed from them and independent that he needed to know nothing of them whatever.
himself off steadily persisted in cutting
from others. in
Him.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
him through his encounters with foreign peoples during the rest of his life. a stranger to the soil men he always was and remained a for-
of them eigner. he carefully kept his relations he needed. in dealing with kings who inhe was suspicious and resorted to cunning and duWhere he thought he was the stronger.
was dearly bought or
he served the Idea. if it as sustained by the
The whole world Abraham
die did not take
to be a nullity.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
natured Ephron he absolutely refused to take Sarah's burial place as a gift.
Abraham. Moreover. trouble his all-exclusive that even this love he once wished to destroy. but in individuo
. even the one love he had. everything was simply under God's mastery. Even his son he forbade to marry any Canaanitish woman but made him take a wife from his kinsfolk. Nothing in nature was supposed to have God. but he was unable himself to make this mastery actual. could have had no
higher mode and thus he likewise was supported by God. even his hope of posterity
being. not merely in concrete. but the Idea
himself also stood under his Ideal's dominin his
his Ideal's favor. See 568-69: "Ideas are even further removed from ob^Critique of Pure Reason. the only kind of link with the world possible for him. it was through God alone that Abraham came into a mediate relation with
of being than that of the other term in the opposition. he looked on
God who was
alien to it. His Ideal subjugated the world to him.
as the opposite of the
whole world. and it therefore remained
ceded to his Ideal.
ion. and his heart extent
was quieted only through the was not so strong
as to render
certainty of the feeling that this love him unable to slay his beloved son
hand. He shrank from relating himself to an equal on a footing
of grateful feelings. are categories.
regarded as simply his opposite.^
mind. and they
lived at a great distance
from him. [Hegel is here using Kant's distinction between idea and ideal. his love for the one mode of extending his his son. the one
mode of immortality he knew and hoped
heart and disquiet it to such an depress him. By the ideal I underHuman wisdom in stand the idea. and so and since its divinity was rooted in
10. for no appearance can be found in which they jective reality than But what I entitle the ideal seems to be furcan be represented in concrete ther removed from objective reality even than the idea. Love alone was beyond his power.
the world. and put him in security against the rest. gave him as much of the
world as he needed.
Mastery was the only possible
could stand to the infinite world opposed to him.
no rights. and a nation
national god. On the other hand. have power enough.e. he remained its only favorite. loveless. i. a man existing in thought only. they treat as accursed and then they
proper place [death]
in Egypt. in Joseph's Idea.
was granted to his descendants to attain a condition from their ideal when they themselves were powersundered
enough to actualize their idea of unity then they exercised dominion mercilessly with the most revolting and harshest
tyranny. in the jealous God of Abraham and his posterity there lay the horrible claim that He alone was God
was the only one to have
attempts to stir.
and shut others
god's share. Hence Abraham's God is essentially different from the Lares and
the national gods. and utterly extirpated all life. and virtue.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
contempt for the whole world. has admittedly also isolated
[i. which reverences
. while doing so.e.
life]. an ideal. a stuff. instead of reserving the immeasurable to itself and banishing others therefrom. everything is matter (the Gorgon's head turned everything to
stone). it recognizes the Lares and gods of others as Lares and gods."
By means of
complete purity. however.e. and so willed to disturb their segregation. Outside the in-
unity in which nothing but they. can share. are ideas.. Something alien had been mingled with their family. had put itself into connection with them. The wise man of the Stoics. it grants to others (248) equal
rights with itself.
A family which reverences its Lares. the favorites. he introduced the political
to his god
Egyptians were brought into the same relahis
tion to the king as that in which.. everything stood
i. Thus the sons of Jacob avenged with satanic atrocity
the outraging of their sister even though the Shechemites had tried
to make amends with unexampled generosity. but in complete conformity with the idea of wisdom" (Kemp Smith's translation).
has conceded the
existence of other shares. something accursed which. for it is only over death that unity hovers.
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
which they had handed over to him and with which he now fed them during the famine. he acquired all their money. an isolated enthusiast for the liberation of his people.
and Aaron worked on their brethren precisely and we see how the latter defended themi.
which Abraham. and. we cannot be concerned with the Here. their horses. as a force. then all
the land and their persons.
which led them
out of this slavery and then organized them into an independent na-
tions than those in
in the [Jewish] families
and hence its character bethey were at a still less complex stage. came to the elders of the Israelites and spoke to them of his project. the
so. This situation he entered to his through stress of circumstances. no one were the Jews intensified their but
selves against subjection
they did on the
same means. and by accispirit.
increased hardships consequent upon Moses' discourse in Pharaoh's presence did not act as a stronger stimulus to the Jews.
v. to a nation. then all their
beasts. their cattle. When Moses.e.
and lively recollection. their sheep. they cursed (Exodus
. Jacob finally succumbed... what we have to the fact that the Jewish spirit acted in this adventure in a in which the adventure was present corresponding to that
adventure of Israelite libera-
in their imagination
divine calling found
not in a heartfelt hatred of oplegitimation in a longing for air and freedom. i. their entire existence he
made the To the
more enraged than
against Moses. comes more specialized and its results more diverse. as in what has
preceded. their goats. his
the contrary. not with which Moses baffled them and which were performed subseits
quently with equal
more hardly must
pressed upon him and
his descendants. and hitherto Jacob also.
tion with our intellect (249). but in certain tricks pression.e. had and attachpossession of an abiding dwelling place
yet their spirit
in all the wailing that
to them.. or poisoned) by an in-
visible attack. look like the notorious rob-
reserved for the Israelites was. they are (like men murdered in their sleep.
11. regretted leaving Egypt.. of woe wrought for them.
the profit which all this 13 bers during the plague at Marseilles. his words.
no wonder that
this nation. The Jews vanquish. to borrow with deceit and repay confidence with theft. profitable The Egyptians are conquered. vi.
faith does not
low the king to forget his fear of his own accord and rue the decision extorted from him.
Moses alone takes
by the hapless Egyptians (Exbut they themselves have only the malice the
only the consciousness
enemy is brought low by someone else's act. Amid general lamentation they withdraw. on the evening which he
only act which Moses knew to be
the last on which they would speak to their neighbors and friends. not that of the courevil it
drop a tear for the
inflict. they take to
be their god's
do not indoing.
. ["And they met Moses and Aaron .EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
11 21. We be all dead men. expressive of his
refusal to subject himself to their god. because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in The children of Israel hearkened not unto Moses the eyes of Pharaoh
of spirit and cruel bondage. but not by their enemies. and said unto them. The Lord look upon you and judge. but they it with heroic deeds of their own. driven forth
xii. wished to
return there again whenever difficulty or danger came upon it in the sequel.. And the people took their dough before it was leavened."] 13.'*]
Israelites. it is for them that Egypt augurate suffers the most diverse plagues and misery. on the contrary. For the Jews a great thing was done. for they said.
with the sign on their houses and misery brings. and thus showed how in its liberation it had been with-
out the soul and the spontaneous need of freedom.
in its emancipation
the most slavelike demeanor. Permission to depart he ex-
because of the king's fear. but they have not battled.]
[In 1720. ["The Egyptians were urgent upon the people that they might send them out of the land in haste.
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
(250) The liberator of his nation was also its lawgiver. an existent.e. since
restricted. on the other.. unmanned in body and spirit. for this Object can only be called "object" in so far as man with the life given him is presupposed and called the living or the
all relations. the
the rest of the
had to be
invisible. relief of
distress. rity. an animal existence which can be ing assured only at the expense of all other existence. the antithon the one hand. they are not even something dead
what they become
yet they are a something only in so far as the infinite
Object makes them something. i.e.
to be. they are without intrinsic worth and empty. without life.
absolute subject.. the possession of a land
flowing with milk and honey. the sublime godhead which is all that is. together with assured food.
antitheses are the
in contrast with genuine pure objects. and which the no
rights. this liberation from the Egyptian slavery.
bondage. and their veils no mortal has unveiled
principle of the entire legislation
i. these are the claims which the divine has to veneration.
race. makes them not something which iSj but something made which on its own account has no life.
as the title to veneration.
A passive people giving laws to itself would be a
contradiction. outside them.
eses are the Jewish nation.
as their fief. this could mean only that the man who had freed it from one yoke had
another. and progeny. this expected isolated secufollows of necessity from the infinite separation. was. and her priests were castrated. and this gift.
no love.e. so to say. the latter.* Where there is universal enmity. Before
Moses had his
tabernacle. is the sole synthesis. so the veneration: the former. the
strictly the sole infinite subject. drink.. and. an infinite. there is nothsave physical dependence.
his forefathers. This. he
to the Israelites only fire and clouds which kept the eye busy on a of continually changing shapes without fixing it on a
of Cybele. This exception.
the nullity of man and the
of an existence
maintained by favor was to be recalled in every enjoyment. What the Israelitish people was only partially. was given him as his full possession by the fact that it was completely destroyed. to find indeed in one cen-
point the life-giving soul of this remarkable people. they despise the image because it does not manage them. and had hoped to dis-
the root of the national spirit.
for the rest. just as the servant has to keep clean the livery given him by his master. But what wholly belonged to their God and was sacrosanct to him. Every uncleanness had to be put right. (251) the center of adoration. to find himself in an
Moreover. though it might be redeemed. After Pompey had approached the heart of the temple.
just stone or this litany
to them. by sacrificing
be given direction and a boundary inclusive of the object.
something or other which he called his own.
they fancy themselves wonderfully wise.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
form. The human body.
the enjoyment of beauty or in a lover's intuition. this meant that the Israelite had to recognize. Though there was no concrete shape to be an object of religious devotion and reverence for an invisible object had nonethefeeling. that to change another's property was a presumption and an illegality and that he himself
owned no property whatever. one of the tribes was completely. booty and numerous products of conquest. it hears not. To him belonged every firstborn. This.
.g." etc. in every human activity. which was only lent and did not properly belong
share. the tenth of
must be kept clean.
were concerned. As a sign of God's right of property and as his
produce of the ground had to be rendered to him. to gaze on a Being as an object for his devotion. and they have no inkling of its deification in
"it sees not.. and. on something significant for
he might well have been astonished on entering the arcanum to find himself deceived so far as some of his expectations
his veneration. Moses provided in the Holy of Holies of the tabernacle and
the subsequent temple. what it signalized itself as being in general. e.
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
namely, a property of its God, though a property which served him.* These servants too, then, were fed entirely by the Lord, were
direct keepers of his household,
his sole harvesters in the en-
they had to uphold his rights and were arranged in a hierarchy from those who performed the most menial services up to the immediate minister of God. The
was himself the custodian not of the arcanum but only of
secret things; and, similarly, the other priests were unable to learn and teach anything but the service. The arcanum itself was some-
thing wholly alien, something into which a man could not be initiated; he could only be dependent on it. And the concealment of
Holy of Holies had
a significance quite different
the arcanum of the Eleusinian gods.
the pictures, feelings, inand devotion of Eleusis, from these revelations of god, spiration, no one was excluded; but they might not be spoken of, since (252)
words would have desecrated them. But of their objects and
of the laws of
their service, the Israelites
might well chatter (Deu-
14 teronomy xxx. II), for in these there is nothing holy. The holy was always outside them, unseen and unfelt. The manifestations in connection with the solemn lawgiving on
Jews that they begged Moses to spare not to bring them so near to God; let him speak with God them, alone and then transmit to them God's commands.
Sinai had so stunned the
The three great yearly festivals, celebrated for the most part with feasts and dances, are the most human element in Moses' is very characterpolity; but the solemnity of every seventh day
slaves this rest
ness after six days full
from work must be welcome, a day of idleof labor. But for living men, otherwise free,
to keep one day in a complete vacuum, in an inactive unity of spirlet this it, to make the time dedicated to God an empty time, and to
vacuity return every so often
could only occur to the legis-
what was its own.
into complete ownership (i.e., destruction) of still have retained at least a vegetating life of
14. ["For this commandment which hidden from thee, neither is it far off."]
thee this day,
EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
later of a people for
the melancholy, unfelt unity is the suover against their God his six days' life of a world, treat that life as an outgoing foreign to
In this thoroughgoing passivity there remained to the Jews, beyond the testification of their servitude, nothing save the sheer
empty need of maintaining
their physical existence
against want. To maintain their life, then, satisfied them; they wished for no more. They had acquired a land to live in, flowing
with milk and honey.
wished, as a nation of settlers and
agriculturists, to possess as property the land which their fathers had wished to traverse simply as hersdmen. In that nomadic mode
in the country
let alone the peoples who were growing up and grouping themselves into towns and who in turn them graze the unfilled land in peace and still respected their
the latter could
when they had
ceased to wander in the vicinity.
posterity returned, it was not as nomads like these, for now they were subjected to the fate against which their nomadic ancestors
had so long struggled, a struggle and a resistance in the course of which they had only increasingly embittered their own and their
The mode of life of their ancestors they had abancould their genius have forsaken them? It must have
frightful in them, since their al-
the mightier and
tered needs had broken
down one main
party-wall between their
customs and those of other nations, and no power now stood between their union with others except their own hearts. Their necessities made them the enemies of others, but enmity (253) need not have extended beyond what their necessities required, i.e., beyond the extortion of settlement among the Canaanites. The old differ-
of herdsmen and agriculturists, had
disappeared; but what unites men is their spirit and nothing else, and what now separated the Jews from the Canaanites was their spirit alone. This genius of hatred called upon them utterly to
exterminate the old inhabitants. Even here the honor of
partly preserved in the fact that,
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
perverted and turned into hatred,
not wholly disavow
perversion is not consistent, is not carried through to the end. The Israelites wholly still left a multitude of the inhabitants alive, though plundered inoriginal essence, in the wilderness from reaching the land had not fulfilled their destiny, the Idea of their expromised istence. Their life was subordinated to an end; it was not self-subsistent or self-sufficient;
deed and enslaved.
Those prevented by death
and their death therefore could only be
garded as an evil and, since everything stands under a Lord's decree, only as a punishment.
military service all were free who had not yet lived in their new-built house, had eaten no grapes from their newly planted
vineyard, had not yet married their bride, since those
was now opening before them would have acted madly had they hazarded for the reality the whole possibility, the condition, of
life. It is
contradictory to stake
for property and existence as such; if one thing
another, both must be heterogeneous property and existence only for honor, for freedom or beauty, for something eternal. But the
Jews had no share
in anything eternal.
sealed his legislation with an orientally beautiful 15 threat of the loss of all pleasure and all fortune. He brought before the
slavish spirit the
namely, the terror of physical
other modes of conscious-
on the human
do not present themselves
in these religious laws, and
a high merit in his faith that
15. ["Beautiful," i.e., imaginative, like the language of Greek mythology. "Oriental/* i.e., the image was not a kindly one, like those of Greece, but a nonnatural one, a threat of terror, like those to which people under oriental despotisms were accustomed. See Deuteronomy, chap, xxxii.]
Moses by saying
an earlier draft Hegel sums up his conception of the religion of that it is a religion "born of misfortune and made for misforp. 373).]
[Moses Mendelssohn, the Jewish eighteenth-century philosopher, held whereas Christianity claims to be a revelation of eternal truths and re-
What Judaism commands
not certain beliefs but certain
actions. he contends. and thus it leaves reason free. who wished only for a continuation of the possession of
their land through their posterity. is not a revelation but simply part of a natural religion to which all men. while a revealed religion (as distinct from a revealed body of legislation) does not (see Jerusalem.
an assertion which stands on
the summit of the state's laws. since what we find
among the Jews did not appear to them under the form of and matters of faith. Judaism makes claim. one might say: What
deeper truth (254) is there for slaves than that they have a master? But Mendelssohn is right not to call this a truth. how could they have wished to persist in self-subsistence who had
could they have saw in everything only matter? How
freedom.. can attain by the
exercise of reason.]
19.). III. etc. to have left free somesomething 19 thing which no one knew? Eskimos might as well pride themselves
such circumstances should
no such quires its adherents to believe these on authority.
[I. 1843]. hence the existence of God appears to the Jews not as a truth but as a command. a continuation of an undeserving
and inglorious name in a progeny of their own. On God the Jews
are dependent throughout.]
. the negative character of truth
an inkling of beauty who could they exercise reason and freedom who were only either mastered or masters? How could they have hoped even for the poor immortality in which the consciousness of the individual is preserved. not
to the Jewish pride in their belief in a God who was here) and who was free (but hidden and mysteri-
ous). They were too concentrated on material satisfactions to have a sense of their individuality.
ff. who never enjoyed any life or consciousness lifted above eating and drinking? How in
it be a merit not to have sullied by rewhich was not present. then.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
eternal truths. Its belief in one God. Truth is beauty intellectually represented. 312
18. they felt only the existence of their possessions. whether Jews or Gentiles. of course. Part II of Werke
renounced the capacity to will and even the very fact of their 18 existence. and if something proffered in this form could be called a truth.
of feeling the reality of their own existence as individual men. and that on which a man depends cannot have the form of a truth.e. Truth is something free which we nei-
ther master nor are mastered by.
* Leviticus xxv. whoever had of necessity sold his property was to enter on his property rights again in the great and himself and in other cases on his personal rights in the seventh jubilee year. Thus to belong to a family depended for him rather on something acquired than on what of all he had was most
eo if so entered (255) the tribe
these goods belonged.
they might held in the fact that they had no freedom and no rights. and agriculture
made harder by op-
pressive taxes. boundaries of his lands. and domination and beauty and imaginative imagery
servitude in Judaism. a family's
in property was consolidated
time. [Athens and Sparta. on a characteristic otherwise indelible. In the Greek republics the source of these laws lay in the fact would otherwise have arisen. "for the land and ye are strangers and sojourners with me. They could alienate nothing.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
their superiority over
any European because
in their country
paid on wine..]
ff. among the Jews. owing to the inequality which
the freedom of the impoverished might have been jeopardized and have fallen into political annihilation.
another nation a
Whoever married from another tribe or who had no brothers and was therefore an
and family to which
owner of goods.e.]
order to avert from their states 21 the danger threatening to freedom from the inequality of wealth.* since as cititheir only on loan and not
[I. In the
state. whoever had acquired more fields was to revert to the old
the family for
year. respectively.e.. since they as property. and 35. in reference to the subordination of to the law of the land. that. similarly. i. on his descent from certain parents. though its source is very different. an institution of the Mosaic state civil
has a striking resemblance to the situation created in their republics two famous legislators.
follows release from truths Just as here a similar consequence 20 from opposite conditions.
in Greece. 23
. Solon and Lycurgus restricted prop-
and set various barriers to the freeerty rights in numerous ways dom of choice which might have led to unequal wealth.
e. i. a legislative
stitutional law. many other springs of inequality would have been choked.
["They gathered themselves together against Moses and Aaron and them: Ye take too much upon you. it follows that there could not be anything among the Jews resembling a constitutional law. courts and officials (scribes).. 3). free. but
corresponded. just as in stitutional
any despotism the question about a con-
contradictory. not a consequence of equal-
feeling of this
of equality in having no rights in it at all. the
Jews equal because
capable of self-subsistence.
inconsistent the prerogative which Moses asi.
was only conceded to it by grace. since
all. Hence every Jew belonged to a family because he had a share in its soil.
and since further that de-
pendence eliminated the precondition of all political. self-subsistent. a constitutional ideal to which no strain in
the spirit of
arid his nation
The inability to multiply estates was
ity of rights in land.
to multiply his estates
lator's. and this soil it could not even call
own.e. Since the relation of the Jews to one another as was none other than the equal dependence of all on their
his visible servants
officials. seeing all the congregation are Wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the every one of them
the equality of all in having no rights in land.e. (256) or else leaders or
laws had flowed.
The Greeks were
to be equal because
holy. laws. that of being of some consequence (Num-
That show of a constitutional relation23 between citizens vanished on inspection of the principle from which these [land]
the reason for
in the legislator's soul
and the great end of his legislation would inevitably have had to be the citizens' freedom.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
[I. Every Jew's inability was admittedly only an ideal of the legisand his people does not seem to have adhered to it strictly. as well as either permanent rulers of a kind (the heads of the tribes).]
.. quite different arrangements would have been made. If
had been the hindering of the inequality of wealth. equality stirred up the revolt of Dathan and
Korah who found
congregation of the Lord?"]
clouds. these there may and must be. and bears them
Only the Israelites did got complete this fine image."]
. beareth them on her wings. Only in such a form of social interconnection could it be indifferent. could
it remain indeterminate. others with no bearing whatever (not even only
the Jews there
oppress. In relation to their God they rather afford the image of an eagle which by mistake warmed showed them how to fly and took them on its stones. II) of his political life. In the event of the Israelites having a notion to be
on the founding of a constitution or of any popular rights against the kings.
did not live to see the complete execution of his legislafully into force at all in any period of Israelite history. and
ruled by a king like other peoples. He died in punishment for a tiny initiative
which indeed has not come
stirred in him on the one occasion when he struck one single 24 unbidden blow. he compares the way in which his God had led the
Jews.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
governors arising and disappearing by force or capriciously or as the needs of the hour require. so the Lord alone did lead him.
power which they
over against themselves and could never conquer
they have been
24. the Jewish nation had none. young never became eagles. takes the
wings. whether monarchical power would be introduced or not. ["As an eagle stirreth up her nest. Moses issued only a few orders. with the behavior of the eagle which wishes to train its young to it flutters its
wings over the
tion. some so fashioned that the monarchical power could abide by them or not as it pleased.
nest. spreadeth abroad her wings. taketh them. Of the rights which a nation has had to fear might be jeopardized. but never raised their weight into flight or fanned their borrowed warmth into the flame of life. through his instrumentality.
subsequent circumstances of the Jewish people up to the mean. have all of them been simply consequences and elaborations of
their original fate. abject. fluttereth over her young. wretched circumstances in which they still are today. In the survey (Deuteronomy xxxii.
people of inheritance. to a position of good fortune.
. Humaner feelings arose in their
hearts. Their state could not be supported simply by the fact that all the citizens had a support. But the Lord hath taken you .]
xvii. their God of distress. the moon.
was completely loosened.
thou be drawn when thou seest the sun..
27.e. appeared as a transition to the service of new gods.
produced a more friendly atmosphere..
on one belonging to them alone and opposed to
mankind. But now their
in the course
of this very service. their 26 El-Shaddai. since
hostility alone. and the stars away and worship them which the Lord hath imparted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.
.. to be unto him a
and the result was that their
the Jews renounced the spirit of hostility and devastation.
to struggle for independence again was the fate of the Jewish nation
but in their case
had to suffer two special modifications
(257) a) The transition to weakness.
serving strange gods.
were untrue not to
so to leave
make men weak and
them a prey to
25. a reference to Deuteriv. 19-20. etc. which is that of Luther's version) reads: "Take heed lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven
. This passage (taking our marginal reading.
1 . The fate of 25 and of acquiring losing independence as a result of good fortune
through oppression the
[The Hebrew words translated by "God Almighty"
vi.. [Hegel here originally inserted.
not be worshipers but only servants of these gods. they could subsist as united into a state only if all depended on a
bond of their
factor. 3. they were now become dependent on the world which hitherto had been subjected
either to themselves or to their ideal.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
maltreated and will be continually maltreated until they appease by the spirit of beauty and so annul it by reconciliation. they reverenced more beautiful spirits and served strange gods.
The death of Moses was followed by a long period of independence interchanging with subjection to foreign nations.
jealous neighbors. and the to rise out of oppression to independence appeared as a respirit
version to their
own God. but later deleted.
was a disobedience by bondsmen who (258) wished to know and call their own something outside and beyond what had come to hand from
As they became humanized even if they were capable of pure human feeling and were not enslaving themselves once more
their lord. or. instead of servile. association with them. together they gazed at the moon and the stars. Their urge to independence was strictly an urge to dependence on something their
own. and therefore a prohibition of idolatry was quite logical. Every condib)
. Oppression aroused hatred once
shaken off their whole
of a sudden could they have the old community of hatred. they found ties and feelings in which they were united with others.
Together they enjoyed the sun. together with their union in
(i.e. their mingling with other peoples became a dependence on them. and orall
ganized a beautiful union? They were soon driven back to it again. and it was one of their first laws and
chief interdicts.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
one of the laws which
we call "laws
of the land" but to the principle
of their entire legislation and their state.
gether with the image of the feeling in which they were one).
mingling with other peoples. they strayed into the orbit of an not found in the bondage that was theirs hitherto. when they reflected on their own feelings. which other nations often traverse only in millenniums. This enjoyment experience. In so far as the soul of Jewish nationality. they developed a common life with them. and in this
way they acquired gods.
