The Abstract Noun

Recognize an abstract noun when you see one.
Nouns name people, places, and things. One class of nouns is abstract. Your five senses cannot detect this group of nouns. You cannot see them, hear them, smell them, taste them, or feelthem.

Cannot see

Cannot hear

Cannot smell

Cannot taste

Cannot touch

Check out the following example:
When Joseph dived into the violent waves to rescue a drowning puppy, hisbravery amazed the crowd of fishermen standing on the dock.

Bravery, one of the nouns in this sentence, is an example of an abstract noun. You can seeJoseph, the water, and the crowd. But you cannot see bravery itself. Bravery has no color, size, shape, sound, odor,

flavor, or texture; it has no quality that you can see, hear, smell, taste, or touch. Any noun that escapes your five senses is an abstract noun.

Don't confuse an abstract noun with a concrete noun.
Many nouns are concrete, not abstract. Concrete nouns register on your five senses. Here is an example:
Joseph cuddled the wet puppy under his warm jacket.

Puppy is an example of a concrete noun. You can see a puppy, stroke its fur, smell its breath, and listen to it whine. You can even taste the puppy if you don't mind pulling dog hair off your tongue! Because a puppy will register on all five senses, puppy is a concrete noun. Look over this chart contrasting abstract and concrete nouns:

Abstract Nouns

Concrete Nouns

deceit dedication curiosity trust relaxation

the President teacher cat airplane bubble bath

Abstract Nouns
An abstract noun is a type of noun that refers to something a person cannot physically interact with. A noun is a person, place or thing. However, in many cases, the 'thing' might be an intangible concept ± which means it is an abstract form of noun. In this instance, abstract means to exist apart from concrete existence. A noun that is abstract is an aspect, concept, idea, experience, state of being, trait, quality, feeling, or other entity that cannot be experienced with the five senses.

Recognizing When a Noun is Abstract

Concrete nouns are people, places, or things that we d experience do with our five senses. The abstract class is the opposite - we can never experience these nouns according to our senses. If a noun describes something you can see, hear, touch, taste, or smell, it is not abstract. Sometimes it can be difficult to recognize when the noun is abstract because there are a number of words that can function in different ways. For example, some words might function as verbs in some cases and abstract nouns in other cases. Check to see whether the word in question is expressing action in some way or if it is a functioning as a 'thing.' Love and taste are two such examples. Ads by Google Improve your English - and experience the great city of London. Up to 44% discount. Book! Men's Skin Centres - Turn ur belly to well SCULPTED ABS! 30days Power Tummy Sculpting@RM1699 National Concrete Corp - Global Supplier Of Concrete Plants New, Used & Refurbished I love my husband. [In this sentence, the word love expresses an action and is therefore acting as a verb.] Send them my love. [In this sentence, the word love functions as an abstract noun because it is a thing that exists beyond the five senses.] Sarah could taste cilantro in the salsa. [In this sentence, the auxiliary verb 'could' functions with taste to illustrate action. She can physically taste the salsa.] Sarah has great taste in clothes. [In this sentence, taste functions in an abstract manner. Taste refers to her preferences.] Abstract nouns can be countable or non-countable (mass). They can also be in singular or possessive form. These nouns follow the same grammar rules as other nouns.
Common Abstract Nouns



y y

y y y y y y

Love Hate Anger Peace Pride Sympathy States/Attributes



y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Loyalty Honesty Integrity Compassion Charity Success Courage Deceit Skill Beauty Brilliance Pain Misery Ideas/Concepts/Ideals

y y y y y y y y y y y y

Beliefs Dreams Justice Truth Faith Liberty Knowledge Thought Information Culture Trust Dedication Movements/Events

y y y y y y y

Progress Education Hospitality Leisure Trouble Friendships Relaxation

beauty. . so it is abstract. 1. but childhood is an intangible state. Nouns with the following suffixes are often abstract: y y y y y y y y y y -tion -ism -ity -ment -ness -age -ance/-ence -ship -ability -acy Using Abstract vs. however. but allow us to express information by defining them on some level. heard. for example. Although these nouns give expression to intangible entities. Teachers and writing coaches often recommend using concrete nouns to support any abstract references. To one person. Concrete Nouns in Writing Abstraction is an important part of communication. An important precaution for students and writers.Abstract forms of nouns are very common and an important part of communication. to another good taste might mean clean and modern. and justice. Click here for the answer 2. Child is a concrete noun. might mean different things to different people. taste. thereby clarifying the message you are trying to convey. good taste means eclectic and original. Understanding and recognizing abstract nouns is important. There are different species of fish. These nouns name things that can't be seen.1) EXERCISE . freedom.COMMON NOUNS Identify the Common Nouns in the following sentences. We arrived early at the station. tasted. In many cases these types of nouns are derived from an addition of a suffix or alteration in the root word. sentences with fewer abstract and more concrete nouns are typically more concise and clear. 1. smelled or touched. Words like love. is that there is the danger of the being misunderstood when using abstract forms in writing.

He has bought a new car. Click here for the answer 7. He threw some nuts to the monkeys. They have gone to the zoo. That temple was built before I was born. Click here for the answer 11. Click here for the answer 4. Click here for the answer 5. . My father likes to swim. Click here for the answer 10. The man was trying to steal his car. The children are playing in the field. The baby is crying. Click here for the answer 6. Click here for the answer 8. Click here for the answer 9. My mother is in the kitchen.Click here for the answer 3.

Click here for the answer 13. Click here for the answer 17. Click here for the answer 14. Click here for the answer 18. He went to visit his uncle.Click here for the answer 12. I like to ride on a camel. . She won a trophy in a competition. The boys are playing noisily. Click here for the answer 16. My brother wants to play with us. Click here for the answer 19. Let me have a look at your puppy. She is hanging out the clothes to dry. Do birds eat meat? Click here for the answer 15. The taxi broke down. Click here for the answer 20.

