Matute, Emilyn D. Millares, John Acener C. Padua and Kathryn Cheshire P. Pangilinan Group 5 2A Medical Technology Organic Chemistry Laboratory ABSTRACT
Hydroxyl and Carbonyl containing samples were tested in this experiment. The samples were analyzed through tests involving the solubility

of alcohols in water, Lucas test, Chromic Acid test, 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone (2,4-DNP) test,

Fehling’s test, Tollens’ Silver Mirror test, and Iodoform test. Lucas test differentiates primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Chromic test was performed to know if the sample is oxidizable. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone test was performed for aldehydes and ketones. Fehling’s Test and Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test are tests for aldehydes. Iodoform test is a test for methyl carbinol and methylcarbonyl groups. The samples are n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tertbutyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, n-butylaldehyde, benzandehyde, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol.

Hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group –OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. [4] Representative organic molecules containing a hydroxyl group are known as alcohols. Hydroxyl groups are especially important in biological chemistry because of their tendency to form hydrogen bonds both as donor and acceptor. This property is also related to their ability to increase hydrophilicity and water solubility [1]. There are three classifications of alcohols by the carbon to which the hydroxyl group is attached. Primary alcohols are those in which the hydroxyl group is attached to the carbon with only one carbon attached. Secondary alcohols are compounds in which the OH- is attached to a carbon which has two other carbons attached to it. Tertiary alcohols are compounds in which a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon with three attached carbons [3]. Carbonyl group is a family of functional groups composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O. The group is a constituent of carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides, acylhalides, amides, and quinones, and it is the characteristic functional group of aldehydes and ketones [2]. Aldehydes are organic compound containing a terminal carbony lgroup. This functional group, called analdehyde group, consists of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom with a single covalent bond and an oxygen atom with a double bond. Thus the chemical formula for an aldehyde functional group is -CH=O, and the general formula for analdehyde is R-CH=O. Ketones features a carbonyl group(C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. They differ from aldehydes in a way that the carbonyl is placed between two carbons rather than at the end of a carbon skeleton [3]. They are also distinct from other functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, esters and amides, which have a carbonyl group bonded to a hetero atom. The tests used in this experiment are Lucas test, Chromic Acid test, 2,4Dinitrophenylhydrazone, Fehling’s test, Tollens’ Silver Mirror test and Iodoform test [4]. Lucas test often provides classification information for alcohols, as well as a probe for the existence of the hydroxyl group. Substrates that easily give rise to cationic character at the carbon bearing the hydroxyl group undergo this test readily; primary alcohols do not give a positive result. [4]Chromic acid test detects the presence of a hydroxyl substituent that is on a carbon bearing at least one hydrogen, and therefore oxidizable. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone test can be used to qualitatively detect the carbonyl functionality of a ketone or aldehyde functional group. Fehling’s Test and Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test are used to detect aldehydes. However, Fehling's solution can only be used to test for aliphatic aldehydes , whereas Tollens' reagent can be used to test for both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Iodoform Test is a test for methylcarbinol (secondary alcohol with adjacentmethyl group) and methyl carbonyl group.