There was now
them. by bonds of marriage and friendship. flagged in the slightest and more friendly genii united it with strangers and carried it over the bounds of that
were they deserters. the Jews represented to themselves as something living. that outside their given inheritance there might still be
hatred. for in this dissolution of their community and their state they be-
came a prey to stronger men. by every kind of friendly. so far
which a human heart could adopt. the odium generis humani.
to something orignally free
a contradiction in
their vigor declined. must have been speedy with the Jews. and thereupon their God reawakened.
This animal existence was not compatible with the more beautiform of human life which freedom would have given them. could not persist. the new powers (259) (limitless lust for dominion and an actual dominion with reless restricted entity. acquired the feeling of its dependence on something external. it raised some individuals at least to be a more or
After the disappearance of the ephemeral but very oppressive brilliance of Solomon's regime. many individuals acquired a political importance which they had to share with the priests or defend against them. instead of
which was dominant
in idea. In other peoples the state of independence is
a state of good fortune. For a long period it maintained itself by humiliations as
a miserable sort of state until at the end (as the
never long behind the politics of cunning weakness)
day of misfortune it was trod-
. linked to universal hostility.
under oppression their wretched once came into jeopardy and they struggled to rescue
total ugliness. food and drink.
learned at least to fear. Samuel incompatible.
There was no
it. it is too opposed to nature. in which everyone was politically a nullity.
the Jews.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
violent to persist for long.
While in free states the introduction of monarchy degrades all citizens to private persons. The state of independence. all was lost or jeopardized.
power) which had interwoven the introduction of monarchy with the scourges of their fate finally tore the Jewish people asunder and tinned against its own vitals the same rabid lovelessstricted
ness and godlessness
nations. of humanity at a
life left over which they could have maintained or whose enjoyment would have taught them to bear many a enjoyed. in this state. with this little. it followed that with only this independence.
the Jews introduced into their polity the monarchical (which Moses held to be compatible. an indigent existence.
with theocracy). they carried
had turned against other
fate against itself by the instrumentality of
became one dominated
reality. the state of independence
to be a state of total passiv-
Because their independence secured to them ity.
Thus they could become only cold fanatics. its old dread sublime unity. The mixture of passions could never again
and they therefore believed in the intermixture of an alien fate with the power of their will and their
alien to themselves. and everything connected with it. arising from passive hearts. as a cause of separation. who was
sought consolation in ideas: the ordinary ready enough to sacrifice himself but not his Object.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
den to the ground altogether without retaining the strength to rise again. they were bound to rage all the more terribly. in the hope of the coming Messiah. and which would make them into a living unity without multiplicity. circumscribed and ineffective when they were involved in
could afford only a reminiscence of bygone and so could only add to the confusion of the present without ages resurrecting the past. (260) they sought it in a common life which would be inde-
pendent of all the relations of the real world and whose enjoyment would be grounded on the habit of being together. a "being to-
. To flee from
in the business
ing. inspiration cannot enchant away a people's fate. on the contrary. the Pharisees sought
reality. though if it
its life. by destroying the many-sided interests of the time. in a fraternity
which would ban
the Sadducees sought
in the entire multiplicity
existence and in the distractions of a variable
ing but fixed details and in which there could be indeterminacy only as the possibility of a transition to other fixities.
of serving and doing the will of the objective Becomplete unification of their consciousness thereactivities
with (because of the incompleteness of the circle of their
which they were masters.
it can call a new forth out of the depths of spirit But the Jewish prophets kindled their flame from the torch of a languishing genius to which they tried to restore its old vigor
be pure and living. But when the genius of a nation has fled.
turn into a uniform passivity. the Essenes
in an eternal entity. inspiration cannot conjure it back. Inspired men had tried from time to time to cleave to the old
genius of their nation and to revivify it in its death throes.
but they are able to do almost nothing of themselves.
great tragedy of the Jewish people
no Greek tragedy.
The Romans were disappointed when they hoped that fanaticism would die down under their moderate rule. Their doctrine is received by but few .
they were even commands (e. would never be disturbed by any diversification. They are those who are esteemed most skilful
God. They say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word. when what was alien to their faith approached them without hostility at times when their needs had been met and their miserable appetite satisfied. They neither marry wives nor are desirous to keep servants. namely. and yet allow
The Sadducees take away fate entirely in the exact explication of the law and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil. nothing sacrosanct. in battling for
of offending against
the celebration of the Sabbath). xviii.
say that men may act as they please. though no force them consciously transgress them at another's order.]
. When they become magistrates.
capable. the wildest fanaticism.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
gether" which. 1). because the multitude would not otherwise hear them. could have made
life was so maltreated in them. although fate does co-operate in every action. They live by themselves and minister to one another" Qosephus Wars of the Jews ii.g. the greater their obstinacy
the dependence of the Jews on was bound to be when they
met with opposition in the one field where they could still have a will of their own.. their action became the most im-
pious fury. for it glowed once more
and was buried under the destruction
wrought. they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees.
can rouse neither terror nor pity.
it. as they are sometimes unwillingly obliged to do. The behaviour of the Sadducees towards one another is in some degrees wild.. 8. for both of these arise only out
The more thoroughgoing was
their laws. was parallel to the
stubbornness with which they fought for their worship
attacked. but not those derived from the The Essenes will not suffer anything to tradition of our forefathers hinder them from having all things in common.. The lightheartedness with which they let themselves be corrupted. in their worship. owing to the absolute equality of the members.. Antiquities of the Jews \i\i.
["The Pharisees ascribe
to fate and to
right or the contrary is principally in the power of men.
men in despair. 10. since nothing in them was left undominated. let themselves become untrue to their faith.
they cannot be reconciled
love. In this time of inner fermentation. had at (since these were objects and he their slave) and be dashed to pieces
had to trample and slay everylast to be forsaken by his gods
his faith itself. There are so unsatisfied striving for somemany ideals and different types of life.
thing holy in human nature.*']
. so much and hopeful reformer is as assured of a following thing new.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
of the fate which follows from the inevitable
character. The result was that they outran the ferjust to
mentation of the whole and
of a beautiful
can arouse horror alone. Thus he was himself raised above it and tried to raise his people above it too. while these varied elements were
developing until they became concentrated into a whole and until sheer oppositions and open war [with Rome] were the result.
The fate of the Jewish people
29. 385). comprehended the fate of the Jewish people only partially.
THE MORAL TEACHING OF
ON THE MOUNT CONTRASTED WITH THE MOSAIC LAW AND WITH KANT'S ETHICS]
(261) Jesus appeared shortly before the last crisis produced by the fermentation of the multiplex elements in the Jewish fate.
without honor and without achieve-
Jesus did not fight merely against one part of the Jewish fate. and he was not. sevthe final act. to await the further development necessary before a stronger power could be associated with their efforts. he set himself against the whole.
waves carry them along passively and unconsciously and so
the tide or. But enmities like those he sought to transcend can be
overcome only by
valor. [In an earlier draft (Nohl. Hegel wrote: "In the time of Jesus the Jewish people no longer presents the appearance of a whole. hence they were not calm enough either to
soul. p. alternatively. 29 Men of commoner eral partial outbreaks preceded
though of strong passions. that any confident
the fate of
Macbeth who stepped out of nature
in their service
alien Beings. to have done so would have implied that he was himself in the toils
of another part.
if he freely recognizes and estabRights which a man sacrifices
powers over himself. service.
of the required a bare service
Lord. Hegel seems to have further described The translation of the following paragraph. is the most holy. if that spirit
are the ing in religious actions. Hegel wrote: "The root of Judaism is the Objective. laws were all equally positive in Jewish eyes. demanding a consciousness of one's
30. of all things. Since Jesus had aligned himself with no aspect
all. i.e. they
of beauty be lackmost empty of all. moral. and he
victim himself. The order in which
the various kinds of Jewish laws (laws about worship. which is fragmentary in the manuthe reconstruction and interpretation given by T. Hegel.
in the spirit
of Jesus. It follows that. the commands in connection with the service of God.
in a deed..
und sem Wcrk.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
sublime effort to overcome the whole of the Jewish fate must
therefore have failed with his people. in an individual human being] were simply commands for the Jews and positive throughout. moral laws.]
. therefore. L. a human urge and so a human need. In an earlier draft (Nohl. without pleasure or love. the most beautiful. among men who no longer had
30 to defend or uphold any share of the fate in question. i." In what is missing.
we might recognize as grounded in the living modification of human nature [i. This
p. bondage to an alien Lord. Haescript.. and civil strange and manufactured order. presupposes sein Wollen ring. as no longer opposed to reality. regulations which. and civil laws) are followed here is for them. Religious practice it is our endeavor to unify the discords necessitated by our develop-
ment and our attempt to exhibit the unification in the ideal as fully and thus to express and existent. (262) a
since religious. set their
precise opposite. 386)
the nature of Jewish bondage to the law.. and distinctions between these types are first introduced for the Jews as a result of the manner of Jesus' reaction to them.
this point there is a gap in the manuscript. an obedience without joy. was what Jesus attacked.e.e. they are the
most senseless bondage.
of the Jewish fate at
to find a great re-
his own people (for it was too much entangled in ception not among its fate) but in the rest of the world. a direct slavery.
renunciation. because need is a state of distraction. be this his time or something But the more trifling any such right and its sacrifice may be. The case is otherwise only when the enof the community becomes an object of contempt.
tautologous to say that supreme need is a profanation of something sacrosanct.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
lation. (263) and command of that type is. as
serve. but to profane it except in need is wantonness if
property. for in that case the profanation of the
sanctuary is at the same time an unrighteous profanation of the rights of all. no matter how
satisfaction of the
commonest human want
be. things which in themselves are
sanct not only
Not only is nature mere objects may
also be sacro-
when they are themselves manifestations of a multibut also when they stand in a relation of some sort to unifying it and belong to it. as far
as the others arc concerned.
rises superior to actions like these. Need may demand the profanation of such a sacrosanct thing. it was be-
cause Jesus withdrew from the whole life of his people that he rethis kind of forbearance which in other circumstances a
deeds in which
expresses his nullity. In need either a man is made an object and is oppressed or else he must make nature an object and oppress that. The pious zeal which smashes the temples and altars of an alien worship and drives out its priests profanes communal
sanctuaries belonging to
in so far as all
his profanation of a sacred object or
separates himself from the others reassumcs his rights.
that wherein a people is united is at the same time something communal. only a disturbance in so far as
renunciation of community with them and
arbitrary use of his
the less will a
man oppose himself to his fellow-citizens on its account in the matter which to them is supreme. and an
action profaning a sacrosanct object is need in action. his passivity. the less will he wish
heart of the
to disrupt his
community with them on the point which is the very communal tie. a property of all alike. because there lies directly in such a want the sensing or the preserving of a human being.
The action of Jesus entirely a matter to perform the action a few hours earlier and expressed his
. place where they
lawful action. godless and unholy. in matters of indifference. greater than the temple.
His disciples gave offense to the Jews by plucking ears of corn on the Sabbath. his general drift is to lift nature. here is a nature is holier than the temple.. forwent not even the satisfaction of a whim. while
made by Jewish
above that single restricted building. of a very ordinary need. like
David's misuse of the sacred bread. however. he magnifies the priests desecrate the Sabbath in the temple merely. which was in their view the only part of the hands. but
whether the man lacked the use of his hand or not un-
of indifference. on the other hand. and ample The animal which falls into the pit demands inneed cancels
guilt. Therein he let us read his from his people. he contrasts the sanctification of a time [the seventh day] with men and declares that the former is inferior to a trivial satisfaction of a human need. i. that (264) they themselves knew something
of this command. his utter contempt for bondage to separation
the same day Jesus healed a withered hand. The Jews' own behavior in connection with a sheep in danger proved to them.
stant aid. that even in their own eyes the holiness of the day did not count as absolute.
world related to God.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
shows by self-restraint. they were no desecration.e. Sabbath by priestly duties. On the one the transgression by the very remark that. toward that with which he is heart and soul at one. but David had seized the shewbread in extreme need. reverence for the Sabbath
might well have postponed
this trifling satisfaction for all the
necessary for going to a Jesus contrasted David with the Pharisees
could get cooked food. For the sake of Jewish
renounced nothing. or the functions of priests on the Sabbath. But even here the exhigher than the observance which he brings before the Jews is an example of need. The hunger which was their motive could find no satisfaction in these ears of corn. In plain terms. since these
hand. Jesus also adduced the desecration of the
but. and. which for the
the command is moral. not as force) or habitual action might accionly among those who understand it."]
32. If we look solely
at the content. the subjective in general. but he took up
a different attitude to those laws
either moral or else
which from varying points of civil commands. above the purity or impurity of an object.e. So also law may reconcile reason with desire and allow man to live at peace with himself. honoureth me with their lips. but their heart is far from me. if it is treated as a ance with its form.
Against purely objective commands Jesus set something totally foreign to them. i. opposites ought to be unified. namely..e. hostilities ought to be assuaged. as the specific unification
if therefore the
. but scendence of that natural level and the attainment of an intelligence which can is only a concept.. Hence.. he puts purity or impurity of heart. its content. the most we can say is that law ought to be obeyed.. saying: This people . and Jesus puts (Matthew xv.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
the primacy of such a
authority. But law that even if there are laws. Instinctive moral and political life presuppose a trandentally accord with the law.
which thus leaves them
exists itself in opposition to reality. the unification of opposites which they imply may not be an accomplished fact. it unites men who. it is permake them wholly or partly objective. in the sense that it operates (as law. a totally different sphere. so grasp what law is. He made undetermined
world of social relationships.
of specific opposites. character. Since it is natural
which these express in the form of commands. Since laws are uniof opposites in a
concept.. outside the pale of law. because it can be disobeyed. not concept made and grasped by men.
follows that the
32 If the concept is treated in accordconcept expresses an ought.
one which was to
have nothing in
with the punctilious following of objective
commands."] this is
war between opposed
thinking here of moral and political laws. and in the formal expression of the law as "Thou shalt. and shalt"] does not arise from the
of the elders? For they disciples transgress the tradition ["Why Ye He said unto them wash not their hands when they eat bread have made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition Well did Esaias prophesy of you. 2)
above bondage to a command. would be at enmity with one another.
by the highest
Against the custom of washing the hands before eating bread 31 the whole subjectivity of man. i. Now a law is a concept.
33. although as something
the positivity of mo' al commands. although the legal is a universal whose entire obligatori-
even if every ought. Since in the latter case the unification of opposites
not achieved by thinking. i. as subjective. Thus the former reopposition of one living being to others. while purely moral laws
to opposition in one living being. but
[I. would be such as concern the restriction of those forces whose activity does not involve a relation
not an activity against them. civil laws delimit the living beings. those in which the opposites and the unification cannot
be formally alien to one another.
Purely moral commands which are incapable of becoming civil ones. but as something alien to the restricted
reverence for duty. (265) of that same living being. the latter the op-
position of one side. an3 since in their the same time moral.e. other powers. If the laws are oper-
ative as purely civil
matter they are at
commands. We might have expected Jesus to work along these lines against
force. still. nevertheless as concept mand. as
lies in its universality.. of the living being to other sides. or since the unification of
objective entities in the concept also either presupposes a nonobjective unification or else may be such.]
. i. a (universality) it is something subjective. against sheer legality. they are positive. and.. if
the moral law
regarded as God's
instead of as inherently
opposition between several
not subjective. one power. the command is civil. and to show that. every comdeclares itself as something alien. it follows that their form as
commands would be canceled if they were made moral.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
property of the concept but is asserted by an external power. But even are incapable of becoming civil may become objective if the unification (or restriction) works not as concept itself. not the command of an external power. if their "ought" became.e. as command. and to this extent one power of this being lords it over another of its powers. the consequence of their
Thia kind of objecthe concept ittivity could be canceled only by the restoration of self and by the restriction of activity through that concept.
while the latter is free. external commands. 34
For the particular
revealed as grounded in an autonomy of the
of argument. Cf.
(i. Abbott (London. K.e. but that the former have
Puritans.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
product of a
. T. a specific duty. between the
in manner. there was a great difference all alike they were obeying positive authorities. There remains a residuum of indestructible positivity
shocks us because the content
which the universal command of duty acquires. below. the Voguls.
one-sidedness. positivity is only the Shaman of the Tungus. and in that event he is not free but the slave of his passions. to follow will may be determined by impulses and other purely
the rational will itself. Hegel retorts that the man whose inclinations are in bondage to reason is also a slave.
on the one hand. the difference is not that the former make themselves slaves. but none in Voguls and the Puritans.) For "pathological love" see Kant's Theory of Ethics. by commands posited
in Kant's view.e.
of reason as the capacity for uniand objectivity.
[Kant held that the only actions which had moral worth were those done "from duty/' and Hegel interpreted him as meaning that morality required us to follow the moral law of duty even to the thwarting of all our inclinations. p. p.e. on the other. a man is asked by Kant to obey commands which are just as external and positive (so far as these needs are concerned) as the commands of a positive religion. but is possible through love attempts to show that a unification of the personality and religion. obedient to the moral law issued by the rational will itself.
is. i. trans. contains the contradiction of being restricted and universal at the
same time and makes the most stubborn claims
34. and between the European prelate who rules church and state.. and the
Since the moral law
to be free. It was from this within the Bounds of Reason Alone (iv. (266) partially removed. 2. 3) point of view that in his Religion Kant said that between the Shaman and the European prelate. whatever else it is called the universal is necessarily and always something alien and objective..
natural factors. its heteronomy.
their lord outside themselves. pathological love. and the man who listens to his own command of duty. For Kant. though a slave of himself. yet at the
same time is
slave. 247. from the point of view of human needs and passions. and not the law of their own reason. however. he is still a slave if it is determined by the "positive" commands of an external auor laid down by fiat and not deducible from thority. or impulses. its positivity. (The Tungus and the Voguls are Siberian tribes. principle. man remains a the two are never synthesized. the law of man's own reason. but alternatively the will may be self-determining. while the latter carries his lord in
himself.. 1923). reason tries to thwart desire. Hegel duality. inclinations.
of Jesus. elaborated in numerous examples. which excludes inclination..
of duty. the Sermon on the Mount. To act in the
of the laws could not have meant for him "to act out of re-
spect for duty and to contradict inclinations. to strip the laws of legality. and (ii) in-
clination." that which is raised above this cleavage is by contrast an "is. 36 is visible. which is an
above morality." a
life. Woe to the human relations which are not unquestionably found in the concept
i." Love he regards as a "modification of life" (i. 37 When Jesus expresses in terms of 35. The Sermon does not teach rever-
law but annuls
ence for the laws. The restricted form of
. the other because it was something
suppressed.e." for both "parts of the spirit" (no other words can describe this distraction of soul). a
directly attacking laws. the lover* s reason and inclination are in harmony. as the domination of inclination by reason. because it simply tacks on to man's distraction of mind an obdurate conceit. on the contrary.]
[Morality interpreted. Since the commands of duty
presuppose a cleavage [between reason and inclination] and since the domination of the concept declares itself in a "thou shah. would have been not in the spirit of the laws but against that spirit.e. one part because it was something exclusive and so self-restricted. suppressed
36.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
on the strength of possessing universality of form. [The two parts are (i) reason. as in the view here ascribed by Hegel to Kant. since the
is given only through the restrictedness of the object and only concerns the object.. it exhibits that which fulfils the it as law and so is something higher than obedience to
law and makes law superfluous. [Hegel seems to be thinking here of a precept such as "Love thy neighbor.
exclusive and there-
fore restricted only if looked
at in reference to the object.
One who wished
not possibly have taken a course like this. life expressing itself in a specific mode) and so as an attitude in which the lover's whole self is at one. of their legal form. just
thus divergent. for
of universality but
concept (since it is not merely the empty thought is to manifest itself in an action) excludes or
to restore man's humanity in
for such an "ideal. while.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
sets against and above the laws (think not that (267) wish to destroy the law.
Abbott. since duties require an opposition. And if in this way life appears in the form of something due to reflection.
[Kanfs Theory of
." "cannot be
to the ground by its own weight. in essence a concept.
It is only the sequel to the fact that. a conceptual form. And his remark that "love. and the restriction is added to the precept (which otherwise would consist of the word "love" only) simply because the object of love is necessarily a restricted object. the moral im-
as a universal. let your word be. because in love all thought of duties vanishes.." in which duties are represented as willingly done. it acquires a form alien to it. when life is conceived in thought or given expression.
the precept (love thy neighbor) is a restriction which concerns not the lover but the object of his love. And he can
unresolved contradiction in his ideal because he declares that
rational creatures (a remarkable juxtaposition of
but cannot attain that ideal.
and an action that
do requires none. this turn of phrase is a command in a sense quite different from that of the "shah" of a
commands what he
moral imperative. is self-contradictory. on the other hand. something
is. trans. etc.]
38. 175-76. then
life): "Love God above everything and thy neighbor as thyself" was quite wrongly regarded by Kant as a "command requiring re38 spect for a law which commands love. given to this
love. love God and your neighbor). And so also even the honor which he bestows in
that expression of Jesus
of holiness unattainable by any creature." to take the meaning which he thinks must be or. "liking to
duties." And it is on this confusion
type of expression (a type inappropriate to
of the utterly accidental kind of phraseology expressive of life with the moral imperative (which depends on the opposition between concept and reality) that there rests Kant's profound reduction of
of all and thy neighbor
as thyself) to his moral imperative.
men. I tell you not to resist. is squandered to no purpose.
a species of paradox in which his whole soul forthwith and unambiguously declares to the multitude of expectant listeners that they
have to expect from him something wholly strange. the inclination [to act as the laws may command]. while "is"
bility. a different genius. en-
thusiastically proclaims a new law and light.
a unification of inclination with the law
This correspondence with u inclination is the ^X^pco/xa [fulfilment] of the law. "complement of possi-
the latter loses
as law. quoted in T. 17-20]. how-
ever. a different world. both lose their opposition. a new region of life whose relation to the world could only be to be hated and persecuted by it.
something "objective") loses its universality and the in the subject particularity. as the synthesis of subject and object." 39 is the which. is a syna universal. There are cries in which he enthusiastically deviates directly
from the common estimate of
something thought. The correspondence of inclination with law is such that law and inclinaversal
1945). while Kantian conception of virtue this opposition remains.e..
universal. and the uni-
becomes the master and the particular the mastered. 40.
and the expression "correspondence of
inclination with the
therefore wholly unsatisfactory be-
39.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
Jesus begins the
Sermon on the Mount [Matthew
v. in which subject and object have lost their opposition. Similarly.
(268) This supplement he goes on to exhibit in several laws. Weldon. i. 55. a virtue. This expanded content we may call an inclination so to act as the
may command. in which there is more than is in the righteousness of the sons of duty and which is more complete because it supplements the deficiency in
the laws [or "fulfils" them]
. Introduction to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (Oxford. it is an is.
what he discovers to them
not that laws disappear but that
they must be kept through a righteousness of a new kind." since possibility is the object as
which the law (which. to use an old expression.. [The expression is Baumgarten's. See his Metaphysica (1739). D.]
.e. In this Kingdom of Heaven [Matthew v.
." The loving disposition is said to be congruent with both law and inclination because it is the synthesis of these. only the unity of strangers.
itself. It excludes not a
40. however. In the "fulfilment'* of both the
laws and duty. as law. as inclination opposed to the concept. the expression might easily be understood to mean that a support of the moral disposition. which makes the content of the command superfluous and destroys its form as a command.
com[In a canceled passage (Nohl.
wise congruent with u
Against such commands Jesus set virtue..
poor a thing as a law In reconcilability the law loses its form. as the relation of correspondence
u one another. fulness that so
displaced by life. correspondence
correspondence would be only fortuitous. 268. because that form implies an opposition between a commander and something resisting the command. is of necessity congruent with law. opposed to the law. it is an is" which expressed as (a) concept. their concomitant. note) Hegel wrote here express no more than an ought or a shall. because it is a universal. but what reconcilability thereby loses in respect of the universality which grips all particulars together in the concept is only a seeming loss and a genuine infinite gain on ac-
count of the wealth of living relations with the individuals (perhaps few) with whom it comes into connection. the
living. ceases to be the universal. and since the things in with one another would on this view be different. and this at once makes plain its deficiency.e. 21-22] is a maxim (269) which is recognized as valid for the will of every rational being
lation.. a loving disposition.
