GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 1

Contents
GCE AS and A Level English Language & Literature Teachers’ Guide

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1. Introduction 1.1 - Overview of the 2009-10 specification 1.2 - New and familiar elements Delivering the specification 2.1 - Pathways through the Specification 2.2 - LL1 2.3 - LL2 A2 Unit Overviews 3.1 – LL3 3.2 – LL4 Appendices 1. LL1 Section A Specimen Answer 2. LL1 Framework Single Texts 3. LL1 Framework Single Texts (2) 4. LL1 Framework Single Texts (completed) 5. LL1 Section A: making the connections 6. The Cone 7. Top Ten Induction Activities 8. Terminology Tool-Kit Table Assessment Grids

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Contributors to the Teachers’ Guide

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Issued March 2008

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 2

1.

INTRODUCTION
The WJEC AS and A2 English Language & Literature specification has been modified and updated for delivery from September 2008. The first AS awards will be made in summer 2009 and the first A level awards in summer 2010. For the first availability of units, see page 2 of the specification. The specification can be delivered and assessed in centres throughout the UK. The revised subject criteria for GCE English Language & Literature issued by the regulators have necessitated a change in the course structure from the current 3 plus 3 modules to a 2 plus 2 structure. This Guide is one of a number of ways in which the WJEC provides assistance to teachers delivering the new specification. Also essential to its introduction are the Specimen Assessment Materials (question papers and marking schemes) and professional development (INSET) conferences. Other provision which you will find useful are: • Examiners’ reports on each examinations series • Free access to past question papers via the WJEC secure website • Easy access to specification and other key documents on main website • English teachers’ bulletin which is regularly updated on the subject page of the website • Regular INSET delivered by Chief Examiners plus resource materials • Initial coursework moderation support meetings between centres and their moderators • Exemplar materials for assessing the coursework units, LL2 and LL3. • WJEC shop for purchasing texts in person, by phone or online • Easy access to both the Subject Officer and to administrative sections. The purpose of this guide is to offer support to teachers in their delivery of the new WJEC English Language & Literature specification. Although there is some discussion of the specification as a whole, the first issue of this guide is primarily concerned with supporting teachers in their delivery of the AS units in the first year of the course, from September 2008 to summer 2009. More detailed support for the A2 units will follow in Spring 2008. Each unit is discussed in this document in more detail than in the specification, with greater emphasis on strategies for teaching and further advice on task-setting in the coursework units. In supporting the central tenets of the new specification, this guide places particular emphasis on the second and third aims stated on page 8 of the specification: To encourage students to develop their interest and enjoyment in English as they • engage creatively and independently with a wide range of spoken, written and multi-modal texts, exploring the relationships between texts

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 3

undertake independent and sustained studies to develop their skills as producers and interpreters of language.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 4

Contact Points for GCE English Language & Literature are as follows: Cerys Preece (Subject Officer) email: cerys.preece@wjec.co.uk tel: 02920265303 Mike Williams (Subject Support Officer) email: mike.williams@wjec.co.uk tel :02920265129 Subject page: www.wjec.co.uk

INSET Section inset@wjec.co.uk www.wjec.co.uk/professionaldevelopment

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 5

1.1 Overview of the 2009-10 specification
ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE AS (2 units) LL1 30% 2½ hour Written Paper 80 marks (120 UMS) Critical Reading of Literary and Non-Literary Texts Section A: Poetry pre-1900 (closed text) + unseen text Choice of one from two questions (40 marks) Section B: Prose (open text) 2 prose texts: choice of one from two questions (40 marks) LL2 20% Internal Assessment 80 marks (80 UMS) Creative Writing 3 tasks (80 marks: 2 x 20; 1 x 40) • 2 creative writing tasks • commentary on both creative writing tasks A LEVEL (the above plus a further 2 units) LL3 20% Internal Assessment 80 marks ( 80 UMS) Analysing and Producing Performance Texts Section A: Dramatic texts in context 2 texts – one piece of extended writing (40 marks) Section B: Producing texts for performance 2 texts• writing 2 original texts for performance • evaluating one of the texts (40 marks) LL4 30% 2½ hours Written Paper 80 marks ( 120 UMS) Comparative Textual Analysis and Review Section A: Comparative analysis of texts 3 unseen texts: one question (40 marks) Section B: Reviewing approaches 1 text (poetry/prose- open text) Choice of one from 6 questions (40 marks)

(but at both AS and A2) Choice of texts for coursework at A2 Drama pre-1770 (Shakespeare) at A2 Comparative analysis of unseen texts for A2 exam Units available in January and June Tracking Changes to the assessment objectives (highlighted in bold) Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study.new specification Communicate clearly the knowledge.2010 specification : new and familiar elements New 4 units instead of 6 (2 AS. using appropriate terminology and accurate written expression AO1. 2 A2) 4 assessment objectives Compulsory coursework-40% (AS 20%.new specification Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. drawing on knowledge of literary texts and features of language to explain and comment on the choices made AO6.new specification Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts.new specification Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences.current specification Respond to and analyse texts.current specification Show understanding of the ways contextual variation and choices of form. A2 20%) 6 texts instead of 4 ‘Core’ texts and ‘partner’ texts Original writing in both coursework units Mark schemes – generally 20 or 40 instead of 25 or 50 Familiar Poetry pre-1900 anthology and prose text for AS exam Comparing texts. drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies AO4. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts AO2. style and vocabulary shape the meaning of texts AO4. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception AO3.current specification .current specification Demonstrate expertise and accuracy in writing for a variety of specific purposes and audiences.2 The 2009 .GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 6 1. style and vocabulary shape the meaning of texts AO4. using literary and linguistic concepts and approaches AO3i-current specification Show understanding of the ways contextual variation and choices of form. using appropriate terminology and accurate. coherent written expression AO1. understanding and insights gained from the combined study of literary and linguistic study.

The texts selected for detailed study are referred to as ‘core’ texts and the texts selected for wider reading are referred to as ‘partner’ texts. literary/non-literary. The partner text illuminates the core text study and helps inform students’ understanding of the core text by facilitating links or contrasts. 2. Creativity and Independence Creativity This specification encourages students’ active and imaginative engagement with texts through: • • • • flexible coursework arrangements allowing creative pairings of texts (LL3) exam questions which promote fresh and innovative approaches to texts providing candidates with the opportunity to produce their own creative writing in response to their wider reading (LL2) providing candidates with the opportunity to produce their own creative performance texts (LL3). Core and partner pairings Core LL1 Section B LL3 Partner core + partner prose core drama (Shakespeare)+ partner drama/performance text The core and partner approach extends to other areas of the course. where candidates are required to make connections between a set text and unseen material LL1 Section A core poetry (anthology)+ partner unseen extract and also where candidates are required to make connections between a set text and previously studied material LL4 Section B Core poetry/prose + comparative reference to any texts studied. spoken /written It is important to remember that: • candidates are required to show detailed critical understanding of their core text • examiners and moderators will value the quality of connections rather than the number of connections made between core and partner texts.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 7 2.1 DELIVERING THE SPECIFICATION Pathways through the specification (AS and A2) Core and partner texts The WJEC specification provides opportunities for students to read texts both for detailed study and for wider reading. .

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 8 Independence This specification provides opportunities independence by encouraging students to: • • • for appropriate levels of student select material from partner texts to illuminate core text study select texts for wider reading for coursework make appropriate connections between the core text and independently selected material (LL4). . teachers may prefer to select texts themselves for wider reading in coursework units. However.

analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception than to AO2 (8 marks): • demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. which carries 16 out of the 40 available marks: • select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study. The two texts will be linked in terms of content. written/spoken. The unseen text may be of any genre. The questions are designed to provide candidates with the opportunity to make connections between a poem from the anthology studied by the candidate and another text previously unseen by the candidate. The poem from the anthology will be printed on the paper. It will be helpful if centres email WJEC (mike. Accessing the questions in Section A It is important to remember that although the poem from the anthology is the core text. Candidates should develop a range of skills to apply to analysis of a variety of text types. using appropriate terminology and accurate. candidates are expected to do justice to both the printed poem and the unseen extract. using knowledge and skills gained from their integrated study of language and literature. literary/non-literary. Indeed. coherent written expression and to AO3.uk) their anticipated number of required anthologies before summer half term preceding AS study. to replace those poems already featured in the Specimen Paper.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 9 2.40 marks (closed text) Relevant Assessment Objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 This section is based on the comparative analysis of two texts.2 LL1 Approaching LL1: Critical Reading of Literary and Non-Literary Texts – 80 marks Section A: Poetry pre-1900 and unseen text . and candidates will be required to compare and contrast them. Blake’s London has been replaced by Blake’s The Tyger and Wordsworth’s There Was A Boy has been replaced by Wordsworth’s Composed Upon Westminster Bridge. Candidates are required to answer one out of a choice of two questions. they will not be able to make fruitful comparisons unless they analyse both texts in appropriate detail. As this section of the examination is ‘closed text’. The weighting of the assessment objectives gives more emphasis to AO1. Please note that we have made two changes to the draft anthology.co. . one of which will be a poem from an anthology of poetry pre-1900 produced by WJEC. theme or style. The anthology will be periodically refreshed.williams@wjec. candidates are not permitted to take a copy of the anthology into the examination. which also carries 16 marks: • use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts.