1-ml of freshly prepared Fehling’s reagent was placed into each test tube. Chromic Acid Test This test was performed on n-butyl alcohol. Cap the vial and shake vigorously for a few seconds. If no yellow or orange-red precipitate forms. Lucas Test To prepare the reagent for this test. and benzyl alcohol. carboxylic acids. If no reaction has occurred. 4. Perform the test on n-butyl alcohol. and isopropyl alcohol. benzaldehyde. secbutyl alcohol. Four test tubes with 1-ml of freshly prepared Tollens’ reagent were prepared. sec-butyl alcohol. The reagent was prepared by adding 2 drops of 5% Sodium hydroxide solution to 2-ml of 5% Silver nitrate solution and mixing thoroughly. Fehling’s reagent was prepared by mixing equal amounts of Fehling’s A and Fehling’s B. 2. acetone. Allow the mixture to stand at room temperature. Place a drop of a liquid sample into a small test tube. The tubes were then placed in a beaker of boiling water and changes within 10-15 minutes were observed. acetone. n-butyraldehyde. Dissolve 1 drop of liquid or a small amount of solid sample in 1 mL of acetone in a small vial.EXPERIMENTAL A. Fehling’s Test This test was performed on acetaldehyde.4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone test This test was performed on acetone. The mixture was shaken and allowed to stand for 10 minutes. continue adding 0. Adding excess ammonia will cause discrepancies on the result of the test. until a homogenous dispersion results. and acetophenone. . Next. 3 drops of the sample to be tested was added in to the tube. HCL. tert-butyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol into the appropriate tube. acetaldehyde. acetaldehyde. add 50 mg of the sample to 1 mL of reagent in a small vial. acetophenone. place ten drops of ethanol. while stirring to a mixture of 20 mL of water and 70 mL of 95% ethanol. B. secbutyl alcohol. only enough 2% Ammonium hydroxide (concentrated ammonium hydroxide is 28%) was added drop by drop and withstirring to dissolve the precipitate. Procedure 1. the alcohol is soluble in water. benzaldehyde. acetone. allow the solution to stand for at least 15 minutes. Fehling’s B was prepared by mixing 35 g of Potassium sodium tartrate and 10 g of Sodium hydroxide in 100-ml water. Add 3 drops of 2. and acetophenone. and acetone. 5. Two drops each of the samples were then added. Fehling’s A was prepared by dissolving 7 g of hydrated copper (II) sulfate in 100 mL of water. benzaldehyde.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in 15 mL of conc. and acetophenone. sec-butyl alcohol. benzaldehyde. In five different test tubes named as A to E. aldehydes. H2SO4 slowly. Stir and filter it. Iodoform Test This test was performed on acetaldehyde. nbutylaldehyde. Tollens’ Silver Mirror Test This test was performed on acetaldehyde. Observe the rate of formation of the cloudy suspension or the formation of two layers. dissolve 16 g of anhydrous zinc chloride in 10 mL of conc. After cooling.25 mL of water at a time. 2. Add 1 mL of water to each of the test tubes and shake thoroughly. nbutyraldehyde. n-butyl alcohol. 6. and isopropyl alcohol. If a cloudiness results. and ketones are the only soluble organic compounds in water. add a solution of 3 g of 2. 7. the test tube was placed in a beaker of warm water (3550oC) for 5 minutes. Compounds Used The compounds used are n-butyl alcohol. Allow the mixture to cool. tert-butyl alcohol.0 mL of water. Add 5 drops of 95% ethanol and shake it well. benzandehyde. 3. tert-butyl alcoho. tert-butyl alcohol. Solubility of Alcohols in Water Low molecular-weight amines and oxygencontaining compounds like alcohols. benzaldehyde.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. n-butyraldehyde. To prepare the reagent for this test. Add 2 drops of 10% aqueous K2Cr2O7 solution and 5 drops of 6M H2SO4. with vigorous shaking. If no cloudiness resulted after adding 2. nbutyraldehyde. acetone.

