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Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Contents Page No. 1 7 11 38 42 45 52

Furnaces for SRRM Design Aspects Fuel & Fuel Properties Design of Burners Insulation Aspects Heat Recovery Statutory and Safety requirements


Rerollers use reheating furnaces for rolling: REHEATING FURANCE Furnace Types-Reheating furnaces are divided into two general classes: 1. Batch type. 2. Continuous type, including pusher-type, rotary hearth-type, walking-beam-type, walking-hearth type and roller-hearth-type furnaces. Batch furnaces Batch furnaces are those in which the charged material remains in a fixed position on the hearth until heated to rolling temperature. Continuous furnaces are those in which the charged material moves through the furnace and is heated to rolling temperature as it progresses through the furnace. Batch furnaces are the older type and are used for heating all grades and sizes of steel. However, small billets seldom have been heated in this type since the introduction of continuous furnaces. Batch furnaces are fired with either gaseous or liquid fuel, with preheated or cold air for combustion. The air may be preheated by regenerators and the furnace firing reversed from one end to the other, as in open-hearth furnaces. Batch furnaces, in which the air is preheated by recuperators, are not reversed and firing is continuous from one or both ends, depending upon the location of the gas outlet port. The steel to be heated in a batch furnace commonly is charged and drawn through front doors by a charging machine. Batch furnaces vary in size from those with hearths of less than a square metre (only a few square feet), with a single access door, to those about 6 meter (20 feet) in depth by 15 metres (50 feet) long, with five or six doors. Pusher- Type Furnaces Continuous pusher-type furnaces were designed initially for heating billets and small bloom sections. The hearths were relatively short in length and were sloped downward longitudinally towards the discharge end to permit an easy movement of billets through the furnace. In early designs the furnaces were fired by burners located at the discharge end and the billets were heated by the hot gases flowing through the furnace above the top surface the steel toward the charging end. Pushers were used to push forward the charge of cold billets. The flow of gas and steel in the furnace were counter-current. The, modern continuous pusher-type furnace has been altered in many respects from those of early design, although a large number of the older ones, particularly billet-heating furnaces, are still used. Longer furnaces generally are constructed now. Some have hearths about 24.5 to 32 metres (80 to 105 feet) long, with top and bottom firing, and contain preheating, heating and soaking zones. The hearths usually are constructed level. Recuperators are utilized to provide waste-heat recovery.


The steel to be heated in a continuous furnace can be charged either from the end or through a side door. In either case, the steel is moved through the furnace by pushing the last piece charged with a pusher at the charging end. As each cold piece is pushed into the furnace against the continuous line of material, a heated piece is removed. The heated piece is discharged by several methods, such as through an end door by gravity upon a roller table which feeds the mill, or pushed through a side door to the mill table by suitable manual or mechanical means or withdrawn through the end door by a mechanical extractor. A distinctly different type of continuous reheating furnace is the rotary-hearth type. It is used frequently for heating rounds in tube mills and for heating short lengths of blooms or billets for forging. The rotary-hearth type permits the external walls and roof to remain stationary while the hearth section of the furnace revolves. Walking-Beam-Type Furnaces The walking-beam concept for conveying materials is not new. However, in the case of furnaces, the idea at first was applied successfully only to furnaces that operated at maximum temperatures of about 1065C (1950F), compared with reheating furnaces that must heat steel to temperatures up to 1315C (2400F). The early furnaces employed alloy steel walking beams that were exposed directly to the heat of the furnace and were subject to heat corrosion and warping and did not retain enough strength at the higher temperatures. Difficulties were met in trying to seal the slots between the walking beams and the fixed portion of the hearth, so that control of furnace pressure and atmosphere presented problems. Walking-beam furnaces that operated successfully in the higher ranges of temperature began to be used in Europe in the early 1950's, being first applied to the reheating of billets and blooms. They are now used here and abroad to reheat slabs as well as billets and blooms. The walking beam may consist of water-cooled steel members topped with refractories in such a manner that only the refractories are exposed directly to the heat of the furnace. Alternatively, the beams and supports may be constructed of water-cooled tubular sections (with "buttons" on the top surfaces to keep the hot steel from direct contact with the water-cooled tubes). Walking-beam furnaces can be designed for side or end charging and discharging. Either hydraulic or mechanical methods can be used to actuate the beams. Cross firing with side-wall burners above and below the stock being heated and heating with radiant-type burners in the furnace roof or in both the roof and below the stock have been employed. Walking-Hearth-Type Furnaces In a walking hearth furnace, travel of the work through the heating chamber follows the same general path as in the walking-beam furnace. The main difference in method of conveyance in these two furnace types is that, in the walking-hearth furnace, the work rests on fixed refractory piers. These piers extend through openings in the hearth and their tops are above the hearth surface during the time when the work is stationary in the furnace. The furnace gases can thus circulate between most of the bottom surface of the work and the hearth. To advance the work toward the discharge end of the furnace, the hearth is raised


vertically to first contact the work and then raise it a short distance above the piers. The hearth then moves forward a preset distance, stops, lowers the work onto its new position on the piers, continues to descend to its lowest position and then moves backward to its starting position toward the charging end of the furnace to await the next stroke. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN FURNACE-TYPE SELECTION Batch-Type Furnaces Some of the particular advantages of batch-type furnaces are: 1. They provide means for heating steels of various types and sizes, which can be heated more properly in separate batches than when mixed with other types in the same furnace, especially when specific heating practices are required. 2. They are suitable as a reservoir for holding hot steel directly from the primary mill for later rolling in the /finishing mills. 3. They can be operated to heat steel to temperatures above 1315oC (2400F) more satisfactorily than a continuous furnace. Steel can be given a "wash heat," when desirable, without trouble from the pieces sticking together. (Steel is sometimes "washed" or heated until an earlier oxide scale is melted and a new scale formed, to reduce surface defects.) Some of the important disadvantages of batch furnaces are: 1. High capital investment per unit of production. 2. Low hearth area efficiency. That is, the hearth in the conventional type is not utilized fully because of interference of door jambs and clearance required inside the furnace for handling the stock with charging machines. 3. High man-hours per ton of heated steel. 4. Lack of flexibility for heating steel slowly in the lower temperature range. Furnaces must be cooled to charge high-carbon steel and some alloy steels. 5. Length of pieces to be heated is limited by tendency to bend when they are removed. Pusher-Type Furnaces The advantages of the pusher-type continuous furnaces are: 1. High production per dol1ar investment. 2. Low man-hours per ton of steel heated. 3. Greater ease in charging and drawing steel.


4. High hearth area efficiency. 5. Better means for controlling the rate of heating at all temperature levels. Gradual rise in temperature permits charging al1 grades of cold steel without cooling furnace. 6. Less trouble from temperature inequalities between each succeeding piece drawn. 7. High production per square foot of ground space occupied. 8. Can be built for any reasonable length of piece to be heated, resulting in higher mill yield, because of fewer crop ends from lengths beyond batch-furnace possibilities. Some of the important disadvantages of pusher-type continuous furnaces are: 1. Lack of flexibility for heating efficiently smal1 orders of different lots of steel or thicknesses. Heating time must be increased to suit the heating cycle of the piece, requiring lower heat transfer rate which may be detrimental to the heating of the other grades and sizes in the furnace. 2. Trouble from water-cooled skid maintenance, and from building up of scale on hearth, which results in piling of steel in furnace, due to climbing of pieces over each other, particularly if square contact is lost between adjacent pieces, when pressure is applied by the pusher. 3. Face of contacting surface of stock must be square to prevent piling. 4. Expensive to empty furnace at end of schedule. 5. Difficulty in pushing mixed sizes through furnace. 6. Where water-cooled skids are used, thickness of product is limited to 300 to 350 mm (12 to 14 inches). 7. Presence of visibly colder "stripes" on the hot steel caused by contact with watercooled skids, unless adequate soaking time is provided. Walking-Beam Furnaces Some of the important advantages of walking-beam furnaces are: 1. Pieces can be separated from one another on the hearth, eliminating stickers. 2. Pile-ups are reduced. 3. Furnace retention time is reduced. 4. Furnace can be emptied easily from either end by activating the beam


mechanisms. 5. No line contact with water-cooled skids occurs, thus eliminating troublesome skid marks (also called "stripes" or "black marks") on the heated stock. 6. There is no rubbing or friction between the stock and the hearth, minimizing hearth wear and stock damage. 7. By selecting the proper number of walking beams, better hearth utilization can be obtained when charging mixed sizes. 8. The potential for the extension of overall furnace length to improve the utilization of furnace waste gases and reduce fuel consumption. A similar advantage is not available with other furnace types because of limitations on overall furnace length. Some of the disadvantages of walking-beam furnaces are: 1. Complexity of the walking-beam system. 2. Inherently higher cost per ton of capacity. 3. Precautions must be taken to avoid problems from scale that drops off the stock being heated. 4. Maintenance of hearth seals and hearth refractory. In general, the same advantages and disadvantages of the walking-beam furnace apply to walking-hearth furnaces. Some features in both batch and continuous furnaces are worthy of note: 1. Regenerators or recuperators act as a reservoir of heat supply, which is especially valuable for efficient soaking of steel. 2. Continuous furnaces provided only with top firing require longer hearths for equal production than those with top and bottom firing, but, in the case of pusher type furnaces, do not require a special soaking zone to eliminate cold spots on the work caused by contact with water-cooled skids. 3. Continuous furnaces with single-zone firing have higher scale losses and greater tendency to cause decarburization of high-carbon steel than the top-and bottom fired furnaces, since the steel is in the furnace longer. Decarburization is caused primarily by hydrogen and water vapor combinations in furnace gases, and increases almost directly with the time the steel is at elevated temperatures. Free air and carbon dioxide' in the furnace atmosphere cause decarburization to a lesser degree. The scaling of steel is practiced sometimes deliberately to remove the decarburized surface layer. 4. A level hearth in a continuous furnace eliminates the stack effect of hearths sloping upwards towards the charging end. This stack effect draws cold air into the furnaces at the hot end causing higher fuel consumption and scale losses.