1. The universities of oxford and cambridge offer degree courses at the highest level.PROPER NOUNS Use capital letters for Proper Nouns in the following sentences. Click here for the answer 2. paris is the capital of france. william shakespeare is a famous english author. david will travel to france to do a degree course on the french revolution. Click here for the answer 5. . Click here for the answer 6. Click here for the answer 4. war and peace' was written by leo tolstoy. john's two dogs are named rover and boxer. Click here for the answer 3.2) EXERCISE .Click here for the answer ( 1.

republic of liberia is on the west coast of africa. suez canal joins the red sea and the mediterranean sea. Click here for the answer 8. Click here for the answer ( 1. man scholar king know sell think long strong wise .Click here for the answer 7. mount kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in africa. Click here for the answer 9. mick jagger is the lead singer of rolling stones Click here for the answer 10.3) EXERCISE .ABSTRACT NOUNS Form Abstract Nouns from the following.

Click here for the answer 2. Click here for the answer 4. Click here for the answer . 1. They saw a _____ of lions at the zoo. Click here for the answer 3.COLLECTIVE NOUNS Fill in the blank s with suitable collective lose great Click here for the answer ( 1. He ate a _____ of grapes today.4) EXERCISE . The farmer has a _____ of cattle on his farm. A _____ of birds flew high in the sky.

. Click here for the answer 10. You can put the _____ of tools in that box. She bought a _____ of bananas from the market. Click here for the answer 8. Click here for the answer 7. Click here for the answer 6. Our friend shows us a _____ of stamps.COUNTABLE & UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Complete each sentence by choosing the correct word.5) EXERCISE .5. The _____ of pupils are listening attentively to their teacher. We saw a _____ of sheep on our way home. Click here for the answer 9. Police have arrested a _____ of thieves. Click here for the answer ( 1.

1. A large number of) dust has collected on the desk. Click here for the answer 2. A few) minutes is all it takes for him to shave. . some) nuts to the monkeys. several) eggs very day. There are (plenty of. My hens lay (a large amount of. There is so (many. The postman put (a great deal of. Click here for the answer 7. (A great deal of. Click here for the answer 8. Click here for the answer 5. Click here for the answer 3. a large amount of) fish in the pond. Click here for the answer 6. a little) cooking oil in her cooking. (A little. She uses only (a few. We saw (a large amount of. Click here for the answer 9. a lot of) letters into the bag. much) smoke coming out of the chimney. Click here for the answer 4. He threw (a little. many) cows grazing in the field.

Click here for the answer ( 1. The lady has several mares on her farm. The butcher sells (a large amount of. Click here for the answer 4. Click here for the answer 3.Click here for the answer 10. Click here for the answer 2. My aunt visits her niece every week-end. Does any actress like to play the role of the princess? Click here for the answer 5.GENDER Change the nouns in bold from the feminine to the masculine.6) EXERCISE . Their queen is a widow. a large number of) meat. 1. . The daughter is more talkative than her mother.

His brother works as a waiter. In the movie. the tigress was killed by the heroine. Click here for the answer 8. Click here for the answer Change the nouns in bold from the masculine to the feminine. Click here for the answer 10. . The authoress is writing a book about the empress. 11. Click here for the answer 9.Click here for the answer 6. Click here for the answer 12. The countess has one sister. The bridegroom thanked the priest. Click here for the answer 7. The manageress is still a spinster. His daughter-in-law is a postmistress.

He was a postman before he became a postmaster. Click here for the answer 18. Her husband is a conductor. Click here for the answer 20. Click here for the answer . Click here for the answer 19. Click here for the answer 14. Click here for the answer 16. Her father-in-law is a landlord.Click here for the answer 13. Click here for the answer 17. Click here for the answer 15. The lad wants to be a monk. The dog barked at the milkman. The manservant has worked many years for the duke. The sultan owns a stallion. A cock was killed by a fox.

the king commands the respect of every citizen. Click here for the answer 2. Click here for the answer 5.( 1. There are lots of nice people in the _____ (neighbour).FORMING NOUNS FROM NOUNS Fill in the blanks with abstract nouns from the nouns in brackets. 1. Click here for the answer 6. He hopes to take over the _____ (leader) of the party. We formed a deep and lasting _____ (friend). Click here for the answer 3. I had a very happy ______ (child). I forgot to renew my _____ (member) in the sailing club. Click here for the answer .7) EXERCISE . In the _____ (king) of Thailand. Click here for the answer 4.

edu-) An amble of walkers (-suggested by RP4-) .netsurf. where possible and confirmed. Feel free to submit a collective noun if you don't find it here. for instance. She seems to be enjoying _____ (mother). You'll note that there are multiple listings for a few types. bloodflame@dellnet. He had barely reached _____ (man) when he married. Jump List: Submit | Rules | Mailing List | Bibliography | Related Info | Credits | Feedback The Collective Noun Page | Linguistic Fun Page | OjoHaven An aarmory of aardvarks (-submitted by ojo6-) An abandonment of orphans (-suggested by Toni Stern. This will be An abominable sight of monks (-submitted by ojo6-) An absence of waiters (-suggested by Alexander Page. i denote it a "suggestion". via Gerald 'Jerry' Rounds. These typically refer to terms that stem from different types of collection. "a hive of bees" and "a swarm of bees".7. and derivation given. alexander. Please feel free to submit derivations (or even corrections!) for verification. An accompaniment of condiments (-suggested by David Lloyd-Mostyn.che. In the example. a dictionary). An addition of mathematicians (-suggested by RP4-) An agenda of tasks (-submitted by Jason If i don't. i check all available sources for a reference. If i find one (in. When i receive a submission. Click here for the answer 8. Click here for the answer The Collective Nouns There are two varieties of collective noun listed here. The goal is not (yet) to be comprehensive .merely for instance. i denote it here as a "submission". "hive" is from the domicile of bees. This list is alphabetical by the collective noun. and "swarm" is from a group of flying bees. A balance of accountants (-suggested by Dan Hubbard. K. An annoyance of mobile phones (-suggested by kenneth. K.utexas. Gottheiner. .org-) An autumn of leaves (-suggested by RP4-) A babel of words (-suggested by Michael G. frankie@mtg. & An army of caterpillars (-CCW2-) An army of frogs (-MG3-) An array of luminaries (-suggested by A band of gorillas A band of jays (-MG3-) A band of men (-submitted by ojo6-) A bank of circuits (-submitted by Jason An assemblage of jigsaw puzzlers (-suggested by An anthology of prostitutes (derivation: see below5 -suggested by Mic Bergen.che. Rodney. An atlas of maps (-submitted by David Bannister.crane@ntlworld. harrij1@weiss. harrij1@weiss.An ambush of widows (-suggested by Angi An anvil of blacksmiths (-suggested by RP4-) An archive of programmers (-suggested by Frank An assembly of toys (-suggested by Brian An asylum of managers (-suggested by Rodney Jude. An audit of bookkeepers (-suggested by Richard infoman@gte. An armada of ships (-submitted by Jason Harris. hubbard@msmary. An aurora of polar bears (-suggested by Marila Belcher. from the CD-ROM version of the OED-) An attitude of teenagers (-suggested by RP4-) An audit of accountants (-suggested by Richard Blackwell. mbergen@anacreon. diane. A bale of turtles A ballet of swans (-suggested by Diane L. richard@planetsymphony. & F. CHMM.

