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GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 1

Contents
GCE AS and A Level English Language & Literature Teachers Guide

Page
1. Introduction 1.1 - Overview of the 2009-10 specification 1.2 - New and familiar elements Delivering the specification 2.1 - Pathways through the Specification 2.2 - LL1 2.3 - LL2 A2 Unit Overviews 3.1 LL3 3.2 LL4 Appendices 1. LL1 Section A Specimen Answer 2. LL1 Framework Single Texts 3. LL1 Framework Single Texts (2) 4. LL1 Framework Single Texts (completed) 5. LL1 Section A: making the connections 6. The Cone 7. Top Ten Induction Activities 8. Terminology Tool-Kit Table Assessment Grids

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5.

Contributors to the Teachers Guide

49

Issued March 2008

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 2

1.

INTRODUCTION
The WJEC AS and A2 English Language & Literature specification has been modified and updated for delivery from September 2008. The first AS awards will be made in summer 2009 and the first A level awards in summer 2010. For the first availability of units, see page 2 of the specification. The specification can be delivered and assessed in centres throughout the UK. The revised subject criteria for GCE English Language & Literature issued by the regulators have necessitated a change in the course structure from the current 3 plus 3 modules to a 2 plus 2 structure. This Guide is one of a number of ways in which the WJEC provides assistance to teachers delivering the new specification. Also essential to its introduction are the Specimen Assessment Materials (question papers and marking schemes) and professional development (INSET) conferences. Other provision which you will find useful are: Examiners reports on each examinations series Free access to past question papers via the WJEC secure website Easy access to specification and other key documents on main website English teachers bulletin which is regularly updated on the subject page of the website Regular INSET delivered by Chief Examiners plus resource materials Initial coursework moderation support meetings between centres and their moderators Exemplar materials for assessing the coursework units, LL2 and LL3. WJEC shop for purchasing texts in person, by phone or online Easy access to both the Subject Officer and to administrative sections. The purpose of this guide is to offer support to teachers in their delivery of the new WJEC English Language & Literature specification. Although there is some discussion of the specification as a whole, the first issue of this guide is primarily concerned with supporting teachers in their delivery of the AS units in the first year of the course, from September 2008 to summer 2009. More detailed support for the A2 units will follow in Spring 2008. Each unit is discussed in this document in more detail than in the specification, with greater emphasis on strategies for teaching and further advice on task-setting in the coursework units. In supporting the central tenets of the new specification, this guide places particular emphasis on the second and third aims stated on page 8 of the specification: To encourage students to develop their interest and enjoyment in English as they engage creatively and independently with a wide range of spoken, written and multi-modal texts, exploring the relationships between texts

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undertake independent and sustained studies to develop their skills as producers and interpreters of language.

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Contact Points for GCE English Language & Literature are as follows: Cerys Preece (Subject Officer) email: cerys.preece@wjec.co.uk tel: 02920265303 Mike Williams (Subject Support Officer) email: mike.williams@wjec.co.uk tel :02920265129 Subject page: www.wjec.co.uk

INSET Section inset@wjec.co.uk www.wjec.co.uk/professionaldevelopment

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1.1 Overview of the 2009-10 specification


ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE AS (2 units) LL1 30% 2 hour Written Paper 80 marks (120 UMS) Critical Reading of Literary and Non-Literary Texts Section A: Poetry pre-1900 (closed text) + unseen text Choice of one from two questions (40 marks) Section B: Prose (open text) 2 prose texts: choice of one from two questions (40 marks) LL2 20% Internal Assessment 80 marks (80 UMS) Creative Writing 3 tasks (80 marks: 2 x 20; 1 x 40) 2 creative writing tasks commentary on both creative writing tasks A LEVEL (the above plus a further 2 units) LL3 20% Internal Assessment 80 marks ( 80 UMS) Analysing and Producing Performance Texts Section A: Dramatic texts in context 2 texts one piece of extended writing (40 marks) Section B: Producing texts for performance 2 texts writing 2 original texts for performance evaluating one of the texts (40 marks) LL4 30% 2 hours Written Paper 80 marks ( 120 UMS) Comparative Textual Analysis and Review Section A: Comparative analysis of texts 3 unseen texts: one question (40 marks) Section B: Reviewing approaches 1 text (poetry/prose- open text) Choice of one from 6 questions (40 marks)

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1.2 The 2009 - 2010 specification : new and familiar elements


New 4 units instead of 6 (2 AS, 2 A2) 4 assessment objectives Compulsory coursework-40% (AS 20%; A2 20%) 6 texts instead of 4 Core texts and partner texts Original writing in both coursework units Mark schemes generally 20 or 40 instead of 25 or 50 Familiar Poetry pre-1900 anthology and prose text for AS exam Comparing texts- (but at both AS and A2) Choice of texts for coursework at A2 Drama pre-1770 (Shakespeare) at A2 Comparative analysis of unseen texts for A2 exam Units available in January and June

Tracking Changes to the assessment objectives (highlighted in bold)


Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression AO1- new specification Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts AO2- new specification Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception AO3- new specification Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences, drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies AO4- new specification Communicate clearly the knowledge, understanding and insights gained from the combined study of literary and linguistic study, using appropriate terminology and accurate written expression AO1- current specification Respond to and analyse texts, using literary and linguistic concepts and approaches AO3i-current specification Show understanding of the ways contextual variation and choices of form, style and vocabulary shape the meaning of texts AO4- current specification Show understanding of the ways contextual variation and choices of form, style and vocabulary shape the meaning of texts AO4- current specification

Demonstrate expertise and accuracy in writing for a variety of specific purposes and audiences, drawing on knowledge of literary texts and features of language to explain and comment on the choices made AO6- current specification

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2.
2.1

DELIVERING THE SPECIFICATION


Pathways through the specification (AS and A2)

Core and partner texts


The WJEC specification provides opportunities for students to read texts both for detailed study and for wider reading. The texts selected for detailed study are referred to as core texts and the texts selected for wider reading are referred to as partner texts. The partner text illuminates the core text study and helps inform students understanding of the core text by facilitating links or contrasts. Core and partner pairings Core LL1 Section B LL3 Partner core + partner prose core drama (Shakespeare)+ partner drama/performance text

The core and partner approach extends to other areas of the course, where candidates are required to make connections between a set text and unseen material LL1 Section A core poetry (anthology)+ partner unseen extract

and also where candidates are required to make connections between a set text and previously studied material LL4 Section B Core poetry/prose + comparative reference to any texts studied, literary/non-literary, spoken /written

It is important to remember that: candidates are required to show detailed critical understanding of their core text examiners and moderators will value the quality of connections rather than the number of connections made between core and partner texts.

Creativity and Independence


Creativity This specification encourages students active and imaginative engagement with texts through: flexible coursework arrangements allowing creative pairings of texts (LL3) exam questions which promote fresh and innovative approaches to texts providing candidates with the opportunity to produce their own creative writing in response to their wider reading (LL2) providing candidates with the opportunity to produce their own creative performance texts (LL3).

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Independence This specification provides opportunities independence by encouraging students to:

for appropriate levels

of student

select material from partner texts to illuminate core text study select texts for wider reading for coursework make appropriate connections between the core text and independently selected material (LL4).

However, teachers may prefer to select texts themselves for wider reading in coursework units.

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2.2

LL1

Approaching LL1: Critical Reading of Literary and Non-Literary Texts 80 marks Section A: Poetry pre-1900 and unseen text - 40 marks (closed text)
Relevant Assessment Objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 This section is based on the comparative analysis of two texts, one of which will be a poem from an anthology of poetry pre-1900 produced by WJEC. The anthology will be periodically refreshed. It will be helpful if centres email WJEC (mike.williams@wjec.co.uk) their anticipated number of required anthologies before summer half term preceding AS study. Please note that we have made two changes to the draft anthology, to replace those poems already featured in the Specimen Paper. Blakes London has been replaced by Blakes The Tyger and Wordsworths There Was A Boy has been replaced by Wordsworths Composed Upon Westminster Bridge. Candidates are required to answer one out of a choice of two questions. The questions are designed to provide candidates with the opportunity to make connections between a poem from the anthology studied by the candidate and another text previously unseen by the candidate. The unseen text may be of any genre, literary/non-literary, written/spoken. Candidates should develop a range of skills to apply to analysis of a variety of text types. The two texts will be linked in terms of content, theme or style, and candidates will be required to compare and contrast them, using knowledge and skills gained from their integrated study of language and literature. The poem from the anthology will be printed on the paper. As this section of the examination is closed text, candidates are not permitted to take a copy of the anthology into the examination.

Accessing the questions in Section A


It is important to remember that although the poem from the anthology is the core text, candidates are expected to do justice to both the printed poem and the unseen extract. Indeed, they will not be able to make fruitful comparisons unless they analyse both texts in appropriate detail. The weighting of the assessment objectives gives more emphasis to AO1, which carries 16 out of the 40 available marks: select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression and to AO3, which also carries 16 marks: use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception than to AO2 (8 marks): demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts.

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This emphasis is reflected in the specimen paper questions, which invite candidates to compare and contrast, therefore exploring relationships between the texts and to consider the influence of contextual factors, using integrated approaches to analyse texts. Specimen Paper Question Compare and contrast Text A and Text B. In your response you should: show understanding of the meanings in each text; explore the influence of different contextual factors; use integrated linguistic and literary approaches to analyse the texts.

