You are on page 1of 5

60$5$1'$&+(+<327+(6,6(9,'(1&(6

,03/,&$7,216$1'$33/,&$7,216

/HRQDUGR)'GD0RWWD
OPRWWD#DPD]RQFRPEU

&RQVHOKHLUR)XUWDGR
%HOpP3$%UD]LO

6HSWHPEHU

$%675$&7 ,Q  6PDUDQGDFKH SURSRVHG WKDW WKHUH LV QRW D OLPLW VSHHG RQ WKH
QDWXUH EDVHG RQ WKH (35%HOO (LQVWHLQ 3RGROVN\ 5RVHQ %HOO  SDUDGR[ $OWKRXJK LW
DSSHDUVWKDWWKLVSDUDGR[ZDVVROYHGUHFHQWO\WKHUHDUHPDQ\RWKHUHYLGHQFHVWKDWJXLGH
XV WR EHOLHYH WKDW 6PDUDQGDFKH +\SRWKHVLV LV ULJKW RQ TXDQWXP PHFKDQLFV DQGHYHQRQ
WKH QHZ XQLILFDWLRQ WKHRULHV ,I 6PDUDQGDFKH +\SRWKHVLV WXUQV WR EH ULJKW XQGHU DQ\
FLUFXPVWDQFH VRPH FRQFHSWV RI PRGHUQ SK\VLFV ZRXOG KDYH WR EH UHILW WR DJUHH ZLWK
6PDUDQGDFKH +\SRWKHVLV 0RUHRYHU ZKHQ WKH PHDQLQJ RI 6PDUDQGDFKH +\SRWKHVLV
EHFRPHFRPSOHWHO\XQGHUVWRRGDUHYROXWLRQRQWHFKQRORJ\VSHFLDOO\LQFRPPXQLFDWLRQ
ZLOODULVH

, 683(5/80,1$/3+(120(1$(9,'(1&(6$1'60$5$1'$&+(
+<327+(6,6

,WDSSHDUVWKDWZDV6RPPHUIHOGZKRILUVWQRWLFHGWKHSRVVLEOHH[LVWHQFHRIIDVWHUWKDQ
OLJKW SDUWLFOHV ODWHU RQ FDOOHG WDFK\RQV E\ )HLQEHUJ >@ +RZHYHU WDFK\RQV KDYH
LPDJLQDU\PDVVVRWKH\KDGQHYHUEHHQGHWHFWHGH[SHULPHQWDOO\%\LPDJLQDU\PDVVZH
XQGHUVWRRGDVDPDVVSURKLELWHGE\ UHODWLYLW\+RZHYHUUHODWLYLW\GRHVQRWGLUHFWO\IRUELG
WKH H[LVWHQFH RI PDVV OHVV VXSHUOXPLQDO SDUWLFOHV VXFK DV WKH SKRWRQ EXW VXJJHVWV WKDW
VXSHUOXPLQDO SKHQRPHQD ZRXOG UHVXOW LQ WLPH WUDYHO +HQFH PDQ\ SK\VLFLVWV DVVXPHG
WKDWVXSHUOXPLQDOSKHQRPHQDGRHVQRWH[LVWLQWKHXQLYHUVHRWKHUZLVHZHZRXOGKDYHWR
H[SODLQDOOWKRVHNLOO\RXUJUDQGIDWKHUSDUDGR[HV>@$IDPRXVH[DPSOHRIWKLVVRUWRI
SDUDGR[LVWKHFDXVDOLW\SUREOHP
1HYHUWKHOHVV TXDQWXP PHFKDQLFV VXJJHVW WKDW VXSHUOXPLQDO FRPPXQLFDWLRQ H[LVW ,Q
IDFW WKHUH DUH K\SRWKHVLV RQ WKH REOLJDWRU\ H[LVWHQFH RI VXSHUOXPLQDO SKHQRPHQD RQ
QDWXUH > @ 7KH (35%HOO SDUDGR[ LV WKH PRVW IDPRXV H[DPSOH 3RQGHULQJ DERXWWKLV
SDUDGR[ 6PDUDQGDFKH VXJJHVWHG LQ  LQ D OHFWXUH RQ %UD]LO WKDW WKHUH LV QR VXFK
WKLQJ DV D OLPLW VSHHG RQ WKH XQLYHUVH DV SRVWXODWHG E\ (LQVWHLQ >@ ,W DSSHDUV WKDW
UHFHQWO\ WKLV SDUDGR[ ZDVFRPSOHWHO\VROYHGE\/(6]DEy>@(YHQVRWKHUHDUHVWLOO
PDQ\PRUHHYLGHQFHVRIWKHLQILQLWHVSHHG² RUVLPSO\LQVWDQWDQHRXVFRPPXQLFDWLRQ²
LQWKHXQLYHUVHDVZHVKDOOVHHEULHIO\