which invite candidates to compare and contrast. in order to facilitate the use of the partner text as a source of illumination for the core text. therefore exploring relationships between the texts and to consider the influence of contextual factors. Future Audrey Niffenegger: The Time Traveler’s Wife (Vintage) Telling Stories Ghita Mehta: A River Sutra (Minerva) Partner Prose Text Andrea Ashworth: Once in a House on Fire (Macmillan) D. • explore the influence of different contextual factors. Specimen Paper Question Compare and contrast Text A and Text B. using integrated approaches to analyse texts.G. Present. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers (Penguin Classics) Peter Carey: True History of the Kelly Gang (Faber) Bill Bryson: The Lost Continent (Black Swan) H. the delivery of texts will depend on departmental strategies and timetabling contingencies. However. Section B: Prose – 40 marks (open text – 'clean' copies) Relevant Assessment Objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 This section is based on candidates’ study of two prose texts from a prescribed list. Wells: The Time Machine (Penguin Classics) Raymond Carver: Short Cuts (The Harvill Press) Candidates are required to attempt one question out of a choice of two on each core/partner pairing. In your response you should: • show understanding of the meanings in each text. H. . Preparing the core and partner prose texts It would probably be most helpful if one teacher delivers both texts. Candidates are required to study in depth one ‘core’ text and for wider reading the corresponding ‘partner’ text from the list below: Core Prose Text Childhood Alexander Masters: Stuart: A Life Backwards (Harper Perennial) Parody Stella Gibbons: Cold Comfort Farm (Penguin Classics) Creative Non-Fiction Truman Capote: In Cold Blood (Penguin Modern Classics) Travel Robert Minhinnick: Watching the Fire-Eater (Seren) Past. • use integrated linguistic and literary approaches to analyse the texts. Clean copies (no annotation) of the texts studied must be taken into the examination.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 10 This emphasis is reflected in the specimen paper questions.

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL1 AO1 (16 marks) • select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study. ‘Concepts and approaches’ will be addressed in candidates’ knowledge. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception . AO3 (16 marks) • use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. coherent written expression. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts This AO enables candidates to show their skill of identifying and describing how meanings and effects are created and conveyed in texts. Critical understanding should include candidates’ awareness of some of the ways in which individual texts may be interpreted by different readers or listeners. It is worth emphasising that detailed analysis of structure. See the Terminology Table Tool-kit in the Appendices for some suggestions. ‘Appropriate’ terminology should include a reasonable range of relevant terms from the ‘tool-kit’ acquired in the course of integrated study of both literary and non-literary texts. using appropriate terminology and accurate. ‘Accurate. coherent written expression There are three strands to this AO: (i) (ii) (iii) relevant concepts and approaches appropriate terminology accurate. and in the core and partner texts in Section B.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 11 It is worth remembering that: • the partner text does not have to be taught/studied in the same depth and detail as the core text • there is no required amount of references to make to the partner text: it is the quality of the connections that counts and their contribution to the cogency and relevance of the response. understanding and relevant application of some of the key constituents of language and literary techniques and how they function in combination to create meaning in the poem and unseen extract in Section A. coherent’ writing will support the expression of ideas and construction of an argument. form and language is required only for the core text in Section B. AO2 (8 marks) • demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure.

Section A foregrounds this focus. Use integrated linguistic and literary approaches to analyse how Capote establishes a sense of place in this extract. Candidates will be required to show knowledge and understanding of how variations in language.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 12 There are two strands to this AO: (i) (ii) exploring relationships between texts the significance of contextual factors. as will the use of integrated approaches throughout. in order to do justice to the ‘exploring relationships between texts’ aspect of this AO and to merit the 16 marks for AO3. The 16 marks for AO3 will be awarded to the second half of the question. Capote: In Cold Blood (Core text) Carey: True History of the Kelly Gang (Partner text) Read the extract from In Cold Blood from the beginning of the novel to ‘front porches’. Examiners will expect to see more ‘detailed critical understanding’ of the core text. while Section B provides candidates first with an extract from the core text to discuss in detail before addressing the comparative focus of the question. Despite this difference in question structure. making connections and considering contexts. Example of a question from Section B of LL1 Specimen Paper Q 4. where candidates have to consider both texts in relation to the question. as a coherently argued response will be obviously important. as reflected in the structure of the question. . How do Capote and Carey use location in both In Cold Blood and True History of the Kelly Gang? AO2 carries 8 marks out of 40. The contextual factors should be considered in respect of both texts in both sections. form and context shape and change meanings in speech (where a spoken language text is presented for analysis in Section A) and writing. candidates will need to allocate sufficient time to make connections between the two texts in both sections. The questions in both sections provide a comparative focus to allow students to make connections between their texts in their response. The 16 marks allocated for AO1 can be awarded for discussion of both texts.

7. 3. then they should be able to apply the technique to an unseen text that is not from the poetry anthology. The individual groups should feedback their findings to the rest of the class and every student should be able to complete a Framework for analysing single texts based on a set poem. . in pairs or groups. 6. These pairs of texts could then be exchanged with other individuals/groups in order for the students to attempt an exam style question set by their own classmates. (see example of a Framework grid in the Appendix) When the students are comfortable with analysing the poetry using the single text framework. 9. 4.g. set the students a poem from the anthology and the task of finding a text which is linked thematically to the poem. (see example of a Framework for comparing in the Appendix) Follow up task: Working individually. The students should record their analysis in the form of a S (statement) E (evidence) A (analysis) grid. Begin discussion/analysis of each poem with an overview of the poem’s key ideas and the relevant contextual factors which may have influenced or shaped the poem in some way. A peer assessment task using the marking guidelines and assessment criteria from the grid would be an interesting way to conclude the activity. 5. These texts can come from a wide variety of sources.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 13 Approaching LL1: Practical Suggestions 1. Present the students with a variety of texts which have thematic links with the poems in the anthology. 10. 2. The Cone (see Appendix/subject pages of website). Eventually introduce candidates to the framework for comparing texts by using texts they have already analysed in isolation. Do not attempt any comparisons at this stage. Still focus on single text analysis. Develop a framework for studying the poems e. Take a structured approach to the teaching of each poem by using The Cone and the bullet points given in the examination questions for LL1: • overview (Content/Context) • structure and form • narrative stance • grammar/ sentence structure • lexis and imagery • phonology and sound patterning • orthography and punctuation Get the students to work in groups by dividing up the bullet points and allocating one focus per group. The students should produce a comparative analysis of their set poem and the unseen text they selected. 8.

Presentation Tools: • ICT (PowerPoint) • Interactive Whiteboard • OHP • Handouts • Mind Maps / Flow Charts • Timelines • Bullets / Headers . on a single side of A4. SOCIO-HISTORICAL CONTEXT 3. Context Presentation Aim: In pairs or small groups. The first presentations will be delivered on. to be distributed to your classmates.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 14 Approaching Contextual Factors in Section A Poetry The following could be given to students as an opportunity to show independence and to start them thinking about contexts in relation to the Anthology poems. LITERARY / ARTISTIC CONTEXT Produce a summary of your key points.  You will be formally assessed on the content and presentation of your information. You have three weeks to complete your assignment. BIOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT 2. to produce a five minute presentation on the life and work of one of the poets from the Anthology. In your presentation you must:   Read aloud the poem from the Anthology written by your chosen poet Present the information on your poet under three headings: 1.

What links can I find between the poet’s personal life and poetry? Have the poet’s religious beliefs. 4. philosophy. parents. or people from different cultural or class backgrounds have on the poet’s work? Was the country at war or was it a peaceful time when your poet was writing? How may this have affected his/her work? Was the poet one of a group or movement of poets who shared similar aims or poetic style? Was the poet influenced by the work of other poets who preceded them? Were the concerns of the poet’s writing shared by artists or musicians of the period? . 5. occupation. 10. hobbies. and how did this affect his/her work? In what religious context was the poet working? What impact did attitudes to women. 6. 2. 8. relationships. friends.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 15 You may wish to ask yourself the following questions when conducting your research: 1. 9. hopes or fears affected the poetry in any way? What sort of world was the poet living and working in? Which country does your poet come from? Had the poet travelled out of that country and how may this have affected his/her poetry? Who was the reigning monarch at the time the poet was writing. 3. 7. 11.

which . and begin to type once more. fought with laser guidance and aircraft that looked as though they had been designed and built on Mars. was killed by German gunfire one week before the Great War ended. TEXT B An article by Roland White for The Sunday Times Can a computer help you write a novel? Roland White puts a new software package to the test (with a little help from Tolstoy) 'Love-tryst mum in death plunge' The questions most frequently asked of great novelists must surely be: where do you get your ideas from. Salman. those poems had seemed so old. To me. but from now on. it's been changed back to "Chapter One". You admire these words for about five minutes. however. and then you begin to write. but then doubts set in. was no video game. feeling miserable. This. Oh. with orange-brown slime. You decide to make more tea. his mother received the telegram on Armistice Day). I imagined what my face must have looked like. making us flinch with every rumble.a thunderstorm arrived from the north. The Americans could move across entire countries in the time it took the Germans to advance three feet during the Battle of the Somme. God. By the end of the day. Tolstoy and that crowd. You sit at your desk in the morning. this is what the routine seems to be. was clean. that this is very much yesterday's way of writing the great novel. so irrelevant. TEXT A Extract from War Reporting for Cowards by Chris Ayres I remembered how the Marine commanders in Kuwait had boasted that the Marines were an “all-weather fighting force. Modern war. it's great stuff. It was all right for Dickens. By lunch. You do the ironing. but in the kitchen you spot a pile of ironing. . like everything else. caked. You get up from your seat and pace up and down. I thought . I am pleased to report. Just to make matters worse -quite a feat in the circumstances. You can forget the Booker. But the wind and the mud made me feel like a character in one of the Wilfred Owen poems I had studied in high school (Owen.99 . You stare out of the window for a couple of minutes. You return to your screen. this year's is pretty much in the bag.claims to take the pain out of creativity. the modern author will be doing it all by computer. unluckily. a lucky gonk and some spare opium. this is good. which you drink in the kitchen. the five-day Gulf War I had seemed like a thrilling video game. quick. On this desk are a computer. • Look quickly through the texts below. from my very brief experience of writing great novels. It's certainly got style.for £29.” unstoppable by anything that Iraq’s annual spring storm season could hurl at them. but is it really an improvement? You are not sure. however. after all.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 16 Preparation for LL1 Section A The following could be given to students as a starter activity. Then you make another cup of tea. a cup of tea. you stare at your screen and the words "Chapter One" stare back at you. After what seems an age. and efficient. At the time. • Now find poems from the WJEC Anthology that would link well to them. the words "Chapter One" now read "Part the First". and how exactly do you work? Well. A businessman called Richard Lee has invented some software called newnovelist.

