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, usually a digital recording of speech or a musical note or tone. This can be done in the time domain or the frequency domain. PDAs are used in various contexts (e.g. phonetics, music information retrieval, speech coding, musical performance systems) and so there may be different demands placed upon the algorithm. There is as yet no single ideal PDA, so a variety of algorithms exist, most falling broadly into the classes given below.
In the time domain, a PDA typically estimates the period of the quasiperiodic signal, then inverts that value to give the frequency. One simple approach would be to measure the distance between zero crossing points of the signal (i.e. the Zero-crossing rate). However, this does not work well with complex waveforms which are composed of multiple sine waves with differing periods. Nevertheless, there are cases in which zero-crossing can be a useful measure, for example in some speech applications where a single source is assumed. The algorithm's simplicity makes it "cheap" to implement. More sophisticated approaches compare segments of the signal with other segments offset by a trial period to find a match. AMDF (average magnitude difference function), ASMDF (Average Squared Mean Difference Function), and other similar autocorrelation algorithms work this way. These algorithms can give quite accurate results for highly periodic signals. However, they have false detection problems (often "octave errors"), can sometimes cope badly with noisy signals (depending on the implementation) and - in their basic implementations - do not deal well with polyphonic sounds (which involve multiple musical notes of different pitches). Current time-domain pitch detector algorithms tend to build upon the basic methods referred to above, with additional refinements to bring the performance more in line with a human assessment of pitch. For example, the YIN algorithm and the MPM algorithm are both based upon autocorrelation.
In the frequency domain, polyphonic detection is possible, usually utilizing the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to convert the signal to a frequency spectrum. This requires more processing power as the desired accuracy increases, although the well-known efficiency of the FFT algorithm makes it suitably efficient for many purposes. Popular frequency domain algorithms include: the harmonic product spectrum; cepstral analysis and maximum likelihood which attempts to match the frequency domain characteristics to pre-defined frequency maps (useful for detecting pitch of fixed tuning instruments); and the detection of peaks due to harmonic series.
speech with higher fundamental frequencies may not necessarily have the same fundamental frequency throughout the window. The numbers which describe the intensity and frequency of the buzz. during 50 ms. which give rise to formants. which is characterized by its resonances. Autocorrelation methods need at least two pitch periods to detect pitch. techniques such as spectral reassignment (phase based) or Grandke interpolation (magnitude based) can be used to go beyond the precision provided by the FFT analysis. or enhanced frequency bands in the sound produced. LPC analyzes the speech signal by estimating the formants. Hisses and pops are generated by the action of the tongue. Linear predictive coding Linear predictive coding (LPC) is a tool used mostly in audio signal processing and speech processing for representing the spectral envelope of a digital signal of speech in compressed form. this model is actually a close approximation of the reality of speech production. and the residue signal. can be stored or transmitted somewhere else. removing their effects from the speech signal. The process of removing the formants is called inverse filtering. which is characterized by its intensity (loudness) and frequency (pitch). with occasional added hissing and popping sounds (sibilants and plosive sounds). The vocal tract (the throat and mouth) forms the tube. use . Fundamental frequency of speech The fundamental frequency of speech can vary from 40 Hz for low-pitched male voices to 600 Hz for children or high-pitched female voices. The glottis (the space between the vocal folds) produces the buzz. lips and throat during sibilants and plosives. and estimating the intensity and frequency of the remaining buzz.To improve on the pitch estimate derived from the discrete Fourier spectrum. To detect a fundamental frequency of 40 Hz this means that at least 50 milliseconds (ms) of the speech signal must be analyzed. However. and the remaining signal after the subtraction of the filtered modeled signal is called the residue. Although apparently crude. LPC synthesizes the speech signal by reversing the process: use the buzz parameters and the residue to create a source signal. Overview Main article: source-filter model of speech production LPC starts with the assumption that a speech signal is produced by a buzzer at the end of a tube (voiced sounds). and one of the most useful methods for encoding good quality speech at a low bit rate and provides extremely accurate estimates of speech parameters. the formants. It is one of the most powerful speech analysis techniques. using the information of a linear predictive model.
