BUYUK MOSQUE Sofia Bulgaria

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2006 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE IN SOUTH EAST EUROPE Document adopted by The Ministry of Culture of Bulgaria on 3rd July 2006 BUYUK MOSQUE Sofia Bulgaria .INTEGRATED REHABILITATION PROJECT PLAN / SURVEY OF THE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE (IRPP/SAAH) Regional Programme for Cultural and Natural Heritage in South East Europe 2003 .

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Mr. Giorgio Gianighian (Italy). Dochka Aladjova. Alkis Prepis (Greece). Mr. . Angel Stoyanov headed by IRPP/SAAH Project Co-ordinator Dolya Yordanova. Emma Carmichael (United Kingdom). Mr. Mr. Experts: Ms. in co-operation with the PTA expert group: Leader Dr. the present Preliminary Technical Assessment (PTA) was prepared by local experts: Vasil Nikolov.FOREWORD In the framework of the European Commission/Council of Europe Joint Programme on the Integrated Rehabilitation Project Plan /Survey of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IRPP/SAAH). John Bold (United Kingdom). The Preliminary Technical Assessment (PTA) was adopted by the Ministry of Culture of Bulgaria on 3rd July 2006. Hrabrina Tabakova. Andreas Heymowski (Sweden). Pedro Ponce de Leon (Spain). David Johnson (United Kingdom). Mr.

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but it is necessary to finish the general rehabilitation of the internal and external areas started in 2004. currently attract many visitors to the city centre.com Buyuk Mosque (Building of the Archaeological Institute and Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia) 2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 . 73/1955 – Listed Architectural monument Declarative Letter No. The museum was opened to visitors with its first exhibition on 18 May 1905.6 Inventory reference number(s): 1.06.7 Building/Monument/Site type: 1. The Buyuk Mosque or Shehid Mehmed Pasha Jami is the biggest Islamic building in Sofia. Saborna Str. 2637/07.8 Main dates: 1. It comprises two parts: the old mosque building (Buyuk Mosque) which holds the permanent exhibition of the National Archaeological Museum and the administrative part of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. transformed into a depository for archaeological finds and antiques from Bulgarian lands.3 Contact name: 1. enriched over the 110 year history of the Archaeological Museum.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 1 1.4 Email address: 1.9 Current use(s): 2. 69 /1927 Official Gazette No. The museum building was recently reopened after extensive renovation work. Official Gazette No.2 Name of organisation compiling the information: 1. The premises and collections. Executive Summary: the site and its management The complex of the Archaeological Institute and Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is located in the very centre of Sofia. archaeological and artistic monuments of culture in Sofia Architectural site Second half of the 15th century AD Permanent Exhibition of the Archaeological Museum in Sofia 1.5 Name and address of building or site: Buyuk mosque Sofia Republic of Bulgaria Archaeological Institute and Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Vassil Nikolov – Director of the Archaeological Institute and Museum aim-bas@techno-link.1 Country or Territory: 1. Introductory page Site Map 1.1988 /National Institute for the Monuments of Culture/: Updated List of individual architectural.

2 Building/Site. Archaeological and Artistic Monuments of Culture in Sofia.5 Ownership The monument is State property. Name and Address Name: Buyuk Mosque or Shehid Mehmed Pasha Jami (Building of the Archaeological Institute and Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) Address: 2. 4. Listed Monument of Culture with Declarative Letter No.6 Statutory Protection/Constraints The Buyuk Mosque building was granted “Monument of Culture” status in Official Gazette No. 3.06. No conservation/restoration works or intervention may be carried out without the permission of the National Institute for Cultural Monuments (within the Ministry of Culture). the building no longer needs to be included on Bulgaria’s Prioritised Intervention List (PIL). ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 . comprising museum and administrative building. The acting manager of the building is the Archaeological Museum in Sofia. 3.4 Type of monument Architectural site.1988 of the National Institute for the Monuments of Culture: Updated List of Individual Architectural. 3.3 Map reference According to Google Earth software 420 41’ 47’’ N 230 19’ 78’’ E 3.1 Summary of Physical Condition Fair – Structurally sound but in need of minor repair and maintenance. the condition of the building of the Archaeological Museum (Buyuk Mosque) has improved to such an extent that although further works are needed. and outdoor museum exhibition area.2637/07. 3.. Administrative information 3. The site is managed by the Archaeological Institute in Sofia. The site is equipped with electronic security system with video monitoring. Summary of condition 4.1 Responsible Authorities The State holds overall responsibility for the architectural site and has entrusted its stewardship to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Suborna Str. 69 /1927 and No.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 2 Thanks to the restoration measures undertaken over the last few years. Sofia 1000 3. The regulatory bodies are the National Institute for Cultural Monuments and the Ministry of Culture. 73/1955.