commissioned by the Department of Health. TEXT D an extract from The Royal College of Psychiatrists’ website Introduction We all feel fed up. Sometimes there's a reason. research published today shows. the middle-class vice David Brown Post your comments at the bottom of this article Drinkers in middle-class areas are more likely routinely to consume “hazardous” amounts of alcohol than those in poorer areas. with Runnymede in Surrey and Harrogate in North Yorkshire topping the league tables. “Hazardous” levels for women are between five and twelve large glasses of wine a week and for men between seven and seventeen glasses.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 17 TEXT C From The Times October 16. The percentage of adults drinking “hazardous” levels of alcohol ranges from 14. said: “Most of these are not young people. and they don't interfere too much with our lives.4 per cent. Dawn Primarolo. or suffering from depression. It found that people living in relatively affluent areas are more likely to be drinking at above sensible levels than those living in deprived areas. sometimes they just come out of the blue. Some of the country’s most wealthy areas were found to have the biggest number of “hazardous drinkers”. This has to change. We may have a chat with a friend but don't otherwise need any help. the Public Health Minister. they are ‘everyday’ drinkers who have drunk too much for too long. concludes that just 22 units per week will push a man into the “hazardous” category. A pint of normal strength beer is two units. One large glass of wine — 250ml at 12 per cent alcohol — represents three units. The research. by the North West Public Health Observatory. miserable or sad at times.1 per cent to 26. when: • their feelings of depression don't go away quickly and • they are so bad that they interfere with their everyday life. Social drinkers who regularly down more than one large glass of wine a day will be told they risk damaging their health in the same way as young binge drinkers.” The research. The figures will be used by the Government to target middle-class wine drinkers and to make drunkenness as socially unacceptable as smoking. Someone is said to be significantly depressed. These feelings don't usually last longer than a week or two. 2007 Hazardous drinking. We usually cope with them ourselves. while women need to drink just 15 units. . is the first nationwide analysis of the impact of “social drinking”.

usually in the morning think of suicide.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 18 What does it feel like to be depressed? The feeling of depression is much more powerful and unpleasant than the short episodes of unhappiness that we all experience from time to time. . Most people with depression will not have all the symptoms listed here. but most will have at least five or six. inadequate and hopeless avoid other people feel irritable feel worse at a particular time each day. It can last for months rather than days or weeks. and then wake up earlier than usual lose interest in sex lose your self-confidence feel useless. It goes on for much longer. You: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • feel unhappy most of the time (but may feel a little better in the evenings) lose interest in life and can't enjoy anything find it harder to make decisions can't cope with things that you used to feel utterly tired feel restless and agitated lose appetite and weight (some people find they do the reverse and put on weight) take 1-2 hours to get off to sleep.

(a) One piece of writing must be literary. (20 marks) (b) The pieces do not need to be of equal length.000 words. The assessment is based on a folder of work of approximately 3. etc.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 19 2. Candidates are required to produce two pieces of original writing. comprising three pieces in total. (20 marks) The second piece must be non-literary: journalism.000 words. but should total approximately 2. and a commentary on both pieces. each of approximately 1.000 words. The following suggestions offer an extension/expansion to those suggested in the specification: (a) • • • • • • • • • • (b) • • • • • • • • • • • • • travel writing/guides speech a magazine article a newspaper report a tabloid/broadsheet article on the same topic an advertising campaign an informative or persuasive leaflet theatre/film/music/art reviews. information texts. website brochure an editorial a report a formal letter genre-specific narrative prose the opening chapter to a novel a prologue to a novel children’s writing a narrative in the form of letter writing monologue diary playscript autobiographical writing an anthology of poems (approximately 8 poems) .3 LL2 Approaching LL2: Creative Writing – 80 marks This coursework unit is internally assessed and externally moderated. inspired by the candidate’s wider independent reading -this should not be a text already studied for LL1. reviews.

such practice raises awareness of the generic conventions of the piece of writing.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 20 These are only suggestions and students may attempt other kinds of writing. In their commentary students must: • • • identify the literary and linguistic features they have employed discuss the impact of these features within their own writing show understanding of how different choices in language and form can create meaning through a comparison of the two pieces they have written. Therefore. For example. in preparing your students for their personal writing it is suggested that they study a range of stimuli in the chosen genre – this not only helps students in terms of varying their own writing styles but is also useful in preparing them for their commentaries as. in theory. Centres who provide a very narrow range of tasks (for example. and style in both pieces of their original writing. in order to facilitate the comparison of texts. (c) Commentary (40 marks) Candidates will be required to produce a commentary of approximately 1000 words. modifiers and verbs does . making points of comparison and contrast between them. provided that (a) is clearly literary and (b) is clearly non-literary. only two) may limit the performance of their candidates. The commentary formally assesses candidates’ understanding of their choices of content. LL2 requires students to demonstrate expertise and accuracy in writing for a variety of specific purposes and audiences. they should be discouraged from spending too much time on this area. Students can then submit their two best pieces (one literary and one non-literary). form. playing to their personal strengths and thus. Candidates may prefer to have a thematic link between the two types of writing. advisable that students be offered a wide range of tasks and that the sub-sample sent to the moderator is reflective of this practice. therefore. It is. maximising their potential in this unit. the identification of nouns. drawing on knowledge of literary and non-literary texts and features of language to explain and comment on the choices made. as the restricted nature of such task-setting does not always allow students to write in a genre that best suits their skills and interests. The purpose of the commentary is to allow students to discuss and evaluate the stylistic choices they have made. The primary focus of the commentary must be the discussion of the similarities and differences of their stylistic choices. The following approach is useful in ensuring the correct focus: • • • Statement – identify the term Evidence – quote the example Analysis – discuss the impact of the identified feature In their analytical commentaries students should be encouraged to identify a broad range of terms. Even though only two pieces of original writing are required for the final folder. Although some students may wish to discuss the reasons for their choice of genre. it is advisable for centres to provide students with the opportunity to write in a range of different forms and styles.

. The Cone in Appendix 6 contains a wide range of terms and is an excellent framework for tackling the commentary.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 21 not constitute a wide range of terms.

Candidates will be required to give details of the stimulus text for the literary writing (a) on the coversheet. (a) Anthology of Poetry of conflict (6-8 poems) (b) Political speech promoting peace Note: this approach will not suit all students. The commentary. and to refer to this text in their commentary in terms of its influence on their own writing. (b) Newspaper/magazine article on crime/infidelity/UFOs 3. Moderators will allow some flexibility with regard to the suggested word limit as long as the quality of the piece is sustained. While it is good practice for students to read several types of texts/genres to research ideas. in particular. these word limits are approximate and should be applied sensibly. Further Guidance Candidates are expected to adhere as closely as possible to the guidelines as stated in the specification. tends to become repetitive and descriptive. and may inhibit the creativity of some. (a) Dramatic monologue/drama script on teenage theme (b) Double-page magazine spread on teenage issues 2. . Candidates who offer work that is too brief risk penalising themselves by not allowing appropriate coverage of the required assessment objectives.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 22 Suggestions for a thematic approach to tasks: 1. Remember to encourage and create opportunities for independent work and guard against the temptation to have the whole class tackling the same coursework task. Candidates who significantly exceed the word limit risk penalising themselves through a lack of precision and focus. They are meant to support the candidate and not to have a detrimental effect on the candidate’s overall performance. (a) Genre writing on crime/love/sci-fi etc. However. they are advised to refer to one text in particular.

However. coherent and well-structured writing as well as appropriate use of language. AO1. and there will be varying degrees of individuality and flair. ‘Creativity’ can be measured in terms of engagement with the task.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 23 Guidance on Assessing LL2 The creative writing tasks (a) and (b) are assessed through one Assessment Objective. AO4: Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences. drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies There are 20 marks available for each piece of writing. It can be seen from the Assessment Grid in Section 6 that the 40 marks for this section are notionally divided up as follows: AO1: 10 AO2: 10 AO3: 20. . register. focusing instead on general observations and advice re possible improvements Student submits final version for assessment Coversheet is signed to authenticate Cross-moderation in centre where possible External moderation: selection of sample and submission of sample work to external moderator. making a total of 40. making points of comparison and contrast between them: • use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts.5) AO2% 5 (2. This breakdown may be helpful when assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of a response.LL2 • • • • • • • • Planning stage Discussion between student and teacher of ideas/notes Drafting. avoiding detailed annotation of student’s work. AO3 carries 20 marks as candidates are required to comment on both pieces of their original written work. AO2 and AO3.5) AO3% 10 (5) AO4% 20 (10) Managing Coursework. Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL2 Weighting of assessment objectives LL2 (full A level in brackets) LL2 TOTAL % 40 (20) AO1% 5 (2. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception The other two Assessment Objectives. The commentary task (c) is assessed through three Assessment Objectives. AO1and AO2 each carry 10 marks. style and tone. purpose and audience. ‘Expertise’ should encompass accurate. and should give an holistic mark to cover all three objectives.student submits a draft response (WJEC recommends that after the planning stage the student produces only one draft before the final version) Teacher response with advice/guidance. teachers should try to find the ‘best fit’ for assessment.