che. db@antiquemaps. A bed of clams (-MG3-) A bed of oysters (-MG3-) A bed of snakes (-CCW2-) A belt of asteroids (-submitted by Jason A bill of particulars (-submitted by ojo6-) A billing of consultants (-suggested by Brian A bevy of beauties (-submitted by ojo6-) A bevy of business angels (-according to the November Newsletter of YABA-) A bevy of dowagers (-suggested by David Bannister. stocklin@earthlink.A bank of monitors (-submitted by Jason A billow of smokers (-suggested by RP4-) A blaze of pyromaniacs (-suggested by RP4-) A blessing of unicorns (-submitted by Marila A barren of mules (-MG3-) A battery of tests (-submitted by David A beautification of spatulas (-suggested by jeff . harrij1@weiss. MARILAB@iadb. -submitted by Jason Harris. A bevy of quail A bevy of swans (-MG3-) A bevy of tanked sorority girls (possibly from Outland. A bend of willows (-suggested by RP4-) A bestiary of mythological creatures (-submitted by Jason Harris. davidh@camelot.utexas. A bloat of hippopotami (-submitted by ojo6-) A blur of bicyclists (-suggested by RP4-) A blush of embarassments (-suggested by RP4-) A boast of soldiers (-submitted by ojo6-) A body of pathologists (-suggested by several contributers7-) A bond of British secret agents (-suggested by Rex Stocklin.utexas.

danlash@tln. Lash.bradley. & F. A broadside of (artillery) shells (on A cackle of hyenas (-submitted by ojo6-) A calendar of saints (-submitted by ojo6-) A camp of transvestites (-suggested by A bunch of grapes (-submitted by ojo6-) A bunch of janes (-suggested by David Bannister. davidh@camelot. -submitted by ojo6-) A brood of hens (-submitted by ojo6-) A buffoonery of orangutans (-submitted by ojo6-) A building of rooks (-TR1-) A bunch of drongoes (-suggested by David A bouquet of flowers (-submitted by ojo6-) A bouquet of pheasants (when flushed. ghanka@bindview. db@antiquemaps. A book of mormons (-submitted by ojo6-) A bottle of source code (-suggested by Paul A burden of yolks (-suggested by RP4-) A bury of conies (-MG3-) A business of ferrets (-submitted by Liz Moore. A business of flies (-CCW2-) A buttload of proctologists (-suggested by Frc1000@aol. A boo of surprises (-submitted by David Henderson. bongsuckling of white house staffers (-suggested by Daniel A bridge of admirals (-submitted by ojo6-) A brigade of soldiers (-submitted by Greg Hanka. -TR1-) A bout of estimations (-suggested by RP4-) A brace of grouse A brace of orthodontists (-suggested by Suggestion-) A candle of tapirs (-suggested by RP4-) .mrc. A charm of finches A chattering of choughs A chorus of angels (-submitted by Marila Belcher. db@antiquemaps. MARILAB@iadb.utexas. A clipping of geldings (-suggested by RP4-) A cloud of bats (-submitted by ojo6-) A cloud of gnats A cloud of grasshoppers (-submitted by ojo6-) A cloud of plankton (-suggested by David Lucas. A click of (computer) mice (-submitted by David A circus of fighter (aircraft -submitted by David Bannister.Lucas@computershare.slac. A cluster of alpha computers (-from A charlotte of webpages (-submitted by David from the CDROM version of the OED-) A clank of tanks (-submitted by ojo6-) A class of students A clatter of tanks (-suggested by RP4-) A clench of sphincters (-suggested by Rowan Hamilton. A circle of Babbitts (-suggested by David A cast of falcons (-TR1-) A cast of hawks A cavalcade of horsemen (-submitted by Jason Harris.che. davidh@camelot. and Technical Topics-) A cluster of grasshoppers (-CCW2-) .A cast of actors (thousands. vonzelle@interport. davidh@camelot. A cavvy of extra cowboy mounts (-MG3-) A cete of badgers A chain of islands (-submitted by Jason Harris. A clowder of cats A clump of freshman (-suggested by Dave Mallick.utexas. db@antiquemaps. in a performance -thanks to fisher.che.

Childs@pfizer. db@antiquemaps. K. A compromise of senators (-suggested by Daniel A clutch of chicks A clutch of eggs (-CCW2-) A clutch of kleptomaniacs (-suggested by RP4-) A clutch of leering women (-suggested by David Bannister. A clutch of wrestlers (-suggested by Joan A conflagration of arsonists (-suggested by Chet Meek. danlash@tln. A confusion of [traffic] cones (-suggested by Margaret A clutter of cats A clutter of starlings (-submitted by ojo6-) A collective of nouns (-suggested by Bruce Crichton.ab. Brad. & A clutch of testicles (-suggested by Ron Carroll. A conflagration of pyromaniacs (-suggested by Chet cmeek@city. of Australia-) A colony of penguins (-TR1-) A colony of rabbits (-ojo6-) A company of parrots (-TR1-) A company of soldiers (-submitted by A college of electors (-submitted by ojo6-) A colony of ants (-submitted by ojo6-) A colony of beavers (-CCW2-) A colony of gulls (-MG3-) A colony of microbiologists (-suggested by Brad Childs.grande-prairie.A clutch of auto mechanics (-suggested by R. j& A confusion of meanderings (-suggested by RP4-) A congregation of people (-submitted by ojo6-) A congregation of plovers A congregation of worshipers . jgaringer@earthlink.