design for structural strengthening. electrical.bg – Bulgarian information portal www. Yearbook of the Archaeological museum. Sofia. 2005: partial repair of the lead roof covering. Иван Сотиров.1963 Books: . News of the Bulgarian Archaeological Society.3 Fieldwork already conducted 1993 – general rehabilitation (security.3 Priority for intervention . .1 Documentary sources Architectural measurement. Internet information about the museum and its building could be found in: www. News of the Bulgarian Museums. Sofia. cleaning of the stone revetment of the ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 . Sofia 1910-1920.High/Medium/Low Museum and administrative building – Medium External museum exhibition area – High 5. photographic records. etc.Ovcharov. Sofia. изд. the timber ceiling construction renewed and finished with plaster 2004-2005 – general repair and replacement of rain/water spouts and gutters.bg – Bulgarian information portal www. heating installations) 1993-1995 – installed exhibition panels.1959. News of the Archaeological Institute. Internet References – No official Internet site.bg – official site of Sofia Municipality www.1950. Павлина Илиева. Ivan: The Valchi tran golden treasure. are available at the Archaeological Institute and Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 5.1971. edition Borina (Вълчитрънско златно съкровище. Димитър Овчаров изд. 4. edition Bulgarian bestseller (Петнадесет съкровища от българските земи. technical assistance provided by experts from the Restoration School in Venice. Sofia.info. Existing information 5.graded A-H The Building ranks in category F (Repair scheme in progress and end use and user identified). Museum and Monuments of Culture. Sofia.1921-1950. Italy 2003 – general rehabilitation of the interior. D: Fifteen treasures from Bulgarian lands.encyclopedia.2 Condition Risk Assessment . Български бестселър).Sotirov.1919-1943. partial reorganisation of the exhibition (mosque) and the administrative building.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 3 4.dir. News of the Bulgarian Archaeological Institute. Sofia.2 Bibliography • • • Archives of the National Institute for Monuments of Culture Archives of the Archaeological Institute and Museum in Sofia Publications in specialised media: “Archaeologia” magazine.edu. Борина).sofia.bg – Bulgarian online encyclopedia Automatic information system “Archaeological Map of Bulgaria” • • • 5.

5. Architect. Mr Vasil Nikolov. Housed in the 15th-century Buyuk Mosque (Big Mosque). Architect. Bachelor of Ethnology Angel Stoyanov. The square hall is covered by nine domes. Council of Europe Expert. Director of the Archaeological Institute and Museum Ms Dochka Aladjova. supported by four solid pillars. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 . 3. The building adapted for the needs of the museum.1 Summary description of the building/site. Not systemised project documentation in the archives of the National Institute for Cultural Monuments 7. form a unified and harmonious complex in the very centre of Sofia. replacement of the woodwork (windows and doors). 6. Sweden 6.6 Financial estimates already made Not available 6. It could be turned into an outdoor exhibition area (under a roof spanning between the National Bank building and the mosque). The PTA 7.1 Extent/Nature of the assessment People involved in preparation of the PTA: 1. now used as a storage place for architectural elements. renewal of the power installation 5. on which religious words are inscribed. Archaeologist.1 Background: Form.2 Limitations of the study Documentation stored in different places. 5. Archaeologist.1.4 Projects in progress 2006 – rehabilitation of the heating system. general re-painting. The size of its square foundation is 36 metres by 30 metres.5 Projects already planned Planned reorganisation and transformation of the open area adjacent to the building. The mosque is a large building with solid walls. scraping and varnishing of the timber floor in the central exhibition hall. It is exciting to enter through the overarched stone entrance. Ministry of Culture Mr Andreas Heymowski. The adjacent National Bank building and the two administrative museum wings. Function and Evolution 7. 4. Bachelor of Tourism Ms Dolya Yordanova. closed with an old wood-carved door. erected several centuries later. Scope of the PTA 6. is now infused with new life.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 4 facades. 5. 2. Archaeological Institute and Museum Ms Hrabrina Tabakova. with comments on its urban or rural context. the National Archaeological Museum is worth visiting just for the building itself.