It is important to remember that AO3 is double weighted in this unit: AO3: use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. AO2. accurate. independent research and creative writing linked to performance. candidates are required to demonstrate synoptic achievement through: • synthesis of insights gained from the study of a range of texts. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception Therefore the choice of partner drama text should be carefully considered regarding what it can offer the student in terms of exploring relationships between texts and considering contextual factors. A2 UNIT OVERVIEWS The following overviews are intended to give further clarification of the requirements of these two synoptic units. It encourages the development of extended formal essay-writing skills. Section A: Dramatic texts in context . and from any time period. should be approximately 3000 words. For Section A they will study two dramatic texts. and for Section B they will write two original performance texts and evaluate one of them. The second drama/performance text can be by any author other than Shakespeare. AO3 1500 words approximately The Shakespeare text selected should be the focus of students’ detailed study. and an indication of possible approaches to planning and delivering the A2 course from September 2009. It can also be a screenplay/play script for a film/play that has already been produced/performed.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 24 3. wellargued responses to texts.40 marks Relevant assessment objectives: AO1. as this should be regarded as the ‘core’ text. as for LL2. Centres must nominate both selected texts for approval by WJEC no later than the end of December of the A2 year. More detailed support and guidance will be added later. both spoken and written. and so the study of this text will be broader in focus and should illuminate the Shakespeare study. The folder of work for this unit. This text should be regarded as the ‘partner’ text. • skills of interpretation and expression to give insightful. Candidates are required to produce a folder of work divided into two sections. • evidence of ability to select appropriate analytical tools to assess the validity of different views expressed about texts and contexts of production and reception.1 LL3 Approaching LL3 – 20% Analysing and Producing Performance Texts (synoptic) 80 marks The focus of this coursework unit is on texts produced for performance. one of which must be Shakespeare. In both units. . 3.

In cases where this might be difficult to achieve. and creative engagement with integrated study of texts will be most apparent where students have been given opportunities for independent study. By close analysis of linguistic and dramatic devices. but students are free to choose another suitable focus. The spirit of the new specification encourages independence wherever possible. explore how humour is used in both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead to present important themes. Compare and contrast how dramatists use linguistic and literary techniques to present magic in The Tempest and The Crucible. . Centres may choose any of the following approaches to teaching this unit: (a) (b) (c) Teachers choose the core Shakespeare play for class study and encourage students to choose the partner performance text Teachers choose both texts Students choose both texts themselves for independent study and research. Ideas for pairing LL3 performance texts Romeo and Juliet (core) Pulp Fiction/True Romance/Shakespeare in Love The Taming of the Shrew (core) A Streetcar Named Desire/A Doll’s House/Oleanna/Ten Things I hate About You Twelfth Night (core) The Crying Game/Shakespeare in Love Macbeth (core) The Crucible/Death of a Salesman King Lear (core) The Homecoming/Glengarry Glen Ross/Talking Heads (A Cream Cracker Under the Settee) /Cat on a Hot Tin Roof/House of America/The Godfather Hamlet (core) Waiting for Godot/Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead/The Duchess of Malfi Othello (core) O The Tempest (core) The Crucible Much Ado about Nothing (core) Measure for Measure (core) Atonement (screenplay)/Measure for Measure/Indecent Proposal Henry V (core) Journey’s End Coriolanus (core) Reservoir Dogs Examples of tasks: Compare how language is used to establish power relationships in King Lear and Pinter’s The Homecoming.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 25 The focus of the study may be thematic. centres should endeavour to provide sufficient variety in tasks to allow for individual choices. for example.

intonation and other prosodic features Tapes from which the transcription has been made should not be submitted. candidates will be required to: • write 2 original spoken texts for performance for different audiences and purposes (approximately 1000 words in total). One of the 2 original texts should be transcribed. and should give an holistic mark to cover all three objectives. Compare how parent-child relationships are presented in King Lear and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. Section B: Producing texts for performance . Candidates are free to perform the texts themselves but there is no requirement for this. With reference to The Taming of the Shrew and Ten Things I Hate About you/Othello and O/Romeo and Juliet and Shakespeare in Love. Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL3 Section A LL3 SECTION A % 20 (10) AO1% 5 (2. The original spoken texts can be spontaneous or prepared. i.5) AO2% 5 (2.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 26 Using integrated linguistic and literary approaches. discuss how language is used to convey attitudes to women in Much Ado About Nothing and Oleanna. • evaluate the effectiveness of one of the texts they have produced (approximately 500 words). stress.40 marks 1500 words approximately For this section.e. but again.5) AO3% 10 (5) The weighting of the relevant assessment objectives is reflected in the notional distribution of marks out of a total of 40 as follows: AO1: 10 marks AO2: 10 marks AO3: 20 marks Teachers should use the LL3 Section A Assessment Grid (see specification and Section 6 of this Guide) to try to find the ‘best fit’ for assessment. Compare the writers’ techniques for entertaining an audience in both Romeo and Juliet and Shakespeare and Love. this need not be in front of an audience. . Obviously in order to produce a transcription the text would have to be performed and taped. explore how characters are interpreted in different contexts. Other possible areas to explore: • • • • • Re-working narrative Presentation of men Heroes and villains Significance of contexts Attitudes and values of different societies. showing pauses.

However. e. Examples of task-setting Example 1 (a) a stand-up comedy routine that has been performed. Example 2 (a) a commentary of a public/sporting event. However. The 15 marks are notionally distributed as: Band 1: 0-3 Band 3: 8-11 Band 2: 4-7 Band 4: 12-15. taped and transcribed (b) a commentary for a DVD of a film (c) a 500 word commentary evaluation of (a) Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL3 Section B LL3 SECTION B % 20 (10) AO2% 5 (2. a royal wedding/opening of Olympics. . The commentary is assessed through AO2: demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. they will be expected to give consideration to the context of the performance and the impact of the text in performance as well as any influences on their writing. the majority of the marks available should be awarded for discussion of how their structure. teachers should use the first column of the LL3 Section B Assessment Grid (see specification and Section 6 of this Guide) to try to find the ‘best fit’ band description for assessment of the original writing and should use the second column to apply the ‘best-fit’ for the commentary. The commentary should be marked out of ten. As candidates will be discussing their performance text. literary and non-literary. that has been performed.5) The weighting of the relevant assessment objectives is reflected in the notional distribution of marks out of a total of 40 as follows: AO2: 10 AO4: 30 Each of the original writing pieces should be marked out of 15.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 27 The evaluation will consider: • • • • The contextual factors that have influenced the production and performance of the text The key features of style The impact of the text in performance The influence of other texts.5) AO4% 15 (7. form and language shape meaning.g. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. taped and transcribed (b) a script for a sit-com (c) a 500-word evaluation of the stand-up comedy routine.

Clean copies (no annotation) of the texts studied must be taken into the examination. In preparation for this question. The selected prescribed text should be regarded as the ‘core’ text. Section B: Reviewing approaches ('open' text – clean copy) – 40 marks Relevant assessment objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 Candidates will be required to answer one question in this section.S.g. candidates are required to study one text from the list below: Charles Dickens: Hard Times (Penguin) Emily Bronte: Wuthering Heights (Penguin) George Orwell: Shooting an Elephant: and Other Essays (Penguin)* ed. and will require sustained reference and more detailed discussion than the texts discussed for comparative reference.2 LL4 Approaching LL4 – 30% Comparative Textual Analysis and Review (synoptic) 80 marks Section A: Comparative analysis of texts . family life. The focus of the analysis will be provided in the question. from a choice of six. The questions set will not be directly linked to the prescribed texts. context different readers’ or listeners’ interpretations of individual texts. candidates are expected to select and apply relevant linguistic and literary approaches from their integrated studies across the course as a whole. but features three instead of the current four texts. love narrative technique influence of contextual factors in the production and reception of texts importance of setting/location language variation according to time.40 marks Relevant assessment objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory question in this section. The question will require candidates to produce a detailed comparative analysis of three unseen texts of different genres. . The format of this section will be familiar to teachers of the current specification as it is similar to Section A of ELL6. power. In their response to the question. but will invite discussion of aspects of integrated study which will involve detailed knowledge of these texts as well as comparative reference to other texts (literary/non-literary.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 28 3.Eliot: Selected Poems (Faber) *The original choice of Orwell’s Selected Essays has been withdrawn as it is out of print. Candidates should prepare for the following aspects of integrated study: • • • • • • • presentation of characters/people themes e. place. Ian Jack: The Granta Book of Reportage (Classics of Reportage) (Granta Books) Ted Hughes: Birthday Letters (Faber) T. Each question will require a piece of extended writing designed to allow candidates to reflect on insights gained from integrated linguistic and literary study across the whole A level course. chosen from a range of types and periods. spoken/written) studied in the course as a whole or selected for wider independent study.