K. amontemayor@swri.pronounced "corg'n. Csv1026@aol.A congress of baboons (-suggested by an entry in the Harvard On-line Library-) A consort of Corgwyn ("Corgwyn . Sue. MARILAB@iadb. either Pembroke or Cardigan". -CCW2-) A covey of ptarmigans (-TR1-) A covey of quail A cowardice of curs (-CCW2-) A crash of rhinoceroses (in contemporary use in Kenya Game Reports. -submitted by ojo6-) A crash of software (-suggested by Greg Hanka. infoman@gte." I think .net) A crush of shoppers (-suggested by RP4-) A crowd of onlookers A cruft of hackers (-according to The Hacker's Dictionary-) A crush of icebergs (-suggested by A conspiracy of ravens (-submitted from Marila .com-) A creep of tortoises (-suggested by Susan A coven of witches (-submitted by Alan Montemayor. A crew of military barbers (-suggested by A covey of grouse (-TR1-) A covey of partridges (-TR1-) A covey of pheasants (while on the ground. pmurphy@space. & A constable of ravens (-suggested by Adrian de Bear.utexas. A constellation of satellites (-suggested by Patrick A constellation of stars (-submitted by ojo6-) A constituency of voters (-submitted by ojo6-) A convention of tongues (-suggested by RP4-) A convocation of eagles (-MG3-) A cornucopia of slugs (-suggested by RP4-) A corps of cadets (-submitted by Jason ghanka@bindview. the plural for Corgi. -suggested by A cover of coots (-TR1.

cmeek@city. db@antiquemaps.A cry of hounds A cry of players (-submitted by ojo6-) A culture of bacteria (-submitted by Jason A dawn of morning glories (-suggested by RP4-) A death-row of turkeys (in A descent of woodpeckers A design of engineers (-suggested by Frank A dole of doves (-CCW2-) A donut of data (-from The Hacker's Dictionary-) A doom of dragons (-suggested by ghrowl@phunsite. via Gerald 'Jerry' Rounds. A cupful of starlets (-suggested by RP4-) A cutting of cynics (-suggested by David -submitted by ojo6-) A debauchery of Hedonists (-suggested by RP4-) A deck of sailors (-submitted by ojo6-) A deceit of lapwings A deficit of economists (-suggested by Ted A density of meatheads (-suggested by Chet A desperation of divorcees (-suggested by Toni Stern.saic. frankie@mtg.grande-prairie. A dose of doctors (-suggested by RP4-) A down of hares A dilation of pupils (-submitted by ojo6-) A disputation of lawyers (-suggested by Lee Daniel A desperation of voters (-suggested by David Bannister. db@antiquemaps. A dissimulation of birds (-TR1-) A divergence of Canadians (-suggested by RP4-) A division of soldiers (-submitted by Greg A cutch of vellum (-suggested by David Bannister. gramps@iop.utexas. ghanka@bindview.

ca-) A fascination of on-lookers (-suggested by Chet Meek. & K. -suggested by Jim A fidget of altarboys (-submitted by ojo6-) An ensemble of homosexuals (-suggested by David Rachlin. infoman@gte. ghanka@bindview. Mendell.ab. ojo@ojohaven.A draught of fish (-MG3-) A dray of squirrels A drift of hogs (-submitted by ojo6-) A drift of icebergs (-suggested by A drove of cattle A dule of doves (-MG3-) A drumming of grouse (derivation: their mating call. An equanimity of tranquilizers (-suggested by RP4-) An ergo of Cartesians (-suggested by RP4-) An erst of bees (-submitted by ojo. An embarrassment of riches (-submitted by ojo6-) An encroachment of fence-builders (-suggested by Chet Meek.ab. generated with the wings. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) An evensong of choirboys (-submitted by ojo6-) An exaltation of larks (-submitted by ojo6-) A fall of woodcocks (-TR1-) A falling of dominoes (-suggested by RP4-) A fascination of listeners (-suggested by Chet A fesnyng of ferrets (see "fesnyng" background -submitted by Greg Hanka. ahlberg@ns.ab.netcom. cmeek@city. -submitted by ojo6-) A durante of toucans (-submitted by ojo6-) An ecstasy of Morgans (-from the Morgan Factory-) An embarrassment of parents (for use by A drift of swine A dropping of pigeons (-submitted by ojo6-) A drove of cabbies (-suggested by R. camperik@mb.

org-) A flitch of bacon (-suggested by David A fold of chairs (-suggested by RP4-) A formality of penguins (-suggested by Susu413@aol. K. K.che. ghanka@bindview. .org-) A flight of cormorants (-TR1-) A flight of doves (-TR1-) A flight of golf balls (-suggested by RP4-) A flight of goshawks (-TR1-) A flight of refugees (-suggested by RP4-) A flight of stairs (-submitted by ojo6-) A flight of swallows A flink of cows (twelve or more. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) A flock of white Christmas trees (-suggested by R. infoman@gte. harrij1@weiss. db@antiquemaps.6-) A fistful of dollars (-submitted by Jason A flood of plumbers (-suggested by R. -submitted by ojo6-) A fluther of jellyfish (-submitted by A flag of Americans (-suggested by RP4-) A flap of nuns (-submitted by ojo6-) A fleet of ships (-submitted by Marila A flourish of blossoms (-suggested by RP4-) A flunk of students (-suggested by Greg Hanka. MARILAB@iadb.utexas.che.utexas. infoman@gte. dmeyler@hti. & A field of racehorses ( fidget of suspects (-suggested by Dennis A flush of wing commanders (aka "WCs". & F. submitted by Marila Belcher. A float of crocodiles (-submitted by ojo6-) A flock of sheep (-submitted by ojo6-) A flock of tourists (-suggested by an anonymous fan-) A flotilla of ships (-submitted by Jason Harris.