encircles the entire inner premises. The ground level of the southwestern part houses a fashionable Art Club Museum café behind the main building. The National Museum was founded in 1892.1 Summary statement of significance/historical and heritage importance Checklist of categories which may be considered in the evaluation 7. strongly influenced by Byzantine structural art.2.2 Significance 7. the Czech scientist Konstantin Irechek established the museum in the building. The Archaeological Museum keeps alive one of the most prestigious cultural sites of Sofia. The National Archaeological Museum is the oldest museum in Bulgaria preserving more than 55.5 Religious/Spiritual not applicable ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 . With its restoring rooms for art. The Buyuk Mosque was transformed into a depository for the archaeological finds discovered in the Bulgarian territory. 7. a traditional practice in this period. after 1890.300.3 High Artistic/Aesthetic 7.4 Technological not applicable 7. below which are placed stone monuments and two halls. After 1990.2 Summary historic development and evolution of the building or site The Buyuk Mosque construction began under the reign of Sultan Mehmed II (the conqueror of Constantinople. It was completed in 1474 and consecrated in 1494.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 5 A gallery (2.2. Some of the larger Roman marbles are exhibited in the courtyard. In parallel with the library.000 monuments from Thracian. Both entered the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1949.1. supported by fine metal columns.2.80 metres wide). The Buyuk Mosque is an architectural monument of outstanding national significance representing the first period of Turkish constructions in Bulgaria. 1451-1481) upon the foundations of an antique building.000 coins. Since 1905 the museum has functioned as the biggest Archaeological Museum in Bulgaria. which became a National Library with the establishment of the Bulgarian State. The Archaeological Institute was founded in 1921. reconstruction and repair works were implemented and in 2005 the museum celebrated its centenary with the opening of a series of new halls. Greek and Roman settlements and 1. Museum exhibits are also displayed in the area in front of the building. During the last two years (2004-2006) important rehabilitation.2 Historical High 7. After that it was adapted for a kitabhane (books depository).2. the museum was closed for more than 10 years.2. metal and stone the Museum is classified as one of the largest in Europe. The plan is similar to the composition of the mosques built in Brusa during the reign of Murad II and especially the “Ullu” mosque (1430). 7. pottery. The two new wings (1935) – north-east and south-west complete the ensemble and enrich the structure with new spatial features – arcades. During the Russian-Turkish War (1877-1879) the mosque was converted into a hospital.

2 Conservation philosophy / 7.2.6.1 Broad summary of the vision for the site and its sustainability.2.3 Level of intervention All the periodic restoration and repair works. in ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 .2. as well as the regular maintenance.11 Category of significance National 7.4 Technical condition / 7.2.6 Conservation policy 7. Interior: replacement of the woodwork (doors). 7. The low renovation quality of the (lead) covering of the domes leads to water condensation on the ceilings. were in urgent need of rehabilitation. The opened parts and open area around the museum building with exposed stone exhibits could be rearranged in an outdoor exhibition area.5 Summary of required repairs Despite the recently implemented restoration and rehabilitation works and the general improvement of the site’s technical condition. This work should be repeated. The improved preservation and maintenance of the building will enhance the quality of the museum’s functions and will increase opportunities for the diversification of activities and self-sustainability of the institution.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 6 7. and nowadays the building no longer requires emergency intervention.6 High 7. etc. water and sewage installation. 7. woodwork. the State budget financing the museum was largely diminished.7 High 7.10 Economic Medium 7. there was a high risk of humidity penetrating to the internal exposition areas due to the poor condition of the roof covering of the domes. should respect as far as possible the preservation of the original monument.2.6. Façades: replacement of the woodwork (windows).8 High Symbolic/Identity Scientific/Research Social/Civic 7. which resulted in huge maintenance problems.3 Vulnerability/Risk assessment After 1989. 7. Ventilation and air-condition system in the exhibition hall: rehabilitation. additional repairs are needed: • • • • • Internal installations: rehabilitation.6.9 Natural not applicable 7. Before 2004. After a series of repair and restoration works the technical situation was improved. timber flooring. Electrical.2.