,7KH5RGULJXHV0DLRULQR7KHRU\
6WXG\LQJ VROXWLRQV RI 0D[ZHOO DQG 'LUDF:H\O HTXDWLRQV :DOG\U 5RGULJXHV -U DQG
-RVp 0DLRULQR ZHUH DEOH WR SURSRVH D IXOOXQLILHG WKHRU\ IRU FRQVWUXFWLRQV RI DUELWUDU\
VSHHGV LQ QDWXUH IRU DUELWUDU\ WKH\ PHDQW  d Y  f  LQ  >@ 7KH\ DOVR SURSRVHG
WKDW WKHUH LV QR VXFK WKLQJ DV D OLPLW VSHHG LQ WKH XQLYHUVH VR WKDW 6PDUDQGDFKH
+\SRWKHVLV FDQ EH SURPRWHG WR WKHRU\ DV 6PDUDQGDFKH5RGULJXHV0DLRULQR 650 
WKHRU\
:KDW LV XQLTXH DERXW 5RGULJXHV0DLRULQR WKHRU\ LV WKDW VSHFLDO UHODWLYLW\ SULQFLSOH
VXIIHUV D EUHDNGRZQ KRZHYHU HYHQ UHODWLYLVWLF FRQVWUXFWLRQV RI TXDQWXP PHFKDQLFV
VXFKDV'LUDFHTXDWLRQDJUHHFRPSOHWHO\ZLWKVXSHUOXPLQDOSKHQRPHQD$OVRDFFRUGLQJ
WR 5RGULJXHV0DLRULQR WKHRU\ HYHQ ZHOO SRVLWLRQHG PLUURUV FDQ DFFHOHUDWH DQ
HOHFWURPDJQHWLF ZDYH WR YHORFLWLHV JUHDWHU RI WKH OLJKW 7KLV DVVXPSWLRQ ZDV ODWHU RQ
FRQILUPHGE\6DDULDQG5HLYHOW  >@ZKRSURGXFHGD;ZDYH QDPHGWKLVZD\E\
/X-<D5RGULJXHV
FRQWULEXWRU XVLQJD[HQRQODPSLQWHUFHSWHGZLWKDVHWRIOHQVDQG
RULILFHV
7KH650WKHRU\LVDPDWKHPDWLFDOSXUHDQGVWURQJVROXWLRQRIWKHUHODWLYLVWLFTXDQWXP
ZDYHHTXDWLRQLQGLFDWLQJWKDWWKHUHLVQRVSHHGOLPLWLQWKHXQLYHUVHDQGWKHUHIRUHLVWKH
PRVWSRZHUIXOWKHRU\WRGD\IRUFRQVWUXFWLRQRIDUELWUDU\VSHHGV

