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Anthracite Firing Largest Steam Generators

P. Brower/J. Winkin Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. Ge Changqin Hebei Electric Power Corporation

Anthracite Firing Largest Steam Generators P. Brower/J. Winkin, Foster Wheeler Energy International Inc., U.S.A. Ge Changqin, Hebei Electric Power Corporation
Summary: The size and scope of the Hanfeng Power Plant is a large undertaking by any definition. It is progressing very well with good coordination and cooperation of all those involved. Start-up is scheduled for the first unit in the year 2000 with the second unit following by eight months. The boiler island scope covers all equipment and structural steel from the bunkers to the stack. This

includes the two (2) worlds largest anthracite fired boilers burning a blend of very low volatile Chinese anthracite and lean coal (bituminous). The coal blending is designed to maximize the use of the local anthracite coal. This is done by controlled blending at the entrance to the large FW D12D ball mills. Scaling up from earlier extensive experience with arch fired boilers is reviewed as well as key features of the Hanfeng boilers each of which are capable of generating 563 kg/s of steam at 540.8C and 175 bar (equivalent to 717 MW of turbine/generator output). The design of the boiler and related equipment for the Hanfeng project has been the subject of in-depth reviews by independent engineers representing the banks to assure reliability of the boiler to support the economic model. It has been shown that FWs extensive experience burning anthracite coals has justified the scaling up of the various components to meet the requirements of the specification. This experience is based on operating similar type anthracite arch fired boilers with fuel blends that are comparable to the coals to be supplied for the Hanfeng project. The materials and equipment for the Hanfeng boiler island are being supplied on a multi-national basis in support of the various requirements of the financing institutions involved. The overall design has been finalized and the detail design is well underway. manufacturing. Most of the large critical components are already in

Hanfeng Project Boiler Island: China, an extensive country with a land area about 2% more than the United States and the worlds largest population, presently has the worlds largest growth of installed electrical utility power generation ordering over 22,000 MWe in1996. A significant resource in meeting its related fuel supply needs, both at present and for future generating units, is Chinas very large reserves of anthracite coal. So it is expected that China would have a need for generating large quantities of power from this abundant resource, eventually using the largest sized units available. This in fact is what is now happening. The entity that is carrying out this advancement in power generation is the Hebei Hanfeng Power Generation Co. Ltd. (HPGCL). It is a joint venture company comprised of Hebei Electric Power Corporation (the operating power company in the province where it will be located), Hebei Construction and Investment Corporation, North China Power Group Company and Siemens Power Development Hanfeng GmbH (a subsidiary of Siemens AG). The project is the Hanfeng Power Plant (HPP) which is being built near Handan City in Chinas Hebei Province, about 400 km southwest of Beijing. The nominal rating for Phase I of the Hanfeng plant is 2 x 660 MW. HPGCL has arranged with Hebei Electric Power Corporation (HEPC) to be the responsible party for construction of HPP and for the operation and maintenance of the completed plant. HEPC in turn has evaluated available technologies, following which it selected and contracted with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation (FWEC) to supply the anthracite fired boilers under a consortium arrangement for the plant power block including turbine/generator, I&C and electrical islands by Siemens AG of Germany. HPP will have two natural circulation balanced draft, arch fired (down-shot) boilers each of which will supply a maximum of 563 Kg/s (4,468,300 lbs. per hr.) of steam at 540.8C (1005F) and 175 bar (2538 psig) pressure with single reheat at 540.8C to a steam turbine/generator with a maximum valves wide open capacity of 717 MW. The units are designed to operate in base load or load following mode under either hybrid variable pressure or constant pressure conditions. The system design has been based on relatively fast start-up and load rejection times utilizing a 40%HP/30%LP turbine by-pass system, fast actuators and 20% boiler electromatic relief valve capacity. FWECs scope of supply for the boiler island includes all equipment from the coal conveyor discharge at the bunkers to an interface at the stack breeching. This includes the following major systems and equipment which are arranged as shown on Fig. 1: A. Coal Feed and Firing System 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B. 1) Coal Bunkers with stainless steel lined hoppers and stainless discharge piping Four (4) Gravimetric Coal Feeders per Pulverizer Six (6) FW D12D Ball Mill Coal Pulverizers Two (2) Centrifugal Primary Air Fans Coal Piping from each Pulverizer to Six (6) Burners FWs proven Anthracite Double Cyclone Burners 36 per unit Oil Ignitors/warm-up guns Two (2) Axial Forced Draft Fans with variable pitch blades

Secondary Air/Flue Gas System











2) 3) 4) 5) 6) C. 1) 2) 3) D. 1) 2) 3) E. 1) 2)