Section B: Prose 40 marks (open text 'clean' copies)


Relevant Assessment Objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 This section is based on candidates study of two prose texts from a prescribed list. Candidates are required to study in depth one core text and for wider reading the corresponding partner text from the list below: Core Prose Text Childhood Alexander Masters: Stuart: A Life Backwards (Harper Perennial) Parody Stella Gibbons: Cold Comfort Farm (Penguin Classics) Creative Non-Fiction Truman Capote: In Cold Blood (Penguin Modern Classics) Travel Robert Minhinnick: Watching the Fire-Eater (Seren) Past, Present, Future Audrey Niffenegger: The Time Travelers Wife (Vintage) Telling Stories Ghita Mehta: A River Sutra (Minerva) Partner Prose Text Andrea Ashworth: Once in a House on Fire (Macmillan) D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers (Penguin Classics) Peter Carey: True History of the Kelly Gang (Faber) Bill Bryson: The Lost Continent (Black Swan) H.G. Wells: The Time Machine (Penguin Classics) Raymond Carver: Short Cuts (The Harvill Press)

Candidates are required to attempt one question out of a choice of two on each core/partner pairing. Clean copies (no annotation) of the texts studied must be taken into the examination.

Preparing the core and partner prose texts


It would probably be most helpful if one teacher delivers both texts, in order to facilitate the use of the partner text as a source of illumination for the core text. However, the delivery of texts will depend on departmental strategies and timetabling contingencies.

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It is worth remembering that: the partner text does not have to be taught/studied in the same depth and detail as the core text there is no required amount of references to make to the partner text: it is the quality of the connections that counts and their contribution to the cogency and relevance of the response.

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL1


AO1 (16 marks) select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression There are three strands to this AO: (i) (ii) (iii) relevant concepts and approaches appropriate terminology accurate, coherent written expression.

Concepts and approaches will be addressed in candidates knowledge, understanding and relevant application of some of the key constituents of language and literary techniques and how they function in combination to create meaning in the poem and unseen extract in Section A, and in the core and partner texts in Section B. Appropriate terminology should include a reasonable range of relevant terms from the tool-kit acquired in the course of integrated study of both literary and non-literary texts. See the Terminology Table Tool-kit in the Appendices for some suggestions. Accurate, coherent writing will support the expression of ideas and construction of an argument. AO2 (8 marks) demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts This AO enables candidates to show their skill of identifying and describing how meanings and effects are created and conveyed in texts. It is worth emphasising that detailed analysis of structure, form and language is required only for the core text in Section B. Critical understanding should include candidates awareness of some of the ways in which individual texts may be interpreted by different readers or listeners. AO3 (16 marks) use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception

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There are two strands to this AO: (i) (ii) exploring relationships between texts the significance of contextual factors.

The questions in both sections provide a comparative focus to allow students to make connections between their texts in their response. Section A foregrounds this focus, while Section B provides candidates first with an extract from the core text to discuss in detail before addressing the comparative focus of the question. Despite this difference in question structure, candidates will need to allocate sufficient time to make connections between the two texts in both sections, in order to do justice to the exploring relationships between texts aspect of this AO and to merit the 16 marks for AO3. The contextual factors should be considered in respect of both texts in both sections. Candidates will be required to show knowledge and understanding of how variations in language, form and context shape and change meanings in speech (where a spoken language text is presented for analysis in Section A) and writing. Example of a question from Section B of LL1 Specimen Paper Q 4. Capote: In Cold Blood (Core text) Carey: True History of the Kelly Gang (Partner text) Read the extract from In Cold Blood from the beginning of the novel to front porches. Use integrated linguistic and literary approaches to analyse how Capote establishes a sense of place in this extract. How do Capote and Carey use location in both In Cold Blood and True History of the Kelly Gang? AO2 carries 8 marks out of 40. Examiners will expect to see more detailed critical understanding of the core text, as reflected in the structure of the question. The 16 marks allocated for AO1 can be awarded for discussion of both texts, as a coherently argued response will be obviously important, as will the use of integrated approaches throughout. The 16 marks for AO3 will be awarded to the second half of the question, where candidates have to consider both texts in relation to the question, making connections and considering contexts.

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Approaching LL1: Practical Suggestions 1.


2. Develop a framework for studying the poems e.g. The Cone (see Appendix/subject pages of website). Begin discussion/analysis of each poem with an overview of the poems key ideas and the relevant contextual factors which may have influenced or shaped the poem in some way. Take a structured approach to the teaching of each poem by using The Cone and the bullet points given in the examination questions for LL1: overview (Content/Context) structure and form narrative stance grammar/ sentence structure lexis and imagery phonology and sound patterning orthography and punctuation Get the students to work in groups by dividing up the bullet points and allocating one focus per group. The students should record their analysis in the form of a S (statement) E (evidence) A (analysis) grid. The individual groups should feedback their findings to the rest of the class and every student should be able to complete a Framework for analysing single texts based on a set poem. (see example of a Framework grid in the Appendix) When the students are comfortable with analysing the poetry using the single text framework, then they should be able to apply the technique to an unseen text that is not from the poetry anthology. Present the students with a variety of texts which have thematic links with the poems in the anthology. These texts can come from a wide variety of sources. Do not attempt any comparisons at this stage. Still focus on single text analysis. Eventually introduce candidates to the framework for comparing texts by using texts they have already analysed in isolation. (see example of a Framework for comparing in the Appendix) Follow up task: Working individually, in pairs or groups, set the students a poem from the anthology and the task of finding a text which is linked thematically to the poem. The students should produce a comparative analysis of their set poem and the unseen text they selected. These pairs of texts could then be exchanged with other individuals/groups in order for the students to attempt an exam style question set by their own classmates. A peer assessment task using the marking guidelines and assessment criteria from the grid would be an interesting way to conclude the activity.

3.

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Approaching Contextual Factors in Section A Poetry


The following could be given to students as an opportunity to show independence and to start them thinking about contexts in relation to the Anthology poems. Context Presentation Aim: In pairs or small groups, to produce a five minute presentation on the life and work of one of the poets from the Anthology. You have three weeks to complete your assignment. The first presentations will be delivered on. In your presentation you must: Read aloud the poem from the Anthology written by your chosen poet Present the information on your poet under three headings: 1. BIOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT 2. SOCIO-HISTORICAL CONTEXT 3. LITERARY / ARTISTIC CONTEXT Produce a summary of your key points, to be distributed to your classmates, on a single side of A4.

You will be formally assessed on the content and presentation of your information. Presentation Tools: ICT (PowerPoint) Interactive Whiteboard OHP Handouts Mind Maps / Flow Charts Timelines Bullets / Headers

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You may wish to ask yourself the following questions when conducting your research: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. What links can I find between the poets personal life and poetry? Have the poets religious beliefs, occupation, relationships, hobbies, philosophy, friends, parents, hopes or fears affected the poetry in any way? What sort of world was the poet living and working in? Which country does your poet come from? Had the poet travelled out of that country and how may this have affected his/her poetry? Who was the reigning monarch at the time the poet was writing, and how did this affect his/her work? In what religious context was the poet working? What impact did attitudes to women, or people from different cultural or class backgrounds have on the poets work? Was the country at war or was it a peaceful time when your poet was writing? How may this have affected his/her work? Was the poet one of a group or movement of poets who shared similar aims or poetic style? Was the poet influenced by the work of other poets who preceded them? Were the concerns of the poets writing shared by artists or musicians of the period?

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Preparation for LL1 Section A


The following could be given to students as a starter activity. Look quickly through the texts below. Now find poems from the WJEC Anthology that would link well to them. TEXT A Extract from War Reporting for Cowards by Chris Ayres I remembered how the Marine commanders in Kuwait had boasted that the Marines were an all-weather fighting force, unstoppable by anything that Iraqs annual spring storm season could hurl at them. But the wind and the mud made me feel like a character in one of the Wilfred Owen poems I had studied in high school (Owen, unluckily, was killed by German gunfire one week before the Great War ended; his mother received the telegram on Armistice Day). At the time, those poems had seemed so old, so irrelevant. Modern war, after all, was clean, quick, and efficient. The Americans could move across entire countries in the time it took the Germans to advance three feet during the Battle of the Somme. To me, the five-day Gulf War I had seemed like a thrilling video game, fought with laser guidance and aircraft that looked as though they had been designed and built on Mars. This, however, was no video game. I imagined what my face must have looked like, caked, like everything else, with orange-brown slime. Just to make matters worse -quite a feat in the circumstances, I thought - a thunderstorm arrived from the north, making us flinch with every rumble. TEXT B An article by Roland White for The Sunday Times
Can a computer help you write a novel? Roland White puts a new software package to the test (with a little help from Tolstoy) 'Love-tryst mum in death plunge'

The questions most frequently asked of great novelists must surely be: where do you get your ideas from, and how exactly do you work? Well, from my very brief experience of writing great novels, this is what the routine seems to be. You sit at your desk in the morning. On this desk are a computer, a cup of tea, a lucky gonk and some spare opium. You stare out of the window for a couple of minutes, and then you begin to write. Oh, it's great stuff. God, this is good. You can forget the Booker, Salman, this year's is pretty much in the bag. After what seems an age, you stare at your screen and the words "Chapter One" stare back at you. You admire these words for about five minutes, but then doubts set in. You get up from your seat and pace up and down. You decide to make more tea, but in the kitchen you spot a pile of ironing. You do the ironing. Then you make another cup of tea, which you drink in the kitchen, feeling miserable. You return to your screen, and begin to type once more. By lunch, the words "Chapter One" now read "Part the First". It's certainly got style, but is it really an improvement? You are not sure. By the end of the day, it's been changed back to "Chapter One". I am pleased to report, however, that this is very much yesterday's way of writing the great novel. It was all right for Dickens, Tolstoy and that crowd, but from now on, the modern author will be doing it all by computer. A businessman called Richard Lee has invented some software called newnovelist, which - for 29.99 - claims to take the pain out of creativity.