considering the significance of contextual factors and exploring relationships between the unseen texts in Section A and between the set text and other texts studied on the course in Section B: • select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study. . form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts (AO2).GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 29 Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL4 Sections A and B The same weighting of assessment objectives applies to both sections of the paper: LL4 SECTION A SECTION B AS TOTAL LL4 % 30 (15) 30 (15) 60 (30) AO1% 6 (3) 6 (3) 12 (6) AO2% 12 (6) 12 (6) 24 (12) AO3% 12 (6) 12 (6) 24 (12) The notional distribution of marks for both sections is therefore: AO1: 8 marks AO2: 16 marks AO3: 16 marks This weighting is reflected in the tasks for both sections. as candidates should be equally engaged with analysing a range of texts. coherent written expression (AO1). • demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. • use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception (AO3). using appropriate terminology and accurate.

and that in actual fact. This implies that London. which produce a rhythm which sounds almost like that of a march. conversational tone. almost claustrophobic quality. so that we read the rest of the text from a positive perspective. Fundamentally. which implies freedom. as such I would have expected a more rigid structure to be adopted. to the Thames. being split into four quatrains. which then. causing a semantic shift. on the other hand employs a much less rigid structure. The use of the interjection "Oh" has a similar effect.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 30 4. on the other hand. or at least a sense of it. Both pieces use the first person narrative stance. the main difference between the two texts is the light in which they portray the city. and the eight syllable lines. subsequently. Blake is conveying a very pessimistic view of life in London. whereas Smith does so in a positive light. although to very different effects. Blake uses the first person to convey to the reader the oppressive nature of London. The poem. the opinions expressed are greatly differing. 'London'. all inhabitants of London are actually prisoners of it. affects the first use of the word. which is much more like speech or a stream of consciousness. such as the use of "up there" at the end of the first paragraph sets a more informal. Smith. Appendices Appendix 1 :LL1 Section A Specimen Answer *London * Please note that this poem has been withdrawn from the anthology and replaced by Blake’s The Tyger In its most basic interpretation. Blake uses one enjambed sentence per stanza. but not much. is inescapable and all-encompassing. She uses syndetic listing in the second paragraph which serves to create an energetic mood in the text. In the poem. This structure is perhaps reflective of the monotony which Blake feels is inherent in London. from this we could infer that Blake is saying that any feeling of freedom in London is but an illusion. In 'London'. . he applies the same word. and of social injustice. "charter'd". This. however. making us feel that the streets of London have a closed in. since the city was given a charter by the sovereign entitling it to the right to manage its own affairs. Both the sentence structure and grammatical forms adopted by Smith are those we would expect to find in spoken language. this I feel is somewhat incongruous with the content of the poem. Smith. casual. The use of spoken style. like a marching army. it could also be argued that this is not the case. He says that he wanders through the "charter'd street". at least on the surface. to reflect the content. This is also reinforced by both the regular rhyme scheme. each text can be seen as an expression of its respective author's opinion of the city of London. and the quatrains form a rigid structure overall. framing it. However.this declarative sentence sets the tone for the rest of the piece. interjections. and a spoken style make for a much more informal. Blake does so in a negative light. leaving the word with a new meaning of possession. Perhaps this implies that there is some freedom in London. since the enjambed sentences are marshalled through caesura. however. even if they are unaware of being so. mirroring that which she sees in London ."I don't think there is any city to touch it in terms of energy". the first three words she says are "I love London" . has a rigid structure. uses the first person to express her appreciation of London. which makes the reader think of London as a casual urban place. combined with the use of ellipsis. freer piece of writing which reflects the vibrancy which Smith sees in the city of London.

Also. which illustrates the social injustice present with the society of London. The image of the soldier's blood running down palace walls is a very vivid. which makes the reader feel that the pessimistic. the phrase "the new born infant's tear" implies that misery. "sigh". The lexical set of "cry". The use of the phrase "mind-forg'd manacles" infers that the distress and oppression which the narrator feels is a product of humanity. by compassion that London is a natural place to live. which. since it seems unjust that the "hapless soldier" should die while the monarch lives opulently in the palace. "tear" and "woe" serve to make us feel that the city breeds sadness within its population. and lightens the tone of the piece. lexis serves an extremely important role in conveying her point of view. and further emphasises the social injustice present in the society. Similarly.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 31 The use of lexis and imagery within Blake's writing serves to enhance his view that London is oppressive and claustrophobic. Her use of the word "unnatural" to describe New York implies. Throughout the poem he repeats the word "every". The linking of "Marriage" and "hearse" is perhaps a comment by Blake upon how societal conventions serve only to create further social injustice. Through the use of proper nouns she gives London a sense of place which is not present in Blake's writing. Her use of the neologistic portmanteau "city. and the phrase "In every" in the second quatrain. so essentially. Smith's apparent preoccupation with bagels is comic. since it is 'made of the mind'. . for those born into the lower classes begins at birth. but is also perhaps a criticism of the frivolity of London. and more so on the injustices within it. Blake is saying that humanity is to blame for its own distress and unhappiness.ness" makes the reader feel that the city is 'fresh' and contemporary. distressed tone with the poem permeates the city in its entirety. in Smith's piece. in comparison seems less focused on London itself. and somewhat repugnant one. since the implication hear is that the prostitute will be viewed badly as a result of the child being born out of wedlock.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 32 Appendix 2: LL1 Framework for analyzing single texts (1) Overview ( Content/Context): Statement Structure and Form Evidence Analysis Narrative Stance Grammar and Sentence Structure Lexis and Imagery Phonology and Sound Patterning Orthography and punctuation .

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 33 Appendix 3: LL1 Framework for analysing single texts (2) Overview (Content/Context): Blake’s London is a devastating criticism of the city and humanity in general. Meaning to notice or a scar. Statement Evidence Analysis Structure and Form Quatrains Regular rhyme. common themes in Blake’s ‘Songs Of Experience’. Alternate rhyme Adds item to list suggests problems are pervasive. Grammar and Sentence Structure Declarative mood Parallelism and Asyndetic listing Foregrounding ‘marriage hearse’ Lexis and Imagery Juxtaposition Adjective Verb/noun Metaphor Phonology and Sound Patterning Colour symbolism Alliteration Sibilance Plosives Poetic elision Non-standard capitalisation ‘charter’d’ ‘charter’d Thames’ ‘mark in every face’ and ‘marks of woe’ ‘mind-forg’d manacles’ ‘black’ning’ ‘midnight’ ‘mind…manacles’ ‘hapless soldier’s sigh’ ‘blood…Palace’ ‘blasts…blights’ ‘charter’d’. Sympathetic presentation of unfortunate victim reinforced through gentle. The hammering repetition of key phrases suggests the extent of the problem. fulfilling his role by highlighting society’s vices. in every ban’ Enjambment In verse 3 Narrative Stance First person address ‘I wander’ Strong personal message of the irresponsibility of London and its inhabitants. Blake sneers at man’s inability to break free from his desperate fate. Orthography and punctuation For metrical regularity. Biting consonants reflect Blake’s bitter outlook. Dual meaning – symbol of freedom: London granted charter and Thames as possessed or hired out. ‘black’ning’ ‘Man’. Attacks the deadening grip of conventional formal institutions. Church and state are both attacked here and his affection for children re-iterated. innocent alliteration. Constrictions are of human creation suggested through compound adjective. Caesura ‘in every voice. ‘Church’. Blake has identified both in his vision. ‘Harlot’ Foregrounds significant nouns to poem’s message. ‘And mark in every face…’ ‘In every…’ ‘Marks of… Focus on noun at start of phrase repeated to emphasis blight. It explores misery. Darkness synonymous with sin and corruption. Blake saw himself as a prophet or bard. rhythm and quatrain structure drive home the relentless message of despair. Iambic tetrameter Links Chimney Sweep to ‘Black’ning’ Church and soldier to ‘blood’ on Palace. . Blake describes his vision of London as a matter of fact. injustice and oppression.

cultural associations connected with ‘Brick Lane’. Moves from geographical English novel’ to artistic Narrative Stance First person address ‘I love London’ Strong personal message of admiration for London as a city.’ ‘Get a bagel at 3 in the morning’ ‘up there’ ‘you’ll’ ‘love’ ‘we’.it’s a celebration’ As a feature of spontaneous speech to enhance informality of text Indicates speaker has paused to clarify what exactly it is she loves so much about London Used as pauses to collect speaker’s thoughts and clarify ideas . article Précis of artistic view of London in relation to English novels. Grammar and Sentence Structure Second person address Declarative mood And tripling Parallelism Discourse features Stative verb Pronoun/determiner Proper nouns Simile Phonology and Sound Patterning Plosive sound patterning ‘You can write’ ‘People are people are people. ‘you’re’ I love London…I don’t think ‘. Repetition to explore possibilities London should/should not present. although she criticizes the English for misrepresenting London through disappointment and cliché. Slang phrase to highlight importance of London to Smith. Creates sense of place and style. Lexis and Imagery Conveys strong emotions for the city. Compares magazine’s admiration for London with romance.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 34 Appendix 4 : Framework for Analysing Single Texts (completed) Overview (Content/Context): Smith views London as vibrant. Statement Evidence Analysis Structure and Form Interview for magazine ‘this magazine’ Interview has been adapted into an article for magazine celebrating London. ‘London’. successful and full of energy. She compares it with New York in status. Repetition of words beginning with plosive phonemes re-iterates Smith’s enthusiasm for London and desire to move beyond novelists limited cultural representations Orthography and punctuation elision ellipsis dashes ‘you’ll’. less so for representations of London in ‘Our English way’ fiction to date. The hammering repetition of key phrases suggests the extent of the problem. The interview is relatively contemporary (August 2003). Show Smith’s acceptance of her role in representing London to readers. Bold sound bite from ‘When we write…’ Article begins by considering London as geographical place and goes on to consider the role of London in article to right ‘I love London…Blackwriting. multi-cultural. ‘Givenchy’ ‘like a lover’ ‘blocks and blocks and blocks’ ‘people are people are people’ Addresses reader or interviewee directly as to options available for writing about London. As a novelist Smith is being asked to give her personal and her creative view of the city she clearly loves. ‘our’ ‘New York’. elision creates informality of tone. Matter of fact personal vision of London’s inhabitants.