Complete Flue and Duct System with Dampers Windbox with Air Damper Control Two (2) Regenerative Trisector Air Heaters Two (2) four field double chamber Electrostatic Precipitators Two (2) Axial Induced Draft Fans with coated steel blades Boiler including Economizer, Refractory lined Lower Furnace Waterwalls, Steam Drum and Downcomers with Lower Header Pre Start-Up Heating Superheater comprised of Roof and heat recovery Area Panels, Rear Pass Primary Coils, Furnace Partial Division Walls, and Pendant Finishing Superheater Coils Single Reheater located in Inboard Pass of Heat Recovery Area with vertical loop exit Furnace Bottom Ash Submerged Chain Conveyor Piping Systems for Superheater Spray Attemperation, Auxiliary Steam, Service and Cooling Water, Service and Instrument Air, Steam and Water Sampling, among others Field Instruments, Electrical Cable Tray/Conduit, Lighting, Small Power Enclosed Bunker Bay Steel Structure and Platforms Outdoor Boiler Steel Structure with Roof Canopy and Platforms

Steam Generator Units

Auxiliary Systems

Steel Work

Supply of the Turbine Island, Generator and Electrical Systems as well as a Plant Distributed control System (DCS), Dry Ash Conveying, and certain other equipment are by Siemens AG, consortium partner with FWEC. The DCS is of Siemens Teleperm design and incorporates FWs burner management and combustion control requirements.

Balance of plant supply is being provided by HEPC through contracting with various local suppliers. HEPC is also responsible for contracts with local construction companies for the erection and testing of the power plant. The boilers are intended to burn large quantities of an abundant local coal (Wannian Anthracite) mined in the plants district. This fuels volatile content is so low that it will be supported by blending with another coal (lean mixed coal from nearby Shanxi Province) with higher volatile content. parameters are presented in Table 1. desulphurization equipment is not required. TABLE 1 HANFENG DESIGN COALS Proximate Analysis COAL ANALYSIS ON A AS RECEIVED BASIS VM Dry Ash Free % Lean Coal Wannian 50/50 Blend Average 80/20 Blend 21.73 5.25 13.26 8.40 VM % 15.27 3.90 9.58 6.17 Ash % 22.22 20.14 21.18 20.56 H2O % 7.50 5.60 6.55 5.98 HHV KJ/KG 22863 25427 24143 24908 LHV KJ/KG 21970 25078 23526 24450 The range of key coal These coals are sufficiently low in sulfur such that flue gas

Chinese light diesel oil is used for unit start-up and boiler warm-up. Comparison of Boiler Capacity The Hanfeng boilers will be the worlds largest anthracite fired boilers when started up. This can be seen by referring to Fig. 2 which is a plot of the size of Foster Wheelers utility anthracite class fired boilers related in MW output of the turbine versus the year of initial operation. Foster Wheeler is the industry leader in both the size and number of boilers sold for anthracite class coals in Europe and the USA and now in China. While a number of designs by domestic Chinese suppliers have been in use for many years, and some designs by other foreign exporters have been introduced over the last decade in China, FWEC currently has twelve (12) units in various stages of being built and many others being supplied by its Chinese licensee. The two Hanfeng boilers which were sold in 1996 are at the top of the chart on Fig. 2 followed by the 3 x 500 MW boilers at Aberthaw B in Wales (United Kingdom). These are followed by a number of boilers in Spain and in China which are in the 325 to 385 MW range. The first boiler/turbine generator unit for the Hanfeng project is scheduled to go into operation by the end of the year 2000. The second unit is scheduled for operation about 8 months later. Comparison of Boiler Size It is interesting to note that the physical sizes listed on Table 2 for the anthracite fired Hanfeng boilers shown on Fig. 3 are about the same physical sizes as the largest boilers in the USA which fire bituminous coal and which supply the steam requirements for 1300 MW size turbine/generators. They are both the same width. The Hanfeng boilers have a deeper lower furnace, due to the arch firing of the anthracite coal, and a greater height.