. i. still opposites.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
implies that law and inclination are still particulars.. opposed to inclination. a unity in thought only. of the will's determinacy by the law. does not express an 'is'.
has in itself
richer. love. was forthcoming from was other than the law. p. i. 40
and which can be valid as a principle of a universal legisAgainst such a command Jesus sets the higher genius of rec-
oncilability (a modification
of love) which not only does not act
counter to this law but makes
wholly superfluous. etc. i.e. the moral disposition. and therefore this of law and inclination is life and. and inclination ceases to be particular. of reverence for the
the inclination which
or as ($) reality. Moreover.
The command Thou shalt not kill" [Matthew v.
man. (270) but it leaves its gift there. except in
Philological exegesis for the most part supports the sense in which "Raca" taken here. it is alien to love to call the other a fool. [Hegel takes "Raca" to mean "scoundrel. though the equality of enemies. Jesus
cludes the lust not forbidden
Love preone even-
that duty and.
Per contra. and then and then only approaches the and singleness of heart. struggles to annul the enmity of the other."]
.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
reality but only thoughts
possibilities. on the other hand [Matthew v." But modern scholars say that it is a softer expression than "fool" and means "silly fellow.
marriage and the right to divorce a wife.
reconciles itself to
no regard to right whatever. over against other men
persist in this disorder. Yet a scoundrel in the isolation in which he puts himself by setting him-
brother a scoundrel
self. comes before the altar conscious of a separation. and if he is as sharp as the other. Therefore. he still counts since
hated. a greater crime than anger. which is a kind of blind jusand so presupposes equality.
in enmity. and a great scoundrel may be admired.
while the form of the
munity of essence. for this annuls not
relation with the speaker but also
wealth of possibility in the universality of the itself a rending of life. the
so indigent that
uprush of the desire to oppress in turn. turns round and calls him a fool. having no inimical disposition of its own. but the chief difficulty is created by the moral sense of the interpreters who find "fool" a softer expression than "scoundrel. Thus the man called a fool feels himself made sui juris. and the content of the command is
permits any transgression except the one it forFor reconcilability. on the other hand. If
the standard of judgment.*
Love. over against dutiful fidelity in
sets love. even anger is a crime and amounts to the quick reaction of feeling to an oppression. and by striving to of some worth. 23-24].
called a fool
pletely subjugated and
designated a nonentity. then by that standard calling one's is a crime. It does not leave the
judge to apportion
rights. the spirit of reconcilability." and judge both words not by the spirit in which they are uttered but by the impression they make. is
(271) Since event sworn to cannot itself be made visible. God.
i. love cancels the leave to divorce. when the wife has bestowed her love on another) the husband
not continue a slave to her. and a transfer of its passion to another is only a perversion of it. truth itself.e. To be sure. to be atoned for with a bad conscience. only the feeling for the whole. the idea of either a past deed or a future one is linked to something divine.e. when the taken. the
declaration of a will and the deed are themselves
ered. can stand in the way of the diremption of the man's essence.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
tuality. On the
other hand. in a promise. by the reaction of this Being on the heart of the man on oath. the sanctity of love is the completion (the xX^pcojLta [fulfilment]) of the law against divorce.
lasts. is the important thing.
the firm connection of the
but in the beginning it was not so. love. Moses had to give laws and rights
about marriage to the Jews "because of the hardness of their hearts. while (b) the
decision to swear is opposite of the truth is excluded. In a statement about reality the subject and the object are thought of as severed. Hence. In a sworn statement."
the truth of the represented and figured in a Being. but the support which the husband draws from a law and
and through which he brings side means adding to the outrage on
and propriety onto his
his wife's love a contemptible
harshness. on the one hand. an "is.
supposed to be any superstition
. But in the eventuality which Jesus made an exception (i. is
put in its place. and (a) is in this way given to the other to whom the oath is sworn and produces conviction in him.. and the connection of word and deed. so
cease loving a wife who still loves compels love to sm. cancels this leave to divorce. and this
makes a man capable of checking any one of his many aspects which may wish to make itself the whole or rear its
head against the whole. there can
be no talk of leave
in this event
its fate. and in face of love. a leave contradictory to that duty. to be untrue to itself. and
both cases] the truth. their linkage..
long as it or rights. in a statement about futurity.
and the marriage
EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
the Jews swore
by heaven. Retribution and its equivalence with crime is the sacred
on the contrary. if one is canceled. the act promised or the fact asserted is
not performed or not a fact. God is made the authority over the word. by the
their oath to
God. heaven. a tooth for a tooth. This is one reality. into the power of an external authority. or
hair of their head.
the other. etc. then. for
neither heaven nor earth nor Jerusalem nor the hair of the head
the spirit of man which alone conjoins his word with an action. for in love there vanish not only rights
but also the feeling of inequality and the hatred of enemies which
imperative demand for equality implies. the other is denied too. laws and duties of which Jesus had spoken up to this point were on the whole civil. 38-42]. is the power external to both.. and he did not complete them by confirming
41. is eo ipso denied too. the equivalence
of the two.
salem. Jesus declares that these things arc a stranger's property and that the certainty of a deed may not be linked to anything strange. the connection of word one and rest on the man himself. etc.
[I. He does not assert the duty of keeping the oath.
on which any political order must rest. put
hands of the Lord. he declares that the oath is altogether superfluous. God must be the avenger of his own. earth.e. Jerusalem. to lift themselves above the whole sphere of
justice. then the object by which the man swore.. and in this event the Lord
of the object must vindicate it. they equated both realities and put the connection of this object with what was asserted.
and action must be a living An eye for an eye. the principle
justice or injustice
love. But Jesus makes a general demand on his hearers to surrender their rights. put
into the hands of a stranger. is represented as canceled. The deed asserted and
the object by which the oath was taken are so interconnected with each other that. they linked the reality of what
41 they asserted to an object. If. say the laws [Matthew v. This linking of a promised deed to something objective Jesus gainsays [Matthew v.
the earth. 33-37]. and this connection of object and assertion ought to be grounded in man himself.
to have meaning. 1-4] he speaks of a
purely moral duty.. as it were. above particular the mass of individuals. that
universal and particular are not merely thought but seen. are found to be in accordance with these. before
done. For as the concept of universality is ap-
the concept of particularity acquires plied to the individual.e. be like the completed action. Apart from banishing this hypocrisy which blends with the thought of the action the other aspect
(being seen of men) which is not in the action. although
makes no great difference. Farther on [Matthew vi. on the contrary. as in prayer and fasting. Let
hand know what the right hand doeth" cannot refer to
to others but
making the action known
seen by others. what has happened is.
then. Jesus seems here to u banish even the consciousness of the action as a duty fulfilled. by the universal over the particular. the particular in them as themselves
when honor is
ideally but also as really
is recognized as not merely consciousness of having per-
duty enables the individual to claim universality for himhimself as universal. Jesus condemns in it. Whether
the sole onlooker or whether
think that others too are
onlookers.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
laws and duties while requiring pure reverence for them as the motive for their observance. whether
enjoy only my own
consciousness or whether
also enjoy the applause of others. and above the whole sphere of particularity.
(272) judged by laws and moral imperatives.
Do it not
i. as raised above himself qua self. so also
as particulars. the private consciousness of duty fulfilled is different from it only in so
given. the universal in the ideas of the others.
not different in kind from honor but
Moreover. resulting in
the impurity of the action: the aim behind the action. is known to me. bearing on individuals and they set themselves.
order to be seen of men. the virtue of charity. The completion he gave them is no consciousness of rights and duties. the intrusion of something alien.
the action as thought of.. For when
the applause of others at a victory won by duty.
the contrary of "being
if. he expressed conas
tempt for them.
an action of
own mine I am
on one's dutifulness.
should. or else are
merely based on some need. (273) he
fasts as the rule prescribes
his tithes conscientiously as a
eyes. The consciousness of the Pharisee (a consciousness of duty done). the consciousness of having done one's
of the virtues. The Pharisee
too modest to recognize it as the strength of his own will) that he is not as many other men who are extortioners. In both of them Jesus
cannot be represented as moral duties 42 because they presuppose no opposition capable of unification in a concept. whose matter is limited. this
a hypocrisy because (a) even if
the intention of the action.
i. Jesus also speaks in the parable in Luke xviii. as in the case of the
Pharisee and the young man. while the good conscience. 5-18] of praying and fasting. adulterers.
be bound up with a reflection on itself and on the ac-
tion. like the consciousness of the young man (the consciousness
of having truly observed
conscience. and this self-consciousness of his is as foreign to
the action as men's applause. and (b) if it is an idea of the agent's self as a moral man. unjust. and which therefore are one and all incomplete. In this same spirit Jesus speaks [Matthew vi.
ethics.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
over against the individual who recognizes his universality by performing his duty. Against this consciousness of righteousness never said not to be genuine) Jesus sets the downcast
which do not venture to
themselves to heaven. hypocritically claims to be the whole. Both are either wholly objective.
duty..e. through and through
duties. Of this conviction of self-righteousness and the consequent disparagement of others (which both stand in necessary connection on
account of the necessary opposition of particular to universal).e. 20). 9 ff. something impure not belonging to the action. of the
publican who smites his breast and says God be merciful to me a sinner..]
[I. or even as this publican beside him.
an idea whose content
of restricted things whose sphere is given.
in the eyes
of others by their
to be Kant's
duties as they are conceived in
what Hegel takes
then they are tacked on to him.
and every act of virtue is in itself one of a pair of opposites. are of necessity linked with exclusion. im-
poses conditions on them. pp.]
[The meaning seems to be that to act in accordance with one right exclude and perhaps to transgress other rights.
in the particular case of prayer
he also condemns the
repetitions which give it the look of a duty and its performance. 19-34] to cast
aside care for one's life and to despise riches. 15 [: Can the children of the bride-chamber mourn so long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken
life as its
since in that event something
tacked on to
43 yet cannot be its property. 23 "How hard it is for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of
Heaven. (274) bebound up with objects. About the command which follows [Matthew vi.
a litany pardonable only
without truth for us. 211-47. and this means that both its
immediately appropriate virtue. Wealth at once betrays its opposition to love. But this at least is to
of property has become too powerful for us to tolerate reflections on it. honesty. with all the rights as well as all the cares connected with it. Jesus prescribes a
way to pray. it is conditioned by someitself. and makes them dependent on circumstances. to the whole. that the possession of riches. to the need which impels us to it.
44. 44 A syncretism. As well as
rejecting impurity of heart in prayer. because it is a right caught in a context of multiple rights. to find its abolition thinkable. but they cannot be
soul. a service of two masters. Within these limitations. and then shall they fast]) by reference to the feeling which lies at its heart. and also the other virtues possible within its sphere. for such
said. of no complete life.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
practice. See below. as also about Matthew xix. If the living being owns things. but
if life is
they allow of no whole." there is nothing to be sermons and rhymes.
Consideration of the true aspects of prayer is not relevant here. brings into human life definitive
restrictedness prescribes limits to the virtues. [Hegel conceives of life as a spiritual bond with spiritual properties. is unthinkable because the in43. there is room for duties and virtues. Jesus judges fasting (Matthew ix.
thy soul shall be required of thee. Jesus seems to have directly alleged only his incomtheir inheritance. ye shall be judged. from his disciples he demands elevation above the sphere of rights.
The point of view from which Jesus attacks riches is brought forward by Luke (xii. To conscience." says Jesus [Matthew vii. and by this judgment he has subjected them to himself in thought. In his answer to the petitioner. there corresponds the application of the laws to others
"Judge not. he cannot hold out against their independence. "that ye be not judged." So Jesus alleges rights only
to the profane inquirer. 13) in a context which clarifies it.e. the friendly services men
can perform in this sphere. for with what judgment ye judge.
in the spirit
of the reply than
no right to make the division." This subsumption of others under a concept manifested
in judgment. the justification in the fact that he teaches that morality is essentially a matter of the inner life. the essence of the 45 sphere of duties..
what thou hast acquired? So
amasses treasure for
not rich towards God. the
universality. above the whole sphere of property.
he has recognized a law has set up for himself also a cribondage. [I. Jesus had to exhibit not simply the "fulfilment'' of duties but also the object of these principles. because he turns at once disciples with a warning against covetousness and adds a para-
ble of a rich
man whom God
with the words
fool. the consciousness of one's own dutifulness or undutifulness.
his. and the danger is that legal rights with the externality and the specific details they entail may encroach upon that life or be taken as a substitute for it. 1-5].EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
determinate and the determinate cannot retain their form and
be bound together. in order to destroy the domain opposed to love. since the concept.
petence to grant
that he has
be called a weakness on the ground that the judge is not strong enough to bear up against them altogether but divides them. he takes them
not as they are but (275) as they ought to be.
and subjected himself to
45. of what Jesus says about property lies for Hegel
. A man had asked Jesus to intercede with his brother about the division of
refuse a petition for such an intercession will be judged to be merely the behavior of an egoist. justice. equity.
let him give to him
that hath none. it rather exhibits certain expressions of life in its beautiful free region as the
In contrast to this extinction of law and duty in love. 46
follows [Matthew vii.. It is also known of him (Mat-
xiv. not in reality. of which
has preserved some examples. E. We must be judged by the same standard.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
tcrion of judgment. because the standard of judgment lies in our thinking. oppose to the laws a realm which is higher than they. "If fate of the wrath to come. for the axe is even now laid to the root of the trees.. he replied: two coats or hath food to spare. In this way we get the better of him. "it matters not that you have Abraham for your " And father. where we
had a picture of man
in opposition to determinate prescriptions. and with the loving disposition which leads him to remove the mote from his brother's he has himself fallen
under the realm of love. and this may be transferred into its opposite by dividing (tcilcri) the person envied (i. the
could of course be so displayed only
in inadequate parables. etc. with the result that purity of life appeared there rather in its modifications.
Jews then asked him what they were to do. and we judge him by a concept. there is the manner of John
the Baptist. or by our conception of the laws by which he ought to abide. as reconciliation. but in thought. like the earlier part. marital fidelity. I must become wholly animated by love and so heal my own faults by lifting myself onto the plane of love instead of law and judgment.]
. 6-29] does not."
was appointed them.e. giving. envy may bring a consciousness of inferiority. but to
warned the publicans not to exact more than soldiers not to maim any man. by abstracting his position from his character) and then judging (urteilm) his character. not to pillive on their pay. But this if I process recoils on us. 4) that
he launched forth into reproaches on the relations
ends with the attempt to display the picture of man entirely outside the sphere in which it had been sketched earlier." he
says to the Jews. love another enough to wish to remedy his defects. hon-
esty. Further. by our conception of what he ought to be. which Jesus signalizes as the highest morality. [The meaning perhaps is that by judging people we try to get the better of them in thought. in particular virtues. a thought. We envy the man as he is.
but he later deleted
. just as his teaching (see the above examples) exhorts to specific virtues and shows that their great spirit. within the sphere of the latter the nonmoral [i.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
reproof which cost him his head.
LOVE AS THE TRANSCENDENCE OF PENAL JUSTICE AND THE
THE MORAL TEACHING OF
RECONCILIATION OF FATE]
(276) Over against the positivity of the Jews. because the agent's specific positive service has a limit which he
cannot transcend. Man confronts himself. but from another aspect there is
linked with this neutrality of character a measure of immorality. service's
moral neutrality vanishes along with its limited character.
respect of a specific virtue which in him and neither moral nor immoral.
his fan in his
hand would purge the threshing
John hoped and believed that
for his baptism of water a baptism with fire and the spirit.
morality consists in obedience to positive comits
a slave to the law and in
iii. It is true
man. their all-pervasive soul..]
48. See below. pp. and the service
attitude to these
not of necessity a nonvirtuous duties. a
entered his consciousness.]
Hegel's original manuscript. then anything else the man does beyond these is immoral. the morally neutral obedience] is not the im-
moral (but the opposite of virtue
immorality or vice)
.e.. over against the laws and their obligatoriness he set the virtues. [If morality
supposed to consist in performing certain specific services.
set (277) against the positive. [This phrase
it. and hence beyond it he is immoral. Jesus set man. had not
between Herod and
his brother's wife. and 47 in these the immorality of "positive" man is overcome.
mands. 48 Thus this immorality of positivity does not open on the same aspect of human
relations as positive obedience does.
himself too and proclaimed
floor. His fate was completed because of a specific reproof. his character and his deeds become the man him47.
To a trespass. In the moral freedom
of virtue to vice. Since law was opbe taken up posed to love.
has found its unification in opposition of duty to inclination the modifications of love.
of nature. there
as in what is destroyed. But it seems all the more difficult to think how the law in this form
called a penal law." In the opposition of law to nature. however.
of the universal to the
actual. it was only the form of law. the content would be superseded along with the form. if one is actual.]
. law has been made.. the attainment of the exclusion of the other. in the virtues. not its content.e.
particular. The trespasser has directly in the offended which his trespass has injured in another. only a concept. the
not unless the other
both opposites are posited.
law. and. the law but it then expresses only because its content has in reality 50 been annulled. and it is then gap. though in this process
as penal justice
can be superseded. trespass precludes
in content. are is. but. by the existence of the trespass. howit.
.. here. right himself outside the concept which is the has
content of the law. which had vanished. it could
into love.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
only where he erects them himself. if able only in the concept [not in reality]. since the content is punishment. If then a unification of the opposites is availopposed.
The law merely says
lose the rights
law. the "or" in "virtue or vice.e.
the deficiency. hence. because the law
directly only a
50. This possibility of
self. In the previous supersession of
law by the virtues. i. and since nature
one. a real fact which yet negates the content of the law.
This form of law (and the law's content) is the direct opposite of life because it signalizes the destruction of life.
He has barriers
a clear-cut opposition [between virtue and vice] is freedom. not in its content but in its form. the
in the opposition
only possible. and his virtues are determinacies which he fixes himself. there still remains the the thing opposed to it has been destroyed. law
lost its shape. [I.
as ordering or punishing.e. in so far as the others are looked on as suffering punishment in him. his deed becomes universal.
is only his special chardeserved. pursues him and clings to his trespass..
condition of the law's uni-
as resting on legal conceptions superseded by the teaching of Jesus about love and as being unsatisfactory even on that basis.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
content no longer exists for him.e. as tingent. But
and a judge can give up as a acting does not satisfy justice. be put to death.]
[Hegel seems here to be criticizing the Pauline doctrine of the Atone-
. so long must the individual be sacrificed to the universal. the judge. and it as real. can forgo
judge.e. i. cannot be merciful. because as a character-
of a living being
vanish and another characteristic
the scene instead. the executor who deprives the trespasser in reality of the right which he has lost in the concept. Thus the law remains. i.
it. inevitably But the execution of justice is not inevitable. he has canceled
But the form
of the law. and the right which he has canceled is also canceled for him. universality. For this reason it is also contradictory to contemplate satisfying the law
by punishing one man
representative of many like criminals. is only
being opposed to a particular.e.e. Justice thus becomes something conthere may be a contradiction between it as universal.
acteristic. that is inescapable. since. remains. and a punishment.
But the living being whose might has been united with the law.. An avenger can forhis revenge.
and the law.
their concept. give. Now if the awful majesty. so long as there
no escape from them.
right. so long as laws are supreme. is not abstract justice.
can pardon. his
desert. and there
his concept has lost. and. but a living being. i. there is no escaping it.
itself. he is their universal.
no canceling the fact that the punishment of the trespass is deserved. in a living being. in order
that the trespasser
the law must be linked with
and clothed with might. The law cannot forgo the punishment. thought..
only the concept of the trespasser which loses the and in order that this loss may be actualized. for justice
The law has been broken by the trespasser.
whether (a) the law is in his eyes
present in him subjectively as power which the trespasser has cre-
himself. since thus the contradiction between its declared fiat and the reality of the trespasser is annulled. in the
52. can suffer no alteration.]
ble. it then lets go.
sure. over his action as a his reality 52 is in contradiction reality he has no power. or else their acas
and the actions are particulars in so far
are considered in their bearing on universality. it may drive him to try running away from himself and therefore from the law and justice. Only the trespasser not reconciled with the law. his
hope that he will
action as a part of himself. (0) In the bad conscience (the consciousness of a bad action.
. ceases to work on has punished him.e. considered as conforming to them or contravening them. and that connection is indissoluble.. he
throws himself into the bosom of the administrator of abstract
tice in order to experience his goodness. the
the trespasser is punished.
i. i. on the laws.
cf.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
versality lies in the fact that either
from the terrifying
and the immutability of the law he can fly to grace oppression and grief of a bad conscience may drive him
once more to a dishonesty. it has not lost its shape or been made friendly.
trespasser always sees himself as a trespasser. and this
with his consciousness of the law. their specific character. their relation to the law.
this disquiet. this hostile being. once suffered. but it still withdraws to a
threatening attitude. of one's
self as a
bad man) punishment. they are realities. punishment follows the deed. 141.e. From this
point of view.
(/3) it is
a bad conscience.e. then
not even through suffering punishment. what
has happened cannot be undone. When in its turn it has done to him he did himself.. are particulars. If there is no way to make an action undone.
in acting. p.. they are what they are. and along with it the exception which the trespasser (279)
wished to make to the universality of the law.
and as such it is a content of the law. And since the law.]
[The universality of the law
content of the law
. but he has the dishonest wish that his trans-
gression may be denied by goodness itself. It is not that he denies his transgression. punishment universal and particular are united in the sense that in it there is no
Punishment represented as
54. since it is the particular.
is the effect of a transgressed law from which the has torn himself free but on which he still depends. whose master he believed he had beversality
come. but because the punishment is the result of the law. in which fate. while the content of the deed now has the
shape of universality and
at this level no return is possible to unity of consciousa pure route. but they can be tranit
scended if fate can be reconciled. The latter is a deed. as a universal. remains. and he finds consolation in the thought.
his act. its content is universal as enshrining the law itself. The law. he trespasser cannot escape from the law or from punishment or from what he
has done. there
such a cleav-
persists even if the trespasser denies the and it reasserts itself in the punishment. (280) but
in its content it
him because it has the shape of the deed which contradicts what previously was the law.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
close an eye and look on him as other than he is. like the trespass. the
unitrespasser has smashed the matter of the law. in the untrue idea. or so long as it has no aspect from which both it and
science. 54 This perversion of the law. which another being may frame
of him. of the threatening law and the bad con-
cancellation so long as punishment has to be regarded solely as something absolute. so long as it is unconditional. and punishment cannot he reconciled. remains. except in dishonest entreaty there can be no by cancellation of punishment.
fate is of a quite different kind. Because the
it was before. so too does the deed. the
becomes the contrary of what
ment. Since the characteristic of the law
universality. In a hostile power. he still
remains in subjection to it. an individual thing.
There can be no other
can be seen to be subordinate to a higher sphere.
execution. but its form remains. is punishhas cut himself loose from the law.
Only through a decleavage. as a universal. for
life. not a revivification out of a
dead situation. much less a mastery.. liberation from subservience. the slave's flight from his master. is dissipated by the fact that the disembodied spirit of the injured life
comes on the scene against the trespass. since life dwells in the single Godhead. Destruction
life. for the
man is alive. the murderer thinks he has killed his victim.
rule. is lord of the particular and has subdued this man56 to obedience. because the law is only a and needs an opposite. [I. which it acquires its force. Law.
of trespass. on the contrary. universal
not severed from particular in the way in which the law. only produced a ghost to terrify him. however. But he has only turned life into an enemy.e. but as an evil spirit. from something thought.e. and man stands over against it as a power fighting against it.
vti\\fght against fate. just as Banquo who came as a friend to Macbeth was not blotted out when he was murdered
but immediately thereafter took his seat. parture from that united life which is neither regulated by law nor
at variance with law. enemy.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
age.. The trespasser intended to have to do with another's life. not as a guest at the feast. is something not the nullification of life
diremption. in the concept. he has perverted life into an enemy. it
Eumenides. is opposed to man or his inclinations as the particular. only through the killing of alien produced. and. and before he acts there is no no opposition. this law
55. and the destruction consists in
tion into an
immortal. a reality. appears as its which vindicates every branch of life and lets
if slain. In his arrogance he has destroyed indeed.
stroys the other's life and thinks itself enlarged thereby. as universal.]
enemy. of the equality between the
[I. The tresFate
pass of the
man regarded as in the toils of fate is therefore not a reof the subject against his ruler.
the unification. It is the deed itself which has
created a law
whose domination now comes on the
scene. but only the friendliness of life. In the hostile power of fate. but
he has only destroyed
so far as reconcilability is
concerned. can annul the law and punishment. hostile
and annul the
bungling achievement of a trespass. of a power which he himself has armed. It is
for the first
and the trespasser's own forfeited time that the injured life appears as a
him as he has Hence punishment as fate is the equal reaction of the trespasser's own deed. In the case of punishment as fate. that it occurs within the orbit of life. alternatively. When the trespasser feels the disruption of his own life
punishment) or knows himself (in his bad conscience) as disrupted. apparently alien. or idea. has this advantage of the penal law. while a crime falling under law and
punishment occurs on the contrary in the orbit of insurmountable oppositions and absolutely real events.
life. as what was to
[The meaning is doubtful.
recognized as a part
of himself.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
injured. is only the administrator of the law. not even the Deity. But fate.
can return into
the severed. the other weakness.