xformlength) %Windowing input signal numwinds = ceil((size(x. LPC synthesis can be used to construct vocoders where musical instruments are used as excitation signal to the time-varying filter estimated from a singer's speech. MPEG-4 ALS. This is somewhat popular in electronic music.the formants to create a filter (which represents the tube).  LPC coefficient representations LPC is frequently used for transmitting spectral envelope information. where voice must be digitized. and as such it has to be tolerant of transmission errors. since it ensures stability of the predictor. LPC predictors are used in Shorten. especially LSP decomposition has gained popularity. and run the source through the filter. Pitch detection %Frequency Domain Pitch Detection %f_y = pitch_detec(x. There are more advanced representations such as Log Area Ratios (LAR). . Paul Lansky made the well-known computer music piece notjustmoreidlechatter using linear predictive coding. for example in the GSM standard. hop. line spectral pairs (LSP) decomposition and reflection coefficients. an early example of this is the US government's Navajo I. resulting in speech. FLAC. or worse. a small error might make the prediction filter unstable.1) .  Applications LPC is generally used for speech analysis and resynthesis. this process is done on short chunks of the speech signal. generally 30 to 50 frames per second give intelligible speech with good compression. window. It is also used for secure wireless. which are called frames. window. Waveform ROM in some digital sample-based music synthesizers made by Yamaha Corporation may be compressed using the LPC algorithm. Transmission of the filter coefficients directly (see linear prediction for definition of coefficients) is undesirable. In other words. Because speech signals vary with time. hop. since they are very sensitive to errors. encrypted and sent over a narrow voice channel. It is used as a form of voice compression by phone companies. A 10th-order LPC was used in the popular 1980's Speak & Spell educational toy. and spectral errors are local for small coefficient deviations. Of these. a very small error can distort the whole spectrum. and other lossless audio codecs. xformlength) function f_y = pitch_detec(x.window)/hop) + 1.
1) = 1. y(size(x. windx = windx .1) + f_x((4*i)+1. end %Apply the Hanning window function to the samples.1) + f_x((2*i)+1.1) + f_x((3*i)+1.* f_x4.* (1.1) + f_x((4*i)+2. end for i = 1:floor((length(f_x)-1)/2) f_x2(i.1) = (f_x(3*i. for(windnum = 1:numwinds) %First fetch the samples to be used in the current window.1) = (f_x(5*i.1) + f_x((5*i)+2.* (1*f_x3) . xformlength). f_x4(i. f_x3(i.1) + f_x((3*i)+2. end % for i = 1:floor((length(f_x)-4)/5) % f_x5(i. zeropadding %if necessary for the last window.windstart = 1.1) + f_x((4*i)+3. h=1. PartI: downsampling for i = 1:length(f_x) f_x2(i.1) = 1.1) = 1. % end %HPS.1))/2.1) / 2). %HPS %function f_y = hps(f_x) f_x = f_x(1 : size(f_x. 1) + 1:windstart + window . PartII: calculate product f_ym = (1*f_x) .% . f_x = abs(f_x). end for i = 1:floor((length(f_x)-2)/3) f_x3(i.1))/3. else windx = x(windstart:size(x.* hanning(window).1)). %HPS.1))/5. %.1) + f_x((5*i)+4. if(windnum ~= numwinds) windx = x(windstart:windstart + window .1) = (f_x(2*i. windx(size(windx.1) + f_x((5*i)+3.1))/4.1) = 0.1) = (f_x(4*i.0*f_x2).* f_x5.1) + 1:window) = 0. . end for i = 1:floor((length(f_x)-3)/4) f_x4(i. % f_x5(i. %STFT (Convert from Time Domain to Freq Domain using fft of length 4096) f_x = fft(windx.1).1) = 1.1) + f_x((5*i)+1.
Example scale: 55.7800 82. % Do a post-processing LPF if(f_y(h) > 600) f_y(h) = 0. f_y = abs(f_y)'.4100 87. set to zero if no smoothing is required. % f_y(h) = f_y1.3100 . allowed is a vector of allowed notes in the FIRST octave. pitch determination function [target. allowed. end end % Convert that to a frequency f_y(h) = (index / xformlength) * 44100. change] = correctfreq(w. allowed. end %Don't forget to increment the windstart pointer. avglength) % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % [target. windstart = windstart + hop.4200 77. PartIII: find max f_y1 = max(f_ym).2700 61. w is the vector of pitches calculated for each window. change] = correctfreq(w.4100 69.3000 73.7400 65. avglength is the length of the smoothing window. avglength) Computes the target frequencies and relative change for each detected pitch given in w.0000 58. h=h+1. for c = 1 : size(f_ym) if(f_ym(c. end.%HPS. 1) == f_y1) index = c.
8300 % Generate the possible frequencies possible = zeros(5 * size(allowed. for i = 1 : 5 for j = 1 : size(allowed.5000 98. 1) = allowed(j. possible = [0 . change = filter(ones(1.1) * (2^i). end if(avglength ~= 0) change = target .w.1). target = w + change.% % % 92. 1) = possible(index(i. 1) + j.1). 1). log(possible)]. possible]. change). 1).avglength)/avglength.1. end end % Take the logarithm index = dsearchn([0. else change = 0. 1) possible((i-1) * size(allowed. .0000 103. for i = 1 : size(w. 1) target(i. log(w)).
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