The fact that the furnace on an anthracite TABLE 2 HANFENG BOILER SIZE FURNACE: Width 34.48m Depth (Including Windbox) 15.54m Height (Lower Header to Furnace Roof) 52.1m HEAT RECOVER AREA (HRA) 2 Pass: Reheater Depth 4.53m Primary Superheater Depth 5.18m fired boiler has to be so large in comparison with bituminous firing while only having about 55% of the capacity is mainly due to the longer residence time required for burnout of the slower burning anthracite fuel. It also relates to the anthracite for the Hanfeng project having about two times the amount of ash than is present in the U.S. bituminous coal fired in the units from the above comparison. Hanfeng Fuel Blending The Hanfeng boilers will burn a very low volatile local Wannian anthracite which will be blended in with an equal or smaller amount of bituminous coal (Chinese lean coal) depending upon the load requirements. The blending system is designed to maximize the use of the local anthracite coal. To do this, an arrangement will be used to blend the anthracite and bituminous coals at the entrance to the mills as shown on Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. This same arrangement has been used for many years at the Vellia Unit 2 and the Compostilla II Unit No. 1 in Spain. The key feature of this coal blending system is to measure and control the desired mixture in the

blend by use of gravimetric feeders so that the proper proportions of each of the coals being blended is obtained. Accordingly, it is then possible to control the burning of greater amounts of the low volatile anthracite coal as the load on the boiler increases. This is because the furnace is hotter at higher loads, thus







improving the carbon burnout capability as well as the stability of the combustion process. Coal Mills The large quantity of low grindability coal for the Hanfeng boilers, in addition to the moderate heating value of the blend coal required the use of six large size FW D12D pressurized ball mills per boiler. These mills are ideally suited to the grinding of this low grindability coal mixture. They also are fully capable of producing desired high fineness levels, of 90% or greater through 200 USS mesh, thus enhancing the combustion process. availability. The ball mill is also very reliable and offers high The Hanfeng plant is being designed conservatively to permit full load operation even if one mill is out of service. All of Foster Wheeler anthracite fired boilers have used the same basic design of ball mill as shown on Fig. 6. This is a Most proven mill with 766 sold to date. an excellent record of

have been in service for many years with reliability and availability. firing both anthracite and bituminous coals. Since 1994 Foster Wheeler

has sold 104 ball mills in China. All of these are for utility applications and in large capacity sizes for units

The Hanfeng boilers uses a direct firing system where the pulverized coal from the classifier at the exit from the six mills is sent directly through 3-way splitters and coal conduits to the entrance of each of the 36 dualcyclone burners. It is then sent through a riffle divider box into two cyclone type burners. Each cyclone burner vent discharges the transport air into the furnace, leaving an enriched mixture of air and coal to discharge into the furnace through the burner nozzle at the bottom of each cyclone. There are two burner nozzles for each dual cyclone burner assembly making a total of 72 burner nozzles (36 burner nozzles per arch).

The Lower Furnace Fig. 7 is an illustration of the lower furnace of the Hanfeng arch fired boiler. It shows how the secondary air is introduced through both the front and rear walls to support combustion of the pulverized coal that is injected into the lower furnace through the cyclone burners which are located in the arch. The flame from the burners penetrates into the hopper and then turns upward giving it a W shaped pattern. This W shape of the flame provides additional residence time that is required at the higher temperatures to burn the low volatile coals that are characteristics of anthracite.

The burning takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the volatiles are mostly burned off. In the second stage, the burning of the char is carried out. This is a time consuming process and the lower the volatile matter of the coal the longer it takes. The residence time required for the burning of the char can be simulated and measured in a drop tube furnace. Such measurements comparing the residence time required for burning to about the same unburned carbon level are shown on Fig. 8 for a Spanish coal (Anllares 350 MW) and a Chinese coal (Hanfeng 80/20 blend). For a two second residence time (equivalent to about a 350 MW size boiler) they have about the same unburned carbon levels. This indicates that the carbon At over three burn up of the char will be about the same for the two coals compared on Fig. 8. second residence time, found in larger capacity boilers in the 600 MW size range, the unburned carbon is expected to be lower, as shown on Fig. 8. Flame Stability and Turndown The need for blending of the Wannian coal (which is a local anthracite coal) with bituminous coal (Chinese lean coal) was primarily dictated by the need for flame stability and good turndown capability which has been specified as 40% of boiler MCR. blending However, came the final tests confirmation of the need for from conducted by Foster Wheeler, which gave a high Reactivity Index temperature. was compared When this to Foster