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TEXT C From The Times


October 16, 2007

Hazardous drinking, the middle-class vice


David Brown

Post your comments at the bottom of this article Drinkers in middle-class areas are more likely routinely to consume hazardous amounts of alcohol than those in poorer areas, research published today shows. Social drinkers who regularly down more than one large glass of wine a day will be told they risk damaging their health in the same way as young binge drinkers. The figures will be used by the Government to target middle-class wine drinkers and to make drunkenness as socially unacceptable as smoking. Dawn Primarolo, the Public Health Minister, said: Most of these are not young people, they are everyday drinkers who have drunk too much for too long. This has to change. The research, commissioned by the Department of Health, is the first nationwide analysis of the impact of social drinking. It found that people living in relatively affluent areas are more likely to be drinking at above sensible levels than those living in deprived areas. The percentage of adults drinking hazardous levels of alcohol ranges from 14.1 per cent to 26.4 per cent. Hazardous levels for women are between five and twelve large glasses of wine a week and for men between seven and seventeen glasses. One large glass of wine 250ml at 12 per cent alcohol represents three units. A pint of normal strength beer is two units. The research, by the North West Public Health Observatory, concludes that just 22 units per week will push a man into the hazardous category, while women need to drink just 15 units. Some of the countrys most wealthy areas were found to have the biggest number of hazardous drinkers, with Runnymede in Surrey and Harrogate in North Yorkshire topping the league tables.

TEXT D an extract from The Royal College of Psychiatrists website


Introduction We all feel fed up, miserable or sad at times. These feelings don't usually last longer than a week or two, and they don't interfere too much with our lives. Sometimes there's a reason, sometimes they just come out of the blue. We usually cope with them ourselves. We may have a chat with a friend but don't otherwise need any help. Someone is said to be significantly depressed, or suffering from depression, when: their feelings of depression don't go away quickly and they are so bad that they interfere with their everyday life.

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What does it feel like to be depressed? The feeling of depression is much more powerful and unpleasant than the short episodes of unhappiness that we all experience from time to time. It goes on for much longer. It can last for months rather than days or weeks. Most people with depression will not have all the symptoms listed here, but most will have at least five or six. You: feel unhappy most of the time (but may feel a little better in the evenings) lose interest in life and can't enjoy anything find it harder to make decisions can't cope with things that you used to feel utterly tired feel restless and agitated lose appetite and weight (some people find they do the reverse and put on weight) take 1-2 hours to get off to sleep, and then wake up earlier than usual lose interest in sex lose your self-confidence feel useless, inadequate and hopeless avoid other people feel irritable feel worse at a particular time each day, usually in the morning think of suicide.

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2.3

LL2

Approaching LL2: Creative Writing 80 marks


This coursework unit is internally assessed and externally moderated. The assessment is based on a folder of work of approximately 3,000 words, comprising three pieces in total, each of approximately 1,000 words. Candidates are required to produce two pieces of original writing, and a commentary on both pieces. (a) One piece of writing must be literary, inspired by the candidates wider independent reading -this should not be a text already studied for LL1. (20 marks) The second piece must be non-literary: journalism, reviews, information texts, etc. (20 marks)

(b)

The pieces do not need to be of equal length, but should total approximately 2,000 words. The following suggestions offer an extension/expansion to those suggested in the specification: (a) (b) travel writing/guides speech a magazine article a newspaper report a tabloid/broadsheet article on the same topic an advertising campaign an informative or persuasive leaflet theatre/film/music/art reviews; website brochure an editorial a report a formal letter genre-specific narrative prose the opening chapter to a novel a prologue to a novel childrens writing a narrative in the form of letter writing monologue diary playscript autobiographical writing an anthology of poems (approximately 8 poems)

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These are only suggestions and students may attempt other kinds of writing, provided that (a) is clearly literary and (b) is clearly non-literary. LL2 requires students to demonstrate expertise and accuracy in writing for a variety of specific purposes and audiences, drawing on knowledge of literary and non-literary texts and features of language to explain and comment on the choices made. Therefore, in preparing your students for their personal writing it is suggested that they study a range of stimuli in the chosen genre this not only helps students in terms of varying their own writing styles but is also useful in preparing them for their commentaries as, in theory, such practice raises awareness of the generic conventions of the piece of writing. Even though only two pieces of original writing are required for the final folder, it is advisable for centres to provide students with the opportunity to write in a range of different forms and styles. Students can then submit their two best pieces (one literary and one non-literary), playing to their personal strengths and thus, maximising their potential in this unit. Centres who provide a very narrow range of tasks (for example, only two) may limit the performance of their candidates, as the restricted nature of such task-setting does not always allow students to write in a genre that best suits their skills and interests. It is, therefore, advisable that students be offered a wide range of tasks and that the sub-sample sent to the moderator is reflective of this practice. (c) Commentary (40 marks) Candidates will be required to produce a commentary of approximately 1000 words. The commentary formally assesses candidates understanding of their choices of content, form, and style in both pieces of their original writing, making points of comparison and contrast between them. Candidates may prefer to have a thematic link between the two types of writing, in order to facilitate the comparison of texts. The purpose of the commentary is to allow students to discuss and evaluate the stylistic choices they have made. In their commentary students must:

identify the literary and linguistic features they have employed discuss the impact of these features within their own writing show understanding of how different choices in language and form can create meaning through a comparison of the two pieces they have written.

Although some students may wish to discuss the reasons for their choice of genre, they should be discouraged from spending too much time on this area. The primary focus of the commentary must be the discussion of the similarities and differences of their stylistic choices. The following approach is useful in ensuring the correct focus:

Statement identify the term Evidence quote the example Analysis discuss the impact of the identified feature

In their analytical commentaries students should be encouraged to identify a broad range of terms. For example, the identification of nouns, modifiers and verbs does

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not constitute a wide range of terms. The Cone in Appendix 6 contains a wide range of terms and is an excellent framework for tackling the commentary.

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Suggestions for a thematic approach to tasks: 1.


(a) Dramatic monologue/drama script on teenage theme (b) Double-page magazine spread on teenage issues 2. (a) Genre writing on crime/love/sci-fi etc. (b) Newspaper/magazine article on crime/infidelity/UFOs 3. (a) Anthology of Poetry of conflict (6-8 poems) (b) Political speech promoting peace

Note: this approach will not suit all students, and may inhibit the creativity of some. Remember to encourage and create opportunities for independent work and guard against the temptation to have the whole class tackling the same coursework task. Candidates will be required to give details of the stimulus text for the literary writing (a) on the coversheet, and to refer to this text in their commentary in terms of its influence on their own writing. While it is good practice for students to read several types of texts/genres to research ideas, they are advised to refer to one text in particular. Further Guidance Candidates are expected to adhere as closely as possible to the guidelines as stated in the specification. However, these word limits are approximate and should be applied sensibly. They are meant to support the candidate and not to have a detrimental effect on the candidates overall performance. Candidates who offer work that is too brief risk penalising themselves by not allowing appropriate coverage of the required assessment objectives. Candidates who significantly exceed the word limit risk penalising themselves through a lack of precision and focus. The commentary, in particular, tends to become repetitive and descriptive. Moderators will allow some flexibility with regard to the suggested word limit as long as the quality of the piece is sustained.

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Guidance on Assessing LL2


The creative writing tasks (a) and (b) are assessed through one Assessment Objective, AO4: Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences, drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies There are 20 marks available for each piece of writing, making a total of 40. Expertise should encompass accurate, coherent and well-structured writing as well as appropriate use of language, purpose and audience, register, style and tone. Creativity can be measured in terms of engagement with the task, and there will be varying degrees of individuality and flair. The commentary task (c) is assessed through three Assessment Objectives, AO1, AO2 and AO3. AO3 carries 20 marks as candidates are required to comment on both pieces of their original written work, making points of comparison and contrast between them: use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception The other two Assessment Objectives, AO1and AO2 each carry 10 marks. It can be seen from the Assessment Grid in Section 6 that the 40 marks for this section are notionally divided up as follows: AO1: 10 AO2: 10 AO3: 20.