. then the working of his fate commences.e. real
event can only be forgotten. itself a weakness.
above which there
than one with the penal law. it can be conceived in idea and then can fade away in another weakness [in oblivion]. it fades away in another. 57 though
its being would nonetheless still be posited as abiding. Or. of an enemy made an enemy by himself. the law
only the lack of life. And life can heal its wounds again. so that. and this feeling
a longing for
what has been
lost. however. and this may be the weakness which fades away in oblivion. In the latter orbit it is inconceivable that there should be any possibility of canceling punishment or banishing the consciousness of being really evil. because
subject. the law is later than life
it. Perhaps the real event is here regarded as a weakness in face of the law. since a reconciliation with fate seems to require a cancellation of annihilation.. A reconciliation with fate seems still more difficult to conceive
against the trespasser and maltreats
maltreated the other. our memory image. de-
fective life appearing as a
power. of the event may be regarded as a weakness in comparison with the event itself.]
57. since God is only the power which the highest thought has.
longing may be conscientious in the sense that. however.
hence fear of fate is not the fear of an alien being. and fear of punishment is fear of him. i. he may still hold himself back from returning to the latter. on the other hand. obstinacy in opwould be a disgrace to be sub-
to it is not recognizes his own life. and thus he avoids being frivolous with life. fear of punishment is fear of something alien.
lost creates a long-
ing for the lost
this recognition is already itself
an enjoyment of life. may in itself be called a bettering. The former is fear of a separation. because. a feeling of impotence in face of a lord with whom the trespasser has and wants
common.e. who inflicts the pain of
frowardness. for that would be the man's self-surrender. however.
in the fear
being which one's concept [or essence] has lost and which therefore one no longer deserves. the hostile power is the power of life made hostile. supplication to a lord but a reversion
which the man senses what he has
life.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
not.e. in the contradiction between the
consciousness of his guilt and the renewed sensing of life. In fate. punishment betters nothing. Moreover. and his supplication and an approach to himself. until
. for it is only suffering. is a sense of the loss of life..
not a not-being but
known and felt as not-being. he may prolong
man animated by this
bad conscience and feeling of grief and stimulate it every moment. Hence punishment presupposes an alien being who is lord of this reality [i. for (282) even if the law is known as
thing alien unless the fear
of punishment the punishment is someconceived as fear of being unworthy. it recognizes what has been lost as life.
as a friend again. To have felt this fate as possible
it. an awe of ones self.
position to an enemy by whom it dued. because he postpones reunion with
it. there is added to the feeling of unworthiness the reality of a misfortune. the loss of a wellone's
we are to speak of bettering
since it being bettered.
this is a feel-
ing quite different from the fear of punishment. In punishment.
what was once
in love fate
longer anything as a soulless carcass lying in the charnel-house of actualities. since the
The pricks of conscience since the deed's evil spirit has been chased away. they yet sense it wholly as life. and yet in this ex-
in their life. In sacrifices and penances criminals have made afflictions for themselves.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
his longing for reunion springs
from the deepest recesses of his soul. in
memories. It is in the fact that even the enemy is felt as life that there lies the possibility of reconciling
fate. trespasser's deed from the whole. and the
hostile parts can coalesce again into the whole.
But fate has a more extended domain than punishment has. Opposition is the possibility of reunification. or between man man as reality. they have prolonged and multiplied their affliction and their consciousness of being evil.
what they have
lost. This sensing of life. the action which issues from life.
love. Justice is satishas sensed as injured in himself the same fied. But the trespass which is a a fragment. since there is outside it transgression of a law is only
law which does not belong to
which issues from
it. and the deed remains at
that he has injured. a sensing which
again. there blunt. as pilgrims in hair shirts and walking every step barefoot on the hot sand. It and hence it is implicitly aroused even guilt without crime. though they sense their loss as something hostile. nor a contradiction
thus neither the destruction or subjugabetween consciousness
of one's self and the hoped-for difference in another's idea of one's self.
felt in their
very bones. nor a contradiction (283) between desert in the eyes of the
law and the actualization of the same. but as divided. and the extent to which in affliction life is felt as an opposite is also the extent of the possibility of resuming it again.
often seems to pass over
appearance. hostile in the man.
tion of something alien. The trespass reveals the whole.
. and this has made it possible for them to
resume it again. the
is no fragment. also reveals the whole.
and defend himself and
with his reaction. the
more consciously an impure
soul has injured
life. but the wind is also said to be schuldig for melting the snow. pears.
over the domains of the virtues. these concepts are far from exhausting the
many-sidedness of life. and one may therefore say is But the honor of a pure soul is all the guilt. Schuld. In neither but he suffers no wrong either. no differences of standpoint
or position. his grief
recognizing his right
the contradiction between
and lacking the force actually to hold onto he does not struggle for it.
(e. he has not lost what he is strugfights
he has subjected himself to fate.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
terrible than ever. but this is only the occasion of the fate. that his guilt. even if no dissatisfaction (284) is felt. In case does he suffer
battle he clings to his right
punishment... It knows no given ties. and his fate is his lack of will. begins. while a trespass is all the blacker.e. over against the
most exalted form of guilt. i." every suffering
life in order to greater the more consciously it has done injury to maintain the supreme values. there fate apu never has innocence suffered. over the sides of life which are given as
vitally united. or is responsible for it. If someone
fate appears to arise
an unjust attack. since laws are guilt of innocence.
power. for gling for. but by facing danger he enters on the battlefield of might against might and ventures to
sometimes overtakes a hero [Hegel is thinking of tragedy. i. and defends
it. be it ever so rightly. If a it.
. but over the relations of life which have not been dissolved. on the other hand.e. Oedipus) as a result of something he has innocently is used in German either with or without a moral reference. no precinct of virtue. purely conceptual unifications of opposites. is the cause of the melting. he can arm his right. be
battle or submissive grief. The crimi"guilt/* nal has Schuld for his crime. man for what is in danger. What really produces it is the manner of receiving and reacting against the other's deed. is incorruptible and unbounded like life itself.]
only through another's deed. Punishment exercises its domination only in so far as there is a consciousness of life at the point where a disunion
has been reunified conceptually. or he may do the reverse.
does not sacrifice his right.g.. the
58 I mean that. his fate. where fate done. Fate. Where life is injured.
each quarreled with the other in the first place because each claimed a right and neither would submit to the other or tolerate any infringement of his right by the other. and hence there would here be
out. is an unnatural situation in which there lies the
contradiction between the concept of right and its actuality.
it succumbs.e. like passive suffering. they confuse the two and make the former dependent on the latter.
both the right of self-defense. the right is
something thought. 59 The truth of both opposites. and then. on the contrary. they renounce
had set themselves against treatment by another. i. their enmity leads them to surrender themselves unarmed and dead. ferent living beings.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
his adversary.. while in the aggressor it is also a thought. both are right. Thus either they leave to power and strength the decision as to the side on which right lies. a universal. which once again
which would cancel each other
By the self-defense of the injured party. and let something alien.
since right and reality have nothing in common with one another.
Courage. They renounce their own mastery of actuality. and this gives
a self-contradiction. for they had gainsaid the injury to their
right. though a different one. both arc at war. for even though
possibility [of failure]
it. courage and passivity. because the
man of courage engages with
the sphere of right and might. however. a law on the judge's lips. Hence the struggle for right. Hence they submit to a treatment against which both parties had protested.
they throw themselves on the mercy of a judge. life is in conflict with life. For even in the struggle for right there is a contradiction.]
. but the
59. is so unified
beauty of soul that the life in the former remains though opposition falls away. Similarly.. pass sentence on them. difpersist. [I. clings to its to oppose it with all its strength. it has first recognized and so has consciously made itself re-
grieving passivity. and yet they the combatants are opposed as real entities.e.
greater than grieving
submission. while the loss of right in the latter remains. Yet the suffering ot
also a just fate. the likewise attacked and thereby is granted the right of aggressor self-defense (285).
a living free elevation above the loss of right and
above struggle. but
must withdraw himself.e. he withdraws himself therefrom and simply lets go into
by the other or by the
the other's hands a thing which in the
alienated.e. since anything in another's power would no longer be the man himself. who ceases to call his what the other assails.e.) To
power. once they are sullied. Moreover. [I. out of which. If any side of him is capes touched.
[I. to avoid seeing his own being longer calls it his own. pp. a noble nature
from himself. escapes handling
judge. (2d ed. his free
his distinction to suffer justly. the
because his griefs are not a pure passivity. But other and Y may just withdraw out of try to alienate Y's friend. this self-deUnhappiness may become so great that
struction. in wishing to maintain his own independence..
toward the renunciation of life that he
relations with others are also property relationships.). the greater is his misfortune. With this 663 ff. The man who lets go what another approaches with hostility. since he could not remain
out himself becoming contaminated..
moment of the
attack he has
process has no fixed limits. English trans. he can en-
it. and there
and sacrificed. There thus arises a transcendence of right without suffering. But this misfortune is neither just nor unjust. E.g.
meant. 61 nothing in him which could not be attacked his fate.
dominance of an
save himself.] Phenomenology of Mind. to renounce part of his own being. drives
60. a fate
which he himself has consciously
wrought. esthe necessity of engaging with the other.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
raised so far above
enemies.. he has to carry abstraction so far that he ultimately deaccount of the "beautiful soul" compare Hegel's stroys himself. this friendship relation and make no resistance. the prealien being..
these rights that he 'willed to have them for since this fate is rooted in himself. in wishing to escape another's power. (The more vital the relations are. he no
himself.] 61. But this is to "abstract from himself. and so he annihi-
himself in (286) wishing to maintain himself. but are produced by himself.
Every grief which thus
so far just and
fate. it only becomes his fate because his disdain of those relations is his own will." i. escapes
grief for loss.
[Try to escape
. On its side and love. for
of friendship has done no injury at all to life in itself. the cancellation of one's hostile fate.
seeks to save his
everything objective.. Hence Jesus [Luke xiv. mother. i. (287) Both are only different applicaall responsibility. the potentiality of renouncing everything in order to maintain
lose it [Matwith supreme inguilt compatible nocence. 39]. readiness to reconcile one's self
an acknowledgment of subordination. heart thus lifted above the ties of rights. 40 and 29-30] "If a man take thy him thy cloak also.
Again [Matthew v.
and everything in order to avoid entry into a league with the profane world and so into the sphere where a fate becomes possible. he flies from life. to re-enter the ties
mand on another
rights. if a member offend thee."
coat. cut yourself off from everything in hurt or contaminate. He may long as for an absent friend. and you find that annihilation follows.]
62. by himself
absolutely total fate over against himself. the man has eo if so lifted himself above fate entirely. for it sacrificed its right as soon as the object over which it had a right
which would claim from another
for the restoration of an infringed right. disentangled from
one's self. no pride in a lower sphere.e. no consciousness.
he vulnerable. he withlife his
draws into himself when touched. cut it off. Jesus makes
an express condition of the forgiveness of one's own sins.
rather than rouse a fate against himself. no de-
vital relationship. like a sensitive plant.
and thus the offender has done no injury to any right
Such a heart
open to reconciliation. the supreme wretchedest fate with elevation above all 62 fate.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
must withdraw into the void altogether. not he
life. Forgiveness with another.
but done no injury to it.e. since it there stands in the way no hostile feeling. you are caught after all in an insurmountable fate. 26] required his friends to forsake father. i. Yet the
x. has nothing to forgive the offender. Life has become untrue to him. in the
sins. but it cannot pursue him like an ene-
my. Rather than make
Beauty of soul has as its negative attribute the highest freedom. But..
to the evil genius of the other. has made
friendly just so much life as was hostile to it. apart from also the righteous man's rage. the heart reconciles itself with him." The measuring rod is law and right. i. instead of regarding them as
life.. who is stronger not yourself. you are recognizing are impotent. and league of bad men grants leave to every member to be bad.
Apart from the personal hatred which springs from the injury befalling the individual and which strives to bring to fulfilment the
right against the other to
this hatred there is
situation gives rise. as its hostile fate. tion. but thereby it has taken from itself the possibility of being pardoned for its own sins. has reconciled the divine to itself. In its righteous wrath against those who transgress these. dividuality to the commands of duty. a hating rigorous
which must needs rage not over an injury to his inbut over an injury to his intellectual conceptions. i. and the fate it had aroused against itself by its own deed has dissolved into the airs of night. and thereby has won just so much for itself in the field of life.
By giving up its right. You are then setting up for
same character of soul. The first of these commands. for it has fixed specific standards which do not permit it to soar above its real situathis context belong the commands not that ye be not judged.
Whatever illegality you overlook in your neighbor allow to him will also be overlooked in you..THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
tions of the
sins. By discerning and laying down the rights
dutifulness. of being reconciled
with a fate which they would bring on it. a power who
warning. however. this righteous
hatred imposes these same standards on itself. No. it means Beware
of (288) taking righteousness and love as a dependence on laws and as an obedience to commands.
vii. and by judging others accordingly and so exhibiting their subjection to these duties and rights.e. it sets up a fate for them
and does not pardon them.
over you a lord before than you. with what [Matthew 1-2] "Judge measure ye mete. it shall be measured to you again.
and duties of others.e. In reconciliation with one who the heart no longer stands on the right acquired in opposi-
tion to the offender.
set up the possibility of punishment. but since this hostility is not grounded in an alien law superior to the man. the connection of crime and punly just. The torturers and executioners.
a trespass possessed of personality. but only against you.
a whole. there thus can be no question so far as justice is concerned. Before the law the criminal
nothing but a criminal. since on the contrary it is from him that the law and right of fate first arise. ishment. The same blows which the treslove. trespass and fate are in him. Thereby you are making the laws dominant. then
trespass and fate are under him. not life. the deed still subsists. to wholeness. yet
They may we take
count not of their soul but only of their deed.
A man would be entangled in a fate by another's deed if he picked
up the gauntlet and insisted on his right against the transgressor. if he does so. the
of the human heart.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
yourself and for others an alien power over your deed. Of reconciliation. (289) spirit and body are severed. The punishment inflicted by law is mereThe common character. but this fate is turned aside if he surrenders the right and clings to
And not this fate only. make your sensuous side or your individuality a slave. tyrants are confronted by torturers.
the criminal. Yet
a fragment of human nature. he is a man. even a fate aroused against himself by his own deed in unrighteously injuring life he can put to sleep again if his love grows stronger.
. still it is set up not above you. of a return to life.
deliberately as avengers or unconsciously as tools. if the
passer has dealt he experiences himself. an absolute. from something independent. simply because they give like for like. not of a former comes from the outside. He can return to himself again. and even if it is something now hostile. then the criminal 'would be only a in the hostility of fate a man has a sense of just
For the sinner
a sin existent. a return is possible to the original
situation. the latter is fixed by your nature. are
as the tyrants
and the murderers
did. and. The elements of reality are dissolved. murderers by executioners. is only equality. you are elevating into an absolute what is only a fragment of the whole
Here. and only like spirits can know and understand one another. however.
in "life"] the connection be-
and reconciliation with him. has yet set in equipoise and peace against the world. He placed reconciliation in love and fulness of life and expressed himself to that effect on every occasion with
change of form. or can be drawn up to him.
trust in a
and declared to her the forgiveness of her sins. life has
no longer that conscience's intuition of itself. Between sin and its forgiveis
as little place for an alien thing as there
Jesus too found within nature
[i. unlike ones can know only that they are not what the other is. but the confidence which recognized itself in the faith of the woman who touched him. with the love that reserves nothing for itself. no destruction of the still subsisting fate. That part of it which was a bad conscience has disappeared. so long as he
not yet reached a firm consciousness of his relation to things). this much may be adduced.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
but only as something past. so
at the level
faith alone. Difference in
reality as inferior to his in
might of spirit. as a corpse. feel-
might and strength."
pression is no objective cancellation of punishment.e.
Jesus says (John
is in him long as he loves beauty in another and so long as beauty so long as in acting and doing he is not though undeveloped (i. must itself be a pure or a purified soul. A soul itself into the arms of purity itself with such full
man. and being his servant.e. between estrangement from this is something which
. Life has severed
again. in degree of force. recognized in her
a heart like his
vii. but the weaker hangs on the superior like a child.
Where he found
faith. and the remem-
brance of the deed
in love. life once more.
he used the bold ex-
sins are forgiven thee..
Faith in Jesus means
more than knowing
his real personality. as a fragment. with such devotion to him. is not unlikeness. though can be fully shown only in the sequel [in
and the forgiveness of sins.
her faith her heart's elevation above
fate. Faith is a knowledge of spirit through spirit.
believe in the light
thereby become yourselves children of the light.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
63 36): Until
light yourselves. Of Jesus himself.
63. because he knew them
and because he did not need their witness. laws given by the
superior power. then. and
Boldness and confidence of decision about fulness of
life. and. For they
harmony among men.]
64. between life and trespass.
consciousness of disobedience to the Lord
their loveless nature
must have been shocked.
An integrated nature penetrates
and senses the other's harmony ing.
love. a vast multiplicity without unity. on the other hand. they were referred to love as a bond in man between sin and reconciliation. but the spirit. 25) (290) He did not commit himself to the Jews who believed on him. always eludes them and they discover nothing save isolated details.]
. they had put nature in the hands of an alien being. when
hatred took the form of a judgment.
an alien object.e. Hegel is making But although his substitution of
"until" for the usual translation ("while")
not wholly impossible.]. hence the unhesitat-
Thy sins are forgiven thee. and lay bare what are called the recesses of the human
heart" (Hegel's Encyclopedia [3d ed. passions. arise from the feeling of the man who bears in himself the whole of human nature.
Testament.. the thought of such a bond must to their minds have been the thought of a lunatic.
abundance of love. When. confident. trespass and pardon. an
indeed a science of
wide range and wide utility. What held them together was chains. he first came to know himself. as usual in his citations of the
from the Greek
text. desire and deed. "the knowledge whose aim is to detect the peculiarities. and foibles of other men. it is said (John ii. which is what they seek. they had alienated from themselves all the genii which men are united. Such a heart has no need of the
much-vaunted profound "knowledge of men" 64 which for distracted beings whose nature comprises many and variegated onesidednesses. In the spirit of the Jews there stood between impulse and action. words of Jesus:
the feelings of another in a moment or disharmony. spirit. [I.
ably incorrect. an alien court of judgment.
privation. per contra. Such a conscience. with no sense of duty or service. and thus he would hurl
their reality not
them back again into the sense of their poverty. of that
of love and mutual faith which.
65. in willing with a warmhearted gift. and by purloining something from him and thereby stealing for
themselves a sense of selfhood.
when they looked
nature. to gain strength of life and win in the intuition of the beauty it has beheld in that pure soul. will not pay back the theft. In contrast with the Jewish
ciliation in love
a guilt-conscious but better soul will purchase no favor by sacrifice. [I. bad conscience they knew only as fear of punishment.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
satisfaction directly in the appointed punishment or payfor guilt. and the ideal is in man.. namely. that they then had to fear the Lord they had robbed. joy The Jew. he would let them repay their theft and make sacrifices. an inner consciousness of "beauty" scious of being sullied by guilt. on the contrary.
the cancellation of lordship in the restoration of the
living bond. but the indigence of the Jews into their own hearts. considered
the highest freedom. and after paying they would be once again without possessions. as a consciousness of self in opposition
to self. it will approach a but in earnest
cannot bring to consciousness in free pleasure and itself. these
men of bad
result was poorer but richer. there was
there to see: they had renounced all nobility and all beauty. Their poverty had to serve a being infinitely (291) rich. always presupposes an ideal over against a reality which fails to correspond with the ideal.
in relation to lordship. Only by a payment to their almighty creditor would they be free of their debts. and he left the altar with the feeling
prayer pure soul in order to gain what
of an abortive quest and the re-recognition of his subjection to reversion to obedience. a con-
sciousness of his
that. This situation is [for the Jew] the most incomprehensible opposite of the Jewish spirit.]
impossible for a soul con-
. reconbondage. and with its whole self. in contrast with the re-recognition
of lordship. in paying his debt had simply readopted the service he wanted to escape.e.
.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
xvi. (292) He must have understood men's hearts and known whether their deeds had perished or whether the spirits
bind. those who are bitterest against the sins of a beautiful soul) Her heart drives
hears that Jesus
i. and self-sufficingness forbid the public utterance of her love's need. because nothing
to be said about the actual facts.
no misrepresentation. the recognition of divinity in Jesus made Peter capable of recognizing divinity.e. conscious of
eating in a Pharisee's house among a large company of righteous. which would or would not lift him above the eternal immutable
domination and law.. she walks up to his feet. and to
loose. The girl's pride.
her through this company to Jesus.
i. honest folk (hannetes gens.e.. i. far less can she pour out her soul and brave the glances of legally minded
66. he must also have been able to recog-
nize in anyone else the divinity or nondivinity of his being. or the lack of it.
under the reality of crime. weeping..
and indicative of
different events. washes them with her tears and dries them with the hair of
her head.. and
in our opinion there
guilt.] and thereby proved that he had a sense of the whole
because he had been able to take a
as a son of
After Peter had recognized Jesus as divine in nature [Matthew ff. in himself and then in any third party.
what was elevated above
Another beautiful example of a returning sinner appears in the story of Jesus: the famous and beautiful sinner. divergent in time. Mary Magdalene. what he
was to be loosed
also. are here treated only as different forms of the
Since Peter had become
conscious of a
God in one man.
subsisted. she kisses them and anoints them with ointment.
must have been able to
that reality. What he bound was to be bound in Heaven. or to 86 recognize it in a third party as that party's sensing of divinity or nondivinity.
not be taken
[Matthew xxvi and Luke
details. Mary. [I. Jesus gave over to him the power of the keys of the Kingdom Heaven. as the strength of that party's belief or disbelief
which would or would not free him from every remaining fate.e. with pure and costly spikenard. shyness.
and righteous people like the Pharisees and the her sins consist in her transgression of what is
the selffor an
empty reason. this bliss
of love drinking
righteous Simon feels only the impropriety of Jesus' dealing at all with such a creature.
sold for three hundred pence and the
ointment might have been money given to the poor. but to whom little is forgiven. but for the sake of attaining an atmosphere of peace.
forgiven. In face of these floods of tears." Jesus says. for not only did they fail to
grasp the beautiful situation but they even did injury to the holy outpouring of a loving heart. But in Jesus' friends there was stirring a
interest. despite her own must offer feeling for what is
right." says Jesus." 67 So unsophisticated an action. is probably to moral rather than to aesthetic excel67. translated in the A." Simon expressed only his power of judgment. a
moral one." It
Ka\6v. "she has wrought a beautiful work upon me." but the reference in this passage. not even for the sake of giving the disciples a proper outlook. expression only of a woman whose heart is full of love. all this is only a crude attitude. "Why do you trouble her.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
a seer he
the riches of her loving heart so that she can drown her consciousness in this fervent joy. not the heart). He takes this feeling so much for granted that he does not express it or act but he can forthwith draw the inference that if Jesus were upon it. "for she loved much. must herself and her bashdeeply decry fulness and. Their
moral tendency to do good to the poor and their calculating prudence. and commonly elsewhere. but a soul. hurt and almost in despair. He deduces from the action a sort of reverence for his own person.
has to turn their attention to an aspect to which they are responsive but whose beauty he will not illumine for them. (293) their watchful virtue (a thing of the head.