edu-) A giggle of girls (-suggested by Kyle A glacier of freezers (-suggested by RP4-) A glitter of generals (-submitted by ojo6-) A glossolalia of pentacostals (-submitted by ojo6-) A glut of parrs (-suggested by David Bannister. Rachlin1@ix. A grist of bees (-MG3-) A groan of puns (-suggested by RP4-) .com-) A gam of whales (-MG3-) A gambol of dancers (-suggested by RP4-) A gang of elk A gang of hoodlums (-submitted by Marila A galaxy of starlets (-submitted by Jason A glut of pleasure (-suggested by David A grind of chores (-suggested by RP4-) A grip of hand tools (-suggested by Adam Pederson. notes -TR1.che. db@antiquemaps.utexas.A formation of geologists (-suggested by RP4-) A freeze of Northerners (-suggested by RP4-) A fright of ghosts (-suggested by RP4-) A gaggle of geese (wild or domesticated. A gossip of relatives (-suggested by David Rachlin. kyle@prarienet. on water6-) A gaggle of pill poppers (-suggested by RP4-) A galaxy of stars (-submitted by Jason Harris. A gatling of woodpeckers (-submitted by ojo6-) A geek of engineers (-suggested by Adam A government of episcopalians (-submitted by ojo6-) A greed of lawyers (-suggested by Mic Bergen.colorado. db@antiquemaps.netcom.che. A gallop of Greyhounds (-suggested by Chris.utexas. Csv1026@aol. pederson@rtt. harrij1@weiss. A hatchet of corporate downsizing proposals (-suggested by Greg Hanka. petergeo@pipeline.) A horde of gnats A host of angels (-submitted from Marila Belcher. & K.ucdavis.che.che.che. A host of sparrows . A hiss of lisps (-suggested by RP4-) A hive of bees (derivation: habitat. A herd of elephants A herd of horses (-submitted by ojo6-) A herd of pigs (-suggested by Lisa Donnelly. MARILAB@iadb. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) A hide of tigers (-suggested by Margaret Harley-) A hill of beans (-submitted by Jason A heard of blind people (-suggested by Andy Roberts. harrij1@weiss. A guilt of pleasures (-suggested by RP4-) A gush of sycophants (-suggested by Mal Walker.A gross of farts (-suggested by Peter A heap of front-end loaders (-suggested by R. A harmony of beauties (-suggested by RP4-) A harmony of singers (suggested by Jim Ahlberg. A grove of trees (-submitted by Jason Harris. & A heap of trash (-submitted by Jason Harris. harrij1@weiss. A hailstorm of gunships (-submitted by ojo6-) A hamper of helpers (-suggested by RP4-) A hand of bananas (-submitted by ojo6-) A handful of palm readers (-suggested by Mendell. lisa@omniserv. A grumble of Pugs (-suggested by Chris. A herd of wrens (-submitted by A hassle of errands (-suggested by Greg Hanka.

com.A hover of hummingbirds (-suggested by RP4-) A hover of trout A huddle of hippos (-suggested by R.ab. A jungle of Nazis (-suggested by RP4-) A Kervorkian of I. An indecision of managers (-suggested by Tim A jagger of tongues (-suggested by Paul A jam of tarts (-suggested by Mic Bergen. hamilt@labyrinth.U. A huddle of players (-submitted by ojo6-) A huff of people who write letters to the editor (-found in some web page in Australia-) A hug of teddy bears (-submitted by Danie Cox-Tonkin. A knot of frogs (-suggested by Rex An incantation of witches (-suggested by Chet Meek. A kettle of hawks (riding a thermal -TR1-) A kindle of kittens (-submitted by ojo6-) A kneeling of parishioners (-suggested by RP4-) A knot of eels (-suggested by David Bannister. & saffire@busprod. A jackson of gloves (-suggested by Paul Med Students (-suggested by Daniel J. quoting Richard Lederer's "The Play of Words"-) .ca-) An incision of surgeons (-suggested by David Bannister. A huddle of lawyers (-submitted by Dennis Meyler. cmeek@city. A kettle of drums (-suggested by David Bannister. dmeyler@hti. quoting The Teddy Bear Encyclopedia by Pauline Cockrill. ISBN 1-56458-302-3-) A hum of bees (-suggested by RP4-) A husk of hares (-MG3-) An immersion of baptists (-submitted by ojo6-) An imposition of in-laws (-suggested by RP4-) An incantation of warlocks (-suggested by Chet Meek. db@antiquemaps. A meeting of quakers (-submitted by ojo6-) A melee of rioters (-suggested by RP4-) .edu-) A mass of priests (-submitted by ojo6-) A maul of bears (-suggested by Karl A machination of monkeys (-submitted by ojo6-) A magnum of hitmen (-suggested by Kyle A maze of canyons (-submitted by Jason Harris. A lie of politicians (-submitted anonymously-) A litter of pigs A luck of dice (-suggested by Ginny Gross. shakeney@xtra.bc. A knot of shoelaces (-suggested by Amellia A medusa of knots (-suggested by RP4-) A meet of racehorses (-suggested by Karl A knot of Scottish bankers (-suggested by David Bannister.che. karl_broughton@mindlink.) A knuckle of gangsters (-suggested by Alexandra A labour of moles (-submitted by ojo. bloodflame@dellnet. ginnyg@execpc. db@antiquemaps. via Gerald 'Jerry' Rounds. A knot of toads (derivation: appearance.middlebury. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) A leap of hares (-submitted by A meaning of dictionaries (-suggested by Amellia A lump of toads (-suggested by Rowan Hamilton.stanford. A mask of raccoons (-submitted by ojo6-) A mass of Catholics (-suggested by Dave Mallick. db@antiquemaps. shakeney@xtra. A lechery of priests (-suggested by Toni A leap of leopards (-submitted by ojo6-) A leash of foxes A leash of hares (-suggested by David Bannister.A knot of renters (-suggested by David Bannister. mallick@panther.

db@antiquemaps.utexas. A mess of officers (-submitted by Marila A mixture of pharmacists (-suggested by Chet Meek. quoting Richard Lederer's "The Play of Words"-) A mute of hounds A nag of grandparents (-suggested by David Rachlin. A minyan of Jews (the quorum for a A murmuration of starlings (-TR1-) A muscle of marines (-submitted by ojo6-) A muster of peacocks A muster of soldiers (-submitted by ojo6-) A muster of storks (-TR1-) A mustering of storks (-suggested by Rex A mess of grits (-submitted by Jason Harris. . -submitted by David Rachlin. -suggested by A mess of little boys (-suggested by Joan Garinger. A mess of pottage (-submitted by ojo6-) A mint of candies (-suggested by RP4-) A minuscule of sub-atomic particles (-suggested by Chet Meek. A mug of narcissists (-suggested by RP4-) A multiplication of loafers (-suggested by RP4-) A murder of crows A murmur of alliterations (-suggested by RP4-) A murmer of nuns (as of their sound. A moan of lamentations (-suggested by RP4-) A mob of kangaroo (-submitted by ojo6-) A mob of Texans (-suggested by David Rachlin1@ix.A membership of presbyterians (-submitted by ojo6-) A menage of mongrels (-suggested by Chris.netcom. Rachlin1@ix. cmeek@city. MARILAB@iadb.grande-prairie.

