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Charles Ashbacher

Charles Ashbacher Technologies

Box 294

Hiawatha, IA 52233

cashbacher@yahoo.com

Jeffrey Sand

Student

Mount Mercy College

Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Forward Reverse Sum Sequence as

Tn+1 = Tn + R(Tn)

where R(Tn) is the number where the digits of Tn are reversed. The initial

elements of the sequence are

1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 77, 154, 605, 1111, 2222, 4444, 8888, 17776, 85547, . . .

2) 16 is the only square in the sequence.

nontrivial, as 1 and 4 are also perfect squares.

A program in the language Java was written to test these conjectures. The

standard math library of Java contains the BigInteger class, which allows for

integers of very large size to be stored. The only limitation on the size of the

number is the amount of available memory.

The first run of the program searched for elements of the sequence that are

squares for the first 10,000 elements of the sequence. No additional perfect

squares were found. In checking the element to determine if it is a perfect

square, the program determines the integer square root. Since this value will

always be less than or equal to the element, the difference between the

element and the square of the integer square root will give us a measure of

how close we are to a solution. If this difference exhibits a trend, that will be

evidence regarding the truth of the conjecture.

The program was then rerun and the difference between the value of the

element and the largest perfect square less than or equal to the element was

computed for the first fifty elements. The data appears in figure 1.

Figure 1

Note the rapid increase in the difference for sequence elements with index

greater than 40.

However, by itself, this is not conclusive. This shows that the difference

between the largest perfect square less than the element and the element is

growing, but indicates nothing about the other side. It is possible that the

difference between the smallest perfect square greater than or equal to the

element and the element is shrinking. To test this, the program was modified

to compute these differences. The results are summarized in figure 2.

Figure 2

Note that these differences also exhibit a rapid growth for elements

numbered over forty. While there is an element with a substantial drop in

the difference in figure 2, the value of the difference is 125329763. It is only

the large values of the surrounding differences that make it look smaller than

it is.

Finally, the program was rerun for the elements numbered through 300, and

the results are summarized in figure 3. This simply reinforces the principle

that the differences continue to grow at a very fast rate. Therefore, all

evidence indicates that the Murthy conjecture that there are no perfect

squares after 16 is a correct one.

sequence. It was used to examine the first 10,000 elements of the sequence

and the only palindromes found appear in table 1.

The program was then modified to determine the number of positions in the

elements that differ from a palindrome. For example, in the number 112211,

this value would be zero and in the number 102214, the value would be two.

This will give us some idea as to whether the elements in the sequence are

close to being palindromic. The values of these differences for the first 200

terms in the sequence are given in figure 4.

Figure 3

Table 1

1 1

2 2

3 4

4 8

6 77

9 1111

10 2222

11 4444

16 661166

18 3654563

Figure 4

While there are some differences, the upward trend is clearly upward. The

program was then rerun for the first 500 elements of the sequence and the

results appear in figure 5.

Figure 5

From these figures, the evidence is extremely strong that there are no

additional palindromes in the sequence. Therefore, the conjecture by Murthy

is most likely false.

Reference:

Propositions, Problems, Conjectures on Smarandache Partitions,

Functions, Sequences, in Number Theory, Combinatorics and

Geometry, American Research Press, Reheboth, Box 141, NM 87322, USA,

(in press).

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