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1. Why wings are used for aircraft? Wings are used to provide lift and, in the form of propellers and turbines, thrust 2. What is Low wing ? Wing mounted on the lower fuselage. 3 What is Mid wing? Wing mounted approximately half way up the fuselage. 4 what is Shoulder wing? Wing mounted on the upper part or "shoulder" of the fuselage, either flush with or slightly below the top of the fuselage. Sometimes treated as as distinct from the high wing[1], and sometimes described as a high wing [2] where it may be regarded as a sub-type. 5 what is high wing? Wing mounted on the upper fuselage. When contrasted to the shoulder wing, applies to a wing projecting slightly above the top of the fuselage. 6 what is parasol wing? Wing mounted on "cabane" struts above the fuselage. 7 What is dihedral? The tips are higher than the root as on the Boeing 737, giving a shallow 'V' shape when seen from the front. Adds lateral stability. 8 What is anhedral - the tips are lower than the root, as on the Ilyushin Il-76; the opposite of dihedral. Used to reduce stability where some other feature results in too much stability thus making maneuvering difficult 9 structural components of wings spars,ribs,stringers,skin 10 shape of wing and geometric terms used? Airfoil, Aspect ratio, aerodynamic twist, geometric twist

Oleo strut
1 What is an oleo strut? An oleo strut is an airoil hydraulic shock absorber used on the landing gear of most large aircraft 2 What does it do? It cushions the impacts of landing and while taxiing and damps out vertical oscillations. 3 What is a strut? A strut is a structural component designed to resist longitudinal compression 4 Where and why they are used? Struts are still widely used to attach the landing gear, particularly in retractablegear aircraft, and provide damping during the takeoff and landing roll; here they are often called oleo struts. 5 materials used to make oleo struts Aluminum 6 Failure of struts occurs due to? Bending and compression loads 7 Types of oleo struts Retractable and fixed 8 Applications of oleo strut Automobile, Automation and Aeronautical

Propeller blade
1 What is a propeller? A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust 2 What is a shape of propeller? Airfoil 3 what does propeller blade do? When the engine rotates the propeller blades, the blades produce lift. This lift is called thrust and moves the aircraft forward 4 Types of propeller depending on the placement on airplane Pusher and tractor propellers 5 what is blade shank? Blade shank is the section of the blade nearest the hub 6 What is blade tip? Blade tip is the outer end of the blade farthest from the hub. 7 what is plane of rotation? It is an imaginary plane perpendicular to the shaft. It is the plane that contains the circle in which the blades rotate. 8 What is relative wind? It is the air that strikes and passes over the airfoil as the airfoil is driven through the air 9 what is blade path? It is the path of the direction of the blade element moves 10 What is pitch? Pitch refers to the distance a spiral threaded object moves forward in one revolution. As a wood screw moves forward when turned in wood, same with the propeller move forward when turn in the air.

1 What is an airfoil? An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor or turbine) or sail as seen in cross-section. 2 What is chord length? Length from the LE to the TE of a wing cross section that is parallel to the vertical axis of symmetry 3 What is mean camber line? Line halfway between the upper and lower surfaces 4 What is camber? Maximum distance between the mean camber line and the chord line,measured perpendicular to the chord line 5 What is thickness? Distance between upper surface and lower surface measured perpendicular to the mean camber line 6 Abbreviate NACA? National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 7 Explain NACA four digit series First number is camber in percentage of chord; Second number is location of maximum camber in tenths of chord measured from LE, Last two digits give maximum thickness in percentage of chord 8 Explain NACA five digit series Designed with location of maximum camber closer to the LE to achieve higher maximum lift coefficients 9 NACA six digit series are designed for? Laminar- flow airfoils 10 What are supercritical airfoils?

Designed to have reduced drag for high subsonic speeds Designed to have drag-divergence Mach number delayed to as close to Mach 1.0 as possible

Propeller shaft

1 What is a shaft? A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. 2 The forces and moments that acts on shafts? Drive shafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load 3 what is a propeller shaft? A propeller shaft is a device on which a propeller is attached to and transfers the power from the engine to the propeller 4 propeller shafts are made of? The propeller shaft is typically made of hardened steel and incorporates a spline on the end of the shaft where the propeller mounts 5 propeller shaft assembly consists of? The propeller shaft assembly consists of a propeller shaft, a slip joint, and one or more universal joints 6 Difference between solid and hallow propeller shafts? The propeller shaft may be solid or tubular. A solid shaft is stronger than a hollow or tubular shaft of the same diameter, but a hollow shaft is stronger than a solid shaft of the same weight. Solid shafts are used inside a shaft housing that encloses the entire propeller shaft assembly. These are called torque tube drives. 7 Major failures in propeller shaft are? Torsional resonance and fluttering