& F.utexas. bob@cknw.A nest of bowls (-suggested by RP4-) A nest of machine guns (-suggested by Greg D.che. troseman@magi. harrij1@weiss. An ostentation of peacocks (-TR1-) A pace of asses (-MG3-) A pack of hounds (-MG3-) A pack of suitcases (-suggested by R. kschonbo@infodoor. A nobility of beasts (-suggested by RP4-) A number of mathematicians (-suggested by Ted A nye of pheasants (while on the ground..che. harrij1@weiss. -CCW2-) A pail of wasps (-suggested by RP4-) A pair of horses A palm of wankers (-suggested by Adrian de A pander of toadies (-suggested by RP4-) A pantheon of gods (-submitted by Jason Harris. A pack of wolves (-MG3-) A pad of (sheets of) paper (-submitted by Jason A nest of mice (-CCW2-) A nest of rabbits (in their habitat -CCW2-) A nest of vipers (-CCW2-) A nest of wasps (-submitted by ojo6-) A network of computers (linked together -submitted by Bob . -CCW2-) An observance of hermits (-submitted by ojo6-) An obscurity of poets (-suggested by RP4-) An orchestra of crickets (-suggested by Marila An orchestra of musicians An order of waiters (-suggested by Karl Schonborn. infoman@gte. A paddling of ducks (while swimming.

jjc147@psuvm. A parliament of owls A parliament of rooks (-submitted by -submitted by ojo6-) A pension of condominiums (-suggested by Paul Gallagher. harrij1@weiss. A plump of wildfowl (-suggested by Rex A phalanx of umbrellas (-suggested by RP4-) A piddle of puppies (-submitted by ojo6-) A pie-full of apples (-suggested by an anonymous fan-) A pile of dung (-submitted by Jason A party of jays (-TR1-) A passel of brats (-submitted by ojo6-) A patch of flowers (-submitted by Jason Harris.A parade of penguins (-submitted by A pathos of mourners (-suggested by RP4-) A patter of footsteps (-submitted by ojo6-) A peal of bells (-submitted by ojo6-) A peep of chickens (-TR1-) A peep-show of CDs (-suggested by Paul Gallagher. harrij1@weiss. A pinhead of angels (-suggested by RP4-) A pink of liberals (-suggested by RP4-) A piteousness of doves (-CCW2-) A pithy of truths (-suggested by RP4-) A pitying of turtledoves (-TR1-) A plague of locusts (-submitted by ojo6-) A plane of geometrists (-suggested by RP4-) A platoon of soldiers (-submitted by Greg Hanka. quoting Richard Lederer's "The Play of Words"-) A plump of waterfowl (-submitted by Dave A pencil of lines (proper contemporary group term in mathematics. paulpg@ozemail. stocklin@earthlink.utexas.

net-) A quaver of arias (-suggested by RP4-) A quiz of teachers (-suggested by Jim A ponder of philosophers (-suggested by Greg Hanka.grande-prairie. via Gerald 'Jerry' Rounds. A pod of seals A pod of whales (-CCW2-) A poke of fencers (-suggested by Mic Bergen. aztech1@cis. from a A prattle of parrots (-submitted by ojo6-) A pretension of intellects (-suggested by Toni Stern.A plunder of goons (-suggested by Chet A posse of posers (-suggested by A prey of nuns (-suggested by Peter & A prevarication of consultants (-suggested by James Macrae. petergeo@pipeline. cmeek@city. burkemat@lyco. mbuenaflor@comcastwork. A quake of seismologists (-suggested by RP4-) A quarrel of lawyers (suggested by Jim Ahlberg. A pomposity of professors (from Boston Common -submitted by Matthew M.french@pwgsc. A prickle of porcupines (-submitted by ojo6-) A pride of lions A pride of stage mothers (-suggested by A prickle of hedgehogs (-submitted by Duane Burke. .net-) A propriety of nouns (-suggested by RP4-) A pryde of griffins (-suggested by Matthew Buenaflor. bloodflame@dellnet. mbergen@anacreon. infoman@gte. ahlberg@ns. A pontificality of prelates (-submitted by ojo6-) A posse of cock-turkeys (-suggested by David Bannister. ghanka@bindview. james. & A pull of silk-screens (-suggested by RP4-) A pumphouse of egos (-suggested by RP4-) A quake of cowards (-suggested by Brian French. db@antiquemaps.

-CCW2-) A raft of widgeon (-submitted by David db@antiquemaps. -submitted by Jason Harris. stocklin@earthlink.A rabble of rats (-suggested by Ken A richness of martens (-MG3-) A ring of keys (linked A reflection of narcissists (-suggested by Paul Healy. as a herd) (-suggested by Phillip Blackerby. A ream of bureaucrats (-suggested by Joseph A rope of pearls (-submitted by ojo6-) A round of circumnavigations (-suggested by RP4-) A round of drinks (-submitted by ojo6-) A route of wolves (-submitted by Rex Stocklin. ahlberg@ns. phillip@perfstrat.che. db@antiquemaps. A regatta of swans (on A Rand of Objectivists (-suggested by Greg harrij1@weiss. harrij1@weiss. phillip@perfstrat. -suggested by Mal quoting Richard Lederer's "The Play of Words"-) A rumble of artillery (-submitted by ojo6-) A rumpus of baboons (-submitted by ojo6-) .com. walkerus@tpg. from the CD-ROM version of the OED-) A rafter of turkeys (-submitted by ojo6-) A rain of cats and dogs (-suggested by Phillip A range of mountains (-submitted by Jason Harris. A release of anglers (-suggested by RP4-) A remuda of extra cowboy mounts (-MG3-) A rhyme of poets (suggested by Jim Ahlberg. from the CDROM version of the OED-) A raft of ducks (while idle in A rack of gears (-suggested by RP4-) A radiance of cardinals (-submitted by ojo6-) A raft of canvass-back ducks (-submitted by David A ramuda of horses (in a large