[The Greek word
loving kisses extinguishing
guilt." and this is the
only thing in the whole story of Jesus which goes by the name of "beautiful. an action so void of any
useful application of deed or doctrine. In face of
cellent. by "good" means "exoften translated "beautiful. the same has loved little.
the self-coercion of Kan-
virtue has something defective spirit. righteous and ordinary.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
crude souls a
be content to avert any act of theirs which
would be futile to try explaining to coarse organs the fine fragrance of the spirit whose breath they could not feel. could return through love to the most beautiful consciousness. without sin and without love? Without sin. If there
in peace. "for burial." Jesus says. alike in its
to his virtue. for
thou hast loved much. the result would be insoluble conflicts
plurality of absolutes. besides.
indeed say that
. to have passed away as an automaton of her time. as in any era. Jesus opposed not a parvirtue. But if there dwells in
him another virtue which has
sphere beyond the limit of the
first.e. "She has anointed me.. because the era
of her people was one of those in which the beautiful heart could not live without sin.
without lordship and without submission. if
subjection under a law of one's
own. then every virtue would be at the same time a vice.
which it is possible the obare something accidental."
Would anyone say
Mary to have yielded to the fate of the Jewish life. the relation of the virtue to its object is a single one. To complete subjection under the law of an alien Lord."
a beautiful heart.
But love reconciles not only the trespasser with his
fate but also
love were not the sole principle of virtue. If the virtues had to be re-
garded otherwise than as modifications of one living spirit. but virtues
i. if every virtue were an absolute virtue. (294)
jects. i. it preThe. Hence every virtue. for he remains a virtuous man only in so far as he is true
in its activity. but in this..
faith hath saved thee. virtues as modifications of love.e.
sins are forgiven thee. has
cludes other relations to that object as well as relations of the virtue to other objects. man of this virtue who acts beyond the limit of his virtue can act specific only viciously. every since each is by its very name a single and so a restricted
the conditions of an action
concept and cannot overstep.
complete absence of external restriction. if it is saved up for the other. and without the same time being divided by the manifold character of the
situation.. Just and so a concept. abstracted from the virtues here posited. there must inevitably appear in determinate cirfied as a
a specific duty. (295) a determinate virtue. only
situation. If the man of
virtues tries to
satisfy. A right given up for the one relation can no longer be a right for the other. all of whom he declares himself as less indebted to those he
subordinates than to the others which he calls higher. But
both virtues are posited. Only when no virtue claims to subsist firmly and
when every restricted virtue on entering even that situation into which renounces it alone can enter. and in consequence the mass of inevitable conflicts and the impossibility of fulfilment. appears differently modivanishes. though the
and then only does the many-sidedness of the situamass of absolute and incompatible virtues
Here there can be no question of holding that underlying all the virtues there is one and the same basic principle which. does not come into conflict.
determinate application. nothing remains save despair of virtue and trespass of virtue itself.
potentiality of exercising the other
In this many-sidedness of
just as absolute as the
and hence the legitimate demands of the other are dismissed. then
tion remain. or. the exercise of one annuls the material of the other together with the
what was presupposed.
In proportion as the mutiplicity of
relationships grows. always the same in different circumstances.
because the virtuous disposition
one and one only. the
mass of virtues also increases.
make a hierarchy of his creditors.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
the virtuous disposition considered by itself and in general. i. Virtues therefore may cease to be absolutely obligatory and thus may become
vices. (The multiple circumstances as given realities. only when it is simply the one living spirit which acts and restricts itself in accordance with the whole of the given
because such a principle is a universal particular virtue. the first must starve.
Its external shape may be modified in infinite ways. and
one-sidednesses. the virtues simply
destroy one another. In it all severances. the limitations
on the virtues cease to
exist. cannot help setting up ideal com-
mands. all restrictions.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
the rule for
of them.e. and the applications of
the principle.. because their real achievement is so poor.]
empty of reality. even
possible to feel one's self magnificent on the strength of havif one's real achievements are miserably
. Their unity on the strength of the rule is only apparent. since it never has
the force of a universal opposed to a particular. since it is the living interrelation of men in their essential being. the philanthropy which is to extend all. a living unity. it
lets it subsist in its
A living bond of the virtues.
poor. 34-35]: "A new commandment give I unto you.. for the rule is only a thought.
he has not met.e. Love for one's
rationis. it is
ing fine ideals. and such a unity neither
annuls multiplicity nor unifies
strength. Just as virtue is the complement of obedience to law. so love is the complement of the
the numerous virtues.
68. is quite different from
the unity of the concept. disappear. i. virtues directed on an ens
for the sake of appearing 68 remarkably splendid in such conceptual objects.
right remains to be surrendered? Jesus demands that love shall be the soul of his friends [John xiii.e. are annulled. too.)
they subsist together thus absolutely.
relation. even to those of whom the philanthropist knows nothing.
i. even in the most variegated
mixture of relations.
these are immutable. Its expression will never be able to afford a rule."
that ye are
Universal philanthropy. but appears.
There are no longer any virtuous
sinning virtues. that
for determinate virtues
ye love one another.
shallow but characteristic discovery of ages which. untorn and unitary.. it will never have the same shape twice. it does not set up a determinate virtue for determinate circumstances.
similar to one's
an inclination". it is not
not in discord but in concord. It is a sort of dishonor to love when it is com-
manded. thought cannot be loved. it is rather love's triumph over it lords it over nothing. on the contrary..e.. or otherwise there would
be no harmony. See Kant's Theory of Ethics^ Abbott.
be commanded. 175-76.
or as a word."
. a spirit.
greatness. when love. in the infinite. The virtues. it means that love has overcome hostility. no unity
is quoting and criticizing Kant."
"Love has conquered" does not mean the same as "duty i. for self-love is a word without meaning.
to duty and right. "Love thy neighbor as thyself" does not mean to love him as much as yourself. i. of course
"pathological. and its name or the utterance of
spirit. To name it is to reflect on it.
sensing of a
one. is called by name.
not a domination of something it is something subordinate
another. In this
not united with itself is not objecor not yet developed it..e. To love God is to feel self in the "all" of life. not a stronger or a weaker the might of objectivity broken.
it. pp. Cf. divinity. pp. is without any hostile power over
possible to say:
perative. because of their
alone has no limits. something living. for love
limits. 210-213. with no restrictions. and the variety of virtues an put something objective beyond Love all the greater and insurmountable multiplicity of objectivity. Of course
"love cannot be commanded". but a unity of spirit.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
nearest neighbors is philanthropy toward those with whom each one of us comes into contact. It
means "love him
thou art. 69 but
What it has
love has overlooked
it.e. but something opposed to
shalt love. above. always them. subdued its enemies. It
no universal opposed
pronounces no imof the particular.
love. To eat and drink with someone is an act of union and is itself a felt union. Yet
in the love-feast there is also
jective in evidence. and every action
simply an exof love. In a love-feast. do this in remembrance of me. which is shed for you and for many
bread: "Take. but love. their
only a connection in thought. a feeling of friendship itself.
life. for only a unification in objective by imagination. and this meal. Jesus broke
is my body given for you. too.
not itself spiritual. Love itself is present only as an emotion. can be the object of religious
veneration. this is my blood of the new testament. Love is less than religion. and on the strength of this link the
loyalty and help.
The common eating and drinking symbol.
but an objec-
symbol and symbolized are strangers to one another. to
linked but with which
not yet united into an image. but a still closer link is the solemn eating of the same bread.
supper shared by Jesus and his disciples is in itself an act of friendship. This too is not a mere symbol of
an act. Likewise took he the cup."
When an Arab has
eo if so
drunk a cup of coffee with a stranger. this
for the remission of sins. The connection between symis
bol and symbolized
runs counter to natural
feeling to drink a glass of
with an enemy. and this hovering the clear interpretation of its spirit.
not strictly a religious action.
remembrance of me. drinking from the same cup. love itself lives and
pressed. of the spirit of friendship. however. The feeling and the representation of the feeling are not
table of friendship and a religious act. the declaration of Jesus that "this is body. not a conventional symbol.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
(297) Jesus' leave-taking from his friends took the form of celebrating a love-feast. not as an pression image also. But the sequel. Drink ye all of it. the sense of community in this action would contradict the attitude of the parties to one another at other times. and
their connection lies outside
in a third thing. This common action has
linked them. he has made a bond of friendship with him.
and their unification
in their (298) center. and all that is asked is a comparison. their teacher. Things heterogeneous are here most intimately conlikeness of dissimilars.
not merely represented in an image. as separate. the thought of the
nected. so are you mere parone in love. yet both are something more. spectator ignorant of their friendship and with no understanding of the words of
Jesus would have seen nothing save the distribution of some bread and wine and the enjoyment of these.
. his body and blood given for them. Yet the connection of objective and subjective. in this link between bread and persons. the
just wine. since Jesus calls the bread and wine. of the bread and the persons. Similarly. and the accompanying distribution of food and drink. but linked to a reality. there is more in the distribution than is seen. though
bread and wine. Objectively considered. and
the act of distribution. Hence the feeling becomes in a way objective. when friends part and break a ring and each keeps one piece. makes the to some extent obfeeling
jective. the bread. the bread
just bread. an allegorical figure. is here not the connection of allegorized with allegory.
other "just as" you like to find here.
On the contrary.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
blood" approximates the action to a religious one but does not make it one. yet this bread and wine.
friendship with one an-
other. which he distributes to all. with the parable in which
the different things. are set forth as severed. are not purely objective. a spectator sees nothing but the breaking of a useful thing and its division into useless and
valueless pieces. This "more" is not connected with the objects (like an explanation) by a mere u just
as"': "just as the single pieces which you eat are from one loaf and the wine you drink is from the same cup.
Their association with Jesus. so you
my sacrifice". the mystical aspect of the pieces he has failed to
grasp. "just as you all share in ticulars. then. in the spirit". eaten and enjoyed in a reality. this declaration. difference disappears.
no longer merely
visible. and with it the possibility of comparison. the things compared. are
not merely sensed. it is a mystical action.
a spirit which permeates in which many drink life that they may rise above their many. like the mystical pieces of the ring. 7)
door. the blood of the new covenant.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
vi. The connection between the blood
poured out and the friends of Jesus
something objective to
blood") is the tie between them and the wine which they all drink out of the same cup and which is for all and the same for all. Jesus is in them all. accruing from a sacrifice of body and an outpouring of blood. a feeling. then they would only be united in a like concept. nor is it just the sensation of merely tasting food and drink. something for the intellect. for their use.
new. bread and wine.
broke bread and gave it to his friends: "Take. The spirit of Jesus. and his essence. and a pleasure. sins. eat. all are permeated by the like spirit of love. become mystical objects. a benefit." and in similar harsh juxtapositions. a like emotion is in them all.
but the blood
my blood. because his body and his blood pass over into them. in
was shed for them
for their well-being. the common
the spirit of a new covenant. drink a
xxvi. this is my body So also when he took the cup: "Drink ye all
blood dwelleth in
him. "And of the fruit of the vine I will not drink again until the
when I shall be with you again and new life with you in my father's king29].
Not only is the wine blood The common goblet. All
drink together. The action of eating and drinking is not just a self-unification brought
about through the destruction of food and drink. Here. poured out for
for the remission of their sins. we are forced to represent what is bound together as severed into different things com-
pared together." or (John
x. however. Hence the bread and the wine are not just an object. for Jesus calls them his flesh and
blood. and the bond must be regarded as a comparison."
But because they eat the bread and drink the wine. as love. has divinely permeated them.
sacrificed for you. If they are made alike simply as recipients of
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
become a present object, a reality, for external feeling. Yet the love made objective, this subjective element become a thing, reverts once more to its nature, becomes
disciples are one, has
subjective again in the eating. This return may perhaps in this respect be compared with the thought which in the written word be-
a thing and which recaptures its subjectivity out of an obout of something lifeless, when we read. The simile would be ject, more striking if the written word were read away, if by being un-
and wine not only
not only is Thus the action seems purer, more appropriate to its end, in so far as it affords spirit only, feeling only, and robs the intellect of its
vanished as a thing, just as in the enjoyment of bread is a feeling for these mystical objects aroused, the spirit made alive, but the objects vanish as objects.
own, i.e., destroys the matter, the soulless. When lovers sacrifice before the altar of the goddess of love and the prayerful breath of
emotion fans their emotion to a white-hot flame, the goddess
herself has entered their hearts, yet the marble statue remains standing in front of them. In the love-feast, on the other hand, the
corporeal vanishes and only living feeling is present. (300) But what prevents the action [of eating and drinking] from
just the fact that the
kind of objectivity
here in question
totally annulled, while feeling remains, the fact a son of confusion between object and subject rather
than a unification, the fact that love here becomes visible in and
attached to something which is to be destroyed. The bread is to be eaten, the wine to be drunk; therefore they cannot be something
that the feeling attached to
jectivity to its
on the one hand, they presuppose (namely, the fact them reverts, as it were, from their ob-
a purely subjective thing once more), this,
the fact that the mystical object becomes on the other hand, they
lose just because love
by them. Some-
thing divine, just because it is divine, cannot present itself in the shape of food and drink. In a parable there is no demand that the different things compared shall be understood as a unity; but here
the thing and the feeling are to be bound together; in the symbolical
EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
action the eating and drinking and the sense of being one in Jesus are to run into one another. But thing and feeling, spirit and reality,
do not mix. Fancy cannot bring them together in a beautiful seen and enjoyed, can never rouse the image. The bread and wine, of love; this feeling can never be found in them as seen obfeeling
there is a contradiction jects since
and the sensation of
food and drink, of their becoming subjective. actually absorbing the There are always two things there, the faith and the thing, the devotion and the seeing or tasting. To faith it is the spirit which is and tasting, the bread and wine. There is no unipresent; to seeing fication for the two. The intellect contradicts feeling, and vice
In looking at the shape, we shape the immortal only. are permeated with the sense of love and eternal youth. But grind or the Venus to dust and say "This is Apollo, this the
which nothing for imagination (in and yet canceled) to do; here it cannot profeeling are both present in which seeing and feeling would be unified. In an vide any image or a Venus we must forget the marble, the breakable stone,
Apollo and see in
Apollo the imVenus," and then the dust confronts you and the images of mortals are in you, but the dust and the divine never coalesce into
merit of the dust lay in its form, and the form has gone, while the dust is now the chief thing. The merit of the bread lay in its mystical significance, and yet at the same time in its property as bread, something edible; (301) even in the act of worship it has to be present as bread. When the Apollo is ground to dust, devotion dust can reremains, but it cannot turn and worship the dust. The
mind us of the devotion, but
cannot draw devotion to
this is the sensing
diction, like the sadness
of this separation, this contrathe idea of living forces and
the incompatibility between them and the corpse. After the supper the disciples began to be sorrowful because of the impending loss of
their master, but after a genuinely religious action the
at peace. And, after enjoying the supper, Christians today reverent wonder either without serenity or else with a melancholy was separate from the intellect because
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
and both were one-sided, because worship was incomplete, since something divine was promised and it melted away in the mouth.
THE RELIGIOUS TEACHING OF
of the greatest interest to see
how and with what
teaching Jesus directly confronts (a) the principle of subjection and (b) the infinite Sovereign Lord of the Jews. Here, at the center of
their spirit, the battle
must have been in its most stubborn phase, since to attack one thing here was to attack their all. The attack on single offshoots of the Jewish spirit affects its underlying principle
this principle is a growing feeling that at the roots of a struggle about a single point there lies a conflict of principles. Jesus was opposed to the Jews on the question of
too, although there
no consciousness that
Most High; and
was soon put
the Jewish idea of
opposes a relationship of children.
Lord and Governor, Jesus
of a father to his
Morality cancels domination within the sphere of consciousness love cancels the barriers in the sphere of morality; but love itself
71 incomplete in nature. In the moments of happy love there is no room for objectivity; yet every reflection annuls love, restores
objectivity again, and with objectivity
territory of restrictions. What is religious, then, is the 7rXi7pcojua [''fulfilment"] of love; it is reflection and love united, bound to-
gether in thought. Love's intuition seems to fulfil the demand for completeness; but there is a contradiction. Intuition, representative thinking,
restrictive, something receptive only of but here the object intuited [God] would be something restricted;
cannot be carried in
70. [I.e., Kantian morality substitutes reverence of a moral law within man's consciousness for fear of a dominant overlord outside him, though reason's law cramps part of man's nature instead of fulfilling it.]
71. [Hegel added here, but afterward deleted, the words: "Love may be happy or unhappy."]
or else its pure unity is
the posited demand for abonly the negatively indeterminate. This simplicity a unity (303) produced by abstraction (since in such a simplicity.
then living in the believer and yet is to some extent posited outside him. from everything determinate.
Man can believe in a God only by being able to abstract from
while at the same time every deed. namely.e. Character is an abstraction from activity alone. This pure life is the source and deeds. Consciousness of pure life
of what the
of separate nothing absolute.
lives. If a man always feels himself determined. from everything determinate. because he is not conscious of that spirit." as Hegel
positive. he is not on the plane of spiritual morality or religion at all.. he is restricted. Pure life is being) 73 Pluralstraction
. But if it comes into consciousness as a impulses.
wrote and then de-
73. then what has thus fering this or that.
74. always doing or sufin this way or that.]
for him behind these passing 74 the opposite of life.
not a deter-
minate thing. his consciousness and the infinite cannot be completely
in life. it means the universal behind
conceive of pure
actions. and everything detersimply clinging fast to the soul of every deed minate.]
[The meaning of this obscure passage seems
a spirit uniting determinate
. he is still at the level of bondage to an overlord. Since. the dominant universal. The man who is conscious only of specific actions and limited obligations has not severed these from their abiding spirit.e.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
means trying to abstract from every deed.. What he has done is to distinguish particular passing duties from the permanent universal law or overlord which compels his obedience.
not a demand. In other words.. on
the contrary. not negative. is
to be as follows Morality moral actions into a living whole. it
would be consciousness no differentiation and no de-
is not a negative veloped or actualized multiplicity.. the positing of one determinate thing in unity either we have simply abstraction from all other determinacies. acting been abstracted and delimited has not been cut off from the spirit. from everything which the man was or will be.
[I. In anything soulless and spiritless there can be nothing divine. or pure self-consciousness. only
what remains permanent
[". i. in thus becoming conscious of it.
the man can appeal only
to his origin. which
avail himself of
was so poor
in spiritual relationships.
pure life.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
away. learn. which he now is.
in the main. go.. as to an absolute. for example. Expressions spirit
only a unification of spirsuch
teach.g. This is all the more natural in that the
Jews had to express. But by appearing as an opposite. forced
and matter-of-fact phraseology for expressing the objective thus often sounds harshhighest spiritual realities. [I.
will. And all reflection's expressions about the relations of the objective being or about that being's activity in (305) objective action must be
Since the divine
avoided. to the source
from which every shape of
flows to him. bounstrangers. and this language
75. and if his commands. on the Father
in all mutability. John is the
and the bond between
God and Jesus. beings different who has the most to say about God etc. only if God is conceived objectively." express the relations of an objective
76 receiving something objective to it. divine can [properly] be Hence it is only in inspired terms that the spoken of. see.
make. it appears as something
determinate in a determinate
cannot give an in-
of purity to profane eyes bound to mundane realities.
in essence. In the determinate situation in which he appears. e. compassion.
Only spirit command. since the activity of the divine
.e. But the Jewish culture. He must call on something higher.
of lordship and bondage there can be opposed only the pure sensing of life which has in itself its justification and its authority. Jewish culture reveals a consciousness of only one group
being to us only
of living relationships.
grasps and embraces
in itself. arc treated as simply objective and positive. recognize. (304) anything and everything said of it must be free from any [implication of] opposition.
only relations be-
of Heaven. and beyond
sciousness of determinacies there
only the empty unity of the
totality of objects as the essence dominating determinacies. and even these in the form of concepts rather than of virtues and qualities of character.. he cannot appeal to the whole.
and the passive spiritless assimilation
of such an expression not only leaves the deeper
also distracts the intellect
and for which
a contradiction. Even this simple
form of reflection
Nowhere more than
not adapted to the spiritual expression of spirit. and he cannot dispense with them.
into such matter-of-fact and everday ties
the spiritual forced. This always objective language
hence attains sense and weight only in the spirit of the reader and to an extent which differs with the degree to which the relationships of
76. the predicates arc themselves once more something being and living. tones retained in
it. There are
himself in forms of that kind.
is it less
possible to learn. On the contrary. 20. and he suffers under it when he has to reveal
mode of expression. dom. [As
Lessing in his Education of the
Race. and God 'was the Logos. It is to use the simplest form of reflective phraseology to say: "In the beginning 'was the Logos.
16. who eats my flesh/' etc.]
childlike. in the communication of the divine is it neces-
sary for the recipient to grasp the communication with the depths of
spirit. state of Jewish culture cannot be called 77 the state of childis
hood. not universals like those necessarily contained in
judgments expressing reflection. purer being has to fight against this mode of speaking. with
is rather a consequence of the supreme miseducation of the people. for the predicates are not concepts. in him was life.
rather reintroduced into
but the remainder.
it. to assimilate
The beginning of John's Gospel contains a series of propositional sentences which speak of God and the divine in more appropriate
phraseology. the Logos 'was 'with God.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
(306) feelings are supposed to be expressed in the 76 "The Kingdom of Heaven. since he himself belongs to this people. I am the true bread. nor can
phraseology be called an undeveloped." But these sentences have
only the deceptive semblance of judgments. because everything expressed about the divine in the language of reflection is eo if so contradictory. 48. childlike
phraseology. entry into the Kingparallelistic style. I am the door.
form and matter. and in spirit. the
most objective is to take the Logos as something actual. Hegel accepts neither. For example. an individual. His exegesis is based throughout on the Greek text and is not intelligible without a study of that text. God's creatures. since reflection sup-
poses that that to which it gives a reflected form is at the same time not reflected.
arguing that the living relationship between God. Hence two opposed intellectualistic interpretations of the passage become possible. He takes John's statements. but this creates difficulties for the intellect. This process is the work of the or as its selfLogos and is thus dcscribable as the self-partitioning of the Logos. Hence arises the application to the object of opposed categories such as one and many. a whole. Now since. 79 (307) God and the Logos are only different in that
men can be apprehended
sometimes as universal reason. are taken to be parts in the whole. If the exordium of John's Gospel is taken quite literally. in the latter as a mere ens rationis God and the Logos become distinct because Being must be taken from a double point of view [by reflection]. the life of God.
Of the two extreme methods of interpreting John's
exordium. the living bond between the related terms is destroyed. because by analysis.e. though from one point of view a single unity. which really are one life. and (ii) at the same time to be
the single which is potentially separable and infinitely divisible into parts. the essential activity of the intellect. for reflection. as the
single and exclusive reality.]
. in the latter as universality.
and the Logos. then insoluble contradictions arise. for reflection. the most subjective is to take it as reason. diflerentiation.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
and the opposition of
and death have come into
sciousness. and men. and tries to interpret their spirit. expressed as they are in the simplest language of which reflective thought is capable.]
79. because the Logos is sometimes described as an individual and
78. i. Jesus. or mediated by reflection. It gives rise to several textual and exegetical questions. it distinguishes between an object in its immediacy and the same object as reflected. is from another potentially of creation is described in reflective phraseology infinitely divisible. [The essentially analytic character of reflective thinking forces it to look on Being or reality from two points of view. The one life of the Logos and God is partitioned or differentiated ad infmitum into the individuals who share that life in the same sort of way itself by putting forth branches which share in in which the tree
its life. or in an intellectualistic way. whole and parts. but these
cannot be discussed here. the process as the actualization of this potential divisibility. in the former. Thus. it takes Being (i) to be the single in which there is no partition or opposition. in the former case as
a particular. become different as different aswho once again really share in pects of one whole..
a whole. to which the whole is external. the
the Logos itself is with the real is the infinity. was the Logos. Each part.
something reflected relation of subject and prediupon. [I. These cate. dead. in specific He believed in it. the
and events are entirely the work $<3s. The multiplicity. but his consciousness was not equivalent to life.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
matter in the form of the Logos God. purity but only in a restricted way. the world of men did not recognize coming conscious of itself/' i.. verse 3). something infinite tree of life. is yet a branch of the something opposed [to life]. or otherwise the real would world be through and through divine.
something more restricted than irapra and 6 yeyovev. a part of the infinite partitioning. the restricted entity. or in the one who partitions ad infinitum (if iv aur< is taken as referring to
as single entity. he had a sense of the one whole. as divided by reflection into the is life ("0)17) and life understood (<>$ [light]. of the man who is self-develop-
recognize that the whole of nature was coming into self-consciousnow coming to self-consciousness was in the
did not enter the consciousness of the world. but the world in which these relations
ness in him.. as real. both are one. there
life. it is an emanation. It is not simply a case of a man's being #omf6/ij'os [lighted] by is also in the world itself. the
not an emanation of the Deity. John the Baptist was not the light. The his entry into the world.
this life. Yet. a
life. Though John was not himself the 0cSs.]
was "Nature be-
the former is being as reflected upon. yet it was in every man who comes into the world of men (KOCTJUOS means the whole of human relationships and human life. but it came home to his consciousness
relations. and in it
only in that the latter
itself and all its relationships
of the avBponros [man] who is are alive did not ing.e. he only bore witness of it. is yet
Xi^os).. though in the part (iv avr$ is better
taken with the immediately preceding ovdl Iv 8 ytyovtv). of
infinite divisibility realized:
by the Logos
made. the opposite of light is darkness. Only a consciousness which is equivalent to life is <cos.