5. Batch-type furnaces used for heating in a production line require supplementary furnaces for preheating certain grades of alloy and high-carbon steels for transfer into the hotter furnaces. The preheating zone of a continuous furnace makes this unnecessary. 6. Side-discharge continuous furnaces have less air infiltration at the hot end than end-door discharge furnaces. End-door discharge of the usual gravity type induces cold air into the furnace by the stack effect at the discharge section of the furnace. End-door discharge, however, is mechanically simpler for removing the heated stock; particularly slabs and heavy blooms.


CHAPTER-2 DESIGN ASPECTS Structural Features The methods and materials used in furnace construction have an important bearing on fuel efficiency since breakdown and delays may be a source of heat waste. The design of structural frame work of the furnace is based on the well known principles mechanical construction. A special point on its bearing on fuel efficiency is that robustness is essential, since, repeated heating and cooling of structural members together with concomitment expansion and contraction of refractory materials used can, in course of time induce a remarkable degree of distortion of the frame work. Large furnaces of insufficient robustness have been known to be several feet out of alignment after long use where sufficient strength and allowance for expansion have not been applied. Then cracks in brickwork develop more readily causing air leakage or flame emission and lowering of furnace efficiency. Cast iron plates and structural of parts exposed to high temperatures for which special materials such as heat resisting alloys must be used. The development of these materials during recent years has resulted in considerable progress in mechanization of furnace practice. Such materials are used extensively up to about 1000oC and special work even at higher temperature. The must be resistant to sealing and have sufficient hot strength. The last known property is known creep strength. Other important property of material is resistance to carburizing to the effect of repeated heating and cooling, heat diffusivity, malleability and machinability. Furnace Chambers & Roofs Provided the abutment of the arch, or skew-back is adequately supported by a strong frame work with tie rods the arch must rise on heating. In selecting brick work, the expansion characteristics of the refractory to be used must be known; also whether there is any after contraction on firing to the temperature at which the roof is to be operated. Roofs are constructed of specially shaped end bricks abutting on the skewback to allow for this variation to be corrected by natural expansion during heating. Furnace roofs fail either by yielding of skew backs or by spalling and wear. spalling can weaken an arch and finally reaches the condition of collapse. It may be urged with good reason that planned maintenance is preferable to the policy of striving for the absolute limit of the durability. Side Walls and Hearths If the side wall forms the support of the roof its correct construction is of prime important. The major fault to be avoided in the construction of the lower part of the furnace lining is lack of adequate strength of supporting girders of the hearth which


should be securely anchored to the buck stays. In high temperature furnaces side wall support should be provided by the use of strong cast iron plates. Adequate in hearth in modern furnace practice is imperative and it is practicable to be obtaining material capable of with standing heaviest hearth load. Foundation Discussing design of foundation as a factor is entering into problem of correct practice in normal operation since it features of initial construction. Thin, non ventilated brick work hearths which are, however capable of being readily altered can cause overheating of concrete; dehydration of which beings at 260oC and is completed at 480oC. Limiting thickness are D/6 for furnace working at below 1205oC and D/8 for 870oC, D being the shortest dimension of hearth for 30 cm. Hearth support, skids and hangers Wide range of mechanical device and hangers are used to enable stock to be moved readily through continuous furnaces. Apart from waste of fuel and output excessive heat losses may result from water cooling but its use is inevitable. Skid pipes are usually of hydraulic section and must be securely anchored in the furnace hearts. They may be fastened into the anchorage in such a manner as to admit of being turned to exposed new and unknown surfaces for further service or alternatively welded strips, may be used to take the wear. Safe guarding the water supply and preventing blockages in pipes are obvious precautions. The main objection to the use of water cooling in skids arises from cold patches in the stock; finishing periods of heating must then be made by transfer to solid refractory hearth. The use of dry skids, hearth plats and mechanical conveyors introduces a field of furnace practice of a specialized type. Jambs, Doors and Opening in side walls Opening in side walls can be a cause of in efficiency, in furnaces operating at a temperature above 1000oC. These openings loose heat at very high rate from direct radiation to atmosphere. Distorted buck stays, piers and jamb reinforcement cause air in leakage and flame loss. For proper fitting of doors is no longer possible. Modern refractory practice in the provision of high temperature insulating materials makes practicable more robust and better doors. A most important feature of furnaces practice is attention to the sealing doors to prevent such leakages. Water cooled doors may be essential but the heat losses due to the cooling action should always be examined in relation to the general economy. A badly fitting discharge door on a reheating furnace having a gap 25 mm wide 600 mm long along its top age will give a heat loss of approximately 50,000 KCal an hour due to escaping gases if the furnace is operating at 1100oC with an exhaust temperature of 700oC and with a normal furnace pressure. This clearly shows the loss which can be obtained from a comparatively small opening.


AUXILIARY PLANT In addition to the furnace proper there is often much ancillary equipment that requires attention if the best results are to be obtained. Dampers The function of a damper is to regulate the draught; accordingly it becomes a prime instrument of the furnace economy. The control should always be situated in such a position as to be readily accessible and preferably also permit of sighting the flame when adjustments are made. The choice of the material from which the damper is made depends upon condition of operation. It must not cracks or warp nor must bricks work become dislodged. It should more easily in its seating and be readily capable of fine adjustment, since, quite a small movement may mean a waste of many tons of fuel. Allowance should be made for its expansion and suitable covers or leakage seals provided to prevent the inflow of cold air to the flue. If the furnace is temporarily shutdown the damper should always be closed. Closing the damper when shutting down the furnace is equivalent to turning of the fuel valves, since, it prevents cold air in leakage. Water cooled dampers of special design or damper constructed of heat resistant alloys are necessary for highest temperature. Fans Fan design and selection are matters for specialists. These fans should be maintained properly by regular lubrication and cleaning. Particular care should be paid to inlet side of the fan to prevent foreign matter from being drawn into working parts. A fan gives a ready means of registering the air flow to the furnace either by pipe, attachment with orifice gauge placed of the air inlet or by the use of orifice gauge in the supply main. Straightening grids may be used in difficult condition to prevent swirl effects. Control Valves Control valves regulate the amount of fuel entering the furnace. For every furnace there is an ideal rate of consumption of fuel for the particular heating operation. All valves should be examined, cleaned and adjusted regularly to ensure that they are in good working order. Burners Accurate distribution of temperature is matter of importance, frequently calling for the use of gaseous and liquid fuels for all types. Refractory aspect Refractory material plays very important role in designing a furnace. Different refractory material like refractory bricks, castables, refractory blocks, and shaped refractories are used in different parts of the furnaces. The refractoriness, high


temperature resistance, cold and hot strength etc of a refractory material are of much consideration while designing the furnaces. For example In simple continuous reheating furnace roof is made of 60% Al2O3 or 42% Al2O3 bricks. Soaking zone bottom is cast with 70% Al2O3 low cement castables. Burners are case with 60% Al2O3 low cement castable. Chimney is relined with fireclay bricks.

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CHAPTER-3 FUELS & FUEL PROPERTIES Fuels are either solids, liquids or gases. They may be obtained naturally or manufactured from other, naturally occurring fuels. Table-1 list some of the common fuels. Table-1 : Some common fuels Type solid Natural or primary fuels Anthracite coal Bituminous coal Lignite Peat Wood Petroleum Natural gas Manufactured or secondary fuels Coke Charcoal Briquettes

Liquid Gaseous

Tar, Petroleum distillates (Gasoline, Diesel etc.) Coke-Oven gas, Producer gas, Water gas, Blast furnace gas, Acetylene

Primary Solid Fuels The primary solid fuels are the peats, lignites, and various grades of coals which have originated from the vegetal matters. This has been confirmed by the fossil remains of fragments of plants, such as leaves, cellular matters, trunks etc. In the distant past carboniferous period, about 300 m years ago, large quantities of plant materials underwent decay under water, and then metamorphosed into coals by the action of heat and pressure. Such processes continue in all ages. About 15-20 m thick vegetal matter yields a meter thickness of bituminous coal seam. Actual coal seams can be many meters thickness which means that enormous quantities of plant matter underwent decay. On dry ground, fallen vegetable matter is attacked by the oxygen of the air and is gradually converted into water and carbon dioxide so that eventually no trace remains. Under water, however, the course of decomposition is different and at first is influenced by the action of bacteria. The bacterial action continues until the products of decay become so concentrated that the bacteria are destroyed. Then heat and pressure of overlying rocks, clays and other materials became the main operative factors. These lead to the metamorphosis into coal over periods. Stages of Coalification The coalification process has been divided into several stages. Table-2 lists them along with some of their typical characteristics. Peat is the stage next to wood and shows very high percentage of oxygen and hydrogen. This is due to entrapped moisture. After that the major chemical change is gradual decrease of hydrogen and oxygen and increase in the percentage of carbon.