In effect. You have two weeks to complete your assignment. you get to be the examiner and set your friends an exam style question – don’t be too mean though.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 35 Appendix 5: LL1 SECTION A – Making the connections Aim: To identify a text for comparison with one of the poems in the anthology and to produce an analytical comparison of both texts. The unseen text and your analysis of the pair of texts must be handed in on _________________ In your analytical comparison you should include: • An overview of both texts. Once you have completed your own assignment. you will be exchanging your pair of texts for a different pair selected by someone else in the class. comparing the content and the context in which they were produced • comparison of the structure and form of each text • comparison of the narrative stance of each text • comparison of the grammar/sentence structure of each text • comparison of the lexis and imagery of each text • comparison of the phonology and sound patterning of each text • comparison of the orthography and punctuation of each text. remember they are going to be setting one for you too! .

rhythm. ballad. antithesis. volta) rhyme scheme. TONE. half-rhyme. pronouns. allusion. anthropomorphism. IPA. intonation. rhyme (couplets. pathetic fallacy. Always use an appropriate style and register for the context in which you are writing or speaking. .Prosodic features (loudness. symbolism. scansion. verse type e. third person. C A A P T ATTITUDES.g. phonemes //. TEXT TYPE. flashback. DON’T FORGET: ANSWER THE QUESTION SET . regional accents. epistolary form. octave. plosives. stanza structure (couplet.g. hyperbole. sonnet (Petrarchan/Shakespearean). elision. stress. free verse. latching STYLE MEANING TT Overview C CONTENT. repetition. fricatives. chapters. quatrain. abstract nouns) Lexical sets Connotations Standard/Non-standard features/Dialect/Idioms/Archaisms Literary and Rhetorical techniques including: metaphor. Punctuation and vocabulary need to be used accurately. THEMES FORM AND STRUCTURE Sentence level/Grammar Sentence types Syntax (word order) (especially: parallelism. you will be feeding the examiner a dry cone of frameworks. But without the cone. CONTEXT. listing. pausing. chronology. Most of us don’t buy an ice cream for the cone. metre. imagery. Interrogative. personification. iambic and trochaic feet. Form and structure/Discourse Genre. Without keeping the focus on meaning. enjambment. foregrounding. apostrophe Remember you don’t have to follow the order above. litotes. oxymoron. dry cone to enjoy an ice cream so we need fairly dry linguistic and literary terms and approaches to help us explore the meaning of a text. Yuk! Remember: you can get ice creams with different scoops of flavour: always try to explore different ways of reading a text. end focus. overlapping.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 36 Appendix 6: The Cone THE CONE Think about it like this… Just as we need a fairly tasteless. juxtaposition of content. sibilants. but you should always have a clear plan and structure. tripling. onomatopoeia. lyric. masculine. ) Typography Font Punctuation Orthography Graphemes <> Pictorial elements Use of colour Word level/Lexis Modifiers Register Word classes (e. eye rhyme). narrative stance (first person. etc. dialogue. enjambment. turn-taking. Received Pronunciation. prose/verse Order of content. development of ideas/argument. second person address). Always relate what you find in a text to how meaning is created.g. you are likely to end up with meaning melting and running through your fingers. Imperative) Tense Standard/Non-standard features/Dialect Ellipsis SENTENCE LEVEL WORD LEVEL PHONOLOGY TYPOGRAPHY Phonology Accent/Pronunciation e. sestet. Do try to eat the whole cone though! Use all the approaches and terms available. narrative voice. caesura. PURPOSE. juxtaposition. GOOD LUCK When we analyse texts we are primarily exploring meaning. sound effects. non-standard features) Mood (Declarative.) Sound alliteration. verbs. AUDIENCE. non-fluency. Style Your own written and spoken expression has an impact on how your ideas are perceived by others. pitch. assonance. simile. paradox. and most of us don’t read a text simply to describe its linguistic or literary features.

Small groups of students are given a (fairly short) poem to perform. news bulletin…). Language variety sheet Fill an A3 sheet with 20 very short extracts/texts of different genres and periods (e.g. Explain your own different names and titles to the class. 150 words) of a profile to read out. For the following class students play.vocative. These can be accompanied by songs on CD. Discuss how performance and presentation bring out meanings of poems. viewpoint. madam. Newspaper headlines Students match ten recent headlines with brief summaries of the stories they headed. . Introduce recent examples of the genre.g. Poems in performance Use Daisy Goodwin DVD Poems to Fall in Love With. dear etc. collecting material especially strengths. Then they list what they are called.Follow up with structured set of questions targeting key concepts – e. including nicknames and their origins. The Next Big Thing Based on style of The Times supplement interview feature. Swap over. tone. transcript. Students rank them in order of agreement and defend favourite definitions with reference to poems they know. The presentation might add a short explanation of the effects they aimed to achieve. Consider O. register.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 37 Appendix 7: Top Ten Induction Activities Starting AS English Language & Literature First Class 1. introducing their partner to the class. talents and ambitions.g. Could introduce terms such as: homophone. ellipsis. objectivity/bias. Students identify text types 1-20. What’s in a name? Devise a short factual narrative in which one person is addressed in several different ways according to context. letter. Introduce key term. Note results on board. Overview 2.E. Students have 5 minutes to interview a partner. Heaney:’ Poetry is language in orbit’. spoken/written. media texts. intertextuality… Poetry 5. (e. Students analyse the other examples in pairs. present and analyse their own favourites. achievements. Song Lyrics Provide a varied collection of lyrics. Give out a number of cards with poets’ definitions (e. 6. non-standard features. Mrs Smith. Can be written up in full as a brief assignment.g. with paper copies of selected poems. advert. graphology … Non-fiction writing 3. main literary genres. collocation.) Students discuss variations and why they occur. Students devise headlines and analyse their choices.D definition. They make a list of typical linguistic features of headlines. They write the beginning (approx. Demonstrate analysis of lexis. 4. Mum. syntax and some literary devices on two sets of lyrics. real or imaginary. Discuss and elicit/introduce appropriate terminology. What is poetry ? Pose the question. by whom. Motion: ‘Poetry is a hotline to the emotions’). Provide a new set of story summaries. old and new. 7. In small groups students discuss poems they already know and work towards a definition of their own.

romance…). Each pair/small group of students is dealt a hand of cards and a genre card (e. Consequences Each student has a genre card (as above) which they keep to themselves. 9. The sheets are passed around.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 38 Prose genres 8. When they are read out. leaving a line or so showing. 10. verbs. . Deal out one pack of genre cards and a nursery rhyme to each pair. Students re-write the nursery rhyme in the genre and briefly identify important stylistic features. the class try to identify the genres. sci-fi. adjectives and adverbs. Word class packs Use laminated word packs of nouns. each student adding a section in their particular genre. On an A3 sheet each writes the opening of a narrative in that genre. horror. The task is to include the words in a narrative opening in that genre. Nursery rhymes Introduce idea of re-writing in a different genre (good examples in Private Eye and politically correct fairytales). detective.g. Then they stop and fold the page.

you know A name for every day objects A sentence made up of one main and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses An adjective made up of two words joined by a hyphen A sentence made up of at least two main clauses joined together by a co-ordinating conjunction A deliberately elaborate metaphor The associations attached to a word in addition to its dictionary definition What the text is about Things outside the text which may shape its meaning e. h A repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds The omission of co-ordinating conjunctions as a feature of rhetorical style The opinions expressed in the text A verb that precedes another verb e. there.g. A group of words which add extra information to the independent main clause . conjunctions and prepositions The repetition of the same sound in the initial position in a sequence of words To refer to something indirectly or metaphorically Lines of poetry where the rhyme is on every other line (abab) A unit of poetic meter containing two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable --/ A word or phrase no longer in current use Sounds that denote audible breath e. I can go Term used to denote sounds made with both lips e. the dog eats the bone A word that modifies a noun or pronoun A word that modifies verbs.g.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 39 Appendix 8: The Terminology Table Tool-kit Abstract noun Accent Active voice Adjective Adverb Alliteration Allusion Alternate rhyme Anapest Archaisms Aspirants Assonance Asyndetic listing Attitudes Auxiliary / Modal verbs Bilabials Caesura Clause Collective noun Comment clause Common/concrete noun Complex sentence Compound adjective Compound sentence Conceit Connotations Content Context Co-ordinating conjunction Couplet Dactyl Declarative mood Definite article Deictic Dependent or subordinate clause A name to describe things that have no physical qualities A set of distinctive pronunciations that mark regional or social identity A grammatical structure in which the subject is the actor of the sentence e.g. but) A two line verse (often rhyming) A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllable /-A mood used to express a statement ‘The’ Terms used to denote words that rely on the context to be understood e. m.g. adverbs. b A mid-line pause A group of words usually with a finite verb which is structurally larger than a phrase A name that refers to a group of people. when it was written. or. pass me that. adjectives.g.g.g. animals or things A commonly occurring phrase in speech e. and who wrote it A word that joins elements of equal rank (and.