The most commonly cited and the most striking expression of
truth. as weaker than he.
["The word was made
and dwelt among us. however. there yet always remains the Jewish principle of opposing thought to reality. yet of recognize a like nature in so far as they have become conscious of that spiritual
They do not become
as the avdp&iros
the true light]. [In vs. not of
of the individual (verse 15)."]
83. but in God. 7-9.]
82." see pp.
other than they were. but they know God and themselves as children of God. point we have heard only of the truth
in general terms. 9. "power" means not a living principle [acquired for the first time] or a new
7). But those who do
world of men
recognize themselves in him acquire power thereby. this principle involves the rending of life
<<s alone (verse
the idea of
and of his essence as thus sharing in the light which is the life of God or the For the interpretation of flyo/ua. "name. and. reason to sense.
their essence in
in question. 10
(308) to refer to). while the Greek word for "Light" is neuter. Hegel assumes that the "him" of vs. but also
nothing else for the John bore witness.
avrbv of vss. be made here. but only a degree of life.]
. In verse 14 the
as an individual.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
very own (t8wv). and men do not receive him but treat him as a stranger. 10 must refer to the "man coming into the world" of vs. and this which must refer to the is probably now made explicit by the use of "him.
between the related
terms can be expressed only in mystical phraseology. is most akin to him. 10 ("the world knew him not") the Greek word translated "him" is masculine." Hegel interprets this as meaning that man who believes in the true light is conscious of himself as lighted thereby. in vss.
["Those who believe in his name. "The Light" has become personalized. 273-74 below and the
notes there. in
also he has revealed himself to us
Light. though the
between these must be taken to be a
living connection. a similarity or dissimilarity of life.
similarity of principles. stance. people every single individpeculiar ual is put to the sword in the most cruel fashion. though only for such thinking.
on the other hand. unity etc. the whole does not
is. Even in the expression "A son of the
stem of Koresh. Thus the son of God is the same essence as the father. other than the parts. As with any genuinely free people. undivided. The
is not a conceptual unity (as. in the living thing. war is waged not against the individual.]
. a unity which is only a unity in thought and is abstracted
relation of a son to his father
from life. as substances. which the Arabs use to denote the individual.
same time the whole. 161 above. Father and son are simply modifications of the same
life." for example. there is the implication that this individual is not simply a part of the whole. he himself
whole which the
clear too from the sequel to the manner of waging war to such a natural. p. is only a not an essence. it is a living relation of living beings. In modern Europe. Living things. not something being. but where the bond is only the conceptual one of
the same rights for all. for inor harmony of disposition. not a plurality of absolute substantialities. Cf.
84. where each individual does not carry the whole state in himself. of things lifeless. their unity. and therefore it is to be counted among their happy expressions. so among the Arabs.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
Jesus' relation to
his calling himself the
contrasting himself as son of God with himself as the "son of man. the individual is a part and at the
It is true only of objects. [This seems to be a reference to the Doctrine of the Trinity and a suggestion of its inadequacy.
If particular objects. he is a separate essence. the part of the whole is one and the same as the whole.). but against the whole which lies outside him.
character as an individual (as numerically
common characteristic. concept.
not opposite essences. a single member of the clan." The designation of this relation is one of the few natural expressions left by accident in the Jewish speech of that time. are linked together while each
of them yet retains
outside him. and
yet for every act of reflective thinking. a likeness of life. On the contrary. on the other hand.
The deeper development of this contrast. [the discovery of] a primacy of the practical reason. and. and the will root themselves in the ground. nothing remains but objects. a modification of the divine. he
so forth. instead of the life of the image.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
however. In order to remove the thought of this individuality. every branch (and also its other "chil-
and the father are one. If
from certain types
set in the
will put forth leaves out of the roots in the air.
fibers bringing sap
from the stem are of the same nature
as the roots. are essences.g. and their unity is still a unity of essence. But Jesus calls himself not only son of God but also son of man. as a by-product of the imagination and without truth. and taken as dominant. e. 18)
his father. who has granted to the son to have life in himself. This unity of essence between father and son in the Godhead was discovered even by the Jews in the relation to God which Jesus
say that there
ascribed to himself (John v. to his oneness God. so "son of If "son of God"
. even if they are separate.
with Jesus continually appealed." leaves and blossoms)
to the branch
a tree. and
These are hard words
as ((TKArjpol X67ot).
Sabbath) but even this he could do only in general terms."
himself equal with the Jewish principle of
God's domination Jesus could oppose the needs of man (just as he set the need to satisfy hunger over against the festival of the
come down from heaven. every image cepts are opposed to imagery
set aside as only play. And it is just as true to
only one tree here as to say that there are three. What is a contradiction in the realm of the
not (309) one in the realm of life. but every "son" of the tree. Of course. which has three branches makes up with them one tree.
In his opposition [to Judaism] he stood before their eyes only as an individual. just as the
father has life in himself. especially in John.. was absent from the culture of those times. and they are not softened by being interpreted or misinterpreted as the uniting of concepts instead of beimagery as soon as intellectual coning taken spiritually as life.
son of God
also son of man. and in truth. of the divine
no lawgiving or legislation.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
man" would be
a modification of
man. This meaning of the "son of man" comes out most clearly when the "son of man" is set over against the "son of God. an assertion of likeness or unlikeness. can disit is only the restriction.
which is in the judge. of the
denotes the absolute impotence. for the law.
one essence. And "son of man" means here "something subsumed under the concept of man. it is a concept." Judgment
not an act of the divine. Matthew xviii.
and hath given him authority to execute judgment also. is the universal opposed to the man who is to be judged.
danger. because he is the son of man. in face of brink. "God sent not his son into condemn the world.
no upholding of the mastery of the law. 26-27). the predicate is not
a living essence but a universal (cu>0pa>7ros. which partitions life. An
utterance. does not hold to an opposite in its opposition." "Jesus is man" is a judgment proper. The connection of infinite and particular shape appears finite is of course (310) a "holy mystery. sunder. but that the world through him
might be saved.
there is no such restriction. The son of God does not judge. so hath he given to the son to have life in himself. we
iii. the world is to be saved by the divine. "For as the father hath
himself. [As Nohl indicates i n a footnote. "The father judgeth no man. or divide. like the Godhead.}
man. (John v. and to that extent salvation is the
85. or the stirring. which affords the concept of man as opposed to the divine. the recognition of a conceptual unity
or an irreconcilable opposition. But outside reflective thinking." Again (v. an ens rationis. he hath committed all judgment unto the son. Hegel is quoting and criticizing Kant. and even "save" is a word improperly
used of the
spirit. On the contrary.
the world to
the finite regarded by itself. 11). and judgment (in law) is a judgment (in logic)." e." On the other hand." 85 because this connec-
is life itself.
vlos avBp&irov [son
of man]. But man
not one nature.g. the divine in a
as a man. See the "General Remark" appended to Part III of his Religion 'within the Bounds of Reason Alone. 22). a man).
into infinite and finite. and then
Yet at the same time the man
could not judge if he were not divine. nor does the son (who has life in himself)
in so far as
one with the father. and this restriction makes possible an opposition [between the law and the man to be judged]. hold court and pass judgment. but
same time he has
ceived authority. as a
cleavage between the law and the individual or its connection with him. but only to his previous plight. not to his essence. the particular. a universal or a concept. Jesus says (John "He that believeth on the son of God is not condemned. there can be a comparison between him and others in respect of force and so of authority. [Perhaps the meaning of this perplexing passage is as follows: The judge is the mouthpiece of the law. while on the formal side (i) the
activity of comparing. the domination of
the nondivine either in idea alone or else in reality. Here there are two oppositions the first is between the judge and the man.
the concept. His 86 power to bind and to loose is grounded in the divine." In their unbelief. the second is between the man and the law. because he is the son of man. then. In the judgment the particular is brought under the universal and is judged to accord or to be at variance with it. And "this
condemned already" because he has not of the man [Jesus] to God. iii. has not recogis is
the condemnation. the judge is a man (though makes a cleavage between him and the other). can the cleavage be possible. 18-19)
but he that believeth not
recognized this relation nized his divinity. The divine man does not approach evil as a power dominating and subduing it. His judgment is a comparison between this law.e. and this fact Hegel expresses by using the distinction between form and matter: materially. The father judges not. something restricted. and the power to pass judgment. And the operation of the divine may be called "salvation" only in so far as the man saved was a
be of two kinds. but his formal or unihis
whose mouthpiece he
is. The judge is a man like the other. since the divine son of man has received
86. for only if he were can the criterion of judgment be in him.
the law. and the man to be judged.. but his authority and power as judge place him above the other as well as in opposition to him.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
action of a stranger to a stranger.
makes possible a separation between
universal and particular.]
darkness rather than light.
Materially. The reason for this is that the modification is. lay their very condemnation.
set up limits for itself which he recognizes as sundering restrictions. as the relation of a son to his father.
to a lower sphere and
are justified in
(i). What cannot live with him. two natures of different kinds.
essence and a divine one. even if they be the world's highest pride and are not felt by the
the world's suffering has not for it the form of suffering. a human
not. In this
this absolute difference
they save the intellect. what has sundered itself and stands separated from him. whatever their relation. the intellect which they expect to grasp absolutely different substances which at the same time arc an absolute unity. Those who posit this absolute difference and yet still require us to think of these absolutes as one in their inmost relationship do not dismiss the intellect on the ground
On the contrary.
. and therefore in (ii). what cannot enjoy with him. and. could be apprehended as a piece of knowledge or alternatively by faith. destruction
the pinnacle of spirit. absolute division. even if it
self in its unconsciousness
of the divine. It was from this intellectualistic point of view that the Jews took what Jesus said.
required to think
and man. Thus they
that they are asserting a truth outside its scope. but when they of essences. since to cancel the cleavage between God and man would be contrary to the first admission they were required to make. But it is the world's unbelief which degrades
as restrictions.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
authority but not
[in this field]
. according as man puts the divine wholly outside himself or
not in the
opposed to ideas] that he deals with the world and fights it.
they elevate the
intellect. Those who (i) accept the given difference of the substantialities but (ii) deny their unity are more
logical. He docs not bring its condemnation to it in the shape of consciousness of
a punishment. or at least not the form of the retroactive suffering inflicted by a law. then
life. each with personality and substantiality.
The relation of Jesus to God. for its way of taking this relation. both remaining two because they are
posited as absolutely different. a human nature and a divine one.
destroy the intellect in positing it. in its degradation.
or rather the consequence which this interpretation has for the will. only
through the crumbs falling from the rich man's
table. the Nazarene. The lion has
soul. Jesus' relation to God. of
the depth of their servitude. of an between the being of God and the being of men? impassable gulf
Spirit alone recognizes spirit.
is in me and I who knows the
in the father. something great. The Jewish multitude was bound to wreck his attempt to give them
the consciousness of something divine. but spirit and spirit.
element in taking the relation of son to father objectively [instead of spiritually]. the son feels himself one with the father who lives in him. both are one. so much he was. for he was
only one like themselves.
and (b) the hope for a love between two total dissimilars. poor things that they were. for faith in something divine. were they to recognize divinity in a man. cannot make its home in a dunghill.
. and they felt themselves to be nothing. possessing only a consciousness of their misery.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
in a nest.
God. and more he could not be.
and the father are one. is a child's relation. of their opposition to the divine. is (a) the discovery of a connection between ourselves and God in the connection between the separate
divine natures thus conceived and reverenced in Jesus.
They saw in Jesus only the man. the carpenter's son whose brothers and kinsfolk lived among them. there is no such cleft of objectivity and subjectivity.
are object and subject.
since in essence. in spirit. a love of God for man which might at best be a form of sympathy. as the relation of son to father. one is to the other an other only in that one recognizes
The hill and the eye between man and God.
seen the father." the Jews accused say him of blasphemy because though born a man he made himself
true. the infinite spirit
prison of a Jewish
whole of life none
in a withering leaf. This has no resemblance to that child's relation
which a man might put himself with the rich overlord of the world whose life he feels wholly alien to him and with whom he connects himself only through presents showered on him.
setting him beopinions of the Jews
in the divine is only tion. Faith in a
an acquaintance with some kind of object [Objekt].]
reality of the
breathes throughout one's being. It is the inkling. the son of man.
faith in the divine.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
essence of Jesus.
How could anything but a spirit know a spirit? The
a feeling of
relation of spirit to spirit
harmony. because he is
or a living consciousness. i. 13] "Whom do men say that I. In
he every man there is light and life.
between darkness (remoteness from the divine.
faith in the divine. of restricted. can
be truly grasped only by
and he burns with a flame that
own. is not illumined by a light in the way in which a dark body it borrows a brightness not its own. the longing sire for a divine life. the
for union with God.
his relationship to
lieve. in that on
as son to
father. And just as an object [Objekt] is other than
God. how could heterogeneity be unified? Faith if in the believer himself there is a divine element which
and they that worship him must worship him
in truth. the mundane) and a wholly divine life of one's
a trust in one's self.
and faith in himself
what Jesus demanded of
faith is characterized
object [Gfgeiistand]. directed all one's relations with the world. on the contrary.
could not go beyond that
the object (Gegenstand) of faith.
the property of the light. am?" his friends recounted the who even in transfiguring him.. out of the divinity of the believer's
faith in the divine
be unconscious that
own. he it is in whom we benot an object (Objekt) as distinct from a subject.
asked his disciples [Matthew xvi. But it lacks the strength of [that state of mind
when] divinity has pervaded
the threads of one's
consciousness. the deknowledge.e. of the divine. only a modification
of the Godhead can
the divine. calls them those "given him by God. Jesus called him blessed "Blessed
reality. Jesus often. since the father
unto thee. He gave him his own power of binding and loosing.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
saw in him only an individual.e.
with Jesus. a power which can be
granted only to a nature which carries in itself the divine in its from the purity. 29. There frequently recurs the idea of ascribing to God's agency the
Jesus' friends have in him. the rock on which his community was to be founded. cannot be called a divine revelation.. son of Jona. (314) The man who
passed among men as Simon. it has re-echoed in thine. thou hast unmy essence. a great part of Christendom learns to apprehend this.
Heaven hath revealed
this to thee/' i. his recognition of the son of God in the son of man. for other men thou art the son of Jona.
the divine in thee hath recognized my divinity."
required for the
Heaven hath revealed this mere apprehension of
the divine nature. 65 "No man can come unto me except it were given unto him of my father. Learning like this.
however. See also John vi.
Simon. But when Peter had expressed his faith in the son of man. for it is a power of recognizing any departure
divine. where belief in him is called a "work of God. In
is only the first stage in the relationship culmination this relationship is conceived so in-
." something effected
The effective working of the divine is totally diffrom learning and being instructed.
now no judgment
thine. Children are taught to infer from miracles. not yet a reception of the Holy Spirit.
free on earth
faith only. that Jesus
is God. command and the cane will
it. particularly in
John xvii. Jesus made Peter. but thou
art the son of
likewise so in the eyes for the first time Jesus ventures to speak to his of Heaven. though the individuality they gave him was ascribed to him in a nonnatural way. John vi." Cf. etc. divinity of his teacher at once assumes the character of the faith which senses the divine but is not yet a filling of his whole
being with the divine. but Peter's consciousness of the disciples of his impending fate. the [intellectual] reception of this faith..
So long as he lived among them. a life like the life in the branches. but after his removal spirit 89 this partition between them and God. that ye may be the children of
who believe in him shall attain everThe living association with Jesus is most
expounded in John's account of his final discourse: They in in them. Just
as Jesus has eternal
so too those
lasting life (John vi.]
. See John xii. there is a difference similar to that between John the Baptist. 240.
Jesus speaks of himself so often as of a pre-eminent nature. who only bore witness of the light. From them he separates himself and thereby his divinity also acquires an individual form [a uniqueness peculiar to himent. Jesus was their teacher and master.
38-39) (315): "He that believeth on Jesus says (John out of his belly shall flow rivers of life.
the objectivity implied in the relation of ruler and ruled.]
must be eliminated. and
Jesus. this is to contrast himself with the Jews.
own. n. All thought of a difference in essence between Jesus and those
him has become
Between those who only have faith in the light and those who
are the children of light. and the
vii. he the vine. believe in the light. 36: "Un88 til ye have light.
the truth and the
uniform and constant emphasis on the "I"
88.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
timately that his friends are one with him. 63.
away. an individual center on which
father to grant to his friends and
they depended." John remarks that this me.
It is this
culminating relationship which Jesus prays his
which he promises them when be removed from them.
him and he
whole. the light individualized in a
life in himself.
could then animate their whole being. The
not yet attained an independent life of of Jesus ruled them.
self]. they remained believers only. they together one. was spoken of the thorough animation by the Holy Ghost which
was still to come. they had not yet received the spirit because Jesus was not yet glorified. fell objectivity.e. 40). p. for they were not self-dependent.. they the in the parts the same nature. [See above.
In "the angels' sight of God" much
happily unified: Unconsciousness. and the
truest mirror of his
beautiful faith in nature
his discourse at the sight
xviii. in talking to his friends.
sorrow of a beautiful
soul. Whoso shall receive one such child in my name receiveth me. not shared by other individuals.
are here severed from
90. So too the divinity which Jesus claimed unique individuality of his own. divine individuality. being and
God. 25) of
Jesus that he
knew what was
man. has sensed
culmination of faith.
neck and that
him that a millstone were hung round his he were drowned in the depths of the sea. but however vigorously he makes himself an individual in contrast with the Jewish spirit. and they in him are to be one. all the children of God could be animated by the Holy Spirit and share in the divine life.
1 ff. he was in contrasting himself with the Jews. John says (ii. [See below. Oh! the
grievous necessity of such violations of the holy!
holiest. undeveloped unity [with
do not become
as little children.
sully this holy
purity. a spirit.
not enter into the
Kingdom of Heaven. he equally vigorously annuls all divine personality. [Hegel is arguing that when Jesus seemed to claim to be an individual with special characteristics of his own.]
91. with them he will 90 simply be one. for I say unto you that in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my
father in heaven. its
of recognizing the holiness of the
child's nature. the paragraph beginning
deepest. so for the noble heart is alienation from God." p. Just
as for the intellect the
most incomprehensible thing
and unity with God.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
separation of his personality from the Jewish character. from whom he did claim to be distinct was not peculiar to himself. is that its nature has to
be disrupted. Whoever is capable of sensing
in the child the child's
life. He who
the greatest in heaven." since (to give an argumentum ad homincm) the angels of the rest of mankind would then also have to be thought of
as living in the sight
the "angels" of the children we are not to understand "objective beings. Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones.
EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
as modifications of divinity, in they are supposed to be represented, 92 of the angels is an eterchildren; yet the being and doing
nal sight of
God. In order
and the community
to exhibit spirit, the divine, outside its of the restricted (316) with the
the entity which is pure life from the reliving one, Plato separates stricted entity by a difference of time. He allows pure spirits to
have lived wholly in the sight of the divine and to be the same in their later life on earth, except that there they have only a darkened
93 In a different way Jesus consciousness of that heavenly vision. here separates the nature, the divinity, of spirit from the restriction and unites them. As an angel, the childlike spirit is represented not
without existence of its own, all reality, simply as in God without but as at the same time a son of God, a particular. The opposition of
of subject and object, disappears in the seeing itself. Their difference is only a possibility of separation. A man be only a feeling of light, wholly immersed in seeing the sun would man who lived entirely would be light-feeling become an entity.
seer and seen,
in beholding another would be this other entirely, would be merely of becoming different from him. But possessed of the possibility
what has severed
re-won through the return
to unity, to becoming as children. But what repudiates this reunification and sets itself firmly against it has cut itself off; let him be
to you a stranger with whom you have nothing in common. If you break off companionship with him, then what you declare to be be binding also in heaven. But binding on him in his isolation shall
loose, declare to be free
one there, does not merely behold the Godhead.
xviii. 19) Jesus explains this unity in another way (Matthew as touching anything that ye "If two or three of you shall agree shall ask, it shall be done for you of my father." The expressions
"ask" and "vouchsafe" are
relative strictly to a unification in reit
spect of objects (7rpd7/iara [things]);
for a unification
are often pictorially represented as children.]
93. [Hegel is probably thinking of the of the myth in the Phaedrus.]
end of the Republic, or
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
of this kind that the matter-of-fact language of the Jews had words. But here the object in question can be nothing but the reflected
r&v 8volv fj rpi&v [agreement of two or three])
an object, this
a beautiful relationship, but sub-
unification; spirits cannot
in objects proper.
two or three of you, is of the whole, is a sound, a concord with harmony repeated the same harmony and is produced thereby. It is because it is in the
beautiful relationship, a unity of
the divine, those
something divine. In
are at one are also in association with Jesus.
or three are united in
6vofj,a juou [into
x. 41), in that respect in
which being and
them, and so
my lot, in my spirit.
docs Jesus declare himself against personality, against the view that his essence possessed an individuality opposed to that of those who had attained the culmination of friendship with
95 for the ground of (against the thought of a personal God), be an absolute particularity of his being such an individuality would
in opposition to theirs.
remark about the unity of lovers
5-6) (317): (Matthew become one, so that they are no longer two. What therefore God hath joined, let no man put asunder. If this "joining'* were sup-
and wife, these
posed to have reference solely to the original designation of the the woman for one another, this reason would not suffice
against divorce, since divorce would not cancel that designation, that conceptual unification; it would remain even if a living link were
disrupted. It is a living link that fected by God's agency.
said to be something divine, ef-
Since Jesus gave battle to the entire genius of his people and had of his fate could altogether broken with his world, the completion be nothing save suppression by the hostile genius of his people.
[See below, nn. 96 and 97, pp. 273-74.]
a person exclusive of other persons and set over
EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
of the son of
in this downfall
all (does not consist in a renunciation of but positive (his nature has forgone the unnatural world, world) has preferred to save it in battle and defeat rather than conscioussubmit to its corruption or else unconsciously and increasingly
not negative his relations with the
succumb to corruption's stealthy advance). Jesus was conscious that it was necessary for his individual self to perish, and he tried to convince his disciples also of this necessity. But they could not
from his person; they were still only bo separate his essence lievers.When Peter recognized the divine in the son of man, Jesus
able to realize and bear the thought of expected his friends to be their parting from him. Hence he speaks of it to them immediately
he had heard Peter utter
far his faith
But Peter's terror of
was from the culmination of
after the departure of Jesus' individual self could their dependence of their own or the divine then could a on him cease;
subsist in them. "It is expedient for you that I go away." spirit the Comforter will Jesus says (John xvi. 7), "for if I go not away,
come unto you"
the Comforter (John xiv. 16
the world cannot receive because
as orphans; I come to you and yc and ye shall live also." When yc cease shall see me, because when ye have merely to see the divine in me and outside yourselves,
will not leave
will the divine come to consciousness in you yourselves, then xv. 27), because ye have been with me from the beginalso (John
our natures are one in love and in God. "The spirit ning, because will guide you into all truth" (John xvi. 13), and will put you in
mind of all
He is a Comforter. To things that I have said unto you. to give the expectation of a good like the one comfort means
lost or greater than the
so shall ye not be left behind as
since as much as ye think to lose in losing me, so orphans, (318) receive in yourselves. much shall ye
xii. 31 ff.) blasphemes a man (blasphemes me son of man), this sin shall be forgiven him. But whoso biasas the
of the whole. Jesus also contrasts individuality with the spirit
"baptizing them so
96. the connection. undis-
turbed though undeveloped. the return to the Godhead whence man
fear. The meaning here is that they are parallel to this.. but the void
away would not be
back again. and restores the whole. into the connection of96 the Father. but Greek means "baptizing them into the name. and the [The A. not from love. closes the circle of man's development. i. By a sign ye could be shaken.e. his sin shall
not be forgiven
either in this time or in the time to come.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
spirit itself. The expression "into name of someone" is common in Hellenistic Greek with a financial reference. God. but the child carries the unity.
annuls the modification. with holiness. the concord with the entire harmony.e. until
and] separated itself more sociations to the original unity which
begins with faith in gods actions it has [isolated through and more. The child now knows God. The culmination of faith. issues from its restrictions. i. e.