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Table-2 : Various stages of coalification and their approximate characteristics Stage Proximate Anal. % Volatile Fixed Matter carbon 26 35 28 27 15 9 1 11 23 45 63 75 77 88 Ultimate Analysis, % Moisture H O C 6.3 8.3 6.6 6.1 5.2 4.1 3.6 1.9 43.1 63.0 42.1 33.8 7.5 4.2 4.9 4.4 49.5 21.0 42.4 55.3 78.0 80.0 78.4 84.4 Gross Cal. Value, cal/g 3,200 2,000 4,000 5,200 7,700 7,800 7,300 7,400

Wood Peat Lignite Sub-Bituminous Coal Bituminous Coal Semi-bituminous coal Semi-Anthracite coal Anthracite coal

56 35 24 3 2 3 3

The deposits of all these modifications of wood are found throughout the world. Nowa-days it is generally acknowledged that more than one factor led to the difference in the stage of coalification of different deposits. These are listed: (a) (b) Not all the plant constituents decay to the same extent. If the acid products of bacterial action accumulates then the decay does not proceed fast and may hinder coalification. A more alkaline clay removes the acid products more and thereby helps coalifications. Differences in heat and pressure at various deposits also contribute towards differences. At a given point in a coal field, the carbon content increases as we go down vertically. Some lignite deposits are located just at the surface. The time is also a factor. Some of the lignite deposits are of more recent origin.



Coals are extremely complex substances, and are mixtures of various complex chemical compounds produced from the constituents of initial vegetal matter. Some extraneous mineral matters also get entrapped mechanically. A considerable volume of research has been done in order to determine the physical and chemical nature of coals. Assessment of Coals The assessment of the quality and grade of coals is commonly done by three tests. Proximate Analysis This is a very widely employed test because it is easy to do. The results are obtained fast and are meaningful from the utilization point of view. The method is however, arbitrary and does not have a theoretical basis. Therefore it is carried out by strictly observing some standard procedures, such as the ASTM procedure given below: (a) Moisture (M) is obtained by drying 1 gm. of sample for 1 hr at 105oC. The weight loss represents moisture.
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(c) (d)

Volatile Matter (VM) is obtained by heating 1 g. of coal of a certain particle size range for 7 minutes at 9500C in the .absence of air. The loss of weight represents VM + M. Ash (A) is the residue after complete combustion in a muffle at 700 750oC. Fixed Carbon (FC) = 100 - %M - % VM - %A

The results of proximate analysis can be recalculated on Moisture-Free as well as Ash and Moisture Free basis. In the former case %VM + %A + %FC = 100 whereas in the latter case, %VM + %FC = 100 Classification of coals The properties of the coals vary enormously. Coal seams always differ from each other. Again, in the same seam compositions and properties may vary to some extent. The purpose of coal classification is to simply divide coals into several classes which meet one or two special requirements. A number of classifications have been proposed to date. The most successful systems have been based on the evaluation of the quality of the coal substance, leaving the influence of size and content of ash or other impurity to be assessed as a secondary matter by the experts within the industry. For thorough classification, one has to take into account details of the physical and chemical characteristics. Pulverized Coal Pulverized coal is coal in a fine state of division. It is widely used now-a-days for heating furnaces, as well as in heating the boiler of the large power stations. As a matter of fact, its consumption has increased significantly over the years since the First World War. Pulverized coal is fed into the combustion chamber like a thick suspension in air. It is burnt like a gaseous fuel or a fuel oil. As a result, these three can be easily interchanged. It has all the advantages of gaseous fuels, such as high efficiency, more compact design of burner and combustion chamber, adaptability to a wide variety of fuels, easy and flexible control etc. as well because mechanized mining automatically produces them. LIQUID FUELS Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. Most liquid fuels, in widespread use, are or derived from fossil fuels; however, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel (for automotive uses), which are also categorized as a liquid fuel. Fossil fuels which are also liquid fuels come from dead animals and plants which died many millions of years ago. The most notable of these is gasoline.

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Gasoline Gasoline is the most widely used liquid fuel. Gasoline is made of hydrocarbon molecules forming aliphatic compounds, or chains of carbons with hydrogen atoms attached. However, many aromatic compounds (carbon chains forming rings) such as benzene are found naturally in gasoline and cause the health risks associated with prolonged exposure to the fuel. Production of gasoline is achieved by distillation of crude oil. The desirable liquid is separated from the crude oil in refineries. Crude oil is extracted from the ground in several processes, the most commonly seen may be beam pumps. To create gasoline, petroleum must first be removed from crude oil. Gasoline itself is actually not burned, but the fumes it creates ignite, causing the remaining liquid to evaporate. Gasoline is extremely volatile and easily combusts, making any leakage extremely dangerous. Gasoline for sale in most countries carries an octane rating. Octane is a measure of the resistance of gasoline to combusting prematurely, known as knocking. The higher the octane rating, the harder it is to burn the fuel, which allows for a higher compression ratio. Engines with a higher compression ratio produce more power (such as in race car engines). However, such engines actually require a higher octane fuel. Diesel Conventional diesel is similar to gasoline in that it is a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum. Diesel may cost more or less than gasoline, but generally costs less to produce because the extraction processes used are simpler. After distillation, the diesel fraction is normally processed to reduce the amount of sulfur in the fuel. Sulphur causes corrosion in vehicles, acid rain and higher emissions of soot from the tail pipe (exhaust pipe). In Europe, lower sulfur levels than in the United States are legally required. However, recent US legislation will reduce the maximum sulphur content of diesel from 3,000 ppm to 500 ppm by 2007, and 15 ppm by 2010. Similar changes are also underway in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and several Asian countries. A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which ignites fuel by compressing it (which in turn raises the temperature) as opposed to using an outside source, such as a spark plug. Biodiesel Biodiesel is similar to diesel, but has differences akin to those between petrol and ethanol. For instance, biodiesel has a higher cetane rating (45-60 compared to 45-50 for crude-oil-derived diesel) and it acts as a cleaning agent to get rid of dirt and deposits. It has been argued that it only becomes economically-feasible above oil prices of $80 (40 or 60 as of late February, 2007) per barrel. This does however depend on locality, economic situation, government stance on biodiesel and a host of other factors- and it has been proven to be viable at much lower costs in some countries. Also, it gives about 10% less energy than ordinary diesel. NOTE: As with

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alcohols and petrol engines, taking advantage of biodiesel's high cetane rating potentially overcomes the energy deficit compared to ordinary number 2 diesel. Alcohols Alcohols are a useful type of liquid fuel because they combust rapidly and are often cheap to produce. However, their acceptance is hampered by the fact that their production often requires as much or even more fossil fuel than they replaced. Methanol Methanol is the lightest and simplest alcohol, produced from the natural gas component methane. Its application is limited due to its toxicity. Small amounts are used in some gasolines to increase the octane rating. Methanol-based fuels are used in some race cars and model airplanes. Methanol is also called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, the latter because it was formerly produced from the distillation of wood. Ethanol Ethanol, also known as grain alcohol or ethyl alcohol, is most commonly used in alcoholic beverages. However, it may also be used as a fuel, most often in combination with gasoline. For the most part, it is used in a 9:1 ratio of gasoline to ethanol to reduce the negative environmental effects of gasoline. There is increasing interest in the use of a blend of 85% fuel ethanol blended with 15% gasoline. This fuel blend called E85, has a higher fuel octane than most premium gasolines. When used in a modern Flexible fuel vehicle, it delivers somewhat less performance to the gasoline it replaces. Ethanol for use in gasoline and industrial purposes may be called a fossil fuel because it is synthesized from the petroleum product ethylene, which is cheaper than production from fermentation of grains or sugarcane. Butanol Butanol is an alcohol which may be used as a fuel with the normal combustion engine, typically as a product of the ferment of biomass with the bacterium clostridium acetobutylicum (also known as the Weizmann organism). This process was first delineated by Chaim Weizmann in 1916 for the production of acetone from starch for making TNT. The advantages of butanol are its high octane rating (over 100) and high energy content, only about 10% lower than gasoline, and subsequently about 50% more energy-dense than ethanol, 100% more so than methanol. Butanol's only major disadvantages are its high flashpoint (95 F or 35 C), toxicity (note that toxicity levels exist but are not precisely confirmed), and the fact that the fermentation process for renewable butanol emits a foul odour. It also doesn't help efficiency that the Weizmann organism can only tolerate butanol levels of up to 7% or so, compared to