g. second or third person A term used to describe consonants produced with an open nasal passage e.g. um. f.e.g. Words used when hesitating in speech.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 40 Dialogue Discourse Double negative Dynamic verbs Elision Ellipsis End-focus Enjambment Euphemism Exclamatory mood Eye rhyme Fillers foregrounding Form Fricatives Hyperbole Iambic Imagery Imperative mood Indefinite article Independent main clause Internal rhyme Interrogative mood Intonation IPA Juxtaposition Lexical set Lexis Litotes Metaphor Mode of address Nasals Non-standard Lexis Noun Octet Onomatopoeia Orthography Oxymoron Paralinguistics Parallelism Passive voice Language interaction with two or more participants The study of spoken language A structure in which more than one negative is used A verb that expresses an action rather than a state The omission of sounds in connected speech The omission of part of a sentence A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on a closing sentence element. Run-on lines A word that replaces a term seen by society as taboo or unpleasant A mood that expresses strong emotions Where the rhyme looks like it should rhyme but the sound is not exactly the same. words or structures to create a sense of balance A grammatical structure in which the subject and object can . v Exaggeration used to heighten feeling and intensity A unit of poetic meter containing one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable -/ A descriptive or metaphorical use of language to create a vivid picture A mood that expresses a command ‘A’ The group of words which carries the core meaning of the sentence Where the rhyming sound occurs within a line of verse A mood expressing a question The quality or tone of the voice in speech The International Phonetic Alphabet used to classify the sounds of language To place two or more things side by side A group of words joined by similarities The term used to describe the vocabulary of a language A deliberate understatement A description which does not compare one thing with another but actually becomes the other e. posture and facial expressions The patterning of pairs of sounds. er A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on an opening sentence element The structure and shape of the text Sounds where air escapes through a small passage e. the trees danced in the wind The point of view of the text i. first. m.n Any variety that does not conform to the standard form as used by society A naming word An eight line verse The term used to denote words that imitate sounds A study of spelling and the ways letters are used in language The use of apparently contradictory words in a phrase Non-verbal communication using gestures.

while. inform.g.g.z A device which directly compares two things using like or as e. the trees danced in the wind A poem of 14 lines. best.g.b.g. rhyming abab cdcd efef gg Consonant sounds articulated with a hissing sound e.g. which can use symbols and markings to illustrate the distinctive nature of speech .g.g. emotional A written record of spoken language. on A word that replaces a noun A name of a distinctive person. until) A word that emphasizes the extremes e.g. the tress swayed in the wind like dancers A independent main clause A unit of poetic meter containing two stressed syllables // The division of lines in a poem. persuade etc.g. place or other unique reference The use of pitch. pace and rhythm to draw attention to key elements of spoken language The reason the text has been produced e. noun phrase ‘the green tree’ Sounds which release a sudden burst of air e.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 41 Pathetic fallacy Pentameter Personification Petrarchan or Italian sonnet Phonology Phrase Plosives Preposition Pronoun Proper nouns Prosodic features Purpose Quatrain Received Pronunciation (RP) Repair Repetition Rhythm Rondo Sentence mood Sestet Shakespearean or English sonnet Sibilants Simile Simple sentence Spondee Stanza Stative verbs Stress Subordinating conjunction Superlatives Syllable Symbolism Syndetic listing Syntax Syntax inversion Tag question Tetrameter Themes Tone Transcription change places in order to alter the focus of a sentence e. volume. to entertain. rhyming abbaabbba cdecde (sestet may vary) The study of sound A group of words that has no finite verb (except for a verb phrase) e. written in iambic pentameter. A four-line verse An English accent which has a high social status and is not connected to a specific region The correction of a mistake or misunderstanding in conversation Saying the same thing more than once The pattern of syllables and stresses within poetry A poem with a circular structure which begins and ends similarly The mood of the sentence (often clarified by punctuation) A six-line verse A poem of 14 lines.g. the bone was eaten by the dog When the environment mirrors emotions A unit of poetic meter containing five feet (10 syllables in total) A device in which the non-human is given personal and human qualities e. divided into three quatrains and a couplet. s.t A word that shows relationships between nouns or pronouns e. divided into an octet and a sestet. written in iambic pentameter. p. isn’t it A unit of poetic meter containing four feet (68syllables in total) The recurring ideas and images in a text The style or voice the text is written in e.g. also called a verse Verbs that express states of being or processes The exaggerated phoneme in any particular word A conjunction used to introduce a subordinate clause (because. worst The beats or rhythm in a line of verse A device in which a word or phrase represents something else Using conjunctions to join clauses The study of the relationship between words in a sentences The deliberate alteration of the structure of words in a sentence An interrogative structure attached to the end of a sentence which expects a reply e. excites.

ballad. actions or processes The type of poem e. ode. sonnet. narrative poem etc. The words used to name or refer to people when talking to them The turning point in a sonnet . lyric.g.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 42 Trimeter Tripling Trochee Turn-taking Utterance Verbs Verse Type Vocatives Volta A unit of poetic meter containing three feet (6 syllables in total) Listing of three items A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable /The organization of speakers’ contributions to a conversation A stretch of spoken language used in stead of ‘sentence’ when discussing spoken language Words that express states.

. particularly towards bottom of band. most appropriate towards top of band. Beginning to apply key concepts and approaches. though stronger towards the top of the band. Clear and sustained focus on HOW language is used to create different impacts.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 43 5. with appropriate textual support. Band ASSESSMENT GRIDS AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL1 Sections A and B Assessment Grid AO1 AO2 Select and apply relevant concepts and Demonstrate detailed critical approaches from integrated linguistic and understanding in analysing the ways in Marks literary study. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Weighting: 16 marks Describes wider context(s) in which texts are produced. but sketchy or descriptive at the bottom of the band. form and language and accurate. using appropriate terminology which structure. Generally accurate. more marked towards top of band. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. tending to be descriptive towards bottom of band. but with lapses. increasingly confident appreciation of contextual factors and their significance. making specific and productive connections. particularly towards the bottom of the band. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form. Minimal application of concepts and approaches. Clear grasp of meaning. Clear evidence of integrated approaches. structure and language affect readers. Written expression confident and fluent. particularly towards top of band. and poor structure to response. 1 11-20 2 21-30 3 31-40 4 . Sensible and clear discussion of some key similarities and differences between texts. most apparent at top of band. more successfully towards top of band. understanding and insights gained from integrated study. Limited evidence of understanding relationships between texts. Attempts to use integrated approaches. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. More sustained focus on language use to create meaning. coherent written expression shape meanings in a range of spoken Weighting: 16 marks and written texts Weighting: 8 marks 0-10 Limited evidence of integrated study. Developing eye for detail. Confident application of concepts and approaches. Limited sense of genre. coherent expression. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Generally accurate expression. Sound. Engages with basic meaning of texts on a straightforward level. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form. Confident awareness and discussion of relationships between texts. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious and relevant points of comparison and contrast. Some use of key terminology. Some awareness of some key language features. structure and vocabulary create basic meaning in texts. purpose and audience. Developing and increasingly convincing overview. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence structure. and sensibly organised. including some convincing phrase and straightforward sentence level analysis. Thorough knowledge. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. Sound analysis and increasingly confident evaluation of writers’/speakers’ techniques. Sound use of appropriate terminology. Attempts to organise response. Clear evidence of integrated study. Wellorganised material. more focused towards top of band. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers’/speakers’ techniques. Analysis mainly at word level.

Clear sense of engagement with writing tasks. particularly appropriate towards the top of band.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 44 AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL2 Assessment Grid for Original Writing Tasks (a) and (b) AO4 Band Marks Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences. Limited attempt to apply knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing. Beginning to apply knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing. Evidence of individuality most marked at top of band. 1 0-5 2 6-10 3 11-15 4 16-20 . drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies. less limited towards the the top of the band. Stylistic choices show a detailed knowledge of linguistic and literary features and their impact. Some variation in register in response to audience. Style demonstrates some flair and is accurately pitched for audience. less successfully towards bottom of band. Register is more clearly suited to audience and purpose. Appropriate and increasingly purposeful use of some linguistic and literary features. increasingly successful towards top of band. purpose and genre. Limited attempt to vary register in response to audience and purpose. purpose and genre. Style and tone are appropriate for audience. purpose and genre.

more marked towards top of band. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. more successfully towards top of band. making specific and productive connections. Attempts to use integrated approaches. though stronger towards the top of the band. particularly towards bottom of band. Analysis mainly at word level. including some convincing phrase and straightforward sentence level analysis. Generally accurate. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence structure. 21-30 3 Sensible and clear discussion of some key similarities and differences between texts. Thorough knowledge. Written expression confident and fluent. and poor structure to response. 31-40 4 . Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. but sketchy or descriptive at the bottom of the band. most appropriate towards top of band. coherent expression. understanding and insights gained from integrated study. with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers’/speakers’ techniques. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. Clear evidence of integrated approaches. Clear grasp of meaning. coherent written expression.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 45 AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL2 Assessment Grid for Commentary Task (c) AO2 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Weighting: 20 marks Describes wider context(s) in which texts are produced. more focused towards top of band. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. Weighting: 10 marks 0-10 1 Limited evidence of integrated study. with appropriate textual support. Limited sense of genre. Beginning to apply key concepts and approaches. More sustained focus on language use to create meaning. Developing and increasingly convincing overview. Confident application of concepts and approaches. Confident awareness and discussion of relationships between texts. Wellorganised material. tending to be descriptive towards bottom of band. Band Marks AO1 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study. Limited evidence of understanding relationships between texts. Developing eye for detail. Sound use of appropriate terminology. structure and vocabulary create basic meaning in texts. Some basic evidence of integrated study. structure and language affect readers. Minimal application of concepts and approaches. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. using appropriate terminology and accurate. and sensibly organised. Clear evidence of integrated study. Sound analysis and increasingly confident evaluation of writers’/speakers’ techniques. but with lapses. Some use of key terminology. purpose and audience. most apparent at top of band. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious and relevant points of comparison and contrast. Generally accurate expression. 11-20 2 Some awareness of some key language features. Attempts to organise response. particularly towards top of band. Sound. Engages with basic meaning of texts on a straightforward level. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form. particularly towards the bottom of the band. increasingly confident appreciation of contextual factors and their significance. Clear and sustained focus on HOW language is used to create different impacts. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form.