Out of the abundance
the heart (verse 34) the
mouth speaketh. blasphemes the spirit in nature..
spirit has destroyed its own holiness. and.e. every living thing is its child. It
developed. Everything lives in
the Godhead.g. the spirit of God is present in the child.
blasphemes the himself
out only from me. the divine. and sensed as a unity. out of the treasure of a the good man bringeth forth good things.
The Eumenides of your
could be terrified." etc. but he who sunders himself from God blasphemes nature itself.V.
you by the Daemons thus love.. the Son. reads "baptizing them in the name of the Father. self-pro-
words of the
xxviii. It will by only draw your
strengthened by your very conscious-
ness that they are furies of hell. and he is therefore incapable of annulling his separation and reuniting himself with love. the Son. they complete your destruction.. out of the
spirit the evil
(i." etc. but then it returns through asitself.
into these relationships of
the divine. but that would not restore
you the nature ye have
itself. it is used of money paid into someone's name and so into his possession.
p. 271) or "spiritual relation" (see above. 16 adds) "with fire" (iv irvevnan ayiq Kal irvpi.
it is this
meaning which Hegel sees
translated "in the
in this passage.. i. in connection with
also think of the
i. Matthew xii.
. "John. "preached the baptism of refor the forgiveness of sins. 25 Jesus asks: Whence was the baptism (/^ATmcr/m) of John? From heaven or of men? BaTmajua means the entire consecration of spirit and
(i. The word paOtiTtveut
likewise deprived of the notion of teaching proper by the clause which follows it. it is clear that by "baptizing into" we are not to understand a dipping in water. name."
brew and to out an ulterior motive and for his own sake. 28 iv 7n>ei>juan Otov ^/c/3d\Xw rd 5at/jt6?ta>
in the spirit
and can be apprehended only with
relation" (8^0/10.. "receive a prophet with-
name" again mean
which unites the three Persons
p. But in Mark that John used this form for reception into his
8).e." In Matthew xxi.e. He seems to take 6o/ua.
he consecrates them also
them with the
prophet els oyo/za Trpo^rjrov 97 far as he is a "which connects the One." In verse 8 John pentance says: "I have
baptized you with water. but only as an incidental.
and the holy
when he who
one with God) He will press upon you spirit and will fill you with these because himself filled with the spirit consecrates others iv
i. in so
not in conceptual thinking alone).]
97.e. Cf. cf." The expression "baptizing into" is used in the Epistles to describe the act whereby a mystical union is produced
(e.g. simply because he is a prophet. 259) and to hold that the
relation in question
Here they seem mean "for the sake"
to be equivalent to a usage in rabbinical Heor. 3).
character. [name].EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
the very context of the words.
as interpreted here. 41: "whoso receiveth a [in the name of a prophet]. but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost" and (as Luke iii.."
4 the thought
read." Hegel's attempt to relate the exegesis of this passage to that of the other is dubious and perplexing. since he is life
sion in water.
entered as the possession of the Father.
vi. to mean "spirit" (sec above. the modification prophet) and the developed reunification in life and spirit (separation) (319)
. in this context. a so-called "christening" in which there has to be an utterance of
Holy Ghost. God cannot be taught or learned.
"into the name.. etc." From
and straightway coming up out of the water he saw the heavens opened and the spirit like a dove de-
came a voice from heaven. After immersion a man the water. plain of an eastern horizon. In immersion there
only one feeling.
In the sea there
no gap. tempted of Satan.
they receive. nothing specific. no
restriction. we have no sense of the surrounding air. the simple. and he comes back strengthened When we look out into a cloudless sky and into multiplicity.
from everything. separates himself from
the simplest. 9 ff. And immedidrove him into the wilderness. what comes into them. scending upon him. To plunge into
to be confronted
element which at once flows
round us on every side and which is felt at every point of the body. (320) And there Thou art my beloved son in whom I am well pleased.
. No feeling is so homogeneous
with the desire for the
are. leaves him.
multiplicity. We are
water which touches us where
the longing to merge into the inself in the sea.
19). a solitude which has only forgetfulness of the world. We are taken away from the world and the world from us. and he
was with the wild
beasts.) drawal from the entire past. the comes up into the air
So soon as the water yet it still drips from him everywhere.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
John's habit (nothing similar
nothing other than
to have been done
Jesus) of baptizing by immersion in water those drawn to his spirit is an important and symbolical one. shapeless.
broken up. and he was there ately the
forty days. as the desire to
infinite. The bap-
as such a withtism of Jesus appears (i. is at once free from again. as an inspiring consecration into a new world in which reality floats before the new spirit in a form
was baptized of John in Jordan. the world around him takes on specific characteristics to the consciousness of again. what is in him. and the play of our thoughts is something
from mere gazing.
" In coming out of the water he is filled with the highest inspiration. even unto the end of the world.
permeated by the Holy
are initiated into the
lives in the divine
and living in Jesus. To this detachment he was fully
awakened only after forty days." They are not to begin their work outside Jerusalem until they are "endued with power
which was to begin
represented as freed
and personality. [so here in Matthew he speaks of his power] at greater the time when he is represented as already withdrawn from everyat that
to betray him to the he awaited his return to his Father who
thing which the world could demand of him. from every part of " All power is given unto his life in which the world could share)
round them and be
just as the
touches every part of the body of those immersed in lo. and Holy Ghost. a preaching
than ever be any thought that his He is among those whose
Spirit. baptizing them" (Matthew xxviii. "Ye are witnesses of these things. Son.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
angels ministered unto him. and Holy Ghost
repentance and remission of
much more weakly by Luke (xxiv. 31. send the promise of my Father upon you.
juncture when than he. so that that united
heaven and upon earth. 19)] is therefore of deep sigU A11 power is given unto me in heaven and upon earth" nificance."
it. and this prevents him from re-
world and drives him into the wilderness.
expression /Lta^rcucrare /3a7rrtfoj'Te$ ["teach all nations. a personality. This baptism into connection with Father. and thereafter he enters the world with confidence but in firm opposition to it. 47) as preaching sins in the name of Christ.
ye therefore into all nations and make them your disciples so that ye consecrate them into connection with the Father. xiii. there can
an individuality. John speaks of his glorification at the
moment when Judas
Jews. I am with you alway.
divine. where Jesus (cf. At that
point the working of his spirit had not yet detached itself from the consciousness of everyday affairs.
it among men.
but. the relationship with
the development of the divine God which they enter through
living in the
with the Holy Spirit. spirit
doctrine pure and simple can be preached.
Jesus calls the
"Kingdom of God"
of men. "the baptized believer shall
and the same living against other godlike beings are abolished.e.. pp. Mark speaks in dry terms." The "believer" and the man who has been "baptized" are expressions already having the appearance of specific words serving to mark off a communion. The words are as objective as
only those words can be in which actions are described without any hint of their soul. In this harmony their many-sided consciousness chimes in with one spirit and their many different lives
supported by the testimony of events. not a baptism of the spirit. uninspired and without spiritual animation. words without soul whose whole meanings are 98 Instead of using the spirit-laden "I am with you presupposed.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
from on high.
nical language instead of in the living
ecclesiastical doctrines expressed in techwords of direct spiritual experience. still its tone is characteristic) this leavetaking of Jesus is expressed much more objectively.
this. their fellowship in God.
alway" to express how believers are
and the glorified Jesus. Cf.
[I. i. But teaching of that kind is no consecration. but he that believeth not shall be condemned. and of similar actions which will be within the power of believers. In Mark (even if the last chapter
be not wholly genuine..]
. of the expulsion of devils. 83-85.e. the expressions are
and conventionalized by the custom of a church. so that "Gospel" is a sort of technical term).
above. without being itself possessed by the Holy Spirit. that of becoming his sons and harmony of their developed many-sidedness and their
entire being and character.
(321) "Preach the Gospel" (without any further addition. Spirituality appears here rather as a customary formula. who therefore are no longer animates the different beings. of wonderful dominations over this
of God what is common to all is life in God.
whole of the [Christian] still to consider whether
founded religion as Jesus
completely to something beyond. because such a
This idea of
of all things the freest poscompletes and comprises the
it. are anis
nulled. but through life and through love." says Jesus [John xiii. for it means only a union through domination. as believers). a
99. a living bond which unites the believers. is the divine spirit." This friendship of soul.
to be an incompleteness in this idea. as one." of the divine into the expression imports something heterogeneous unification of men.
by whole which
love? Is there
the spirit of
sons the individual
completeness which fate be the nemesis raging against a too beautiful endeavor. since they are unified not in a universal.
low. against an overleaping of nature?
has found himself again in another. they make up not munion. a development of life. it a feeling in which all oppositions.. an inwould give a fate power over it? Or would this
this subject see the
fragment on Love translated
in chap. but is is this feeling of love. "that ye love one another. as pure enmities. a concept (e. a union to be through the power of a stranger from the beauty of the divine life of a pure
sible. as unifications of still subsisting oppositions.]
. and unity of life. are my disciples. impelled by any need what that need was. (322) described in the of reflection as an essence.
"A new command give I unto you.
communion. it presupposes division. also rights.
which language gave Jesus the word "Kingdom.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
a collection but a commerely similar but one. and.g.
there an idea
than that of a nation of men related to one another
one more uplifting than that of belonging to
over a stranger. This In the
nature or whether
character which a concept expresses. thereby shall men know that ye 34]." Since love is a unification of life. as spirit.
a life fellowship.
German translation by G. Forster (Hamburg. and also a
diminution of individualities.e. the
more the places
of other persons.. Therefore the love which
group of people can
one another 100 admits of only a certain degree of strength or depth and demands both a similarity in mind.
The more variegated the manimore the places in which it can be
does love become. and then in a common striving for itself to a activity and enterprise.]
. But since this community of life. xxxiv.
senses an [exclusive] in-
dividuality in the other. in interest. the whole range of physical need. in numerous relationships of life. The Pellew Islands. Hegel referred to this book in a marginal note. it can be brought home to consciousness only through
and strongly marked expressions. instead of spreading
throughout the world]. the more does their love become restricted to itself [i.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
developed many-sidedness of
arising from such
them objects. and the
idiosyncracies they have.
which it can sense itself. and enterprise.
reveals itself in objects
which can be common.
opinions. this similarity of mind. A group of similar
an object of united reveals itself. If it
to be conscious of
itself. the deeper extended the multiplicity of the relations and feelings of the lovers and the more deeply love is concentrated. Nohl supplies the exact reference.
must even create enmities for itself. Keate. [See G. to their own group. The more isolated men stand in respect of their culture and interest.
100. p. 1789). the linking of many persons depends on similarity of need. the more exclusive it is and the more indifferent to the
reunified. objects belonging and can know itself in them.
communes with every
[as life]. is not love. and in such enterprise a like spirit then this common spirit delights (323) to make itself recognized in
life is alive. in their relation to the world. It can attach
thousand objects of
to a similar culture.
no question of
common use and enjoyment. if
to give happiness to itself as
fond of doing.
enjoys itself in gladness and play. above. because the sort of community in question would have been compatible with purity. I pass over. The grand idea of a universal philanthropy. eating.
conversed about their departed friend and master. since it was not this which was the aspiration of the com-
munity. In love's task the community scorns any unification save the deepest. every other tie in other objective activities is alien to the community. Equally alien is every spirit of co-operation for something other
than the dissemination of the
faith. Their enemies accused some of their societies of even having wives in common.
whether the purpose of such a
be the achievement of some end
or the development of another side of life or a common activity. [Cf. But the community cannot go beyond love itself. prayed together. The friends of Jesus kept together after his death. 101 In common many withdrew to make other people sharers in their faith and
faith. 102 a shallow idea and an unnatural one. 246. there still lies a prodigious field of objectivity which claims activity of many kinds and sets up a fate whose scope extends in all directions and whose power is
mighty. [Perhaps the meaning is that if the accusation was deserved. or of
their hopes. they ate and drank in common. p. enjoying. others did so partly by their profuse almsgiving and contributions to the common stock. strengthened one another in faith and courage. In Heaven there is no giving in marriage.
and hoping. Some of their brotherhoods wholly abolished
property rights against one another. then no shame need have been felt. beyond the single activity of spreading the
community of worship. proselytizing
is the sole activity of the Christian that community's essential property.]
102. Apart from the relationship of the common faith and the revelations of
possession in the appropriate religious actions. and because this
community. to be gay in unifying the group.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
the peace [of the group]. praying.]
. an accusation which they lacked purity and courage enough to de-
which they had no need to feel shame. any spirit save the highest.
which reveals and
THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
enjoys itself in play in other modes and restricted forms of life. but where he suffers fate. This danger is (324) warded off only by an inactive and undeveloped love. to the power of their different fates. and a severance
into flame and burn
p.e. Jesus appeared among the Jews.
THE FATE OF JESUS AND His CHURCH]
With the courage and faith of a divinely inspired man.
and here is the point where Jesus is linked with linked indeed in the most sublime way.
it. for the Kingdom of God is nigh. whether of an active or a passive 103 This restriction of love to itself.
the most appalling fanaticism. he began therefore with the universal message: "Be ye changed. remains unliving..
they would thereby have surrendered themselves to the province of their different characters.
and the note on
low. it would have destroyed it. i.
v. this removal of itself from all fate. or even if they sprang from its spirit. is
just its greatest fate. by a love which. to have
done so would have been to renounce
the sake of a petty interest.
a breath to kindle
5. though love is the highest life. in a false effort which was bound to become the father of
life. love would have been changed into hatred. In such a spirit the community would not recognize itself. since its members would have put themselves in
jeopardy of clashing against one another's individuality. dreamer by clever people. he
to call on
would only have needed
103. He visualit
ized the world as
to be. appeared possessed of a new spirit entirely his own.
God. Not only would it have forsaken love." Had the spark of life lain dormant in the Jews. and the to
attitude he adopted
become different. its flight from all deter-
minate modes of living even if its spirit breathed in them. a difference of character in some detail. Hence the contranatural expansion of love's scope becomes entangled in a contradiction. Hegel's Philosophy of Right. and must have done this all the more as their education was different.]
were to preach the nearness of the
104. as freedom and a healed or conquered fate.
great good nature. a more widecapable ly disseminated preaching of the Kingdom of God. (Even after a much longer association with him (326)
two by two about
they show themselves ever so often possessed of a small.
in their unrest
with things as they were. He sent his
the country in order to let his call resound from many lips. or at least an unpurified. they had been conscious of the need for a purer world. only a few of whose branches had been penetrated by the divine. they were too self-satisfied in the pride of their servitude to find what they sought in what
tablished there and then.]
. of their ancient fate they would have aroused nothing save convulsions from their past life. note on
p.. mostly trivial. then the call of Jesus would have found belief. their urge as a completion.
Jesus. his hearers lacked his purity and singleness of heart and therefore did not understand his message fully. But though the
Jesus offered.e. with the
of a pure-hearted dreamer. 104 A small group of pure
souls attached themselves to
him with the urge to be trained by him. soul. [I. This was true even of those who
into existence the
Simultaneously with their belief the Kingdom of would have been present.
after his acquaintance with them he thought them of providing. their renunciation of some of their previous relationships. but the Holy Spirit did not speak in their preaching. except for the negations which they contained.
Jews did want something different from what they had had hitherto.
need into their consciousness. Jesus would simply have expressed
words what lay undeveloped and unknown
the finding of the
he interpreted their desire as a satisfied heart. 70. and his people ripe for receiving. and
would have immediately brought
in. the answer which their genius gave to the call of was a very impure sort of attention.) Their whole instructions.
See above. and their new world would have been es-
word and with the entry of their their bonds would have fallen off.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
their petty titles
he renounces his people and has the feeling (verse 25 [: "Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent and hast revealed
them unto babes"])
minded. and from all connection with it. and
indifference with which his call
of Jesus' hopes and their apostleship. the laying bare of their spirit and its hosto him. for he
cuts himself off
and plucks his friends from its grasp. and hence. deliberately accepting
. was received soon turned into ha-
ness against his
ate. still his relation to it is wholly passive. So so long does he flee from it long as Jesus sees the world unchanged.
reveals himself only to the simplerestricts himself to
From now onward he
dividuals and allows the fate of his nation to stand unassailed.
his friends should
sively. when he had occasion to speak to them on religious matters. Soon they reassemble with
cannot descry any
tred. against the
of this hatred on him was an ever increasing bitterage and his people. to the consequences of subjection to this power he submitted pasthe contradiction of his spirit.
der discussion one aspect of their
fate. However much he collides with
the entire fate of his people. sole relationship with the state was to remain under its jurisdiction.
to get at their spirit.
Jesus again. even when that attitude seerns to him to be contradictory. he could not start on refutation or correction. there are only the most violent outbreaks of bitterness against them.
After the return of his disciples (so it appears from Matthew xi). their
says. His on the Jews. The truth opposed to their way of thinking he addresses to the other people present. Never once does he treat them with faith in the postility
of their conversion.
namely. especially against those in
whom the spirit of his nation lived
at its strongest and most passionPharisees and the leaders of the people. he only resibility
duces them to silence by argitmenta ad hamimiii. but to pay it. Render when the Jews brought ununto Caesar what is Caesar's. In his attitude to them there are no attempts (327) to reconcile them to him. Their entire character was opposed to him.
seemed to him
a contradiction that he
have to pay the same tribute as was imposed he told Peter to make no resistance.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
Kingdom of God.
and by such group they state was there and neither Jesus nor his following could annul it. for the members of the Kingdom of God bond of association is snapped. passivity
under the domination of an alien might which was despised but which ceded to Jesus without conditions the little that he wanted from it existence among his people.
only a possibility. etc. The full knowledge of this that Jesus suffered at the hands of the state.e. mere physical existence]
105.. (328) is offset by a gain in isolated inof personal pedividuality and the narrow-souled consciousness
culiarities. Except for this aspect of life [i. [I. 270 about Quakers. See Hegel's Philosophy of Right.
the fate of Jesus and his following (which remained tiue to him in this matter) remains a loss of freedom. a multiplicity
and beautiful associations. Hence with this [passive] relation to the state one great element in
cut away. The citizens of the Kingdom of God become set over living
against a hostile state. to those who have never been active in such a
living [political] union.. Whatever
lost in losing a
of relationships.e. 236. that negative
a living union
actually present does not exist but is opposition former was in fact the case.
who have never enjoyed this
main citizenship in the concerns property only. only difference for that Kingdom whether this world is
in opposition to
themselves private persons excluding Moreover. But since the group.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
The Kingdom of God is not of this world. they have lost one one important characteristic which an association of part of freedom. in the modern state.]
.. It is true that
from the idea of the Kingdom of
the relationships established in a political order are excluded. not citizens participating in it. For freedom as the the note to negative characteristic of "beauty" see above. and it was with
and beauty possesses. p. this restriction of life appears not as a theft of life but rather as the power of an alien might dominant over exfreedom.
it. especially to those for
which themselves can be freely renounced. they have lost a number of active relationships ties. these rank infinitely lower than the living bonds within the divine
a can only be despised. a restriction of life.
to unite his connection with the di-
mit to a
106. either he had to
own. even their private life was life in a state. because
because they all lay under imprisoned under the power of
Judaism. The fate of Jesus was that he had to suffer
threads of that web. to develop in them the relationship good spirit which he believed was in them.
in the void. in
. In the Kingdom of God
can be no relation save that which proceeds from the most disinterested love and so from the highest freedom. But in his everyday world
he had to
flee all living relationships
the law of death. he might not become either a father of a family or a fellow-citizen to enjoy a common life with his fellows.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
life). as a state. and thereby to create men whose world would be his world. he
legalities.] lationships which should have been
undeveloped and without pleasure
in itself. but subits
his spirit with his joy. beget no children. In neither
necessity and share its but to sacrifice his own beauty. or else he had to repel his nation's fate from himself. vine. save that which ac-
appearance quires from beauty alone its mode the world.e. The Jewish spirit animated them all and became law regulating the whole of their lives except their bare existence.e.
would have been associated with the web of Jewish
order to avoid profaning or destroying any relationship he had entered. he would have had to let himself be entangled in the
The result was that he could find freedom only modification of life was in bonds. he could enter into with men only to train them.
be called not "life" but rather the mere possibility of the Jewish spirit had not only made itself master of all modi-
but also had
itself into a law.
entered a tie which was free on both sides. and his kinsfolk...
fate of his people. Because of the impurity of [Jewish]
of only carry the
life. law penetrated into i. He might love no wife. his brothers. and had deformed the purest and most immediate natural rethere lationships into clear-cut legalities. and therefore Every Jesus isolated himself from his mother.
Kingdom of God in his heart. since Jewish the details of private affairs and fixed by legal ordinances family and other releft to natural affection.
and the holiest part of nature itself is injured because it is interwoven with the unholy.
more than me
not worthy of
me. the less could he
from his nature's spirited recalmly. though he (329)
essence is shape only as a splendid shadow whose he would have to forgo the highest truth. whether there be consciousness or not of this confusion. with the pretension of being because in these circumstances holiness pure." he said." But the more deeply he
the consequences before his eyes. I came to set the
son against his father.
caught in the fate and subject to it.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
event would his nature be
trodden underfoot with the tares. Jesus foresaw the full horror of this destruction: "I came not. only fragments of it. the inevitable result
the fate in
to give a consciousness of corruption both to this corruption and also to the spirit still relatively free from it. but into a horrible one when holiness itself is impaired
and when nature and unnature are con-
fused. but a sword. must destroy both itself and nature
frightfully. and his actions issued action against the world. "to bring peace on earth. rages against fate. his fight was pure and sublime because he
its entire range and had set himself against it. and he required
father or mother.
and when an amalgamation of the two. Jesus did not think of lessen checking his activity in order to spare the world its fate. and even these would he would bring it fully into his consciousness. in the latter.
the pure against the impure is a sublime sight. the sensing of that essence and the truth would not come alive in act and in reality. the attack on the latter must also affect the former. he and the community he founded set themselves in opposition to the corruption of their environment. and then to
set this corruption's fate at variance
the former case he
be sullied. the daughter against her mother. the severance of his nature the same from his friends: "Whoso loveth world." What has in part freed itself from fate against her husband's
but in part remains linked therewith.
. the bride kin. son or daughter.
from the Jesus chose the latter fate.
itself in specific
(330) The fate of Jesus was not entirely shared by his commuwas put together from a number of men who did nity. with the revelation of which the entire kingdom of the world collapsed
and vanished. and the need for a in them since community in a positive life must have been stronger Abolition of propnegation gives no pleasure.
a union in
only. affords no beauty.
and therefore they were
lived less in the negative activity of fighting. yet at
times practical proof of the divine and therefore a fight against fate.
to(a) and (b) are necessarily bound context could not and was not supposed to be
a union of individualities.
Faith can only unify a group if the group sets an actual world over itself from it. at every opposition. and leave to
downfall the consoling faith
in its guiltlessness. without becoming alive. common meals. partly in the course of immediate reaction against not single elements in the fate as he came up against them. Hence the opposition [to against itself and sunders
the rest of the world]
fixed and an essential part of the
while the group's love must always have principle of the group. retained the form of love. these
of constituting a posibelong to the negative side of union instead was (a) separation from men tive union. they kept together as a group and thus were able to carry on their group life farther
apart from the world. in the ideal world. restoration. introduction of
community of goods. but each member found
more companions with a character like his own. The latter live in a similar separation from the world. partly in the course of spreading the Kingdom of God.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
thus had less contact with the world.
of Jesus was separation from the world and
into heaven. the recollection of God and aspiration toward God. The essence of their group
and (b) love for one another.