,6XSHUOXPLQDO([SHULPHQWV
0DQ\H[SHULPHQWVPDLQO\HYDQHVFHQWPRGHVUHVXOWLQVXSHUOXPLQDOSURSDJDWLRQ7KH
ILUVW VXFFHVVIXO HYDQHVFHQW PRGH UHVXOW ZDV REWDLQHG LQ  E\ 1LPW] >@ 1LPW]
SURGXFHGDF VLJQDO/DWHURQKHZRXOGSURGXFHDF)0VLJQDOZLWK0R]DUW
VWK
V\PSKRQ\7KLVDFKLHYHPHQWRI1LPW]ZRXOGEHSDVVHGRYHUE\RWKHUUHVXOWVHYHQHLJKW
WLPHVIDVWHUWKDQWKHFRQVWDQWF
,Q WKH FDVHRI1LPW]H[SHULPHQWLVQRWFOHDULILWYLRODWHVWKHFDVXDOSDUDGR[2QWKH
RWKHU KDQG / - :DQJ $ .X]PLFK DQG $ 'RJDULX UHFHQWO\ SXEOLVKHG DQ RXWVWDQGLQJ
UHVXOW RI DQ DQRPDORXV GLVSHUVLRQ H[SHULPHQW ZKHUH D OLJKW SXOVH ZDV DFFHOHUDWHG WR
 r  WLPHVWKHVSHHGRIOLJKWQRWYLRODWLQJWKHFDVXDOSDUDGR[WKXVUHVXOWLQJLQDWLPH
WUDYHO ,n practice, this means that a light pulse propagating through the atomic vapour
cell appears at the exit side so much earlier than if it had propagated the same distance in
a vacuum that the peak of the pulse appears to leave the cell before entering it [10].
,7KH6SHHGRI*UDYLW\5HYLVLWHG
7KHJHQHUDOUHODWLYLW\RI(LQVWHLQSRVWXODWHVWKDWWKHVSHHGRIJUDYLW\IRUFHLVWKHVDPH
DVWKHFRQVWDQWF GXHWR WKHUHVWULFWLRQRIWKHVSHFLDOWKHRU\RIUHODWLYLW\+RZHYHULIWKH
VSHHG RI OLJKW LV QRW D OLPLW RQ WKH XQLYHUVH LVQ
W WLPH WR UHYLVLW WKLV SRVWXODWH"  9DQ
)ODQGHUQSXEOLVKHGVRPHDVWURSK\VLFDOUHVXOWVWKDWLQGLFDWHJUDYLW\LVVXSHUOXPLQDO>@
2EVHUYDWLRQV RI VRPHJDOD[LHVURWDWLRQVPDGHE\1$6$VXJJHVWWKDWVRPHJDOD[LHVDUH
VSLQQLQJZLWKVXSHUOXPLQDOYHORFLW\>@
9DQ )ODQGHUQ GDWD ZDV ODWHU RQ H[SODLQHG ZLWK D WKHRU\ WKDW GRHV QRW QHHG
VXSHUOXPLQDO SKHQRPHQD E\ ,ELVRQ 3XWKRII DQG 6 5 /LWWOH >@ <HW REVHUYDWLRQV RI
VXSHUOXPLQDO VLJQDOLQJ IURP JDOD[LHV UHPDLQV XQH[SODLQHG IURP VXEOXPLQDO SRLQW RI
YLHZ

,7DFK\RQV
6RPHPRGHOVWRWKHVXSHUVWULQJWKHRU\RXUIRUHPRVWFDQGLGDWHIRUWKHXQLILHGWKHRU\
RI SK\VLFV LQFOXGH WDFK\RQV WKH SDUWLFOHV DEOH WR PRYH IDVWHU WKDQ OLJKW (YHQ VR
SK\VLFLVWV IRXQG D ZD\ RI KDFNLQJ WKH WKHRU\ VR WKDW WDFK\RQV GLVDSSHDU VRPH RWKHUV
OLNH )UHHGPDQ GHIHQG WKDW WKH WKHRU\ VKRXOG QRW EH KDFNHG WKDW ZD\ DW DOO >@ 7KH
VXSHUVWULQJ WKHRU\ LV SUREDEO\ WKH EHVW ILHOG IRU VWXG\LQJ WDFK\RQV IRU LW ZLOO QRW PDNH
\RX ZRUN ZLWK LPDJLQDU\ PDVVHV 3URI 0LFKLR .DNX FRPSDUHG WKH LGHD RI PRUH
GLPHQVLRQV LQSK\VLFVWRDPDWUL[VFKHPHLQKLVERRN +\SHUVSDFH,PDJLQHDPDWUL[RI
[ WKDW LQVLGH ZH FDQ KDYH WKH 7KHRU\ RI 5HODWLYLW\ DQG DQRWKHU ZHUH ZH KDYH WKH
TXDQWXPPHFKDQLFV,IZHEXLOGDELJJHUPDWUL[VD\[ZHFDQWKHUHIRUHLQFOXGHERWK
UHODWLYLW\DQGTXDQWXPPHFKDQLFVLQDVLQJOHPDWUL[7KDWLVWKHPDLQLGHDRIXQLILFDWLRQ
WKURXJK WKH DGGLWLRQ RI PRUH GLPHQVLRQV ,Q WKH VDPH ZD\ ZRUNLQJ RQO\ ZLWK WKH [
PDWUL[HVZHGRQRWKDYHHQRXJKVSDFHIRUZRUNLQJZLWKWDFK\RQV+RZHYHULQDELJJHU
PDWUL[ZHZLOOKDYHHQRXJKVSDFHIRUILQGLQJVROLGVROXWLRQVRIWDFK\RQLFPRGHOV
7DFK\RQV ZHUH DOUHDG\ LQ DQ REVFXUH PDQQHU GHWHFWHG LQ DLU VKRZHUV IURP FRVPLF
UD\V>@

