Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

22 views

On the Inferior and Superior

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- math - monster double identification
- Understanding Analysis
- Mock_paper-2 igcse 0580
- 2015-hsc-maths-ext-2.pdf
- usatestprep inc
- usatestprep inc
- Riemann Zeta Alternative_0709.4173v25
- TheisMatchFt com
- usatestprep inc
- 5 Minute Adding Frenzy
- Module Handbook - Master Mathematics
- Z-transforms [Mit Good]
- usatestprep inc
- Derivative Practice
- Untitled
- Cl 26613615
- Pre-Calculus Math 40s - Permutations & Combinations - Lesson 4
- Univrsity of Guyana
- ShV12_InfoLetter(EN).pdf
- Induction Exercises

You are on page 1of 4

ZHENG JIANFENG

Shaanxi Financial & Economics Professional College,

Xianyang, Shaanxi, P.R.China

ABSTRACT: For any positive integer n, let a(n) and b(n) denote the inferior and superior k-th power

part of n respectively. That is, a(n) denotes the largest k-th power less than or equal to n, and b(n)

denotes the smallest k-th power greater than or equal to n. In this paper, we study the properties of

the sequences {a(n)} and {b(n)}, and give two interesting asymptotic formulas.

Key words and phrases: Inferior and superior k-th power part; Mean value; Asymptotic formula.

1. INTRODUCTION

For a fixed positive integer k>1, and any positive integer n, let a(n) and b(n) denote the inferior

and superior k-th power part of n respectively .That is, a(n) denotes the largest k-th power less than

or equal to n, b(n) denotes the smallest k-th power greater than or equal to n. For example, let k=2

then a(1)=a(2)=a(3)=1,a(4)=a(5)=…=a(7)=4, …,b(1)=1, b(2)=b(3)=b(4)=4, b(5)=b(6)= …

=b(8)=8…; let k=3 then a(1)=a(2)= …=a(7)=1, a(8)=a(9)= …=a(26)=8,…,b(1)=1, b(2)=b(3)= …

=b(8)=8, b(9)=b(10)=…=b(27)=27…. In problem 40 and 41 of [1], Professor F . Smarandache asks

us to study the properties of the sequences {a(n)} and {b(n)}. About these problems, Professor

Zhang Wenpeng [4] gave two interesting asymptotic formulas of the cure part of a positive integer.

In this paper, we give asymptotic formulas of the k-th power part of a positive integer. That is, we

shall prove the following:

Theorem 1. For any real number x>1 , we have the asymptotic formula

1

1 6 1− + ε

∑ d (a(n)) = kk! ( 2 ) k −1 A0 x ln k x + A1x ln k −1 x + + Ak −1x ln x + Ak x + O( x 2k )

n≤ x kπ

.

where A0, A1, … Ak are constants, especially when k equals to 2, A0=1; d(n) denotes the

Dirichlet divisor function,εis any fixed positive number.

For the sequence {b(n)} , we can also get similar result.

Theorem 2. For any real number x>1, we have the asymptotic formula

1

1 6 1− +ε

∑ d (b(n)) = kk! ( 2 )k −1 A0 x ln k x + A1x ln k −1 x + + Ak −1x ln x + Ak x + O( x 2k )

n≤ x kπ

.

2. A SIMPLE LEMMA

To complete the proof of the theorems, we need following

Lemma 1. For any real number x>1, we have the asymptotic formula

1

1

1 6 k −1 +ε

∑ d (n k ) =

n≤ x

( 2 ) B0 x ln k x + B1 x ln k −1 x + + Bk −1 x ln x + Bk x + O( x 2 ) .

k! π

where B0, B1,… Bk are constants, especially when k=2, A0=1;εis any fixed positive number.

∞

d (n k )

Proof. Let s = σ + it be a complex number and f ( s ) = ∑ .

n =1 ns

ε

Note that d (n ) << n , So it is clear that f(s) is a Dirichlet series absolutely convergent in

k

Re(s)>1, by the Euler Product formula [2] and the definition of d(n) we have

d ( pk ) d ( p2k ) d ( p kn )

f ( s ) = ∏ 1 + p s + p 2 s + + p ns +

p

k + 1 2k + 1 kn + 1

= ∏ 1 + s + 2 s + + ns +

p p p p

1

=ζ 2 ( s )∏

1 +( k −1) p s

p

1 1 1

= ζ 2 ( s )∏ (1 + s ) k −1 − C k2−1 2 s − − ( k −1) s

p p p p

ζ k +1 ( s )

= g ( s) . (1)

ζ k −1 ( 2s )

denotes the product over all primes.