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14% for ethanol and yeast. NOTE: Making butanol from oil produces no such odour, but the limited supply and environmental impact of oil usage defeats the purpose of alternative fuels. The cost of butanol is about $0.57-$0.58 per pound ($1250-$1320 per ton or $8 approx. per gallon) - so another drawback is its high cost in proportion to ethanol (approx. $1.50 per gallon) and methanol. On June 20 2006, DuPont and BP announced that they were converting an existing ethanol plant to produce 9 million gallons of butanol per year from sugar beets. DuPont stated a goal of being competitive with oil at $30-$40 per barrel without subsidies, so the price gap with ethanol is narrowing. Hydrogen Hydrogen as a fuel is a feasible option for future use as a fuel. Liquid hydrogen is an important consideration because it has a higher density than its gaseous counterpart. Liquid hydrogen would be stored in cryogenic tanks. Its application would be most useful in fuel cells where hydrogen would react with oxygen (obviously this is readily available in the air) to create electricity which would power the vehicle. Unfortunately, widespread use of liquid hydrogen is several decades away. Their application is plagued with several serious problems including production, which may still involve fossil fuels, durability of the fuel cells to common roadway conditions such as bumps, the impracticability of conversion of older cars and difficulties with storage and handling. Converting energy from another form of fuel to hydrogen would lead to unavoidable losses, so the final user would get, from burning hydrogen, far less energy than he could get directly using the fuel. Coal Tar Fuels A number of liquid fuels and one solid fuel, pitch, are produced by the distillation of coal tar. These fuels are named as CTF-50, CTF-100, CTF-200, CTF-250, CTF-300 and CTF-400 respectively. The numbers indicate temperatures in degree fahreign height (oF). These fuels have a low sulphur content rarely above 1.0% by weight. They contain only small quantities of inorganic matter and amount of ash never exceed 0.75% by weight. In the creosote and the less viscous tarry fuels the ash content is almost negligible. The general properties have been indicated in table given below.

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Typical ultimate analysis of coal tar fuels are given in table-II Table-II

It has been demonstrated by Flame Radiation Research Association that for equal heat input the emmissivity of flame of CTF 200 is about 18% greater than that of similar grades of petroleum oil. This fact emphasizes the value of CTF for metallurgical purpose. Gaseous fuels Gaseous fuels offer a number of advantage over other fuels : cleanliness, absence of ash, ease of handling end control flexibility and good combustion characteristics. Moreover the cal. value/vol can be controlled and adjusted by mixing various gases. That is why gas heating is preferred wherever it does not become uneconomic.

Gaseous fuels are a mixture of several compounds in varied proportions. The common compounds can be classified into two groups: combustibles and diluents, the former providing the heat by combustion. The common combustibles and diluents are listed. Combustibles Diluents Hydrogen Nitrogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Methane Water Ethane (C2H6) Ethylene (C2H6) and other hydrocarbons.

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Stochiometric Combustion Combustion characteristics of gaseous compounds Compound Vol. of O2 per vol. Vol. of flue gas per vol. of of compound compound using stoichiometric air H2 0.5 2.88 CO 0.5 2.88 CH4 2.0 10.52 C2H6 3.5 18.16 C2H4 3.0 15.28 C2H2 2.5 12.40 Commercial gaseous fuels

Net. Cal. value, in 2332 3034 8560 15110 14480 13440

Table presents the analyses and calorific values of some gaseous fuels. For a particular gas, there is a range. Therefore the figures should be taken as some typical values only. Typical analyses and calorific values of dry gaseous fuels Gaseous fuel H2 Co Analysis in vol. % CH4 C2H Other hydro6 carbon 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 0.8 29.7 1.1 3.4 1.3 0.1 0.0 27.6 3.5 94.5 0.5 0.5 Net. Cal. value, in




Blast furnace gas Procedure gas Coke-oven gas Water gas Oil gas Natural gas

3.7 15.0 57.0 49.7 50.8 0.0

26.3 24.7 5.9 39.8 10.2 0.0

57.1 52.2 0.7 5.5 5.1 4.0

12.9 4.8 1.5 3.4 2.6 0.2

0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2

926 1390 5120 2720 4700 8500

The source of these gases will be briefly described now. Blast furnaces gas is a by-product of the iron blast furnace. Coke is charged in the blast furnace and air is blower from the bottom. The oxygen of the air reacts with coke producing CO, and CO2. The exhaust gas therefore contains primarily CO, CO2 and N2 and is known as the blast furnace gas. Although its calorific value is low, enormous quantities are produced justifying its utilization. Therefore it is cleaned free of dust particles and is utilized in the steel plant for heating. Producer gas is generated by passing a mixture of air and steam through a red-hot bed of coke or coal. The reactions are primarily the following: 2C + O2 = 2CO H2 O + C = H2 + CO (exothermic) (endothermic)

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The water gas is generated by allowing steam to react with red-hot coke or coal. It is preferred to producer gas when a high calorific value is desired. Oil gas is obtained by thermal cracking of oil and is popular in localities where oil is cheap. Natural gas is found in the earth, either in a separate source or along with petroleum. It has the same marine origin as petroleum. Gasification of coal Earlier we have given estimates of coking and non-coking coal reserve of the country. It has been shown that the non-coking varieties of coal are far more abundant. These varieties, with high contents of volatile matter and moisture, are essentially used for steam and gas generation in railways, power houses, cement factories etc. Coking cokes yield a dense product on carbonization and are vitally needed for metallurgical applications. Some less strong cokes, known as soft cokes find domestic applications. Wastage of coal in SRRM sector Major usages of coal, namely railway traction through steam locomotives, power generation through steam boilers and turbines etc, cause a colossal waste of energy. The efficiency of steam locomotive is 7-12% as compared to 28-30% for diesel engines and 35% in electric engines. The efficiency of thermal power generation is, at the most, 30-35 percent. The remaining energy is lost mainly because steam used to drive the turbine cannot reach a temperature greater than what the machinery can stand. A far greater proportion of coal is wasted during railway transportation which is responsible for about 90% of coal despatches. The steam locomotive efficiency being about 7-12 percent it has been estimated that the locomotive is consumes a great equal amount to transport 20-30 mt. of coal throughout the country. Moreover, dependence on railway transportation has often given rise to irregular supply. In view of the high cost of coal transport it becomes necessary to locate large thermal power stations close to collieries and washeries and transit the power to load centres by transmission lines. However, there is excessive wastage during power transmission - some 20% compared to about 5.7 and 7.7 in West Germany and France, respectively. There is also power pilferage. The break even point between rail transport and electric energy for distances greater than 700 Km. for loads greater than 200 MW at 200 KV or 375 MW at 440 KV. However, it should be noted that such transmission necessarily implies power losses. Gasification of coal A fuel bed may be shallow or deep. If the bed is very shallow, the carbon burns wholly to carbon dioxide. With a deeper bed the carbon dioxide first formed, and water vapour present in the incoming air are brought into contact with red-hot carbon and certain other reactions occur, to promote which is the function of gasification. A deep fuel bed naturally offers the best conditions for these further reactions, though they may occur to a lesser extent in the shallow fuel bed of the boiler furnace. A fuel

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bed of the order of 3 feet deep or more is used for gasification for the manufacture of producer gas. It is convenient to consider these reactions as confined to sever zones though they overlap into the zones above and below. The gases passing into the base of the fuel bed may comprise air and steam and when reacting in the fuel bed give rise to chemical and thermal effects of great importance.

Chemical reactions in a gas producer

The ash zone at the base of the fuel bed serves to protect the grate from the intense heat and helps to distribute the air and steam over the bed. Above the ash zone is the oxidation zone, at which the reaction C+O2 = CO2 proceeds, free oxygen disappearing about 4 to 5 inches above the top of the layer of ash. This reaction generates heat and provides practically the whole of the heat required for the subsequent gasification reactions.

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The CO2, accompanied by nitrogen and steam, travels upwards into the reducing zone. Here a reaction between CO and carbon takes place resulting in the production of the combustible gas, carbon monoxide, thus: C+CO2 = 2CO This reaction (unlike most other combustion reactions) results in the absorption of heat. Heat must be supplied to the substances taking part in it; heat is absorbed from the red hot fuel bed and its surroundings, the temperature falls, and the reaction slows down. Consequently, the extent to which this reaction continues depends upon the temperature, and upon the time available. Equilibrium values, which are attained only by sustained contact of dry air with carbon in the absence of other disturbing factors, are given in Table 7. It will be seen that the percentage of CO produced increases with rise in temperature. In practice, although a temperature of 800-900C. would appear to give a satisfactorily high percentage of CO, higher temperatures are generally required to enable the reaction to proceed at a useful rate.