This breakdown may be helpful when assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of a response. However, teachers should try to find the best fit for assessment, and should give an holistic mark to cover all three objectives. Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL2 Weighting of assessment objectives LL2 (full A level in brackets)
LL2 TOTAL % 40 (20) AO1% 5 (2.5) AO2% 5 (2.5) AO3% 10 (5) AO4% 20 (10)

Managing Coursework- LL2


Planning stage Discussion between student and teacher of ideas/notes Drafting- student submits a draft response (WJEC recommends that after the planning stage the student produces only one draft before the final version) Teacher response with advice/guidance, avoiding detailed annotation of students work, focusing instead on general observations and advice re possible improvements Student submits final version for assessment Coversheet is signed to authenticate Cross-moderation in centre where possible External moderation: selection of sample and submission of sample work to external moderator.

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3.

A2 UNIT OVERVIEWS
The following overviews are intended to give further clarification of the requirements of these two synoptic units, and an indication of possible approaches to planning and delivering the A2 course from September 2009. More detailed support and guidance will be added later. In both units, candidates are required to demonstrate synoptic achievement through: synthesis of insights gained from the study of a range of texts, both spoken and written; evidence of ability to select appropriate analytical tools to assess the validity of different views expressed about texts and contexts of production and reception; skills of interpretation and expression to give insightful, accurate, wellargued responses to texts.

3.1

LL3

Approaching LL3 20% Analysing and Producing Performance Texts


(synoptic) 80 marks The focus of this coursework unit is on texts produced for performance. It encourages the development of extended formal essay-writing skills, independent research and creative writing linked to performance. Candidates are required to produce a folder of work divided into two sections. For Section A they will study two dramatic texts, one of which must be Shakespeare, and for Section B they will write two original performance texts and evaluate one of them. The folder of work for this unit, as for LL2, should be approximately 3000 words.

Section A: Dramatic texts in context - 40 marks


Relevant assessment objectives: AO1, AO2, AO3 1500 words approximately The Shakespeare text selected should be the focus of students detailed study, as this should be regarded as the core text. The second drama/performance text can be by any author other than Shakespeare, and from any time period. It can also be a screenplay/play script for a film/play that has already been produced/performed. This text should be regarded as the partner text, and so the study of this text will be broader in focus and should illuminate the Shakespeare study. It is important to remember that AO3 is double weighted in this unit: AO3: use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception Therefore the choice of partner drama text should be carefully considered regarding what it can offer the student in terms of exploring relationships between texts and considering contextual factors. Centres must nominate both selected texts for approval by WJEC no later than the end of December of the A2 year.

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The focus of the study may be thematic, for example, but students are free to choose another suitable focus. Centres may choose any of the following approaches to teaching this unit: (a) (b) (c) Teachers choose the core Shakespeare play for class study and encourage students to choose the partner performance text Teachers choose both texts Students choose both texts themselves for independent study and research.

The spirit of the new specification encourages independence wherever possible, and creative engagement with integrated study of texts will be most apparent where students have been given opportunities for independent study. In cases where this might be difficult to achieve, centres should endeavour to provide sufficient variety in tasks to allow for individual choices. Ideas for pairing LL3 performance texts Romeo and Juliet (core) Pulp Fiction/True Romance/Shakespeare in Love The Taming of the Shrew (core) A Streetcar Named Desire/A Dolls House/Oleanna/Ten Things I hate About You Twelfth Night (core) The Crying Game/Shakespeare in Love Macbeth (core) The Crucible/Death of a Salesman King Lear (core) The Homecoming/Glengarry Glen Ross/Talking Heads (A Cream Cracker Under the Settee) /Cat on a Hot Tin Roof/House of America/The Godfather Hamlet (core) Waiting for Godot/Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead/The Duchess of Malfi Othello (core) O The Tempest (core) The Crucible Much Ado about Nothing (core) Measure for Measure (core) Atonement (screenplay)/Measure for Measure/Indecent Proposal Henry V (core) Journeys End Coriolanus (core) Reservoir Dogs Examples of tasks: Compare how language is used to establish power relationships in King Lear and Pinters The Homecoming. Compare and contrast how dramatists use linguistic and literary techniques to present magic in The Tempest and The Crucible. By close analysis of linguistic and dramatic devices, explore how humour is used in both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead to present important themes.

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Using integrated linguistic and literary approaches, discuss how language is used to convey attitudes to women in Much Ado About Nothing and Oleanna. Compare how parent-child relationships are presented in King Lear and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. Compare the writers techniques for entertaining an audience in both Romeo and Juliet and Shakespeare and Love. With reference to The Taming of the Shrew and Ten Things I Hate About you/Othello and O/Romeo and Juliet and Shakespeare in Love, explore how characters are interpreted in different contexts. Other possible areas to explore: Re-working narrative Presentation of men Heroes and villains Significance of contexts Attitudes and values of different societies.

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL3 Section A


LL3 SECTION A % 20 (10) AO1% 5 (2.5) AO2% 5 (2.5) AO3% 10 (5)

The weighting of the relevant assessment objectives is reflected in the notional distribution of marks out of a total of 40 as follows: AO1: 10 marks AO2: 10 marks AO3: 20 marks

Teachers should use the LL3 Section A Assessment Grid (see specification and Section 6 of this Guide) to try to find the best fit for assessment, and should give an holistic mark to cover all three objectives.

Section B: Producing texts for performance - 40 marks


1500 words approximately For this section, candidates will be required to: write 2 original spoken texts for performance for different audiences and purposes (approximately 1000 words in total); evaluate the effectiveness of one of the texts they have produced (approximately 500 words). The original spoken texts can be spontaneous or prepared. Candidates are free to perform the texts themselves but there is no requirement for this. Obviously in order to produce a transcription the text would have to be performed and taped, but again, this need not be in front of an audience. One of the 2 original texts should be transcribed, i.e. showing pauses, stress, intonation and other prosodic features Tapes from which the transcription has been made should not be submitted.

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The evaluation will consider: The contextual factors that have influenced the production and performance of the text The key features of style The impact of the text in performance The influence of other texts, literary and non-literary.

Examples of task-setting Example 1 (a) a stand-up comedy routine that has been performed, taped and transcribed (b) a script for a sit-com (c) a 500-word evaluation of the stand-up comedy routine. Example 2 (a) a commentary of a public/sporting event, e.g. a royal wedding/opening of Olympics, that has been performed, taped and transcribed (b) a commentary for a DVD of a film (c) a 500 word commentary evaluation of (a)

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL3 Section B


LL3 SECTION B % 20 (10) AO2% 5 (2.5) AO4% 15 (7.5)

The weighting of the relevant assessment objectives is reflected in the notional distribution of marks out of a total of 40 as follows: AO2: 10 AO4: 30

Each of the original writing pieces should be marked out of 15. The commentary should be marked out of ten. The 15 marks are notionally distributed as: Band 1: 0-3 Band 3: 8-11 Band 2: 4-7 Band 4: 12-15.

However, teachers should use the first column of the LL3 Section B Assessment Grid (see specification and Section 6 of this Guide) to try to find the best fit band description for assessment of the original writing and should use the second column to apply the best-fit for the commentary. The commentary is assessed through AO2: demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. As candidates will be discussing their performance text, they will be expected to give consideration to the context of the performance and the impact of the text in performance as well as any influences on their writing. However, the majority of the marks available should be awarded for discussion of how their structure, form and language shape meaning.

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3.2

LL4

Approaching LL4 30% Comparative Textual Analysis and Review (synoptic) 80 marks
Section A: Comparative analysis of texts - 40 marks Relevant assessment objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory question in this section. The question will require candidates to produce a detailed comparative analysis of three unseen texts of different genres, chosen from a range of types and periods. The focus of the analysis will be provided in the question. In their response to the question, candidates are expected to select and apply relevant linguistic and literary approaches from their integrated studies across the course as a whole. The format of this section will be familiar to teachers of the current specification as it is similar to Section A of ELL6, but features three instead of the current four texts. Section B: Reviewing approaches ('open' text clean copy) 40 marks Relevant assessment objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3 Candidates will be required to answer one question in this section, from a choice of six. Each question will require a piece of extended writing designed to allow candidates to reflect on insights gained from integrated linguistic and literary study across the whole A level course. In preparation for this question, candidates are required to study one text from the list below: Charles Dickens: Hard Times (Penguin) Emily Bronte: Wuthering Heights (Penguin) George Orwell: Shooting an Elephant: and Other Essays (Penguin)* ed. Ian Jack: The Granta Book of Reportage (Classics of Reportage) (Granta Books) Ted Hughes: Birthday Letters (Faber) T.S.Eliot: Selected Poems (Faber)
*The original choice of Orwells Selected Essays has been withdrawn as it is out of print.

Clean copies (no annotation) of the texts studied must be taken into the examination. The questions set will not be directly linked to the prescribed texts, but will invite discussion of aspects of integrated study which will involve detailed knowledge of these texts as well as comparative reference to other texts (literary/non-literary, spoken/written) studied in the course as a whole or selected for wider independent study. The selected prescribed text should be regarded as the core text, and will require sustained reference and more detailed discussion than the texts discussed for comparative reference. Candidates should prepare for the following aspects of integrated study: presentation of characters/people themes e.g. family life, power, love narrative technique influence of contextual factors in the production and reception of texts importance of setting/location language variation according to time, place, context different readers or listeners interpretations of individual texts.