1 2+iT ζ k +1 ( s ) xs x 2 +ε

∑ d (n k ) = 2πi ∫2−iT ζ k −1 (2 s)

g ( s )

s

ds + O , (2)

n≤ x T

1

where g (s ) is absolutely convergent in Re(s ) > + ε . We move the integration in (2) to

2

1

Re(s ) = + ε . The pole at s = 1 contributes to

2

1 6 k −1

( 2 ) B0 x ln k x + B1 x ln k −1 x + + Bk −1 x ln x + Bk x , (3)

k! π

1 1−σ

For ≤ σ < 1 , note that ζ ( s) = ζ (σ + it ) ≤ t 2 +ε . Thus, the horizontal integral contributes to

2

1 +ε x 2

O x 2 + , (4)

T

2

and the vertical integral contributes to

1 +ε

O x 2 ln 4 T . (5)

1 3

On the line Re(s ) = + ε , taking parameter T = x 2 , then combining (2), (3), (4) and (5) we have

2

k −1

1 6 12 + ε

∑ d (n ) = 2

k

k! π

B0 x ln x + B1 x ln

k k −1

x + + Bk x + O x .

n≤ x

This proves Lemma 1.

Now we complete the proof of the Theorems. First we prove Theorem 1.

For any real number x > 1 , Let M be a fixed positive integer such that

M k ≤ x < ( M + 1) k , (6)

M

∑ d (a(n)) = ∑ ∑ d (a(n) + ∑ d (a(n))

n≤ x m = 2 ( m −1) k ≤ n < m k M k ≤ n≤ x

M −1

= ∑ ∑ d (m k ) + ∑ d ( M k )

m =1 m k ≤ n < ( m +1) k M k ≤ n≤ x

M −1

= ∑ (Ck1 mk −1 + Ck2 m k − 2 + + 1)d (m k ) + O ∑ d ( M k ) ,

m =1 M k ≤ n ≤ ( M +1) k

M

= k ∑ m k −1d (m k ) + O( M k −1+ ε) , (7)

m =1

ε

where we have used the estimate d (n) << n .

B( y) = ∑ d (n k )

Let n≤ y

, then by Abel’s identity and Lemma 1, we have

∑m

M

d (m k ) = M k −1B ( M ) − (k − 1) ∫ y k − 2 B( y )dy + O(1)

k −1

1

m =1

k −1 1 6 k −1 k −1

( 2 ) B0 M ln M + B1M ln M + + Bk M

k

=M

k! π

M 1 6

− (k − 1) ∫ ( 2 ) k −1 B0 y k −1 ln k y + B1 y k −1 ln k −1 y + + Bk y k −1 dy

1

k! π

3

k − 12 + ε

+O M

k −1

1 6 k − 12 + ε

= B0 M ln M + C1M ln

k k k k −1

M + + Ck −1M + O M

k

.

(8)

kk! π 2

Applying (7) and (8) we obtain the asymptotic formula

k −1

1 6 k − 1 +ε

∑ d (a(n)) =

k! π 2

B0 M k ln k M + C1M k ln k −1 M + + Ck −1M k + O M 2 , (9)

n≤ x

0 ≤ x − M k < ( M + 1) k − M k = kM k −1 + Ck2 M k − 2 + + 1

k −1

1 1

= M k −1 (k + Ck2 + + k −1 ) << x k

, (10)

M M

and

k −1 1

ln x

ln k x = k k ln k M + O 1 = k k ln k M + O( x k ) .

− +ε

(11)

k

x

1

1 6 1− + ε

∑ d (a(n)) = kk! ( 2 ) k −1 A0 x ln k x + A1x ln k −1 x + + Ak −1x ln x + Ak x + O( x 2k ) ,

n≤ x kπ

where A0 equals to B0 .

This proves Theorem 1.

Using the methods of proving Theorem 1 we can also prove Theorem 2. This completes the proof of

the Theorems.

Acknowledgments

The author expresses his gratitude to professor Zhang Wenpeng for his very helps and detailed

instructions.

REFERENCES:

1. F.Smarandache, Only problems, not Solutions, Xiquan Publ. House, Chicago, 1993, PP. 35.

2. T.M.Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976.

3. Pan Chengdong and Pan Chengbiao, Foundation of Analytic Number Theory, Science Press, Beijing, 1997, PP. 98.

4. Zhang Wenpeng, On the cube part sequence of a positive integer (to appear).

- math - monster double identificationUploaded byapi-384334329
- Understanding AnalysisUploaded byElham Zogheib
- Mock_paper-2 igcse 0580Uploaded byShimoni Rathore
- 2015-hsc-maths-ext-2.pdfUploaded byKyle N Samaroo
- usatestprep incUploaded byapi-353367990
- usatestprep incUploaded byapi-353367990
- Riemann Zeta Alternative_0709.4173v25Uploaded byYaffa Barg Kloc
- TheisMatchFt comUploaded byBarbu Ionel
- usatestprep incUploaded byapi-353367990
- 5 Minute Adding FrenzyUploaded byAliceChang
- Module Handbook - Master MathematicsUploaded byPrakash Govind
- Z-transforms [Mit Good]Uploaded byJan Lester Lofranco
- usatestprep incUploaded byapi-353367990
- Derivative PracticeUploaded byMax Taft
- UntitledUploaded bysbgm
- Cl 26613615Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Pre-Calculus Math 40s - Permutations & Combinations - Lesson 4Uploaded bymksayshi
- Univrsity of GuyanaUploaded byichtus
- ShV12_InfoLetter(EN).pdfUploaded byVladimir Tkachenko
- Induction ExercisesUploaded byStefan Qin
- List of Ge Courses for UP DilimanUploaded byAda Suarez
- Nov 2015 p1 MemoUploaded byrowan chibi
- bookscancenter 2Uploaded byapi-255523556
- Practical Worksheet (Edwin Adrian)Uploaded byEdwin Tan Pei Ming
- ernest articleUploaded byapi-281093780
- Tad Mon 2019Uploaded byIra
- 15 Test 1 AlgUploaded bydrvishwasparlikar5
- Differentiation Under the Integral SignUploaded byx
- phase.pdfUploaded byMohamed Elfeky
- 1512.02976Uploaded byjnarrd3840