net-) A school of fish (derivation: A shoal of bass A shoal[e] of goslings (-suggested by David A run of poultry (-submitted by ojo6-) A rush of overnight couriers (-suggested by A rush of pochard (-submitted by ojo.) . A sheaf of wheat (stalks of grain tied together. db@antiquemaps. ojo@ojohaven.che.6-) A skulk of foxes (derivation: behavior. notes -TR1.A run of cowards (-suggested by Rex Stocklin. K. infoman@gte. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) A salon of Poodles (-suggested by Chris. harrij1@weiss. -submitted by ojo6-) A shitload of troubles (-submitted by Jason Harris. db@antiquemaps. & F. submitted anonymously-) A shrewdness of apes A siege of herons A singular of boars (-MG3-) A skein of geese (in flight. from the CD-ROM version of the OED-) A shock of corn (pile of A salt substrate of potato chips (-from The Hacker's Dictionary-) A salt substrate of pretzels (-from The Hacker's Dictionary-) A salt substrate of saltines (-from The Hacker's Dictionary-) A salvo of [artillery] shells (-submitted by ojo6-) A scale of ichthyologists (-suggested by RP4-) A scandal of shoes (-suggested by A shoal of shad (-submitted by David Was originally "shoal".) A sedge of cranes A sea of bishops (-submitted by ojo6-) A set of mathematicians (-suggested by Ted Roseman. -submitted by ojo6-) A shortage of dwarves (-from the Globe and Mail Newspaper?.

com-) A sloth of bears (-submitted by ojo6-) A smack of jellyfish (-submitted by ojo. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) A smashing of luddites (-suggested by RP4-) A smuth of jellyfish (-submitted by A spread of nymphomaniacs (-suggested by [someone at] Evergreen School of A squad of soldiers (-submitted by Marila Belcher.utexas.A slate of candidates (-submitted by ojo6-) A slew of homework (-submitted by Jason Harris. SpiveyK@theiacp.utexas. ljohn@salsa. Rachlin1@ix. A squash of sermons (-suggested by David Bannister. A sord of mallards (-TR1-) A sounder of swine (-submitted by ojo6-) A Sousa of marching bands (suggested by Jim Ahlberg. harrij1@weiss. Rachlin1@ix. ahlberg@ns. A slice of circumcisions (-suggested by RP4-) A slither of gossip columnists (-suggested by RP4-) A slither of snakes (-suggested by David A splash of puddles (-suggested by Amellia Kapa. A sneak of weasels (derivation: behavior.rochelle. ojo@ojohaven. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) A snap of photographers (-suggested by David A squeal of nieces (-suggested by Katherine A stable of prostitutes (-submitted by Jason A sprig of vegetarians (-suggested by RP4-) A spring of seals A spring of teal (-TR1-) A sproutness of mushrooms (-suggested by David Rachlin. A Sodom of shepherds (-suggested by RP4-) A souffle of clouds (derivation: appearance -suggested by Ron Hawker.che. shakeney@xtra. -Laura .org-) A squint of proofreaders (-suggested by Katherine SpiveyK@theiacp. A swarm of dirty ragged plebeians (-suggested by David db@antiquemaps. A swarm of bees (-submitted by ojo6-) A swarm of cockroaches (-suggested by David Bannister. A stock of portfolio managers (-suggested by R. A stash of weed (when hidden. Karpel. A swarm of sycophants (-suggested by David db@antiquemaps. db@antiquemaps. A superfluity of nuns (-submitted by ojo6-) A superfluity of priests (-suggested by David A stand of flamingo (-submitted by ojo6-) A stand of trees (-submitted by Jason A superfluity of similes (-suggested by David Bannister. from Atlantic Veterinary College-) A subtlety of designers (-suggested by Frank A.utexas.. A stench of skunks (-submitted by David Geisel.ab. A steam of turds (-suggested by Adrian de A storm of paratroops (-submitted by ojo6-) A strangle of bad laws (-suggested by Ron Hawker. db@antiquemaps. -submitted by Jason A streak of tigers (-submitted by ojo6-) A stretch of giraffes (-suggested by Katherine .com-) A sulk of teenagers (-suggested by Chet A swarm of suitors (-suggested by David Bannister. SpiveyK@theiacp. A swarm of haries (-suggested by David Bannister. cmeek@city. A string of ponies (-submitted by ojo6-) A stripe of zebras (-suggested by David Rachlin.A staff of employees (-submitted by Philip A stud of mares A studk of jellyfish (-submitted by ojo.bradley. A swarm of literary drones (-suggested by David & F. Jr.netcom. pkarpel@key-logic. K. harrij1@weiss. A tangle of tricksters (according to A tumult of tubas (suggested by Jim . MARILAB@iadb. cmeek@city. BC.. A swelter of blankets (-suggested by Katherine Spivey. Carol Ramsey and the classes of English 160 W97006 and English 160 W97008 at Camosun College in A totter of giraffes (-submitted by ojo6-) A tough of lesbians (-suggested by David Csv1026@aol.A sweetness of sopranos (suggested by Jim Ahlberg. A trip of dotterel (-TR1-) A trip of goats A troop of kangaroo (-submitted by ojo6-) A troop of monkeys (-suggested by Rex Stocklin. A tidings of magpies (-TR1-) A tilt of windmills (-suggested by RP4-) A tok of capercailzies (i. SpiveyK@theiacp. Old World grouse -MG3-) A tongue lashing of interpreters (-suggested by Marila A terror of terriers ("as any cat knows!" -suggested by Chris. A treachery of spies (-suggested by Chet Meek. Montgomery@camosun. (-CCW2-) A team of horses A team of oxen (-submitted by ojo6-) A tedium of golfers (-suggested by David A team of ducks (while flying. quoting Richard Lederer's "The Play of Words"-) A troup of performers (-submitted by Jason Harris.che. harrij1@weiss.bc. db@antiquemaps. Peter Montgomery.ab. Canada -submitted by Prof. ahlberg@ns. A tribe of goats (-MG3-) A tribe of monkeys (-MG3-) A tribe of natives (-submitted by Marila A ticktock of clocks (-submitted by David Henderson. A team of atheletes (-submitted by Jason Harris. A watch of nightingales A wave of surfers (-suggested by Brian French. Murphy-) A wake of vultures (-submitted by ojo6-) A walk of snipe (-MG3-) A wash of emotions (-suggested by Rex A wealth of information A wedge of geese (flying in a "V".nz-) A visit of jehovah's witnesses (-submitted by ojo6-) A volery of birds (-submitted by ojo6-) A waddle of Basset Hounds (-suggested by Chris.vic.grande-prairie. zsmh02@gascor.ab. -TR1-) A wedge of swans (flying in a "V". from Anne A vane of directions (-suggested by RP4-) A vein of goldfinch (-suggested by RP4-) A vigor of hybrids (-suggested by RP4-) A vision of optometrists (-suggested by Amellia Kapa.A tuz of hair (-suggested by David A tyranny of dictators (-suggested by Chet .french@pwgsc. cmeek@city. cmeek@city. A wiggle of Elvis impersonators (-suggested by RP4-) A wing of (fighter) aircraft (-submitted by Jason A wailing of Weight Watchers (-suggested by Sue Henczel. db@antiquemaps. A ubiquity of sparrows (-submitted by ojo6-) An undulation of hills (-suggested by RP4-) An unkindness of ravens (-submitted by Eve Costello-) A vagary of impediments (-suggested by Chet Meek. brian. -TR1-) A whale of surfers (-suggested by RP4-) A whistle of modems (-suggested by Jerry Pournelle in a BYTE article-) A whored of prostitutes (-suggested by Phillip Blackerby.