. though that element which appeared directly as the state and came against
to consciousness even in Jesus and to which his relation
it. of the
which was becoming dissipated into the void. of faith in God.
since. the thought of flight was no longer possible. a content often consisting
impure. in order to maintain itself in its relationlessness. which is incompatible with it.
life. the more firmly riveted on their hearts were the chains of multiplicity. as a cut-and-dried fact. a fear of
because every form exhibits its deficiency (as a form it is only one aspect of the whole and its very formation imfixed limits). formlessness. the consequence was inevitable: to
. Thus plies
reconciliation of fate but only atextreme opposite of the Jewish spirit. not the middle tained the course of beauty between the extremes. though poor of which the Jewish spirit served. this clutching at empty unity. it must defor it stroy that by which it is destroyed. nothing was left to into the void via atrocities and devastations.
of contacts with
group's relation to the it. between (a) all restricted legal ties and virtues and (b) the single spirit.
of the Christian communion likewise saw
every relationship of self-developing and selfBut since this spirit was the feeling of love. But when the fate of the world became too powerful and maintained itself near and in the church. and declared war on every natural impulse. the more terrible was the this attempted suicide. that (be it even purity itself) which it must do is injury to the content of its foe.*
disdained the riches for the sake
devised for every civil action or for every expression of desire and passion a and enjoyhiding place in the unity in order by this fraud to retain possession ment of every restriction and yet at one and the same time to renounce it. its greatobjectivity. for since their consciousness was them save a flight only a consciousness of restricted forms. and the result
Jewish spirit. and what it lacks is a part of the world. effect of simply because it seeks an external form. Dreamers in later ages have turned the disdain with which they treated all forms of life on the ground of their impurity into an unconditional.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
form of life can be
and then apprehended
as its object. Since Jesus disdained life with the Jews and yet at the same time did battle with his ideal against the realities of their life. of the most beautiful
crites against nature therefore endeavored to discover and maintain a contranatural link between the multiplicity of the world and the lifeless unity. The Jewish spirit had
community group found no
of nature. empty. but not
quacy of these things (for were they not the gifts of the Lord?) but its pride and its life were just the possession of these mundane
realities. the relationships of life. crystallized the modifications was it not ashamed of the inadeinto mundane realities. Great hypo-
* (331) The dreaming which despises life may very readily pass over into fanaticism.
world was bound to become
every form of
A must be fused with the universal. of a beings are united.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
Over against the negative communion (i.
an objective form. to unite feeling. With the paragraph which folhas not lows.
a divine spirit. but Hegel did not. By love's extensioi over a whole community its character
changes. in him there are no members. it did not live in those forms. death is welcome: but the man who dreams
for the fulfilment of a great plan can feel nothing but grief in leaving the stage his plan was to have been worked out.e.
easier for the
fate through flight into an
members of the community because they
community which kept
from and opposed to
or else determined their character solely by the universal of love. Nohl inserts into the [This
main text at this point. but
it still falls
short of religion.
feeling.. is the supreme need of the human spirit and the urge to religion.
was bound to succumb. In the God of the world. The need to unite subject with object. and thereby acquire the form of a being to whom prayer is both possible and due. i. and the translator done so either. and feeling's demand for
something beautiful.e. the bond of love. of such members is not the harmony of The
with something represented in idea. over against that
side of the fate of the Christian
opposition to the world which
converts the modifications of
intellect. and relations
therewith into crimes) there stands the positive side.
religion. He did not shrink from this development of his fate. and it has seemed better to relegate it to a footnote here. to unite
been no more than their
God could not satisfy because in their God there could have common feeling. by means of fancy. which comes from an earlier draft.
ceases to be a living union of individualities and instead enjoyment is restricted to the consciousness of their mutual love. Jesus died in the confidence that his plan would not miscarry. This urge of the Christian community its
objects. in a god. Nohl begins a new section. To every dreamer who dreams for himself alone. though to be sure he did not go in search of it.
as members. but its insertion there breaks the argument. otherwise they
those realities he
would not form
defectiveness must be
unites both the opposites. on the other hand.
made up in something which The community has the need of a God
of the community. since the oneness or the
individual feeling. an opposite in
since his sight of
his constant collisions
from the world. in
love. and whose pleasure and joy is the pure single-heartedness of love.
The Godhead of the
not the manifestation of their love. the constant collision with the world had more or less vanished.
opposition [to the world] was one with him. not as a personification of a subjective entity (for in such a personification the worshiper
would become conscious of the cleavage between the subjective entity and its objective manifestation). to
in the heart.
.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
would not be linked together by
love. In his
community.. Jesus' need for religion was satisfied in the God of the whole. a satisfaction. of their divinity. He needed only the opposite
of the world. and this must be manifested
not as a symbol or an allegory.
Instead. as its opposite over against itself. since every rela-
tion stands over against something related. was each of with the world. feeling
here means a spirit which pervades everything and remains a single essence even if every individual is conscious of his feeling as his
his father. feeling still has reality or. in
just that exclusive love
between one member
the community's character and the and another. that are united
a common faith and hope. to use a subjective expression. the intellect.
i. a sort
of living relationship. only. the community lived without
an active struggle against the world and was to that extent fortunate in not being continually roused by the world (333) and so in not being compelled simply to flee to the opposite of the world. But its love is not religion. is a Kingdom of God on simply a small scale. but as something which is at
one and the same time
feeling..e. the faculty for understanding reality. a circle of hearts that have surrendered their rights against one another over anything their own.
too had appeared to them. Grief for the decaying
body would have
his divinity. 21). and this hope was
over with his death. had hung on the individual Jesus. soon the Holy Ghost came to them. His individin a living being the indeterminate and the uality united for them 108 With his death determinate elements in the [entire] harmony. his disciples were like sheep without a shepfriend of theirs was dead. faith returned into their hearts. in him the divine had taken shape and
been revealed. too There remains
the quenchless unsatisfied thirst after
had taken everything into the grave had not remained behind in them. when they know anything. Otherwise there remains in relation to the whole of man's
divisible nature a thirst too slight for the infinity
and invisible. 107 Their reli-
in pure life. remembrance of this divine being reality and spirit. If the divine is to appear. be he who was to free Israel (Luke xxiv. they were thrown back on the separation of visible To be sure.
days after [Hegel here added and later deleted the following: death Jesus rose from the dead. (3 34) their faith was their living bond.
the harmonious. gradually yielded to the intuition of
107.e. a perfected harmony. gion.
to them.. since this event became the centre of their faith. Love unites them. The power which his dying exerted over them would have been broken in time.
After Jesus died. Since the effect of this Resurrection was so great.
may be one.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
members does not at the same time involve the objectification of their oneness. the divine and the human. but they had hoped that he would herd.
of the world. they know it as
love of the
something severed. the invisible spirit must be united with something visible so that the whole may be
unified. even though he
from them. and
satisfied. so that there may be a complete synthesis. so that
feeling. [I. Jesus united for them in his own personality the infinite (the indeterminate) and the finite (the determinate). but the lovers do not know of this union.]
. and the Resurrection became the basis of their faith and their salvation.
with him. the need for it must have lain very deep
in their hearts. in their eyes their dead friend would not
(335) For this reason it is hard to cling to the religious aspect of the risen Jesus. died on the cross. lifted up heavenward. his con-
fixation of objectivity)
life. and to have recourse to the intellect means to abstract from religion. But alongside reverence for this spirit.
To consider the resurrection of Jesus as an event is to adopt the outlook of the historian. and this has nothing to do with religion. But in the risen Jesus. claims a place in
the world of realities. the
which would have denoted only the need for would still have found no God of its own.
this spirit to fancy
would always have been linked with a longing
What w as
munity. in love thus given shape. and the two are united in a
itself. Belief or disbelief in the resurrection as a mere fact deprived of its
a matter for the intellect
just the death of religion. But. Since it is only through an apotheosis that he became
God.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
and the image of purer manhood would have risen for them out of his grave. this sublime spirit would always
its antithesis in its
vanished existence. the image found life again. and love found the objectification of its oneness. The objective aspect of God. it
account. individual he lived. since the objective aspect of God is not simply love given shape. there would still have remained memory of the image's life. the intellect seems to have a right to discuss the matter.
present also as a reality. and. and was buried. Love's longing has found
a deification of a
humanity is something quite different from the configuration proper to God.
itself as a living being and can now and worship of this being is now the religion of the need for religion finds its satisfaction in the risen
Jesus. to cling to configurated love in its beauty. what and a shape. as a reality.
short of beauty and divinity because it lacked wanting in the divinity present in the loving comwas wanting in the community's life. was an image
In this remarriage of spirit and body the opposition between the living and the dead Jesus has vanished. alongside the
enjoyment of intuiting this image.
is objective only in so far as
simply the presentation of the love uniting the group. belonging to
to the in-
dividual that prayer is to be offered. the real human form. millions of
souls have fought and tormented themselves.
But thus the image of the risen one. The
soul [of the group] cannot renounce the conception of natures of different kinds. simply the pure counterpart of that love. where there are no barriers. the image of the unification which has now become a living being. so too the deified one was glorified only through a grave. would present no obstacle to the urge for religion if only the real human form had been satisfied to be a mere veil and to
pass away. Just as Hercules soared aloft to become a hero
only through the funeral pyre. that altars were dedicated
and prayers offered. But in the case of Hercules. simply to the hero who had become god and now neither fought nor served any more. because it is not the risen one alone who is the cure of sinners and the ecstasy of
their faith. as the veil of
walked on earth and hung on the
that. This sad need which
. prayers are also offered to the
taught.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
figuration. The veil stripped off in the grave. contains nothing which the same time feeling. The case of Jesus is different. But this real
human form is supposed to remain fixed and
his essence. and earth. comes to have appended to it
something different. the humiliation in itself. which therefore is a mundane reality hanging on the deified one like lead on the feet and drawing him down to earth. this collection of plain restrictions.
God. something completely objective and individualized. for so
cross. which is to be coupled with love but which is to remain firmly
something individualized. has risen again out of the grave and
attached itself to the one
over this tremendous
centuries. The God [of the Christian group] was thus
fixed for the intellect as
supposed to hover midway between heaven's infinity. as an object the intellect's counterpart. The form of a servant. it was simply to
courage configurated. and it contains nothing not already in love itself (though here
appears as love's counterpart).
that it could not fully recognize in itself. inferiority to
the spirit. Since the love of the group had overreached itself by being spread over a whole assembly of people and therefore was now filled with an ideal content but was deficient in
life. the similarity having a doctrine. [not merely in love pure and simple but] in a factual reality. since their love was to reeither in the
main love and not become
life. But in the lifelessness of a modification of itself. This adopted is a remarkable aspect of the spirit of the group. has the form of something given. cut off from the world.
reality is deeply connected
members. living in itself. but in their eyes he was not love pure and simple.
tween them. recognized the consciousness of discipleship and of a lord and In its spirit lay
as set over against itself
master. To be connected with an
conscious of dependence on it. did recognize itself as given shape in the risen one.
dependent on it.
it remained a corresponding spirit.
over into it that it acquisition has so far passed is its life. which
made every form of life
into consciousness of an object and there-
fore despised all such forms. that in its eyes the
the bare ideal of love
was something "positive"
it. did not manifest itself
development of life or in its beautiful ties (336) and the formation of natural relationships. learning. to life. having had a common master and teacher.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
the Christian group felt for a
fate. to this spirit alien spirit.
the group's love the spirit of its love remained so athirst.
was not completely manifested in love configuit which was reception.
rated. that it has
manifestation in love's configuration only
To unifying principle.
they had to have some criterion for
the recognition of love before their mutual faith in love could beLove itself did not create a thoroughgoing union become
was the similarity of faith. is to be stranger. on the contrary. felt itself so empty. nothing is given. What it has acquired. and therefore they needed another bond which would link the group together and in which also the group would find the
The group thus had to recognize itself certainty of the love of all. felt as alien.
Since their love.
higher beings are concerned. the group recognized its real bond and that assurance of unification which could not be sensed in a love that
unliving. owing to this expansion. On the contrary. on the strength of the love which maintained itself in its purity outside every tie with the world.
serve only to make the contrast strike the eye more forcibly. (337)
which worship is
demanded. This higher entity set over against the group is not the sublimity which its God necessarily has because. an object which has in it
as much foreignness.
is the point at which the group is caught in the toils of fate. in them the divine seems most inti-
it. as there is dependence in the spirit of the group. the community of having a common founder. The miracles. than such a passing halo can the deeds regarded as divine
and issuing from himself lift him into the higher shape [of a heavenly being]. as much dominion. and whose divinity is greater than
Its fate. was centered in was extended over a
more the group
expanded and. He himself was once transfigured into a shining figure of light. it seemed to have
evaded fate altogether. so
when there was
individual's recognizing himself as equal with
Him. In this community of dependence.
The nondivine object. and the beings who surround the individual. continually coincided more and more with the world's fate both by unconsciously adopting
many of that fate's
itself in the
aspects and also
by continually becoming
struggle against that fate. appear to be an attribute worthy of a God. a characteristic of a God. In his birth.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
linked with that configuration a reality which stood over against the group.
Him the whole spirit of all those who are united is contained. But even these
heavenly forms are purely external to the real man. it is something positive.
becomes divine whatever radiance
true that even the
surrounded by heavenly Jesus phenomena. even though. which do not simply hover about him but
proceed from his inner power.
the fact that the love which shunned
however. and in this intermixture of his-
with its life.
Only from another's standpoint of comparison can the spirit's action seem determinate. he and the
mately linked with objective
fact. the infinite [cause] which something deteronly a negative. so the infinite [spirit] annuls the determinate efsphere but
i.. it is the annulling of a
inherently infinite. however. But if
wrought by a spirit is only its negative aspect.
finite causality is
to have an extremely re-
stricted effect. these wonderful deeds are accomplished by the man. in itself. the more harshly are we
by the unnaturalness of
between the opposites. so that. their opposition that the one is active. effect.e.
. it manifests itself in a union
with that opposite. The cause would not be a configurated spirit
figure. pursuant to its being. the indeterminate to
linked.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
and thus the harsh opposition and the mere tie between opposites seems here to have fallen away.
as the effect but something supposed to be not something as specific For the intellect the connection of cause and effect is a con-
things equally determinate. In miracles.
treated solely in
opposition to spirit.
not the annulling of the intel-
being posited and annulled simultaneously. Causality presupposes is the annulling of the wrought.
look on the infinite as a Being. the spirit seems to be working on bodies. but the effect wrought by spirit
object. and the specific determinacy of
(338) Seen from the intellect's standpoint.
an object on which the effect is spirit.
is given a connection of here the domain of its concepts. the other pasconsisting purely in the fact in a miraculous action. then we are dealing with spiritual causality. recognizes Yet at the same time this domain is destroyed because the cause is
In the miracle as an action. Now just as the positing of an infinite cause contradicts the positing of a finite effect. the intellect
infinite. it. however.
seem inseparable. But the closer the tie (which yet remains and does not become a unification).
outgoing of the divine
what stands over against
only a development. something infinite with insive.
and in particular the immortality
of the soul. because they are the most unnatural of phe-
and domineering. Thus any expectation
that the actual
body associated with the
Jesus glorified and deified would be raised to divinity on the strength of miraculous deeds wrought by him in the flesh is
who had been
so . Nevertheless. they are absolute
less complete for them.. the more intellectual we are in comparison with them.
life. two downright opposites here conjoined without any
mitigation of their prodigiously harsh contradiction.
i. where we place only spirit unalloyed.
this harshness is all the greater for us
than for the members of the
opposites. spirit configurated. as
it has something forgotten its divinity. in which their opposition ceases. a
divine one. Divine action is the restoration and manifestation of oneness.e. developing. they often see spirit. (339) They contain the harshest opposition between spirit and body. of a new being which is the manifestation of their union. its deed is a marriage with a related being. and when this spirit w orks as something divine and undivided.
the separation of spirit and
regarded fewer things
intellectual treatment. as an opposite. They were breathed upon by the oriental spirit.entirely unfulfilled that it rather intensifies all the more the harshness of thus attaching an actual body to him.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
body. could enter the connection of cause and effect along with some other body similar to it and opposable to it.
taking what we
instance of the latter type of outlook is their way of call immortality. and an engendering. Their union. there they look on spirit as
embodied. But if w orks in a different spirit
shape. Miracles therefore are the manifestation of the most z/A/divine.
Both appears as a resurrection of the body. because then this
connection would be an association of
in so far as
has nothing in common with body) with body (which is body because there is nothing in common between it and spirit) but spirit and body have nothing in common. they and so handed fewer things over to
Where w e
have intellectual cognition of a
determinate fact or a historical objectivity.
nomena. miracle is the su-
what amounts to the same thing. and the spirit.
so to say. they did not let it become objective. purpose. The early Christian extreme is the outlook. only the spirit. against the sense of the original words.
and a human
that has passed
in their acts
see the doing of what has been commanded.
books consists neither (so far
an uncertain formless hovering between (340)
On the one hand. reality as such is present there.) connects the
fact that Jesus entered Jerusalem riding
with an utterance
of the prophet whose inspiration saw a similar procession.
For the Jews all this still had truth and spirit. John (xii. soul. in the
other the body
a persistent. a
alien to ourselves.
In the Jewish writings
see past events.
that they sometimes refer to quite different events. on the other. the early Christians
their spirit with his. or. in considering reality. but truth and their spirit. to
. the dead body. books are sometimes
cited wrongly. and
find its truth in the
that similar passages in the Jewish
Gospel procession. Between these exthat body and soul persist together in one For both extremes death is a separation of body and living shape. individual situations.
another solely with the intellect and see in
person just a factual entity. though here too
life. and rationale of what is done exist for us no longer and no longer
truth. 14 ff. Our extreme is the outlook of reason which sets a soul something
negative in the sight of every intellect over against the intellect's object. and
times explained in defiance of the sense they bear in their context. spirit but not fixed. considered. To give an example.
they ascribe to passages in the Prophets and other Jewas the
Prophets are concerned) in discovering the Prophets' intention to foretell real events nor (so
far as the readers are concerned) in applying the prophecies to
reality. and the Greek spirit lies between them. of a positive capacity of reason to posit the body as living while at the same time it has taken it for dead. in the one case the body of the soul exists no longer.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
outlooks are extremes.
50-51 [: "This he spake not of himself. we might perhaps regard as an instrument outlook John sees something filled with the spirit. while at other times
they are just isolated prophetic inspirations all these proofs are relevant only to the bare fact of the connection which the Apostles
make between them and
touch the truth and
incidents in the life of Jesus. which is so far from crystallizing
making it indeterminate and which sees in it something and not something individualized. the objective
as the coincidence
individual disappears. a comparison
to the description of a situa-
subjoin tags from ancient writers.
a connection in spirit only.
[between the prophecy and] an event and an This spirit. is specially obvious again spiritual in John (xi.
and the circumstances of Jesus' action are one in
spirit.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
cumstances contemporary with the Prophets. But the Prophet's vision
these connections until after Jesus
received the Spirit. In the example cited above. there would have been no need for this remark. John reminds people should come into jeopardy) us that Caiaphas said this not for himself as an individual but as In what High Priest and in prophetic inspiration (lirpo^Tevaev) of divine providence. because the of Jesus and his friends was of such a type that it could not be
. The spirit of the connection which Christ's friends find in the
between the prophetic visions and the
would be interpreted too weakly if the connection were supposed to
consist solely in the comparison of similar situations. but being High
the actual or
Priest that year. until after they had seen in this connection nothing but a happy accident. a mere resemblance of different things. where. and the truth of that
visible if the prophecies are taken in a strict
and objective sense and it is supposed that the actual words and visions of the Prophets are an earlier expression of subsequent facts.
of that connection. John expressly says that the friends of Jesus did not realize
glorified. he prophesied that Jesus should die for that naof Caiaphas (that it tion"]). in connection with the saying
were better for one man to die for the people than
and its application.
even in the
transports of the
finely organized love-breathing souls. it is the individual. but not so irrevocably. and the urge was thus turned into an
and thus treat them as mere
in Caiaphas' action. Caiaphas'. the
events and instrumentalities. both of these were separated. though this union. with further development. Their cogis more like a vague hovering between reality and spirit. John sees the unity of the spirit and.J
an individual. By conjoin-
man Jesus with
the glorified and deified Jesus. the
entire effect). into realities downright opposed to spirit. a tool.
that spirit in
which lay the
109 lose the Thus. and
where we regard these
actions.. by something objective and exall
the depths of their beautiful feelings those longing pined for union with him.
jibove. or an instrument. compare pp. unquenchable. 165-67 and
. was bound to become a pairing of living and dead. the miracles harshness which the opposition in them between spirit and body
has for us. agency of the spirit of the entire effect.e. but it did not provide this satisfaction.g.
obvious that the Apostles
lack the European intellectualism which extracts
contents of consciousness and crystallizes the latter into absolute objectivities.
as subjected to the intention. this vagueness
pointed to a satisfaction of the deepest urge for religion.. The longing remains unsatisfied because even in its highest dreams.EARLY THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS
to anything than to that point of view which takes everything for a machine. seen with the soul of the Apostles.
eternally impossible. and unappeased longing. their outlook was rather a supreme faith in spirit. as unconsciously guided
in their relation to the unity. e. He
speaks of Caiaphas as himself necessity of Jesus' fate. and yet they did not coalesce into a pure nature but already themselves afforded the
clear opposition which. divine and actual. (341) Where we de-
scry a unity in the conjuncture of actions which taken individualintention behind the ly and by themselves lack this unity (i.
either the felt opposition in
actions and expressions of
(342) which purchase
their righteousness with the sense of the
servitude and the nullity of their opposition.
veloped in the
the forms of the Christian religion which have been deadvancing fate of the ages.
and then. the prophets.
off the opposition between his own personality [and God] only in death. which opposition between a benevolent thus are merely something received. or the
God and life with its joys. is degraded to a historical and objective attitude of mind.
essential character to find peace in a nonpersonal living beauty. as in some Protestant sects. as
either the opposition between a hating God and life. are
facts. there lies this fundamen-
of opposition in the divine which is supposed to be present in consciousness only. spiritual
worship and life. between the divine and but it is contrary life. are his favors and gifts. pious thoughts. etc. It is equally true later when the church enjoys the actuality of the most multiplex consciousness and unites itself with the fate
of the world and
when God then becomes opposed
to that fate. can never dissolve into one. or the opposition of God [to the fate of the world] in
mere more or
in the Protestant church. and who is conscious
life. the form of
hovering over them in
the idea of a divine man.. hate. This is true of the ecstatic unifications of the dreamer who renounces all multiplicity
even multiplicity of the purest type in which the spirit enof God alone and so could shake joys itself. he remains eternally in their consciousness and never allows religion to become a perfected life. Between these extremes of the
of friendship. never in life. which thus is taken as a disgrace and a crime. or indiffermultiple or diminished consciousness between these extremes which occur within ence toward the world. as happens in the Catholic church.
it is its
fate that church and state. piety and and worldly action.THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTIANITY
always confronts them. the Christian church has oscillated to and fro.
the opposition between God and the world. too.
I. they enjoy the same rights and the same favor from the Lord.
und sein Werk. as well as in the rest of the translation. either the Jewish people or Christendom] extends. between man and nature. 37882) late in 1797 or early in 1798. between man and man. But the unity of life is here broken by the relation (characteristic of authoritarian religion) of bondage to an objective Lord. In this reconstruction of Hegel's first paragraph. the more an equality of rights is transposed
into an equality of dependence (as happens
the believer in
. but. and equally broken by the subordination of the individual to a universal end in which he has little or no share. The surviving manuscript begins
sentence. the translator has been specially helped by Haering. a true unity of opposites... In ancient Greece he saw a happy and unified life. Hegel.Ill
[Hegel probably wrote the following fragment on Love (Nohl. like that which Jesus preached. and of the problem of their unification. 366-90. with the result that there was no unity but only a relation of master and servant. The cosmopolitanism of some eighteenth-century writers tries to overcome this opposition. but misery and opposition seemed to him to characterize those under the influence of a positive or authoritarian religion Noah. not the attenuated love which might be supposed to unite all Christians. opposed himself to both God and the world. Hegel seems to have been thinking. to this extent they are unified. In each of these instances a wider number of men are put on the same footing with one another. The only solution of these discords is love. as we have seen in the first section of The Spirit of Christianity. and they have the satisfaction of sharing in his dominion because they are his favorites. in so far as it remains a positive religion. and the meaning of the opening paragraph and its connection with what follows is a matter for conjecture.
pp. but a genuine living bond. of the oppositions within man. as so often during his early years.]
(378) But the wider this whole [i. Christianity has been less exclusive still. it distinguishes between the faithful and the heathen and opposes the latter to the former. but only at the expense of depressing the individual. a year or eighteen months before 77?^ in the middle of a Spirit of Christianity. Abraham saw not only himself but also his family and nation as God's favorite. pp. etc.e.