Texts understood on a straightforward level. becoming more complex towards top of band. Written expression is confident. Minimal. but with lapses in accuracy. 31-40 4 . Sound reading of implicit meaning. Very well-organised. Mature vocabulary. Points for comparison and contrast are well-chosen and clearly argued. Response may lack organisation. Some evidence of originality may be shown. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Generally accurate. Assured reading of texts. Weighting: 10 marks Limited evidence of integrated study. Limited evidence of understanding basic points of comparison and contrast. Band Marks A01 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. Weighting: 20 marks Some simplistic awareness of the broadest contextual factors. coherent expression. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. more relevant towards top of band. Adequate awareness of genre. using appropriate terminology and accurate. Clear and sustained focus throughout response. Confident evaluation of the impact of contextual factors in shaping the production of texts and influencing different audiences/readers at different times. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Thorough knowledge. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. structure and language affect readers and audiences. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Generally clear expression. including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Clear grasp of basic meaning. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide range of approaches. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious points of comparison and contrast. fluent. Sensible and clear awareness of the influence of some key contextual factors on the production and reception of texts. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence organisation. Clear organisation towards top of band. Some use of key terminology. Some generalisation and simplification. Clear evidence of integrated study. particularly towards top of band. Effective organisation. with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers’/speakers’ techniques. particularly at top of band .GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 46 A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL3 Section A Assessment Grid A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. unconvincing application of concepts and approaches. Points of comparison and contrast are astute and illuminating. Limited sense of genre. structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form. coherent written expression. Able to present generally convincing overview. . Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. Title/question addressed consistently and perceptively. understanding and insights gained from integrated study. 1 0-10 11-20 2 21-30 3 Some awareness of some key language features. Texts may be discussed individually and unevenly. Some relevant discussion of how different contexts influence the way the texts have been/are received. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. more secure towards top of band. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Sensible use of key linguistic and literary concepts and approaches. with varying degrees of flair. Some difficulty in understanding meaning in texts. Purposeful use of appropriate terminology. Some application of key concepts and approaches. Some sensible evaluation of how different audiences/readers in different times might respond.

Clear grasp of basic meaning. coherent expression. structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Thorough knowledge. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form. Generally clear expression. structure and language affect readers and audiences. Weighting: 10 marks Limited evidence of integrated study. particularly at top of band. Sensible and clear awareness of the influence of some key contextual factors on the production and reception of texts. Generally accurate. Written expression is confident. Minimal. coherent written expression. Some use of key terminology. Title/question addressed consistently and perceptively. Response may lack organisation. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Confident evaluation of the impact of contextual factors in shaping the production of texts and influencing different audiences/readers at different times. understanding and insights gained from integrated study. using appropriate terminology and accurate. Weighting: 20 marks Some simplistic awareness of the broadest contextual factors. Some sensible evaluation of how different audiences/readers in different times might respond. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Some generalisation and simplification. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers’/speakers’ techniques. Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. Effective organisation. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning. . Mature vocabulary. Able to present generally convincing overview. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form. fluent. Points for comparison and contrast are well-chosen and clearly argued. but with lapses in accuracy.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 47 A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE A01 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study. Adequate awareness of genre. including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Texts may be discussed individually and unevenly. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious points of comparison and contrast. Limited sense of genre. more relevant towards top of band. Very well-organised. unconvincing application of concepts and approaches. Clear organisation towards top of band. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Some difficulty in understanding meaning in texts. Some relevant discussion of how different contexts influence the way the texts have been/are received. Purposeful use of appropriate terminology. LL3 Section A Assessment Grid A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. Assured reading of texts. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. Sensible use of key linguistic and literary concepts and approaches. Band Marks 1 0-10 11-20 2 21-30 3 31-40 4 . Clear and sustained focus throughout response. Some awareness of some key language features. Clear evidence of integrated study. Some application of key concepts and approaches. Texts understood on a straightforward level. Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide range of approaches. Limited evidence of understanding basic points of comparison and contrast. more secure towards top of band. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence organisation. Points of comparison and contrast are astute and illuminating. Sound reading of implicit meaning. particularly towards top of band. with varying degrees of flair. becoming more complex towards top of band. Some evidence of originality may be shown.

Register is clearly suited to audience and purpose. Stylistic choices show an assured knowledge of linguistic and literary features and their impact. more secure towards top of band. Weighting: 30 marks Limited attempt to vary register in response to audience and purpose. perceptive evaluation of impact of text in performance. including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Attempts to consider the contextual factors/other texts that may have influenced the production and performance of the text. 1 0-10 2 11-20 Can vary register in response to audience. purpose and genre. Can apply reasonable knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing. most apparent at top of band. drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies. purpose and genre. Appropriate and increasingly confident application of linguistic and literary features to own writing. purpose and genre. structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Sound reading of implicit meaning. Increasingly sound evaluation of impact of text in performance. Some generalisation and simplification. Some awareness of some key language features. Clearer engagement with tasks towards top of band. Sophisticated awareness. Clear and sustained focus throughout response. most marked at top of band and writing is assured in addressing audience. Sensible use of key linguistic and literary concepts and approaches. Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. Sound awareness of the contextual factors/other texts that may have influenced the production and performance of the text Perceptive awareness of how choices of form. Style and tone accurately pitched for audience.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 48 A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL3 Section B Assessment Grid A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers’/speakers’ style and techniques. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning. particularly at top of band. 3 21-30 4 31-40 Style demonstrates sophistication. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form. Assured reading of texts. Adequate awareness of genre and style. . Limited attempt to apply knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing. Evidence of originality and flair most marked at top of band. Some difficulty in understanding impact of text in performance. Makes reasonable assessment of impact of text in performance towards top of band. Limited engagement with tasks. less limited towards the top of the band. Some evidence of originality may be shown. increasingly successful towards top of band. structure and language affect readers/audiences. more basic towards bottom of band. Confident. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. of contextual factors/other texts that may have influenced production/performance. Increasingly sound engagement with tasks. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Limited awareness of contextual factors/other texts which may have influenced the production/performance. Band Marks AO4 Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences.

Weighting: 16 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form. Some use of key terminology. Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. more relevant towards top of band. with varying degrees of flair. Some relevant discussion of how different contexts influence the way the texts have been/are received. using appropriate terminology and accurate. Some evidence of originality may be shown. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning. Limited evidence of understanding basic points of comparison and contrast. understanding and insights gained from integrated study. Some basic evidence of integrated study. structure and language affect readers and audiences. Assured reading of texts. Generally accurate. Points of comparison and contrast are astute and illuminating. Effective organisation. Points for comparison and contrast are well-chosen and clearly argued. Sensible and clear awareness of the influence of some key contextual factors on the production and reception of texts. including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Confident evaluation of the impact of contextual factors in shaping the production of texts and influencing different audiences/readers at different times. more secure towards top of band. Some sensible evaluation of how different audiences/readers in different times might respond. but with lapses in accuracy. Weighting: 16 marks Some simplistic awareness of the broadest contextual factors. Adequate awareness of genre. analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Clear organisation towards top of band. Generally clear expression. particularly towards top of band. Title/question addressed consistently and perceptively. 31-40 4 Thorough knowledge. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. Able to present generally convincing overview. Texts may be discussed individually and unevenly. . coherent written expression. Clear grasp of basic meaning. Mature vocabulary. coherent expression. with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers’/speakers’ techniques. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Band Marks A01 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study. structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Sensible use of key literary and linguistic concepts and approaches. Written expression is confident.GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 49 A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL4 Sections A and B ASSESSMENT GRID A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure. Texts understood on a straightforward level. unconvincing application of concepts and approaches. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious points of comparison and contrast. Clear and sustained focus throughout response. Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide range of approaches. form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Limited sense of genre. Sound reading of implicit meaning. 0-10 1 11-20 2 21-30 3 Clear evidence of integrated study. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence organisation. Response may lack organisation Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts. Very well-organised. Purposeful use of appropriate terminology. Some generalisation and simplification. Some difficulty in understanding meaning in texts. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. fluent. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form. Some application of key concepts and approaches. Minimal. Some awareness of some key language features. Weighting: 8 marks Limited evidence of integrated study.

Teachers' Guide/ED 16 December 2009 .GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 50 Contributors to the Teachers’ Guide Sally Llewellyn Principal Examiner LL1 Michael Stevens Chief Examiner Principal Examiner LL4 Jan Mably Principal Examiner LL1 Catherine Porter Principal Moderator LL2 Cerys Preece Subject Officer GCE English Language & Literature .