,, ,03/,&$7,216$1'$33/,&$7,216
$FFRUGLQJ WR 5RGULJXHV0DLRULQR WKHRU\ WKH FRQVHTXHQFH RI WKH H[LVWHQFH RI
VXSHUOXPLQDOSKHQRPHQDZRXOGEHWKHEUHDNGRZQRIWKHVSHFLDOUHODWLYLW\SULQFLSOH%XW
ZH ZLOO QRW QHHG WR PRGLI\ DQ\WKLQJ LQ TXDQWXP PHFKDQLFV LWVHOI 0RUH SUHFLVHO\ LW
DSSHDUVWKDWLVTXDQWXPPHFKDQLFVZKLFKLVEDQQLQJWKHROGSXUHUHODWLYLW\DFFRUGLQJWR
650 WKHRU\ 1HYHUWKHOHVV WKH WKHRU\ RI UHODWLYLW\ LQGHHG DFFHSWV VRPH VRUW RI
VXSHUOXPLQDOFRPPXQLFDWLRQUHVXOWLQJLQWLPHWUDYHODV:DQJHWDOVKRZHGLW
3HUKDSV ZH ZRXOG EH DEOHLQDGLVWDQWIXWXUHWRVHQGPHVVDJHVWRWKHSDVWRUWRWKH
IXWXUH $Q\ZD\ VXSHUOXPLQDO SKHQRPHQD ZRXOG KDYH D PRUH VWDQGRQJURXQG
DSSOLFDWLRQ ZLWK ORFDO FRPPXQLFDWLRQ $FFRUGLQJ WR 5RGULJXHV0DLRULQR WKHRU\ WKH ;
ZDYHLVFORVHG LQDZD\WKDWLWGRHVQRWORVVHQHUJ\DVLWWUDYHOV6RDVXSHUOXPLQDO;
ZDYHUDGLRPHVVDJHZRXOGDFKLHYHLWVGHVWLQDWLRQDOPRVWLQWKHVDPHFRQGLWLRQDVZKHQLW
ZHUHVHQWDQGQRRQHH[FHSWWKHGHVWLQDWLRQFRXOGVS\WKHFRQWHQWRIWKHPHVVDJH7KH
LQYHQWLRQRIVXFKVXSHUOXPLQDOVLJQDOLQJWUDQVPLWWHUZRXOGEHRIJUHDWSRZHUDVVRFLDWHG
ZLWK0,7
VSDVWLOOHDEOHWRFXUYHOLJKWLQžLQWKHPDQXIDFWXULQJRIRSWLFILEHUV