Equilibrium Figures for Reaction between Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Temperature o C 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Composition of gas CO (%) 11.74 24.95 32.30 34.10 34.42 34.52 34.56

CO2 (%) 13.76 5.85 1.35 0.30 0.08 0.03 0.01

N2 (%) 74.50 69.20 66.35 65.60 65.50 65.45 65.43

The velocity of chemical reactions increases very rapidly with rise in temperature and is correspondingly low at lower temperatures. Owing to the absorption of heat by the reactions which take place, as the gases pass upwards through the reduction zones of the producer, the temperature of the fuel bed falls; hence the velocity of the reactions taking place is lower than expected. The result is that true equilibrium conditions are not usually attained with times of contact and temperatures common in the reduction zone of industrial producers. Since the reactions in the combustion zone give predominantly CO2, the gas formed at temperatures of 600 o - 1000oC, contain in practice more CO2 than is indicated by table. At higher temperatures of the order of 1,200oC, the reaction might pro e substantially to completion, but owing to the influence of other factors this rarely occurs. In a producer operated or blown with dry air, the presence of CO2 in the producer gas represents a waste of fuel, because some carbon has been burnt completely to CO2 and sensible heat has been liberated within the producer instead of subsequently in the
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furnace where the producer gas is burnt. When steam is added to the blast, however, not all the CO2 represents waste, as will be shown below. In any case, it is clearly desirable that the temperature in the gasification zone be as high as possible. On the other hand, the gas outlet temperature should be as low as possible in order to avoid excessive loss of sensible heat if the gas is cooled before being used. At temperatures above about 800C steam reacts with carbon according to the equation: C+H2O=CO+H2 with absorption of heat. Steam is, therefore, added to the blast partly to moderate the temperature in the combustion zone in order to reduce clinker formation and partly to utilize the gasification zone more effectively by generating additional CO and H2. The higher temperature at which the reaction takes place the greater is the extent to which the steam is decomposed by the carbon and, therefore, the greater is the amount of CO and H2 formed, until at temperatures of the order of 1,100 C. the steam is almost completely decomposed. The effect of temperature on the reaction when steam only is passed over or through red-hot carbon is illustrated by the experimental figures given in Table. TABLE: THE ACTION OF STEAM ON CARBON: ANALYSES OF GASES Temperature

674 838 954 1010 1125

Steam decomposed (%) 8.8 41.0 70.2 94.0 99.4

CO2 (%) 29.8 22.9 6.8 1.5 0.6

CO (%) 4.9 15.1 39.3 49.7 48.5

N2 (%) 65.2 61.9 53.5 48.8 50.9

These figures do not correspond to the attainment of chemical equilibrium, but give some indication of the extent to which the reaction may proceed under practical conditions. In the case of a producer where the steam is mixed with a large volume of air, the relative proportions of CO2, CO, and H2 in the products would differ considerably from the above, but the general trend with changing temperatures would be the same. In the temperature range 6001,000 C. another reaction, which takes place between CO arid undecomposed steam and is known as the water-gas shift reaction, becomes important. This is represented by the equation: CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 It will be noticed when steam is present the CO2 formed according to the equation does not represent a waste of carbon, because the CO which reacts with the steam is replaced by its own volume of hydrogen, which has approximately the same calorific value and the final gas will have the same heat content on a volume basis. It should be noted, however, that the dilution of the final dry gas by the CO2 formed in this reaction has the undesirable effect of lowering its calorific value. As in the case of dry blast operation, a high yield of combustible gases requires a high temperature in the reduction zone, where CO and H2 are formed with absorption of heat. The necessary heat is provided wholly by the combustion reaction in the oxidation zone, and this

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heat must (a) heat up the fuel in the reduction zone to the necessary temperature, and (b) compensate for the absorption of heat in the reduction of CO and steam. All the reactions are equilibrium reactions, and under suitable conditions may proceed in the reverse direction to those here indicated. At any temperature there is an equilibrium composition of the substances taking part in the reaction which is more closely approached as time and temperature are adequate; an example was given when dealing with the reaction C + CO2 = 2CO At the top of the flue bed, the fresh fuel (if coal is used) is distilled, permanent gases, water and tar being added to the gases leaving the fuel bed. Any water contained in the incoming fuel is evaporated at this stage. The quantity of steam used has an important influence on the reactions. This is discussed in detail in the chapter on gas producers. It is obviously important that as much of the steam as possible shall be converted into gas, and in its conversion into gas shall produce as much CO and H2 as possible. The net results of the various reactions here described can be followed experimentally. The course of the changes that take place has been determined by examination of gas samples withdrawn from closely adjacent sampling points in the fuel bed of a coke-fired producer. Composition of Gases in the Fuel Bed of a Gas Producer Zone Height of sampling point above grate in. 5 7.5 10 15 20 30 40 Composition of gases Percent by Vol. O2 CO2 CO H2 H2 O 18.4 17.6 11.5 7.2 5.9 4.6 4.7 2.8 12.2 20.4 23.3 25.6 27.0 4.0 7.0 8.2 8.5 13.4 13.1 12.2 8.1 4.7 3.5 2.7

Ash Oxidation Primary reduction

Secondary reduction Top of fuel bed

If, as in some older producers air only is blown through the fuel bed, the resulting gas is similar to blast furnace as, thou containing less CO2 and proportionately more CO. The common type of gas producers are vertical cylindrical chambers and coal is fed from top as shown in figure. Various zone of gas producers are shown in the figure. It is probable that carbon monoxide is, strictly speaking, the primary product of the combustion of carbon with oxygen; but while free oxygen is still present in the gas surrounding the particles of fuel this carbon monoxide burns to carbon dioxide immediately it is formed.

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GAS PRODUCERS PRODUCER GAS is made by blowing air and steam through a bed of incandescent solid fuel under such conditions that the combustible matter of the fuel is converted into combustible gases. Gas obtained in this way finds application in many industrial processes. The account of the principles of gasification indicates that in the simplest case, in which dry air is blown through a bed of coke of sufficient depth and at a sufficiently thigh temperature, the gas obtained consists almost exclusively of carbon monoxide and nitrogen in the ratio of about 1:2 by volume, with only traces of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. If coal is used under similar conditions, the gas contains additional hydrogen and methane derived from the volatile matter of the coal. In the earliest producers, of about a century ago, such conditions were used and gave gases of the following compositions and calorific values:

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Fuel used Coke Coal

Composition of gas made (%) CO2 O2 CO H2 1.5 32.5 1.0 1.0 31.0 5.0 15oC & 760 mm Hg

CH4 2.0

N2 65.0 61.0

Such conditions, however, do not provide the maximum thermal efficiency or the most satisfactory operating conditions, because the heat liberated in the combustion of carbon-to-carbon monoxide is much greater than would be sufficient to maintain a suitable temperature in the bed of fuel. Consequently, the fuel bed temperature becomes excessively high and much of the potential heat of the fuel leaves the producer as sensible heat in the gas. Another undesirable consequence of the high temperature is the fusion of the ash, with the formation of clinker. The addition of steam to the blast was introduced later to increase the thermal efficiency and moderate the temperature of the fuel bed by genera ting additional combustible gas by the reaction of steam with carbon, C + H2O = CO + H2 which takes place with absorption of heat. Typical gas way are: Fuel used Composition of gas made (%) CO2 O2 CO H2 Coke 6.0 27.0 12.5 Coal 6.0 26.0 15.0 15oC & 760 mm Hg It will be observed that these gases contain appreciable proportions of carbon dioxide. This does not necessarily imply that any carbon has been burnt with out contributing to the thermal value of the gas made: it is due to the water gas shift reaction C + H2O = CO2 + H2 Composition of Producer Gas The major constituents of producer gas made from either coal or coke, however, under normal operating conditions, has a composition within the range CO2 3-9 CO 20-30 H2 11-20 CH4 0-3 N2 46-55 percent compositions obtained in this

CH4 0.6 2.5

N2 53.9 50.5

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FUEL FOR GAS PRODUCER Description coal of Volatile matter per cent Caking properties (dry, m.m.-free) 3.5-6.0 Anthracite Non-caking 6.1-9.0 9.6-11.5 Dry steam Non-caking 11.6-13.5 13.6-15.0 Weakly caking Coking Steam 15.1-17.0 Medium caking 17.1-19.5 Strongly caking 33.1-37 Medium caking >37 Medium caking 33.1-37 Weakly caking >37 Weakly caking High volatile 33.1-37 Very weakly caking >37 Very weakly caking 33.1-37 Non-caking >37 Non-caking The characteristics of the ash of the fuel are i A low ash content is desirable but not essential, and fuels containing more than 15 per cent, of ash can be gasified quite satisfactorily in producers equipped with mechanical grates. The ash fusion temperature, however, is of great importance. If it is low, and particularly if the ash is very heterogeneous, a high proportion of steam in the blast is required to avoid clinker troubles, as will be appreciated from the general description of the fuel bed given above. A high fusion temperature of the order of 1,400 C., therefore, allows gas of a higher calorific value to be made. It is important that attention should be paid to control of clinker formation by control of the blast saturation temperature when the fuel supply is variable or when a change is made in the source of supply. For anthracite and coke the lowest permissible ash-fusion temperature is about 1150 C., measured under reducing conditions. Practical operation of a producer Following are the operational practice for good operation of a producer: 1) Fuel charging. 2) Leveling and Pocking. 3) Care of condition of fuel bed. 4) Removal of Ash "Ashing". 5) Blast. 6) Observation of gas temperature.