net-) A yoke of oxen COLLECTIVE NOUNS PEOPLE an army of soldiers a bevy of beauties/girls a band of musicians a band of robbers a board of directors a body of men a bunch of crooks a caravan of gypsies a choir of singers a class of pupils a class of students a company of actors a company of soldiers a congregation of worshippers a crew of sailors a crowd of spectators a crowd of people a dynasty of kings a galaxy of beautiful women a galaxy of film stars a gang of crooks a gang of labourers a gang of prisoners a gang of robbers a gang of thieves a horde of savages a host of angels a line of kings/rulers a mob of rioters a group of dancers a group of singers a pack of rascals a pack of thieves a party of friends a patrol of policemen a posse of policemen a regiment of soldiers a staff of employees a staff of servants a staff of teachers a team of players a tribe of natives a troop of scouts a troupe of artistes a troupe of dancers a troupe of performers a party of friends THINGS . A wonder of stars (-suggested by RP4-) A yoke of pilots (-suggested by A wisdom of owls (-thanks to Diane L. A wisp of snipe A wolfpack of submarines (-submitted by ojo6-) A wriggle of worms (-suggested by Norman Peters.A wisdom of grandparents (-suggested by Jim Ahlberg. diane. Gottheiner. & K. infoman@gte. npeters@mail.

an album of autographs an album of photographs an album of stamps an anthology of poems an archipelago of islands a bale of cotton a basket of fruit a batch of bread a battery of guns a block of flats a book of exercises a book of notes a bouquet of flowers a bowl of rice a bunch of bananas a bunch of flowers a bunch of grapes a bunch of keys a bundle of rags/old clothes a bundle of firewood/sticks a bundle of hay a catalogue of prices/goods a chain of mountains a chest of drawers a cluster of coconuts a cluster of grapes a cloud of dust a clump of bushes a clump of trees a collection of coins a collection of curiosities a collection of pictures a collection of relics a collection of stamps a column of smoke a comb of bananas a compendium of games a constellation of stars a cluster of diamonds a cluster of stars a clutch of eggs a crate of fruit a crop of apples a fall of rain a fall of snow a fleet of motor-cars/taxis a fleet of ships a flight of aeroplanes a hail of bullets a hand of bananas (each a finger) a harvest of wheat/corn a heap of rubbish a heap of ruins a hedge of bushes a heap of stones a layer of soil/dirt a library of books a line of cars a list of names a mass of ruins/hair a necklace of pearls an outfit of clothes an orchard of fruit trees a pack of cards a pack of lies a packet of cigarettes a packet of letters a pair of shoes a pencil of rays a quiver of arrows a range of hills a range of mountains a ream of paper a reel of thread/film a roll of film/cloth a rope of pearls a row of houses a series of events a set of china a set of clubs a set of tools a sheaf of arrows a sheaf of corn a sheaf of grain a sheaf of papers a sheaf of wheat a shower of blows a shower of rain a stack of arms a stack of corn a stack of hay a stack of timber a stack of wood a stock of wood a string of beads a string of pearls .

a flight of steps a forest of trees a galaxy of stars a garland of flowers a glossary of difficult words/phrases a group of islands a grove of trees a suit of clothes a suite of furniture a suite of rooms a tuft of grass a tuft of hair a wad of currency/notes a wreath of flowers ANIMALS an army of ants a bevy of quail a brood/flock of chickens a catch of fish a cloud of flies a cloud of insects a cloud of locusts a colony of gulls a drove of cattle a drove of horses a flight of birds a flight of doves a flight of locusts a flight of swallows a flock of birds a flock of geese a flock of sheep a gaggle of geese a haul of fish a herd of buffaloes a herd of cattle a herd of deer a herd of elephants a herd of goats a herd of swine a hive of bees a host of sparrows a kindle of kittens a litter of cubs a litter of piglets a litter of kittens a litter of puppies a menagerie of wild animals a muster of peacocks a nest of ants a nest of mice a nest of rabbits a pack of hounds a pack of wolves a plague of insects a plague of locusts a pride of lions a school of herrings/other small a afish a school of porpoises a school of whales a shoal of fish a skein of wild geese in flight a string of horses a stud of horses a swarm of ants a swarm of bees a swarm of insects a swarm of locusts a team of horses a team of oxen a train of camels a tribe of goats a troop of lions a troop of monkeys a zoo of wild animals .

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