,,, &21&/86,21

7KH YDULRXV H[SHULPHQWV DQG VROLG WKHRULHV WKDW ULVH IURP TXDQWXP PHFKDQLFV
LQYROYLQJ VXSHUOXPLQDO SKHQRPHQD DUH D KLJKOHYHO LQGLFDWLRQ RI WKH 6PDUDQGDFKH
+\SRWKHVLV WKDW WKHUH LV QR VXFK VSHHG OLPLW LQ QDWXUH 7KLV LPSOLHV LQ D EUHDNGRZQ RI
(LQVWHLQ SRVWXODWH RI UHODWLYLW\ EXW QRW LQ DQ\ ILHOG RI TXDQWXP PHFKDQLFV HYHQ RQ WKH
UHODWLYLVWLF ZDYH HTXDWLRQ $V LQ RXU HYROXWLRQ FDPH D WLPH WKDW QHZWRQLDQ G\QDPLFV
ZHUH QRW HQRXJK WR XQGHUVWDQGVRPHDVSHFWVRIQDWXUHLWLVPD\EHJHWWLQJDWLPHZKHQ
(LQVWHLQ
VUHODWLYLW\ PXVWEHOHIWDVLGHIRUKHQFHTXDQWXPPHFKDQLFVZLOOUXOH

$&.12:/('*(0(176  'U0LQK3HUH]DWWKH$PHULFDQ5HVHDUFK3UHVVIRUWKH
LQYLWDWLRQGLVFXVVLRQVPDWHULDOHWF

5()(5(1&(6

>@ )UHHGPDQ'DYLG%H\RQG(LQVWHLQ'LVFRYHU\ )HE 


>@ +HUEHUW1LFN)DVWHUWKDQ/LJKW6XSHUOXPLQDO/RRSKROHVLQ3K\VLFV3OXPH%RRNV
1HZ<RUN86$ 
>@ 6KDQ*DR 4XDQWXPVXSHUOXPLQDOFRPPXQLFDWLRQPXVWH[LVW -XQ 
SK\VLFV,40&*6(
>@ 6KDQ*DR4XDQWXPVXSHUOXPLQDOFRPPXQLFDWLRQGRHVQRWUHVXOWLQFDVXDOORRS
SDUDGR[HV -XQ TXDQWSK,40
>@ 6PDUDQGDFKH)ORUHQWLQ7KHUH,V1R6SHHG%DUULHU,Q7KH8QLYHUVH%XOOHWLQRI3XUH
DQG$SSOLHG6FLHQFHV'HOKL,QGLD9RO' 3K\VLFV 1RS  $OVRDW
KWWSZZZJDOOXSXQPHGXaVPDUDQGDFKHSK\VLFVKWP
>@ 6]DEy/(&RPSOHWH5HVROXWLRQRIWKH(35%HOO3DUDGR[(|WY|V%XGDSHVW
-XQ TXDQWSK(|WY|V+36
>@ 5RGULJXHV:DOG\U$ 0DLRULQR-RVp($XQLILHGWKHRU\IRUFRQVWUXFWLRQRI
DUELWUDU\VSHHGVVROXWLRQVRIWKHUHODWLYLVWLFZDYHHTXDWLRQV5DQGRP2SHUDQG
6WRFK(TX9RO1RS  
>@ 6DDUL3 5HLYHOW.(YLGHQFHRI;6KDSHG3URSDJDWLRQ,QYDULDQW/RFDOL]HG/LJKW
:DYHV3K\V5HY/HWW  
>@ 1LPW]*6XSHUOXPLQDO6LJQDO9HORFLW\$QQGHU3K\VLNS
>@ :DQJ/- .X]PLFK$ 'RJDULX$*DLQDVVLVWHG6XSHUOXPLQDO
3URSDJDWLRQ1DWXUHS -XO\ 
>@ )ODQGHUQ79DQ7KHVSHHGRIJUDYLW\± ZKDWWKHH[SHULPHQWVVD\3K\V/HWW$
  
>@ +DUPRQ%$*DODWLF6XSHUOXPLQDO6RXUFH,Q UG,17(*5$/:RUNVKRSWKH
([WUHPH8QLYHUVH7DRUPLQD,WDO\ 6HS(GE\*3DOXPER$%D]]DQR
DQG&:LQNOHU $VWURSK\V/HWW&RPPXQDVWURSK
>@ ,ELVRQ0LFKDHO 3XWKRII+DUROG( /LWWOH6FRWW57KHVSHHGRIJUDYLW\
UHYLVLWHG3K\V/HWW$ 1RY SK\VLFV