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Conversion of gases to rich gas It is possible to convert most of this gas into methane and thereby almost double its calorific value and thus make it comparable to natural gas as an energy source. A flow sheet of process is given below: PROCESS FLOW CHART Reactions Coal

Coal preparation

Devolatilization C+O2 = CO2 C+H2O = CO + H2 C+2H2 = CH4

Char + Gas Gasification Steam, Air/Oxygen

Raw Gas Removal of Tar & Dust CO2 +H2 = CO+ H2O Shift conversion Tar Dust


Purification exsulphur removal Methanation Ni, catalyst Removal of CO2 High calorific value gas STEPS IN COAL GASIFICATION FOR HIGH CV GAS

2CO+2H2 = CH4+ CO2

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Combustion of fuel All the fuels contain basic elements such as carbon, hydrogen, sulphur or its compounds. The combustion of fuel is described with the help of few simple chemical equations as given below:

Pulverized fuel and its burner design aspect PULVERIZED fuel firing is a method whereby the finely crushed fuel, generally reduced to a fineness such that 75-85 per cent, passes a 200 B.S. sieve, is carried forward by air through pipes directly to burners or to storage bins from where it is passed to burners. When discharged into the combustion chamber the mixture of air and fuel burns in a manner very similar to that of the combustion of a gas. The use of pulverized fuel has increased rapidly constitutes the principal form in which coal is used. The increasing proportion of fines in the coal raised since machine-mining became general has rendered pulverized fuel the most satisfactory way of using fine, lowgrade coal. There is less likelihood of bonded deposits accumulating on the heating surfaces than with stoker firing. In addition, while there is, with stoker thing, a limit to the temperature to which the combustion air can be pre-heated, with P.F. firing the limit is much higher. This has an important effect on the overall cycle efficiency where regenerative heating leads to a high feed temperature. The economic motives for the introduction and development of pulverized-fuel firing in power stations and large industrial furnaces can be listed as these:

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1) 2) 3) 4)

Efficient utilization of the cheaper low-grade coal. Flexibility in firing with ability to meet fluctuating loads. Better reaction to automatic control. In furnaces, the ability to produce a high-temperature flame at the correct position. 5) The ability to use high combustion air temperatures. For installation of a P.F. plant is scaling for higher or lower capacity.

Preparation of Pulverized Fuel Selection of fuels Bituminous coal was the first fuel to be fired in pulverized form but subsequently the method has been applied to other coals. The fuels now successfully burnt in powdered form include bituminous coals, the semi-bituminous and anthracitic coals, hard pitch, and brown coal which may contain up to 65 per cent of inherent moisture. The anthracites must, for reasons explained below, be more finely ground than the normal run of bituminous coals but unfortunately are harder and more difficult to pulverize. All fuels that are to be pulverized must be nearly of quite dry, and this applies more particularly to the low-volatile fuels. If the coal is initially too wet the material may clog in the hoppers and feeders or even in the mill, which will suffer a reduction in output. The moisture that gives rise to these deleterious effects is the surface moisture, i.e. that which can be removed from the coal by air-drying, and not the inherent moisture which is removed by drying at over 100C. One of the first matters to be considered, therefore, is how the coal is to be brought into the proper condition for pulverizing. If the moisture content of the coal is not unduly high, it will be dried out sufficiently by the passage of pre-heated air (at 500700 F.) through the grinding mill. If it contains too much moisture to be dried in this manner an auxiliary drier is necessary. Drying the coal It is always objectionable, but often unavoidable, for the coal entering the mills to be wet. The moisture is carried forward in the air-stream into the furnace where it lowers the flame temperature, increases the volume of waste gases, and in general has a deleterious effect on combustion; clearly it is desirable that the moisture content of the incoming pulverized fuel be as low as possible. In order to enable the coal to be ground fine enough, its excess superficial moisture must be completely, or almost completely, removed. In the system most generally used this is effected by passing through the grinding mills the air, preheated as just explained, to 500700 F., that is to be used in the combustion chamber as primary air. After pulverization, the dried-coal/air suspension leaves the drier at a temperature of about 150 F. This temperature is selected as being low enough to avoid any possibility of coking at the burner or pre-ignition of the coal in the pipeline between the mill and the burner, but high enough to avoid condensation of the moisture driven off in drying.

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The coal supply gravitates from the storage bunker, through an automatic weigher and feeder mechanism, to the pulverizing mill in the basement. The coal is ground on a horizontal rotating table by three spring loaded rollers running in contact with the layer of coal, while a continuous blast of hot air from the duct dries the moisture out of it and transports the resulting powder, through the medium of the exhauster fan, each of the four corner burners. Choice of system The bin-and-feeder is not favoured in modern power stations, on account of dangers from explosion of coal/air mixtures and the tendency of the stored pulverized fuel to cake. In addition, maintenance costs, losses through vents, capital costs and operating costs are all against the system. Consequently the unit system is used. The bin-andfeeder system still finds application in special circumstances, for example when firing several metallurgical furnaces on one works. Mechanism of combustion of pulverized fuel Factors influencing the time required for the combustion of a particle of coal include coal properties such as rank and size, temperature, and aerodynamic conditions in the furnace into which the particle is injected. Studies of the ignition and combustion of particles of coal injected into a hot furnace in a stream of air indicate that combustion takes place in three stages, (a) pre-ignition during which changes in shape and size (depending on the rank of the coal) and some evolution of volatile matter occurs, (b) ignition and combustion of the volatile matter, (c) combustion of the residual carbon. During combustion a particle is surrounded by an atmosphere of combustion products through which the oxygen has to diffuse to react with the carbon. Experiments have shown that the time for the combustion of a 200-mesh (76) particle of coal containing 30-40 per cent. volatile matter is approximately 0.3 second, and that the time required for combustion varies approximately as d1.5, being the diameter of the particle. Higher burning rates can be attained with relative motion between the air and the burning particle to increase the rate of diffusion to the carbon surface. With small particles however, as is mentioned later, this is difficult to achieve as the particle rapidly achieves the velocity of the air stream into which it is introduced. Since the solid residue from low volatile coals and anthracites is relatively uncreative, these fuels are more difficult to burn than coals of lower rank. Consequently they should be more finely ground and used with less excess air, whilst heat losses should be avoided by providing refractory walls backing the ignition zone. These precautions are essential to secure satisfactory operation.

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The combustion of pulverized coal in practice Burners The main requirements of a burner are that it shall ensure rapid and intimate mixing of fuel and air, and maintain an adequate supply of oxygen surrounding each fuel particle until its combustion is completed. The need for intimate and rapid mixing of fuel and air within the furnace dominates the design of the burner. According to whether a short or a long flame is required the burner is designed for turbulent or parallel flow.

Fig: P.F.burner. In designing burners it is assumed that the coal/air ratio can be correlated with the rate of flame propagation. Any appreciable lack of balance between these two will cause either loss of ignition or back-firing. This is illustrated in Fig. which indicates the speed of flame propagation with various fuel/air mixtures and with different types of coal. It will be observed that the maximum rate of flame propagation, for low volatile coals is at a point where the air/coal ratio is low, and this ratio must be still further reduced for anthracite.

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To a major degree the volatile content of the fuel controls the stage of ignition, whichis the point where combustion becomes self-supporting. The temperature of ignition of bituminous coal is significantly lower than that of anthracite and this is another factor of which account must be taken in burner design. To overcome this difficulty, arrangements have been made in certain installations to extract part of the air from the fuel/air mixture at the burner by the use of an air separation burner, and to control the ignition by regulating the quantity of air extracted, the vented air being subsequently introduced into the combustion chamber at a suitable point as secondary air. In direct-fired systems the air/coal ratio is important since the amount of air required for sweeping the mill and conveying the fuel may affect the composition of the air/fuel mixture at the burner. Some systems incorporate an additional air control which enables the composition of the fuel/air mixture to be adjusted and reduces the need to relate the burner design closely to the air-flow characteristics of the pulverizer.