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Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL4 Sections A and B The same weighting of assessment objectives applies to both sections of the paper:
LL4 SECTION A SECTION B AS TOTAL LL4 % 30 (15) 30 (15) 60 (30) AO1% 6 (3) 6 (3) 12 (6) AO2% 12 (6) 12 (6) 24 (12) AO3% 12 (6) 12 (6) 24 (12)

The notional distribution of marks for both sections is therefore: AO1: 8 marks AO2: 16 marks AO3: 16 marks

This weighting is reflected in the tasks for both sections, as candidates should be equally engaged with analysing a range of texts, considering the significance of contextual factors and exploring relationships between the unseen texts in Section A and between the set text and other texts studied on the course in Section B: select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression (AO1); demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts (AO2); use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception (AO3).

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4. Appendices
Appendix 1 :LL1 Section A Specimen Answer
*London * Please note that this poem has been withdrawn from the anthology and replaced by Blakes
The Tyger

In its most basic interpretation, each text can be seen as an expression of its respective author's opinion of the city of London; the opinions expressed are greatly differing, however. Fundamentally, the main difference between the two texts is the light in which they portray the city; Blake does so in a negative light, whereas Smith does so in a positive light, at least on the surface. The poem, 'London', has a rigid structure, being split into four quatrains. This structure is perhaps reflective of the monotony which Blake feels is inherent in London. This is also reinforced by both the regular rhyme scheme, and the eight syllable lines, which produce a rhythm which sounds almost like that of a march. This implies that London, like a marching army, is inescapable and all-encompassing. Smith, on the other hand employs a much less rigid structure, which is much more like speech or a stream of consciousness. This, combined with the use of ellipsis, interjections, and a spoken style make for a much more informal, freer piece of writing which reflects the vibrancy which Smith sees in the city of London. Both pieces use the first person narrative stance, although to very different effects. Blake uses the first person to convey to the reader the oppressive nature of London. He says that he wanders through the "charter'd street", which implies freedom, since the city was given a charter by the sovereign entitling it to the right to manage its own affairs; however, he applies the same word, "charter'd", to the Thames, causing a semantic shift, leaving the word with a new meaning of possession, which then, subsequently, affects the first use of the word, making us feel that the streets of London have a closed in, almost claustrophobic quality. Smith, on the other hand, uses the first person to express her appreciation of London, the first three words she says are "I love London" - this declarative sentence sets the tone for the rest of the piece, framing it, so that we read the rest of the text from a positive perspective. In 'London', Blake uses one enjambed sentence per stanza; this I feel is somewhat incongruous with the content of the poem. In the poem, Blake is conveying a very pessimistic view of life in London, and of social injustice; as such I would have expected a more rigid structure to be adopted, to reflect the content. Perhaps this implies that there is some freedom in London, or at least a sense of it, but not much. However, it could also be argued that this is not the case, since the enjambed sentences are marshalled through caesura, and the quatrains form a rigid structure overall; from this we could infer that Blake is saying that any feeling of freedom in London is but an illusion, and that in actual fact, all inhabitants of London are actually prisoners of it, even if they are unaware of being so. Both the sentence structure and grammatical forms adopted by Smith are those we would expect to find in spoken language. She uses syndetic listing in the second paragraph which serves to create an energetic mood in the text, mirroring that which she sees in London - "I don't think there is any city to touch it in terms of energy". The use of spoken style, such as the use of "up there" at the end of the first paragraph sets a more informal, casual, conversational tone, which makes the reader think of London as a casual urban place. The use of the interjection "Oh" has a similar effect.

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The use of lexis and imagery within Blake's writing serves to enhance his view that London is oppressive and claustrophobic. Throughout the poem he repeats the word "every", and the phrase "In every" in the second quatrain, which makes the reader feel that the pessimistic, distressed tone with the poem permeates the city in its entirety. The lexical set of "cry", "sigh", "tear" and "woe" serve to make us feel that the city breeds sadness within its population. The use of the phrase "mind-forg'd manacles" infers that the distress and oppression which the narrator feels is a product of humanity, since it is 'made of the mind', so essentially, Blake is saying that humanity is to blame for its own distress and unhappiness. The image of the soldier's blood running down palace walls is a very vivid, and somewhat repugnant one, which illustrates the social injustice present with the society of London, since it seems unjust that the "hapless soldier" should die while the monarch lives opulently in the palace. Also, the phrase "the new born infant's tear" implies that misery, for those born into the lower classes begins at birth, and further emphasises the social injustice present in the society. The linking of "Marriage" and "hearse" is perhaps a comment by Blake upon how societal conventions serve only to create further social injustice, since the implication hear is that the prostitute will be viewed badly as a result of the child being born out of wedlock. Similarly, in Smith's piece, lexis serves an extremely important role in conveying her point of view. Her use of the neologistic portmanteau "city- ness" makes the reader feel that the city is 'fresh' and contemporary. Her use of the word "unnatural" to describe New York implies, by compassion that London is a natural place to live. Smith's apparent preoccupation with bagels is comic, and lightens the tone of the piece, but is also perhaps a criticism of the frivolity of London. Through the use of proper nouns she gives London a sense of place which is not present in Blake's writing, which, in comparison seems less focused on London itself, and more so on the injustices within it.

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Appendix 2: LL1 Framework for analyzing single texts (1)


Overview ( Content/Context):

Statement Structure and Form

Evidence

Analysis

Narrative Stance

Grammar and Sentence Structure

Lexis and Imagery

Phonology and Sound Patterning

Orthography and punctuation

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Appendix 3: LL1 Framework for analysing single texts (2)


Overview (Content/Context): Blakes London is a devastating criticism of the city and humanity in general. It explores misery, injustice and oppression, common themes in Blakes Songs Of Experience. Blake saw himself as a prophet or bard, fulfilling his role by highlighting societys vices. Church and state are both attacked here and his affection for children re-iterated. Statement Evidence Analysis Structure and Form Quatrains Regular rhyme, rhythm and quatrain structure drive home the relentless message of despair. Alternate rhyme Adds item to list suggests problems are pervasive. Iambic tetrameter Links Chimney Sweep to Blackning Church and soldier to blood on Palace. Caesura in every voice, in every ban Enjambment In verse 3 Narrative Stance First person address I wander Strong personal message of the irresponsibility of London and its inhabitants. Grammar and Sentence Structure Declarative mood Parallelism and Asyndetic listing Foregrounding marriage hearse Lexis and Imagery Juxtaposition Adjective Verb/noun Metaphor Phonology and Sound Patterning Colour symbolism Alliteration Sibilance Plosives Poetic elision Non-standard capitalisation charterd charterd Thames mark in every face and marks of woe mind-forgd manacles blackning midnight mindmanacles hapless soldiers sigh bloodPalace blastsblights charterd, blackning Man, Church, Harlot Foregrounds significant nouns to poems message. Dual meaning symbol of freedom: London granted charter and Thames as possessed or hired out. Meaning to notice or a scar. Blake has identified both in his vision. Constrictions are of human creation suggested through compound adjective. Darkness synonymous with sin and corruption. And mark in every face In every Marks of Focus on noun at start of phrase repeated to emphasis blight. Attacks the deadening grip of conventional formal institutions. Blake describes his vision of London as a matter of fact. The hammering repetition of key phrases suggests the extent of the problem.

Blake sneers at mans inability to break free from his desperate fate, Sympathetic presentation of unfortunate victim reinforced through gentle, innocent alliteration. Biting consonants reflect Blakes bitter outlook.

Orthography and punctuation

For metrical regularity.

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Appendix 4 : Framework for Analysing Single Texts (completed)


Overview (Content/Context): Smith views London as vibrant, multi-cultural, successful and full of energy. She compares it with New York in status, although she criticizes the English for misrepresenting London through disappointment and clich. The interview is relatively contemporary (August 2003). As a novelist Smith is being asked to give her personal and her creative view of the city she clearly loves. Statement Evidence Analysis Structure and Form Interview for magazine this magazine Interview has been adapted into an article for magazine celebrating London. article Prcis of artistic view of London in relation to English novels. Bold sound bite from When we write Article begins by considering London as geographical place and goes on to consider the role of London in article to right I love LondonBlackwriting. Moves from geographical English novel to artistic Narrative Stance First person address I love London Strong personal message of admiration for London as a city, less so for representations of London in Our English way fiction to date. Grammar and Sentence Structure Second person address Declarative mood And tripling Parallelism Discourse features Stative verb Pronoun/determiner Proper nouns Simile Phonology and Sound Patterning Plosive sound patterning You can write People are people are people, Get a bagel at 3 in the morning up there youll love we, our New York, London, Givenchy like a lover blocks and blocks and blocks people are people are people Addresses reader or interviewee directly as to options available for writing about London. Matter of fact personal vision of Londons inhabitants. The hammering repetition of key phrases suggests the extent of the problem. Repetition to explore possibilities London should/should not present. Slang phrase to highlight importance of London to Smith, elision creates informality of tone.

Lexis and Imagery

Conveys strong emotions for the city. Show Smiths acceptance of her role in representing London to readers. Creates sense of place and style, cultural associations connected with Brick Lane. Compares magazines admiration for London with romance.