Wheelers large database of Reactivity Index testing, it was very apparent that blending was required with a coal having a relatively low Reactivity Index temperature to obtain a turndown to the 40% load requirement by the

specification. It is Foster Wheelers experience, particularly in the low volatile matter range, that volatile matter alone will not always give an accurate prediction of the ignitability (flame stability and turndown). It is for this reason that the Reactivity Index test was developed. It has proven to be very reliable. Scaling up to 717 MW Fig. 2 showed that over the past 70 years FW has continued to developed larger size anthracite fired arch type boilers. This has been an evolutionary process as is the scale up from the 350 - 500 MW sizes to the 717 MW size for the Hanfeng boilers. In this process, those features which have worked so well and have given FWEC boilers high reliability and availability were maintained. For instance, FWEC has maintained a design standard which produces a recirculation of hot gases in the furnace back to the area where fuel enters the furnace, as show by a component simulation per Fig. 9. This hot gas recirculation enhances the ability of FW arch fired boilers to burn low volatile coals. The proven components of design such as the burners and the arrangement of the lower furnace are incrementally larger. However, most of the increase in capacity was obtained by making the Hanfeng boilers wider, resulting in more burner nozzles up to a quantity of (72) plus more and larger ball mills, six (6) D12D size. The width of 34.3m is the same as has been used on ten (10) -1300 MW size boilers which have been in operation in the USA for many years. Therefore, components such as long sootblowers have a solid history of good operation. In this scale up FW has maintained the limits of heat release rates and temperatures that have been proven to be successful by FW on the largest data base that exists on the firing of anthracite using arch fired boilers. This data base includes 25 boilers over 100 MW in size which are in operation. Project Execution The Hanfeng Power Plant project evolved through Chinese-German cooperation in a joint venture to develop the project and provide its financing. This was a lengthy but successful process despite the complex project financing arrangements and extensive reviews and approvals by the parties and the respective authorities, all of which are inherently a part of such projects. Proposals were made from February 1994 through May 1996 in order to achieve the technical and financial goals of the project. There were in-depth reviews through the Banks independent engineer to assure that reliability of the boiler design and other systems would be supportive of the economic model. The contract for the boiler supply was signed on November 8, 1996 in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing with Chinese Vice Premier Zou Jiahua in attendance thus underscoring the projects importance. Release to proceed came in June 1997. At present the boiler supply for Unit 1 is in full swing. Most of the large critical components are already in manufacture and some are in the process of being delivered to the site. The plants first unit will be on-line in the year 2000 with an eight-month lag for Unit 2's operation.

FWEC is doing project management and engineering from its USA office. Extensive world sourcing is involved on this project to support the various requirements of financing institutions involved. An integral part of this is Foster Wheeler Energia S.A., Foster Wheelers Spanish engineering and manufacturing operation. FWs shops in Spain and China are both providing pressure parts as are several local Chinese fabricators. Major auxiliaries are coming from Spain, the United States and other European countries. FWECs partner Siemens AG is providing boiler island electrical cables and trays plus lighting and small power. Materials for steel are FWECs US designed

coming from Japan for local fabrication in China. The capabilities of Chinas manufacturing shops are growing. Some very large components (including the 30.7m long steam drum, 4.4m diameter D12D mills and 7.2m high welded girders to hold up the boiler) are being supplied from local Chinese companies. Conclusion The mines in the area of the Hanfeng Power Plant will begin an era of greater utilization as each successive unit and later phases come on line. The added electrical power will spur further growth in Southern Hebei Province. These factors will be very beneficial to Hebei Province and the joint venture owners should be able to achieve a good return on their investments.

Speaker Company Country

: : :

P. H. Brower Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. U.S.A.

Philip Brower is the Proposal Manager responsible for FWECs Hanfeng Boiler Island Contract. His initial experience was in nuclear power with both Curtiss-Wright Nuclear and Foster Wheelers Nuclear Department, serving in key engineering, manufacturing and project positions. He has been on FWECs Utility Boiler proposal team for 18 years, managing technical and commercial aspects for fossil fuel fired boilers and related equipment on U.S. and international projects. Mr. Brower is a graduate of Stevens Institute of Technology at the Masters level in Mechanical Engineering and Management Science. He is co-author of a 1983 paper on Heat Pipe Air Heaters.

Speaker Company Country

: : :

J. P. Winkin Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. U.S.A.

Justin Winkin is a Consultant within Foster Wheeler. His initial experience with utility boilers was with Babcock & Wilcox, U.S.A. as a Service Engineer and a Staff Engineer. He then was in charge of construction and operations for a subsidiary of General Public Utilities, Corp. He returned to the boiler business by joining Foster Wheeler where he has had major responsibility in Engineering, Manufacturing and Upper Management. He is a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Mechanical Engineering and New York University in Management. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Speaker Company Country

: : :

Ge Changqin Hebei Electric Power Corporation (HEPC) P.R.C.

Ge Changqin is the Chief Engineer of HEPCs Hanfeng Power Plant Preparation Department. His initial experience was with Hebei Electric Power Testing and Research Institute as a boiler engineer and specialist in boiler combustion and heat transfer. Mr. Ges formal background is at the Masters level in Boiler Engineering having graduated from Beijing Graduate College of North China Power Electric Institute.