Additional repair works on the domes of the museum building (the mosque). repair. Reconstruction of sanitary premises for handicapped people. 7.6. if known.7.8 Public access .1 Broad assessment of budgetary needs and phasing Elaboration of a project for the external area planning Implementation of the project for the external area planning 5. Rehabilitation of the depository premises for antique and representative monuments. The Museum library is also easily accessible. 7. conservation. such as tourism and education. create new jobs and improve museum activities 7.6.6. restoration. now used as a storage place for stone exhibits.6. Rehabilitation of the depository premises for stone monuments equipped with the relevant lifting facilities.9 Other benefits It is necessary to create good conditions for access for handicapped people to the building. Conservation and restoration of exhibited stone monuments in the outdoor area. The presence of a café with museum exhibits generates additional income.5 Preliminary proposals for appropriate uses / 7. through good communications and infrastructure. The successful implementation of the project will: ensure improved site preservation: expand the opportunities for self-sustainability. Easy access for handicapped people to be organised.000 Euros 60 000 Euros 7. Possibility for evening visits to the Museum. Paid parking in the vicinity of the Museum is a pre-requisite for increasing the flow of visitors. could be turned into an outdoor exhibition area (under a roof spanning between the National Bank building and the mosque). The central situation of the Museum facilitates access.7. potential community benefit / 7.wholly.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 7 accordance with the technical requirements of defined local and international practices. whose bearing structure has not been repaired since the end of the 19th century. • • Income from tourist companies (Bulgarian and foreign) Attracting investments from interested businessmen ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 .6 Opportunities for social uses and sustainable development The opened area beside the museum building.6. The establishment of a museum shop could provide additional income. Rehabilitation of the roof of the southern part of the museum.7 Finance 7.7 Broad assessment of priorities for consolidation/covering. which will increase its popularity. The internal exhibition space could be enriched with additional demonstration functions: various performances and cultural events. rehabilitation Rehabilitation of the roof of the northern part of the museum. The present project’s purpose is to preserve the authenticity of the site after the renewed presentation of the external area. 7.2 Assessment of possibilities for attracting investments. Integration of Museum activities with other fields.

7. Italy. 7. Unknown 7.8 Management The management of the project will be undertaken by the Archaeological Institute and Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. the Bulgarian Government. This project is executed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy and is funded in three phases since 1997 up to date by the European Union (EU).3 Assessment of possibilities for recovering investments. Refurbishment of the façades implemented in the frame of the “Beautiful Bulgaria” project. and overseen by the National Institute for Monuments of Culture. advertising. Feasibility Studies • • Levels and phasing of intervention must be specified Financial assessment of all future interventions.Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 8 • Survey of the opportunities for integration with different fields: economics. as intermediary.4 Have you already tried to raise funds for this site or monument? The Museum is applying for funding for the external area planning with the Italian Foreign Ministry and the municipality of Siena.7. offered by Bulgarians living abroad – glass cases. 7.scanned drawings . Archaeologist.photographs.aerial photo 9. Sweden Date: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 . 8. . No results yet. financing from NGOs’ programmes. Architect. Architect. if known. Council of Europe Expert. donations and international partnerships 7. Documentation The PTA is supported by: . The Museum receives fees from owners for storing private collections. Archaeological Institute and Museum Dolya Yordanova.location map . the participating municipalities and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). and restorers PTA carried out by: Dochka Aladjova.7. involving architects. with parameters equivalent to international standards. Ministry of Culture Andreas Heymowski. civil engineers.5 Have you already received funds for this site or monument? • • • Donation of equipment.

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 9 APPENDIX A DRAWINGS Ground plan of the Exhibition Hall (Prayer Hall) and the adjacent buildings Building situation ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 .

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 10 APPENDIX B PHOTOS General view with the National Bulgarian Bank View from the south-west Main entrance of the Archaeological Museum Central exhibition hall of the Archaeological Museum ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Buyuk Mosque – Sofia – Bulgaria 3 July 2006 .

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