- TOPSIS Method for MADM based on Interval Trapezoidal Neutrosophic NumberUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Neutrosophic Sets and Systems. Book series, vol. 23 / 2018Uploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Neutrosophic Sets and Systems. Book series, vol. 22 / 2018Uploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- VIKOR based MAGDM Strategy with Trapezoidal Neutrosophic NumbersUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Operators on Single Valued Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers and SVTN-Group Decision MakingUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- The Basic Notions for (over, off, under) Neutrosophic Geometric Programming ProblemsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Some Neutrosophic Probability DistributionsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Computational Algorithm for Multiobjective Nonlinear Optimization ProblemUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Validation of the pedagogical strategy for the formation of the competence entrepreneurshipin high education through the use of neutrosophic logic and Iadov techniqueUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Optimization of EOQ Model with Limited Storage Capacity by Neutrosophic Geometric ProgrammingUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Extensions to Linguistic Summaries Indicators based on Neutrosophic TheoryUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- A New Neutrosophic Cognitive Map with Neutrosophic Sets on ConnectionsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Extension of Soft Set to Hypersoft Set, and then to Plithogenic Hypersoft SetUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- On Single Valued Neutrosophic Signed Digraph and its applicationsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- A framework for selecting cloud computing services based on consensus under single valued neutrosophic numbersUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Gaussian single-valued neutrosophic numbers and its application in multi-attribute decision makingUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- On single-valued co-neutrosophic graphsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Sinos River basin social-environmental prospective assessment of water quality management using fuzzy cogmitive maps and neutrosophic AHP-TOPSISUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Positive implicative BMBJ-neutrosophic ideals in BCK-algebrasUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Performance Evaluation of Mutual Funds Via Single Valued Neutrosophic Set (SVNS) Perspective: A Case Study in TurkeyUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- On Neutrosophic Crisp Topology via N-TopologyUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Neutrosophic Soft Normed Linear SpacesUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Neutrosophic Soft Cubic Set in Topological SpacesUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Neutrosophic Shortest Path ProblemUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- MBJ-neutrosophic structures and its applications in BCK/BCI-algebrasUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Intrusion Detection System and Neutrosophic Theory for MANETs: A Comparative StudyUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- A new approach for multi-attribute decision-making problems in bipolar neutrosophic setsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Algebraic Structure of Neutrosophic Duplets in Neutrosophic RingsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB

- Denosumab HypocalcemiaUploaded bySundar Ramanathan
- Yeast GeneticsUploaded bydiashx7
- Carbon Seal Rubbing in Steam TurbineUploaded bysihamani
- 09 How the Landscape Supports BioDUploaded byNor Nabila Bt Afandi
- ABRASIVE WATER JET MACHINING REPORT.docxUploaded byjaspal
- GLSSV2Uploaded byJESSUSS
- sect13_2.pdfUploaded byMarco Meza
- BT6504Uploaded byriya
- Designing Web Using Front Page - With Text ExercisesUploaded bynirmal kumar
- Opposed Piston Pulling Rod EngineUploaded bypaul20000
- Studenmund_Ch02_v2Uploaded bytsy0703
- InspectionEmbankmentDams (1)Uploaded byKT Van Rheenen
- 06-AcidfracturingUploaded bymahimoh18
- Brake SquealUploaded bysharanmit2039
- PESTLE Analysis of IndiaUploaded byAman Thakker
- Chief Architect x8 Users Guide Roof TutorialUploaded bycharlieaiza
- YYYY-WYUploaded byddaalayamoct313024
- Hemorrhoids.docxUploaded byJia Ysabelle Sto Domingo
- Senior Design Report by BS LHUploaded byBraedon Salz
- Chapter 3Uploaded byyouyou700
- Complete Early Years Box Track ListingUploaded byprometherion777
- rfp - wastewater utility system - pump maintenance and repair services (083012)Uploaded byapi-281755212
- How Solids MeltUploaded byhsemarg
- factual report.docxUploaded byMuhammad Haris
- Shoulder Fitting for PatternsUploaded byJS
- Quantitative Analysis of Market Data a PrimerUploaded bygato444
- Transition Metals IIUploaded byHakeemCl18
- Blended AminesUploaded bybarrysmith77
- Barfoed's, Tollen's, FehlingsUploaded byAlgenne Amiruddin
- Note 12 - Rolling of MetalUploaded bysifusz

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.