1 what is Fuselage? The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo 2 Types of Fuselage structures are? Truss, Geodesic, Monocoque shell and semi monocoque shell 3 Different shapes of Fuselage are? Rectangular and Airfoil 4What are Fuselage structural construction components Bulk heads, frames, longerons, stringers 5 Major components attached to fuselage are? Wing, Landing gear, tails 6 Types of Failures in Fuselage? Tension, torsion, shear stress 7 What gives the Fuselage a structure? Bulk heads 8 fuselages are made up of? Steel and Aluminum

1 What is a cone? A cone is an n-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a base (usually flat and circular) to a point called the apex or vertex. 2 What is a truncated cone? A truncated cone is the result of cutting a cone by a plane parallel to the base and removing the part containing the apex. 3 What is nose cone? The term nose cone is used to refer to the forward most section of a rocket, guided missile or aircraft. 4 where are this nose cones used? Nose cones are utilized for intercontinental ballistic missiles and spacecraft such as Apollo and space shuttles 5 Why nose cone is developed? To resist the Aerodynamic heating 6 Where these are widely used? Much of the fundamental research related to hypersonic flight was done towards creating viable nose cone designs for the atmospheric reentry of spacecraft and ICBM reentry vehicles. 7 Application of Nose cone for an Aircraft? On airliners the nose cone is also a Radom protecting the weather radar from aerodynamic forces 8 Materials used to develop Nose cone

Pyrolytic carbon is one choice, reinforced carbon-carbon composite or HRSI ceramics are other popular choices

Cantilever beam
1 what is a cantilever beam? A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and shear stress. 2 Application of cantilevers Bridges, towers, buildings 3 Application of cantilever in Aircraft Cantilever is in fixed-wing aircraft design, pioneered by Hugo Junkers in 1915 4 Failure of cantilever beam occurs due to? Bending Moment 5 Formulae for bending moment of a cantilever having the load at free end is?

6 What is a propped cantilever beam? A beam with a built in support at one side (ie no rotation about or translation in the x, y, z direction) and a point support at the other (ie no translation in the x, y, z direction but rotation... 7 Is a cantilever bridge a beam bridge? No. A cantilever bridge is not a beam bridge. A beam bridge and a cantilever bridge are two separate types of bridges. However, a cantilever bridge could be said to be a variation on the basic beam

8 Deflection of cantilever with point load? maximum deflection will occure

1 What is a Truss Bridge? A truss bridge is made from many connected pieces, usually iron or steel, arranged in a straight pattern 2 How to Build a Truss Bridge? To build a truss bridge, you must decide what kind of truss bridge you need. For a short span bridge, use a king-post truss bridge. 3 What are the strengths of a truss bridge? The strengths of Truss bridges are that Truss bridges can support and resist lateral loads. Another is that unlike the Arch and Beam bridges, the Truss bridge prevents twisting and swaying during earthquakes and high winds 4How much weight will a k-truss bridge usually hold?? 1million lbs 1,000,000lbs 5 Which Bridge can hold more weight? Arch or Truss bridge? Depends on how deep the truss is versus how massive the arch is. a massive masonry arch will support more "weight" than a shallow truss made of slender aluminum members. If you mean which has the highest strength to weight ratio, then truss will hold more weight 6 How does a Truss Bridge Work? It divides the force by the units stress. They use chords to brace and resist the down force applied by the loads moving on the bridge.

7 What is an Under Truss Bridge? Answer this means that the triangles are under, not on top Answer This means that the triangles are not on top, yet they are under the structure. Search Under truss and get a picture, then search over truss and you will is the difference

1 What is a Column? A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below 2 Three states of ideal column in its loading undergoes? As the axial load on a perfectly straight slender column with elastic material properties is increased in magnitude, this ideal column passes through three states: stable equilibrium, neutral equilibrium, and instability 3 the critical load of a column is given by?

where E = elastic modulus of the material, Imin = the minimal moment of inertia of the cross section, and L = actual length of the column between its two end supports. A variant of (1) is given by

4 Failures of column occur due to? Bending moment or buckling 5 how many types of columns are there?

3 types, short column, medium column, long column 6 what is slenderness ratio? The ratio of the effective length of a column to the least radius of gyration of its cross section is called the slenderness ratio 7 what takes place when some areas yield before buckling of column? Kneeling 8 What is buckling?buckling is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive stress, where the actual compressive stress at the point of failure is less than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is capable of withstanding

Connecting rod

1 What is connecting rod? In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft 2 What is function of connecting rod? Together with the crank, they form a simple mechanism that converts linear motion into rotating motion. Connecting rods may also convert rotating motion into linear motion 3 Parts of connecting road are? Bearing caps, bearing, bolts 4 connecting rod is made of? It is made by drop forging process, from the steel or duralumin 5 What makes the connecting rod to regulate the power efficiently? A lighter rod produces less vibration and regulates power efficiently 6 Failure criteria of connecting rod? Fatigue 7 what is connecting rod and other name for calling it?

A rod that transmits motion or power from one moving part to another, especially the rod connecting the crankshaft of a motor vehicle to a piston. Also called pitman