25 mL Solubility in water Ethanol n-butyl alcohol secbutyl alcohol tertbutyl alcohol Benzyl alcohol CH3CH2OH CH3CH2CH2OH miscible miscible miscible 1 mL miscible 6. 3 layers: Colorless. 2. 2. sec-butyl alcohol. Fehling’s test results Substance acetaldehyde Condensed Structural Formula Results Brick red ppt. sec-butyl alcohol.4-DNP test proved that the samples are carbonyl-containing compounds and are either aldehydes or ketones. Table 3. nbutyraldehyde. light Table 2 shows the reaction of butanol derivatives to Lucas Test. Table 4.5 mL immiscible Table 3 shows the reaction of n. Table 2. n-butyl alcohol. Chromic acid test results Substance n-butyl alcohol sec-butyl alcohol tert-butyl alcohol nbutyraldehyde benzaldehyde acetone Condensed Structural Formula Results Light yellow layer to light green layer Yellow layer to light green layer Yellow green layer Orange layer Orange to red layer Light yellow layer to light green layer RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1. Solubility of Alcohol in Water Alcohol Condensed Structural Formula Amount of water (in mL) needed to produce homogenous dispersion 1 mL 2 mL 1. secbutyl alcohol. Orange ppt. brown Brick red ppt.butyl alcohol. sec-butyl alcohol. mixed. and acetone resulted to a yellow solution. benzaldehyde. Table 1 shows that ethanol.4-DNP results Substance acetaldehyde nbutyraldehyde Benzaldehyde acetone Condensed Structural Formula Results Orange ppt. and tert-butyl alcohol are all miscible with water with the exception of benzyl alcohol which exhibited insolubility. and benzyl alcohol yielded a clear solution when subjected to Lucas Test whereas tert-butyl alcohol resulted to a cloudy immiscible suspension which eventually formed two layers. tert-butyl alcohol. and n-butyraldehyde green solution whereas tert-butyl alcohol. nbutyraldehyde .2 drops of each sample was placed into its own small vial or test tube. N-butyl alcohol. 20 drops of fresh chlorine bleach (5% Sodium hypochlorite) was slowly added while shaking to each test tube and then. benzaldehyde. Orange ppt. Hence. Orange ppt. benzaldehyde. The formation of a yellow participate was noted. and acetone to Chromic Acid test. Table 5.4-DNP test. nbutyraldehyde. 2 layer: green. N-butyl alcohol. All the samples exhibited positive result because they all formed an orange precipitate. Lucas test results Condensed Results Structural Formula CH3CH2CH2OH Substan ce n-butyl alcohol secbutyl alcohol tertbutyl alcohol Benzyl alcohol Inference miscible miscible immiscible miscible no reaction no reaction Cloudy formation no reaction Table 4 shows the reaction of acetaldehyde. and acetone to 2.

These three sample compounds which exhibited positive result to Fehling’s test are all aldehydes. and isopropyl alcohol exhibited positive REFERENCES [1] Bayguen. Systematic Identification of Organic Compound: A Laboratory Manual Fifth Edition. R. de Guia.F.daviddarling.C&E Publishing. A.V. black . acetaldehyde prdouced a silver mirror with a black ppt when subjected to Tollens’ test while the other compounds did not formed any silver mirror. G..M. nbutyraldehyde. Yellow ppt. acetone. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Tollens’ Silver Mirror test results Substance acetaldehyde nbutyraldehyde Benzaldehyde acetone Condensed Structural Formula Results Silver mirror. John Wiley & Sons.. Lampa. Table 6. Curtin. Iodoform test results Substance acetaldehyde nbutyraldehyde Benzaldehyde Isopropyl alcohol Condensed Structural Formula Results Brown ppt. in particular turned from blue to muddy green then formed a crude red precipitate upon heating. Table 7.. C. acetophenone. Peña. F. Sarile. No change It is shown in Table 5 that acetaldehyde.Laboratory Manual in Organic Chemistry.T. [2] Carbonyl http://en. 2010.Benzaldehyde acetone blue.. P. (2010). [4] Shriner. Cruz.wikipedia. Red solution Table 7 shows that among the sample compounds tested. gray solution Clear solution Gray solution [3] Hydroxyl Group. (1964). from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: /P/phenol. Retrieved September 19. Acetaldehyde. A. (2009). New York: Van Hoffmann Press In table 6. acetaldehyde. and Torres. Inc. and benzaldehyde exhibited positive result. royal blue Blue solution with orange ppt.S.C. The formation of the silver mirror may be affected by the preparation of the Tollens’ reagent. Inc.html. Redish briwn ppt. Fuson.