Repetition of words beginning with plosive phonemes re-iterates Smiths enthusiasm for London and desire to move beyond novelists limited cultural representations

Orthography and punctuation

elision ellipsis dashes

youll, youre I love LondonI dont think - its a celebration

As a feature of spontaneous speech to enhance informality of text Indicates speaker has paused to clarify what exactly it is she loves so much about London Used as pauses to collect speakers thoughts and clarify ideas

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Appendix 5: LL1 SECTION A Making the connections


Aim: To identify a text for comparison with one of the poems in the anthology and to produce an analytical comparison of both texts. You have two weeks to complete your assignment. The unseen text and your analysis of the pair of texts must be handed in on _________________ In your analytical comparison you should include: An overview of both texts, comparing the content and the context in which they were produced comparison of the structure and form of each text comparison of the narrative stance of each text comparison of the grammar/sentence structure of each text comparison of the lexis and imagery of each text comparison of the phonology and sound patterning of each text comparison of the orthography and punctuation of each text. Once you have completed your own assignment, you will be exchanging your pair of texts for a different pair selected by someone else in the class. In effect, you get to be the examiner and set your friends an exam style question dont be too mean though, remember they are going to be setting one for you too!

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Appendix 6: The Cone

THE CONE
Think about it like this Just as we need a fairly tasteless, dry cone to enjoy an ice cream so we need fairly dry linguistic and literary terms and approaches to help us explore the meaning of a text. Most of us dont buy an ice cream for the cone, and most of us dont read a text simply to describe its linguistic or literary features. Always relate what you find in a text to how meaning is created. Do try to eat the whole cone though! Use all the approaches and terms available. GOOD LUCK
When we analyse texts we are primarily exploring meaning. Without keeping the focus on meaning, you will be feeding the examiner a dry cone of frameworks. But without the cone, you are likely to end up with meaning melting and running through your fingers. Yuk! Remember: you can get ice creams with different scoops of flavour: always try to explore different ways of reading a text. Style Your own written and spoken expression has an impact on how your ideas are perceived by others. Always use an appropriate style and register for the context in which you are writing or speaking. Punctuation and vocabulary need to be used accurately. Form and structure/Discourse Genre, narrative stance (first person, third person, second person address), narrative voice, dialogue, verse type e.g. sonnet (Petrarchan/Shakespearean), ballad, lyric, free verse, epistolary form, prose/verse Order of content; development of ideas/argument, chronology, juxtaposition of content, chapters, flashback, stanza structure (couplet; quatrain, sestet, octave, enjambment, caesura, volta) rhyme scheme, metre, scansion, enjambment, turn-taking, pausing, non-fluency, overlapping, latching

STYLE

MEANING
TT

Overview C CONTENT; CONTEXT; AUDIENCE; C A A P T ATTITUDES; PURPOSE; TEXT TYPE; TONE; THEMES FORM AND

STRUCTURE
Sentence level/Grammar Sentence types Syntax (word order) (especially: parallelism, foregrounding; end focus; non-standard features) Mood (Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative) Tense Standard/Non-standard features/Dialect Ellipsis

SENTENCE LEVEL

WORD LEVEL
PHONOLOGY TYPOGRAPHY

Phonology Accent/Pronunciation e.g. elision, phonemes //, plosives, fricatives, sibilants, IPA, Received Pronunciation, regional accents. .Prosodic features (loudness, stress, pitch, intonation, etc.) Sound alliteration, assonance, rhyme (couplets, masculine, half-rhyme, eye rhyme), rhythm, iambic and trochaic feet, sound effects, onomatopoeia, ) Typography Font Punctuation Orthography Graphemes <> Pictorial elements Use of colour

Word level/Lexis Modifiers Register Word classes (e.g. pronouns, verbs, abstract nouns) Lexical sets Connotations Standard/Non-standard features/Dialect/Idioms/Archaisms Literary and Rhetorical techniques including: metaphor, simile, allusion, imagery, symbolism, personification, anthropomorphism, pathetic fallacy, listing, antithesis, paradox, oxymoron, juxtaposition, tripling, repetition, hyperbole, litotes, apostrophe

Remember you dont have to follow the order above, but you should always have a clear plan and structure. DONT FORGET: ANSWER THE QUESTION SET

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Appendix 7: Top Ten Induction Activities


Starting AS English Language & Literature

First Class
1. Whats in a name? Devise a short factual narrative in which one person is addressed in several different ways according to context. (e.g. Mrs Smith, Mum, madam, dear etc.) Students discuss variations and why they occur. Explain your own different names and titles to the class. Then they list what they are called, by whom, including nicknames and their origins. Introduce key term- vocative.

Overview
2. Language variety sheet Fill an A3 sheet with 20 very short extracts/texts of different genres and periods (e.g. main literary genres, advert, transcript, media texts, letter, news bulletin). Students identify text types 1-20.Follow up with structured set of questions targeting key concepts e.g. register, tone, viewpoint, non-standard features, spoken/written, objectivity/bias, graphology

Non-fiction writing
3. The Next Big Thing Based on style of The Times supplement interview feature. Introduce recent examples of the genre. Students have 5 minutes to interview a partner, collecting material especially strengths, achievements, talents and ambitions. Swap over. They write the beginning (approx. 150 words) of a profile to read out, introducing their partner to the class. Can be written up in full as a brief assignment. 4. Newspaper headlines Students match ten recent headlines with brief summaries of the stories they headed. They make a list of typical linguistic features of headlines. Discuss and elicit/introduce appropriate terminology. Provide a new set of story summaries, real or imaginary. Students devise headlines and analyse their choices. Could introduce terms such as: homophone, ellipsis, collocation, intertextuality

Poetry
5. What is poetry ? Pose the question. Consider O.E.D definition. In small groups students discuss poems they already know and work towards a definition of their own. Note results on board. Give out a number of cards with poets definitions (e.g. Heaney: Poetry is language in orbit; Motion: Poetry is a hotline to the emotions). Students rank them in order of agreement and defend favourite definitions with reference to poems they know. 6. Song Lyrics Provide a varied collection of lyrics, old and new. These can be accompanied by songs on CD. Demonstrate analysis of lexis, syntax and some literary devices on two sets of lyrics. Students analyse the other examples in pairs. For the following class students play, present and analyse their own favourites. 7. Poems in performance Use Daisy Goodwin DVD Poems to Fall in Love With, with paper copies of selected poems. Discuss how performance and presentation bring out meanings of poems. Small groups of students are given a (fairly short) poem to perform. The presentation might add a short explanation of the effects they aimed to achieve.

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Prose genres
8. Word class packs Use laminated word packs of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Each pair/small group of students is dealt a hand of cards and a genre card (e.g. horror, detective, sci-fi, romance). The task is to include the words in a narrative opening in that genre. 9. Consequences Each student has a genre card (as above) which they keep to themselves. On an A3 sheet each writes the opening of a narrative in that genre. Then they stop and fold the page, leaving a line or so showing. The sheets are passed around, each student adding a section in their particular genre. When they are read out, the class try to identify the genres. 10. Nursery rhymes Introduce idea of re-writing in a different genre (good examples in Private Eye and politically correct fairytales). Deal out one pack of genre cards and a nursery rhyme to each pair. Students re-write the nursery rhyme in the genre and briefly identify important stylistic features.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 39

Appendix 8: The Terminology Table Tool-kit


Abstract noun Accent Active voice Adjective Adverb Alliteration Allusion Alternate rhyme Anapest Archaisms Aspirants Assonance Asyndetic listing Attitudes Auxiliary / Modal verbs Bilabials Caesura Clause Collective noun Comment clause Common/concrete noun Complex sentence Compound adjective Compound sentence Conceit Connotations Content Context Co-ordinating conjunction Couplet Dactyl Declarative mood Definite article Deictic Dependent or subordinate clause A name to describe things that have no physical qualities A set of distinctive pronunciations that mark regional or social identity A grammatical structure in which the subject is the actor of the sentence e.g. the dog eats the bone A word that modifies a noun or pronoun A word that modifies verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions and prepositions The repetition of the same sound in the initial position in a sequence of words To refer to something indirectly or metaphorically Lines of poetry where the rhyme is on every other line (abab) A unit of poetic meter containing two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable --/ A word or phrase no longer in current use Sounds that denote audible breath e.g. h A repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds The omission of co-ordinating conjunctions as a feature of rhetorical style The opinions expressed in the text A verb that precedes another verb e.g. I can go Term used to denote sounds made with both lips e.g. m, b A mid-line pause A group of words usually with a finite verb which is structurally larger than a phrase A name that refers to a group of people, animals or things A commonly occurring phrase in speech e.g. you know A name for every day objects A sentence made up of one main and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses An adjective made up of two words joined by a hyphen A sentence made up of at least two main clauses joined together by a co-ordinating conjunction A deliberately elaborate metaphor The associations attached to a word in addition to its dictionary definition What the text is about Things outside the text which may shape its meaning e.g. when it was written, and who wrote it A word that joins elements of equal rank (and, or, but) A two line verse (often rhyming) A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllable /-A mood used to express a statement The Terms used to denote words that rely on the context to be understood e.g. pass me that, there. A group of words which add extra information to the independent main clause

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 40

Dialogue Discourse Double negative Dynamic verbs Elision Ellipsis End-focus Enjambment Euphemism Exclamatory mood Eye rhyme Fillers foregrounding Form Fricatives Hyperbole Iambic Imagery Imperative mood Indefinite article Independent main clause Internal rhyme Interrogative mood Intonation IPA Juxtaposition Lexical set Lexis Litotes Metaphor Mode of address Nasals Non-standard Lexis Noun Octet Onomatopoeia Orthography Oxymoron Paralinguistics Parallelism Passive voice

Language interaction with two or more participants The study of spoken language A structure in which more than one negative is used A verb that expresses an action rather than a state The omission of sounds in connected speech The omission of part of a sentence A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on a closing sentence element. Run-on lines A word that replaces a term seen by society as taboo or unpleasant A mood that expresses strong emotions Where the rhyme looks like it should rhyme but the sound is not exactly the same. Words used when hesitating in speech, um, er A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on an opening sentence element The structure and shape of the text Sounds where air escapes through a small passage e.g. f, v Exaggeration used to heighten feeling and intensity A unit of poetic meter containing one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable -/ A descriptive or metaphorical use of language to create a vivid picture A mood that expresses a command A The group of words which carries the core meaning of the sentence Where the rhyming sound occurs within a line of verse A mood expressing a question The quality or tone of the voice in speech The International Phonetic Alphabet used to classify the sounds of language To place two or more things side by side A group of words joined by similarities The term used to describe the vocabulary of a language A deliberate understatement A description which does not compare one thing with another but actually becomes the other e.g. the trees danced in the wind The point of view of the text i.e. first, second or third person A term used to describe consonants produced with an open nasal passage e.g. m,n Any variety that does not conform to the standard form as used by society A naming word An eight line verse The term used to denote words that imitate sounds A study of spelling and the ways letters are used in language The use of apparently contradictory words in a phrase Non-verbal communication using gestures, posture and facial expressions The patterning of pairs of sounds, words or structures to create a sense of balance A grammatical structure in which the subject and object can

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 41

Pathetic fallacy Pentameter Personification Petrarchan or Italian sonnet Phonology Phrase Plosives Preposition Pronoun Proper nouns Prosodic features Purpose Quatrain Received Pronunciation (RP) Repair Repetition Rhythm Rondo Sentence mood Sestet Shakespearean or English sonnet Sibilants Simile Simple sentence Spondee Stanza Stative verbs Stress Subordinating conjunction Superlatives Syllable Symbolism Syndetic listing Syntax Syntax inversion Tag question Tetrameter Themes Tone Transcription

change places in order to alter the focus of a sentence e.g. the bone was eaten by the dog When the environment mirrors emotions A unit of poetic meter containing five feet (10 syllables in total) A device in which the non-human is given personal and human qualities e.g. the trees danced in the wind A poem of 14 lines, divided into an octet and a sestet, written in iambic pentameter, rhyming abbaabbba cdecde (sestet may vary) The study of sound A group of words that has no finite verb (except for a verb phrase) e.g. noun phrase the green tree Sounds which release a sudden burst of air e.g. p,b,t A word that shows relationships between nouns or pronouns e.g. on A word that replaces a noun A name of a distinctive person, place or other unique reference The use of pitch, volume, pace and rhythm to draw attention to key elements of spoken language The reason the text has been produced e.g. to entertain, inform, persuade etc. A four-line verse An English accent which has a high social status and is not connected to a specific region The correction of a mistake or misunderstanding in conversation Saying the same thing more than once The pattern of syllables and stresses within poetry A poem with a circular structure which begins and ends similarly The mood of the sentence (often clarified by punctuation) A six-line verse A poem of 14 lines, divided into three quatrains and a couplet, written in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg Consonant sounds articulated with a hissing sound e.g. s,z A device which directly compares two things using like or as e.g. the tress swayed in the wind like dancers A independent main clause A unit of poetic meter containing two stressed syllables // The division of lines in a poem, also called a verse Verbs that express states of being or processes The exaggerated phoneme in any particular word A conjunction used to introduce a subordinate clause (because, while, until) A word that emphasizes the extremes e.g. best, worst The beats or rhythm in a line of verse A device in which a word or phrase represents something else Using conjunctions to join clauses The study of the relationship between words in a sentences The deliberate alteration of the structure of words in a sentence An interrogative structure attached to the end of a sentence which expects a reply e.g. isnt it A unit of poetic meter containing four feet (68syllables in total) The recurring ideas and images in a text The style or voice the text is written in e.g. excites, emotional A written record of spoken language, which can use symbols and markings to illustrate the distinctive nature of speech

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 42

Trimeter Tripling Trochee Turn-taking Utterance Verbs Verse Type Vocatives Volta

A unit of poetic meter containing three feet (6 syllables in total) Listing of three items A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable /The organization of speakers contributions to a conversation A stretch of spoken language used in stead of sentence when discussing spoken language Words that express states, actions or processes The type of poem e.g. sonnet, lyric, ballad, ode, narrative poem etc. The words used to name or refer to people when talking to them The turning point in a sonnet

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 43

5.
Band

ASSESSMENT GRIDS
AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL1 Sections A and B Assessment Grid AO1 AO2 Select and apply relevant concepts and Demonstrate detailed critical approaches from integrated linguistic and understanding in analysing the ways in Marks literary study, using appropriate terminology which structure, form and language and accurate, coherent written expression shape meanings in a range of spoken Weighting: 16 marks and written texts Weighting: 8 marks 0-10 Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal application of concepts and approaches. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied, and poor structure to response. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Beginning to apply key concepts and approaches. Some use of key terminology, but sketchy or descriptive at the bottom of the band. Generally accurate expression, but with lapses, particularly towards bottom of band. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence structure. Attempts to organise response, particularly towards top of band. Clear evidence of integrated study, more marked towards top of band. Sound use of appropriate terminology. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Generally accurate, coherent expression, and sensibly organised. Thorough knowledge, understanding and insights gained from integrated study. Confident application of concepts and approaches. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Written expression confident and fluent. Wellorganised material. Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form, structure and vocabulary create basic meaning in texts, though stronger towards the top of the band. Some awareness of some key language features. Analysis mainly at word level, tending to be descriptive towards bottom of band. Engages with basic meaning of texts on a straightforward level, more focused towards top of band. More sustained focus on language use to create meaning, including some convincing phrase and straightforward sentence level analysis. Clear grasp of meaning, with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers/speakers techniques. Developing eye for detail, most apparent at top of band. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form, structure and language affect readers. Sound analysis and increasingly confident evaluation of writers/speakers techniques. Clear and sustained focus on HOW language is used to create different impacts. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Weighting: 16 marks Describes wider context(s) in which texts are produced. Limited sense of genre, purpose and audience. Limited evidence of understanding relationships between texts, particularly towards the bottom of the band. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious and relevant points of comparison and contrast. Attempts to use integrated approaches, more successfully towards top of band. . Sensible and clear discussion of some key similarities and differences between texts. Developing and increasingly convincing overview. Clear evidence of integrated approaches, with appropriate textual support, most appropriate towards top of band. Confident awareness and discussion of relationships between texts, making specific and productive connections. Sound, increasingly confident appreciation of contextual factors and their significance.

11-20 2

21-30 3

31-40 4

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 44

AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE LL2 Assessment Grid for Original Writing Tasks (a) and (b)
AO4 Band Marks Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences, drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies. Limited attempt to vary register in response to audience and purpose, less limited towards the the top of the band. Limited attempt to apply knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing. Some variation in register in response to audience, purpose and genre, increasingly successful towards top of band. Beginning to apply knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing, less successfully towards bottom of band. Register is more clearly suited to audience and purpose, particularly appropriate towards the top of band. Appropriate and increasingly purposeful use of some linguistic and literary features. Style and tone are appropriate for audience, purpose and genre. Clear sense of engagement with writing tasks. Style demonstrates some flair and is accurately pitched for audience, purpose and genre. Stylistic choices show a detailed knowledge of linguistic and literary features and their impact. Evidence of individuality most marked at top of band.

0-5

6-10

11-15

16-20

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 45

AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

LL2 Assessment Grid for Commentary Task (c)


AO2 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form, structure and vocabulary create basic meaning in texts, though stronger towards the top of the band. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Weighting: 20 marks Describes wider context(s) in which texts are produced. Limited sense of genre, purpose and audience. Limited evidence of understanding relationships between texts, particularly towards the bottom of the band.

Band

Marks

AO1 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression. Weighting: 10 marks

0-10
1

Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal application of concepts and approaches. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied, and poor structure to response. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Beginning to apply key concepts and approaches. Some use of key terminology, but sketchy or descriptive at the bottom of the band. Generally accurate expression, but with lapses, particularly towards bottom of band. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence structure. Attempts to organise response, particularly towards top of band. Clear evidence of integrated study, more marked towards top of band. Sound use of appropriate terminology. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Generally accurate, coherent expression, and sensibly organised. Thorough knowledge, understanding and insights gained from integrated study. Confident application of concepts and approaches. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Written expression confident and fluent. Wellorganised material.

11-20
2

Some awareness of some key language features. Analysis mainly at word level, tending to be descriptive towards bottom of band. Engages with basic meaning of texts on a straightforward level, more focused towards top of band. More sustained focus on language use to create meaning, including some convincing phrase and straightforward sentence level analysis. Clear grasp of meaning, with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers/speakers techniques. Developing eye for detail, most apparent at top of band. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form, structure and language affect readers. Sound analysis and increasingly confident evaluation of writers/speakers techniques. Clear and sustained focus on HOW language is used to create different impacts.

Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious and relevant points of comparison and contrast. Attempts to use integrated approaches, more successfully towards top of band.

21-30
3

Sensible and clear discussion of some key similarities and differences between texts. Developing and increasingly convincing overview. Clear evidence of integrated approaches, with appropriate textual support, most appropriate towards top of band. Confident awareness and discussion of relationships between texts, making specific and productive connections. Sound, increasingly confident appreciation of contextual factors and their significance.

31-40
4

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 46

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

LL3 Section A Assessment Grid


A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form, structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Some difficulty in understanding meaning in texts. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception.

Band

Marks

A01 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression. Weighting: 10 marks Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal, unconvincing application of concepts and approaches. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. Response may lack organisation. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Some application of key concepts and approaches. Some use of key terminology. Generally clear expression, but with lapses in accuracy. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence organisation, becoming more complex towards top of band. Clear organisation towards top of band. Clear evidence of integrated study. Purposeful use of appropriate terminology. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Generally accurate, coherent expression. Effective organisation, particularly towards top of band. Thorough knowledge, understanding and insights gained from integrated study. Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide range of approaches. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Very well-organised. Written expression is confident, fluent, with varying degrees of flair. Mature vocabulary.

Weighting: 20 marks
Some simplistic awareness of the broadest contextual factors. Limited sense of genre. Limited evidence of understanding basic points of comparison and contrast. Texts may be discussed individually and unevenly. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Some relevant discussion of how different contexts influence the way the texts have been/are received, more relevant towards top of band. . Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious points of comparison and contrast. Sensible and clear awareness of the influence of some key contextual factors on the production and reception of texts. Some sensible evaluation of how different audiences/readers in different times might respond. Able to present generally convincing overview. Points for comparison and contrast are well-chosen and clearly argued. Confident evaluation of the impact of contextual factors in shaping the production of texts and influencing different audiences/readers at different times. Points of comparison and contrast are astute and illuminating. Title/question addressed consistently and perceptively.

0-10

11-20
2

21-30
3

Some awareness of some key language features. Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. Clear grasp of basic meaning. Texts understood on a straightforward level. Some generalisation and simplification. Adequate awareness of genre, more secure towards top of band. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning, including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Sensible use of key linguistic and literary concepts and approaches. Sound reading of implicit meaning, with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers/speakers techniques. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form, structure and language affect readers and audiences. Assured reading of texts. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. Some evidence of originality may be shown, particularly at top of band . Clear and sustained focus throughout response.

31-40
4

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 47

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE


A01 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression. Weighting: 10 marks Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal, unconvincing application of concepts and approaches. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. Response may lack organisation. Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Some application of key concepts and approaches. Some use of key terminology. Generally clear expression, but with lapses in accuracy. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence organisation, becoming more complex towards top of band. Clear organisation towards top of band. Clear evidence of integrated study. Purposeful use of appropriate terminology. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Generally accurate, coherent expression. Effective organisation, particularly towards top of band. Thorough knowledge, understanding and insights gained from integrated study. Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide range of approaches. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Very well-organised. Written expression is confident, fluent, with varying degrees of flair. Mature vocabulary.

LL3 Section A Assessment Grid


A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form, structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Some difficulty in understanding meaning in texts. Some awareness of some key language features. Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. Clear grasp of basic meaning. Texts understood on a straightforward level. Some generalisation and simplification. Adequate awareness of genre, more secure towards top of band. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning, including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Sensible use of key linguistic and literary concepts and approaches. Sound reading of implicit meaning, with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers/speakers techniques. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form, structure and language affect readers and audiences. Assured reading of texts. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. Some evidence of originality may be shown, particularly at top of band. Clear and sustained focus throughout response. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Weighting: 20 marks Some simplistic awareness of the broadest contextual factors. Limited sense of genre. Limited evidence of understanding basic points of comparison and contrast. Texts may be discussed individually and unevenly. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Some relevant discussion of how different contexts influence the way the texts have been/are received, more relevant towards top of band. . Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious points of comparison and contrast. Sensible and clear awareness of the influence of some key contextual factors on the production and reception of texts. Some sensible evaluation of how different audiences/readers in different times might respond. Able to present generally convincing overview. Points for comparison and contrast are well-chosen and clearly argued. Confident evaluation of the impact of contextual factors in shaping the production of texts and influencing different audiences/readers at different times. Points of comparison and contrast are astute and illuminating. Title/question addressed consistently and perceptively.

Band

Marks

0-10

11-20
2

21-30
3

31-40
4

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 48

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

LL3 Section B Assessment Grid


A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Weighting: 10 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form, structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Some difficulty in understanding impact of text in performance. Limited awareness of contextual factors/other texts which may have influenced the production/performance. Some awareness of some key language features. Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. Some generalisation and simplification. Adequate awareness of genre and style, more secure towards top of band. Attempts to consider the contextual factors/other texts that may have influenced the production and performance of the text. Makes reasonable assessment of impact of text in performance towards top of band. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning, including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Sensible use of key linguistic and literary concepts and approaches. Sound reading of implicit meaning, with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers/speakers style and techniques. Increasingly sound evaluation of impact of text in performance. Sound awareness of the contextual factors/other texts that may have influenced the production and performance of the text Perceptive awareness of how choices of form, structure and language affect readers/audiences. Assured reading of texts. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. Some evidence of originality may be shown, particularly at top of band. Confident, perceptive evaluation of impact of text in performance. Sophisticated awareness, most apparent at top of band, of contextual factors/other texts that may have influenced production/performance. Clear and sustained focus throughout response.

Band

Marks

AO4 Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of purposes and audiences, drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies. Weighting: 30 marks Limited attempt to vary register in response to audience and purpose, less limited towards the top of the band. Limited attempt to apply knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing. Limited engagement with tasks.

0-10

11-20

Can vary register in response to audience, purpose and genre, increasingly successful towards top of band. Can apply reasonable knowledge and understanding from integrated study to own writing, more basic towards bottom of band. Clearer engagement with tasks towards top of band. Register is clearly suited to audience and purpose. Appropriate and increasingly confident application of linguistic and literary features to own writing. Style and tone accurately pitched for audience, purpose and genre. Increasingly sound engagement with tasks.

21-30

31-40

Style demonstrates sophistication, most marked at top of band and writing is assured in addressing audience, purpose and genre. Stylistic choices show an assured knowledge of linguistic and literary features and their impact. Evidence of originality and flair most marked at top of band.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 49

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

LL4 Sections A and B ASSESSMENT GRID


A02 Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts. Weighting: 16 marks Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious choices in form, structure and vocabulary create basic meanings. Some difficulty in understanding meaning in texts. Some awareness of some key language features. Analysis mainly at word level at bottom of band. Clear grasp of basic meaning. Texts understood on a straightforward level. Some generalisation and simplification. Adequate awareness of genre, more secure towards top of band. More sustained focus on language used to create meaning, including some convincing phrase and sentence level analysis. Sensible use of key literary and linguistic concepts and approaches. Sound reading of implicit meaning, with increasingly detailed appreciation of writers/speakers techniques. Perceptive awareness of how choices of form, structure and language affect readers and audiences. Assured reading of texts. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual exploration. Some evidence of originality may be shown. Clear and sustained focus throughout response. AO3 Use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception. Weighting: 16 marks Some simplistic awareness of the broadest contextual factors. Limited sense of genre. Limited evidence of understanding basic points of comparison and contrast. Texts may be discussed individually and unevenly. Reasonable observations of some key contextual factors. Some relevant discussion of how different contexts influence the way the texts have been/are received, more relevant towards top of band. Selection and discussion of some of the more obvious points of comparison and contrast. Sensible and clear awareness of the influence of some key contextual factors on the production and reception of texts. Some sensible evaluation of how different audiences/readers in different times might respond. Able to present generally convincing overview. Points for comparison and contrast are well-chosen and clearly argued. Confident evaluation of the impact of contextual factors in shaping the production of texts and influencing different audiences/readers at different times. Points of comparison and contrast are astute and illuminating. Title/question addressed consistently and perceptively.

Band

Marks

A01 Select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent written expression. Weighting: 8 marks Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal, unconvincing application of concepts and approaches. Written expression often has lapses in accuracy and clarity. Response may lack organisation Basic terminology often misunderstood and misapplied. Some basic evidence of integrated study. Some application of key concepts and approaches. Some use of key terminology. Generally clear expression, but with lapses in accuracy. Straightforward vocabulary and sentence organisation. Clear organisation towards top of band.

0-10 1

11-20

21-30 3

Clear evidence of integrated study. Purposeful use of appropriate terminology. Relevant and purposeful application of some relevant key concepts and approaches. Generally accurate, coherent expression. Effective organisation, particularly towards top of band.

31-40 4

Thorough knowledge, understanding and insights gained from integrated study. Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide range of approaches. Accurate and sensitive use of terminology. Very well-organised. Written expression is confident, fluent, with varying degrees of flair. Mature vocabulary.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 50

Contributors to the Teachers Guide


Sally Llewellyn Principal Examiner LL1 Michael Stevens Chief Examiner Principal Examiner LL4 Jan Mably Principal Examiner LL1 Catherine Porter Principal Moderator LL2 Cerys Preece Subject Officer

GCE English Language & Literature - Teachers' Guide/ED 16 December 2009