- 33 -

Fuel distribution It is important to secure uniform distribution of fuel to the several burners feeding a furnace and to avoid local differences in concentration Attempts have been made to achieve this by situating the exhaust fans and fuel piping symmetrically in relation to the burners. These attempts have not been completely successful and mechanical distributors have been found to be necessary. Air pre-heating The importance of high furnace temperature to secure a high rate of radiant heat transmission from burning fuel to the receiving surfaces is clear. Air preheat will help to heat the fuel more quickly and will thus enable the processes of distillation and combustion previously described to be completed in a shorter time. The main practical advantage of preheating air, however, is to reduce the flue gas loss. It is impossible to prescribe exact temperatures for either the primary air or the secondary air. If conveying air is used for drying coal and also, as secondary air the ultimate temperature will depend on the extent of drying upper limit of hot drying air. Limit of the temperature of that air when used as primary air being about 150oF. The use of a much higher temperature for secondary air is, of course, desirable, but here also there are limits according to the nature of the combustion cycle. An unduly high temperature cannot be used in the case of high volatile bituminous coals owing to the risk of their incipient distillation: with lower volatile coals and anthracites, of course, much higher temperatures are possible, i.e. up to 600o to 700oF3. One of the main problems in pulverized-fuel firing is to shorten the time required for combustion. The development of combustion chamber design has been marked throughout its history by the endeavour to burn the maximum amount of coal dust in the minimum space and in minimum time. To this end, means were sought for grinding the coal to a very fine sub division at an economic cost. But for a given fineness, shortening of the combustion time is mainly the aerodynamic problem of bringing air and fuel together within the furnace as quickly as possible. This means that the air, waste gas and fuel particles must be in a state of violent motion, or turbulence, relative to one another. Early designers sought to achieve this through the use of burners causing a turbulent or whirling motion, skillfully introducing primary, secondary and sometimes tertiary air. Such burners promote quick ignition but it is a characteristic of pulverized-fuel firing, in distinction to stoker-firing, that it is extremely difficult to influence the tail of combustion. This cannot be done by burner agitation or by introducing secondary air at points farther along in the path of the burning dust.

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Characteristics of Naptha Naptha is a class-A product as per Petroleum Act, 1934. Density Calorific value (HHV), Kcal/Kg Flash point Residue on evaporation IBP ( Initial boiling point) FBP (Final boiling point) Total Sulphur Aromatic, % volume Olefines, % volume Lead Content Reid vapour pressure RVP at 38 oC Carbon/Hydrogen ratio Viscosity at 37.8 oC Characteristics of High Speed Diesel Oil (HSDO) Specification of Diesel Fuel Corresponds to IS:1460-1974 Acidity, inorganic Acidity, total, mg KOH/g, max Ash, % Wt. max. Carbon residue (Ramsbottom) % wt. max. Cetane number, min. Pour point, oC max. Copper Strip corrosion for 3 hrs. at 100 oC Distillation, % recovery at 366 oC, min. Flash point, Abel oC, mm. Kinematic viscosity, CST. at 38oC Sediment, % wt. max. Total sulphur, % wt. max. Water content, % V max. Total sediments, mg/100 ml max. The composition is as given below : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NIL 0.50 0.01 0.20 42 6 Not worse than No.1 90 32 2 to 7.5 0.05 1.0 0.05 1.0 H2 C S : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0.70 to 0.75 (0.7165 gm/ml at 15oC) 11,200 <23 oC 5 mg/ 100 ml max. 45 oC 156 oC 100 ppm 11.5 Nil 3 ppm 0.42 kg/cm2 5.5 < 0.5 CST

= 13.6% = 85.4% = 1%

In accordance with the definition of classification, HSDO is Class - B petroleum.

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Characteristics of Light Diesel Oil (LDO) The specification of light diesel fuel conforms to IS:1460-1974 Acidity, inorganic : NIL Ash, % Wt. max. Carbon residue (Ramsbottom) % wt. max. Pour point, oC max. Copper Strip corrosion for 3 hrs. at 100 oC Flash point, Abel oC, mm. Kinematic viscosity, CST. at 38oC Sediment, % wt. max. Total sulphur, % wt. max. Water content, % V max. Total sediments, mg/100 m max. : : : : : : : : : : 0.02 1.5 12 - 18 Not worse than No.2 66 2.5 to 15.7 0.10 1.8 0.25 1.0

Since the flash point of LDO is just above 65 oC, this is a class-C petroleum as per definition. Characteristics of Low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS) Oil The specification of LSHS (including other grades of furnace oils) shall conform to IS-15931982 Acidity, inorganic Ash, % by mass, max. Gross CV, Kcal/kg Flash point (Pensky Morten closed), C Kinematic viscosity, in centistokes at 50C, max. Sediment, % by mass, max. Sulphur, total, % by mass, max. Water content, % by vol. ,max : : : : : : : : NIL 0.10 10,500 72 500 0.25 1.75 1.00

Note: 1. Although the above characteristics specify total sulphur as 1.75% by mass max., M/s IOC in a letter have categorically stated that the sulphur content of LSHS will vary from batch to batch and refinery to refinery and the maximum sulphur may go upto 4% by mass. 2. In accordance with the definition of classes of petroleum, LSHS is a class-C petroleum.

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Low Viscosity (LV) Grade Furnace Oil The specification of LV Grade furnace oil shall also Correspond to IS-1593-1982 Acidity, inorganic Ash, % by mass, max. Gross CV, Kcal/kg Flash point (Pensky Morten closed), C Kinematic viscosity, in CST at 50C, max. Sediment, % by mass, max. Sulphur, total, % by mass, max. Water content, % by vol. ,max : : : : : : : : NIL 0.1 ~10,000 66 80 0.25 3.5 1.0

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CHAPTER-4 DESIGN OF BURNER Designing of a burner is essential for proper fuel utilization and to meet the required flame length and also proper utilization of furnace space. Liquid fuel burners should meet the following requirements: i) ii) iii) they should atomize liquid fuel and mix it thoroughly with air. ensure stable combustion and form an uninterrupted flame of a desired length. should be reliable in operation, simple in design and convenient for cleaning.

In industrial furnace, liquid fuels are mostly atomized before burning. The main stages of burning of liquid fuel are (a) atomization (b) ignition which is preceded and favoured by inter-mixing, preheating and evapouration; and (c) combustion of liquid fuel droplets. a) The fuel is disintegrated into droplets by mean of an atomizer. The process is only possible when pressure of moving atomizer exceeds the force of surface tension. Equating the pressure of atomiser and the surface tension of liquid fuel we can obtain the following formula for size of droplet. 1 r 300
2 lW

Where W = relative velocity of atomizer m/sec. 3 l = atomizer density Kg/m . b) Ignition occures as atomized liquid fuel begins to evaporate upon entering a medium at high temperature, the vapour air mixture that forms at the surface of droplets ignites first, the temperature at which this vapour-air mixtures ignites is called ignition temperature of fuel. As has been found evaporation increases with smaller size of droplets. The boiling point of liquid fuel is lower than the ignition point. It has been found experimentally that the pattern of ignition of liquid fuel at a temperature upto 500oC is the same as that of homogeneous mixture in which O2 initially penetrates fuel molecules and then the chain process of gradual oxidation takes place. At the temperature above 500 oC fuel molecules under go preliminary thermal cracking. The process of ignition is accelerated with increasing temperature. c) Combustion of droplet: All the stages of fuel combustion occur either at the surface of fuel droplet or near it. Burning droplet together form a flame.

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As has been shown experimentally the similarity between combustion of single droplet and atomized fuel exist. It relates both completeness of combustion and the flame temperature. The combustion of liquid fuel mainly occurs in vapour phase. Of great practical importance is the rate of burning of liquid fuel droplets. Combustion of large droplets are more stable and such droplets exist longer than smaller ones.

The full time of burning of droplets, is expressed as follows:


t= 2(Tm - Td) Where t


r2 sec.

Qv Tm Td

= = = = = =

full time of burning of a droplet density of liquid fuel latent heat of vapourization of liquid fuel temperature of gaseous medium temperature of droplet surface thermal conductivity of liquid fuel

The total time of burning istt = t1 + t2 t1 = time of burning of gaseous volatiles t2 = time of burning of coke residue Usually t 1 = 0.5 - 0.6 sec. t 2 = 0.3 - 0.35 sec.

Liquid burner meets the requirement of atomisation, mixing, stable-combustion and uninterrupted flame of desired length. It should be simple in design and convenient for cleaning. It is divided into two large groups as low pressure and high pressure burners. Comparative characteristic of Low & High pressure liquid burner # a) b) Characteristic Atomizer Atomizing pressure KN m2 % of atomizing air % total air for combustion Ultimate temperature of air preheat oC Low Pressure burner blow, air 2.94 - 8.82 High Pressure burner Compressed air, stream Compressed air, 588-784 Steam 588-1774 7-12 88-93 Heating of secondary air not limited

c) d)

100 0 300

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e) f) g)

Consumption of atomizer per kg of fuel oil Speed of exit of atomizer from burner mouth m/sec Degree of atomization (diameter of droplets) mm

-50-80 upto 0.5

0.6-0.8 330, in some cases higher speeds are possible 0.05

Low pressure burners are calculated to determine the outlet Xnal area for liquid fuel and air ff = Ab
f f

= mm2 Pf

Where, A = Co-eff equal to 195.625 if P is measured in N/m2. b = fuel oil flow rate Kg/hr. = 0.2-0.3. f Pf = Fuel oil pressure N/m2. 3 f = Fuel oil density Kg/m . KVa fa =


fuel oil densities 950 - 960 Kg/m3. fa = Xnal area mm2. Va = air flow rate m3/hr. 3 a = air density Kg/m . a = coefficient 0.7 - 0.8. Pa = total head of air N/m2. High pressure of special design are employed in cases where a sharp bright flame is essential. A example is shown in the figure below:

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Channel 1) for fuel oil has a constant cross-sectional area. The size of steam/air slit is varied by moving a fuel tube. 2. This can be done on loosening nut 3. This method of adjustment is quite complicated and in practice the fuel oil supply pipeline and pipeline for air are provided with valves which are easy to control the flows. This results in proper atomizing effect and increased consumption of speed. The velocity of atomizer efflux does not exceed that of sound 330 m/sec. The burner produces a long flame 2.5 - 4m. The amount of steam to atomize 1 kg of preheated fuel oil is 0.4 to 0.6 Kg and that of compressed air from 0.6 to 0.8 m3. Basic dimensions of this type of burner for different capacities can be found in below. BASIC DIMENSIONS OF OIL BURNER Burner No. Outlet diameter (mm) For fuel For steam oil 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 13 16 4.5 5.5 7.0 8.0 9.0 10 11 13 16 20 Diameter of fuel oil pipe (inches) 3/8 3/8 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 3/4 3/4 3/4 Productivity (Kg/hr) II III

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3 6 12 19 27 38 50 70 125 200

7 20 40 60 80 100 130 180 250 350

10 30 60 90 120 150 180 240 320 400

Different pressure ranges required for I, II & III have been indicated below: III III For fuel oil pressures 4.9 KN/m2 For fuel oil pressure 58.8 KN/m2 Steam/air/pressure before burner 294.2-494.3 KN/m2 Fuel pressure 196-245 KN/m2 Steam/air pressure above 490 KN/m2

Using Laval nozzle and a diffuser another class of burner has been designed which gives efflux velocity of 750 m/sec or more with higher degree of oil atomization. Oil burners particularly for coal tar fuels have been also in use and working satisfactorily using two stage emulsification of fuel by steam. Advantage of this class of burners is in its working at lower pressure.

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CHAPTER-5 INSULATION ASPECTS Introduction The need for efficient thermal insulation has become more important with higher operating temperatures and increasing energy costs. Prevention of heat leakage by judicious application of thermal insulation is the simplest method of achieving substantial economy in energy consumption. With the advent of technology in insulating materials, many upgraded alternatives are available to engineers for application in industry. Though thermal insulation is equally relevant for cryogenic applications, this booklet is limited to medium temperature ranges (50 to 600oC). Insulation for high temperatures of 600oC, which is normally encountered in industrial furnaces, is covered in the booklet on 'Refractories' in this series. The illustrative examples given in the booklet are meant for helping the reader understand and appreciate the importance of insulation. However they should not construed to be ideal or normative. It is always desirable to make individual calculations for thermal insulation on account of diversity of the factors which are subject to change with time, type of industry, fuel and a host of other parameters. The approaches / methods given in this booklet may have to be supplemented by appropriate references of the books / handbooks and the data to be obtained from the insulation Manufacturers / Suppliers to tackle the practical problems. Functions of Insulation Thermal insulation serves several functions such as: i) Saving of energy ii) Fire protection iii) Conservation of products iv) Control of temperature v) Increased production vi) Better working conditions Refractory lining A typical refractory lining is indicated below for effective heat saving and to ensure maximum life. Different types of refractories and other insulating materials are required for furnace proper, flue offtake and flue duct from furnace to chimney, chimney, doors, burner blocks etc. Design of the wall thickness may be worked out based on data for these tables. Selection of working layer for different zones is done on the basis of furnace inside temperature at these zones. Typical material selection is indicated below. Indicative lining pattern of Furnace Roof Soaking Zone: 250 mm thick special shaped bricks made of 60% Alumina Refractories backed by 50 mm thick Insulating castable.

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Heating Zone: 250 mm thick special shaped Refractories 60% Alumina quality backed by 50 mm thick Insulating castable. Pre-Heating Zone: 250 mm thick special shaped Refractories 40% Alumina quality backed by 50 mm thick Insulating castable.

Indicative lining pattern of Furnace side walls and end walls Discharge end wall: 230 mm thick 60% Alumina quality Ref ractories backed by 115 mm hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick Mica Insulation bricks (lS-2042) and 75 mm thick Calcium silicate blocks insulation and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet. Side walls (Heating & Soaking zones): 230 mm thick 60% Alumina quality refractory bricks backed by 115 mm thick hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick Mica Insulation bricks / Cold face insulation bricks, 75 mm thick Calcium silicate block insulation and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet. Side walls (Preheating Zone): 230 mm thick 40% Alumina quality (IS-8) refractory bricks backed by 115 mm thick Hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick Mica Insulation bricks, 75 mm thick calcium silicate block insulation and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet. End wall (Charging side): 230 mm thick 40% Alumina quality( IS-8) refractory bricks backed by 115 mm thick Hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick Mica Insulation bricks, 75 mm thick calcium silicate block insulation and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet.. Flue Off take/down corners: 150 mm thick ceramic fibre blanket (RT128) to be held in position by heat resisting (Stainless steel) studs and washers in case of flue port at the roof. If the flue line is below the hearth, lining pattern will be same as that of charging side end wall. Soaking Zone of the Hearth: 150mm thick High Alumina fire bricks (60% Alumina) backed by 75 mm thick 40% Alumina quality firebricks, 230 mm thick cold face insulation bricks and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet. Heating Zone of the Hearth: 150 mm thick High Alumina quality fire bricks (60% Alumina) backed by 75 mm thick 40% Alumina (IS-8) Firebrick, 115 mm thick Hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick cold face insulation bricks and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet. Pre-Heating Zone of the Hearth: 150 mm thick High Alumina fire bricks (45% Alumina) backed by 75 mm thick 40% Alumina quality firebricks, 115 mm thick Hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick cold face insulation bricks and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet. Charging end Doors: 175 mm thick RT128 grade ceramic fibre module backed by 25 mm thick mineral wool insulation blanket.

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Discharge end Doors: 225 mm thick RT128 grade ceramic fibre module backed by 25 mm thick mineral wool insulation blanket. Recuperator area: 115 mm thick lS-8 quality firebricks backed by 115 mm thick Mica insulating bricks and 50 mm thick calcium silicate block insulation. Flue duct from Recuperator up to chimney: 115 mm thick IS-6 quality firebricks backed by 115 mm thick Mica insulating bricks.

Structural Design Main structures of the furnace consist of bottom and top ties beams, wall plates and roof structures. There are different arrangements for these structures. Some of the arrangements are described below. Bottom and top tie beams Bottom and top tie beams are made of ISMB 150 to ISMB 250. The bottom tie beams are placed on RCC foundation at span of 500 to 1000 mm. Adequate space between the bottom tie beams is required for cooling the hearth of the furnace. On the bottom tie beams 10 to 12 mm thick M.S plate is provided and on this plate hearth is constructed. Top tie beams are tied to the side walls. Top tie beams carry the weight of the roof. Normally beams of size ISMB-250 to 350 at a spacing of 500-750 mm are used for typical furnace inside widths of 3000 to 4500 mm. Walls There are two types of wall construction, viz., (i) Panel construction and (ii) In situ welding. In the panel construction, wall plates of length 4000 to 5000 mm and of required width are prefabricated and are fixed to the bottom the tie beams with bolts. Similarly the top tie beams are fixed with bolts. This construction has advantage of dismantling provision, when required. In the in situ welding walls all the construction is done at the site and all the assembly of tie beams and side walls is done by site welding. Roof In case of arch roof, function of structures is to hold the side walls. Where as in case of flat roof, function of roof structures, which include roof tie beams, is to carry the weight of refractory of the roof as well as hold the walls. For suspending the refractory of the roof there are different metallic hanger arrangements.

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CHAPTER-6 HEAT RECOVERY In any industrial furnace the products of combustion leave the furnace at a temperature higher than the stock temperature. Sensible heat losses in the flue gases, while leaving the chimney carry 35 to 55 percent of the heat input to the furnace. Typical quantities of waste heat available in different operations are listed in Table-1 below: Furnace Small billet heating furnace Flue Gas Temperature ( oC) 500-800

The higher the quantum of excess air and flue gas temperature, the higher would be the heat availability. The sensible heat in flue gases can be generally salvaged by the following methods. Considerable fuel saving can be affected by preheating the combustion air. The heat saving devices used for this purpose are normally the recuperator and the regenerator. The benefit of preheated combustion air are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Saving in fuel consumption. Increase in flame temperature. Improvement in combustion. Reduction in initial heating time. Reduction in scale loss.

In a recuperator, heat exchange takes place between the flue gas and the air through metallic or ceramic walls. On the other hand, in a regenerator, the fuel gases and the air to be heated are passed alternatively through a heat strong medium, thereby resulting in transfer of heat. A comparison of the advantages of recuperator over a regenerator is shown below:

Regenerator Requirement of size and space Where used Requirement of civil work Initial installation and maintenance cost Regenerator: Higher Class and Steel melting furnaces Large High

Recuperator Lower Smaller engineering furnaces Small Low

The regeneration which is preferable for large capacities has been very widely used in glass and steel melting furnaces. Important relations exist between size of the furnace (and regenerator), time between reversals, thickness of brick, conductivity of brick

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and heat storage ratio of the brick. In the regenerators, the time between the reversals is an important aspect; long periods would mean higher thermal storage and hence large regeneration and higher cost. Further more, long periods of reversal result in lower average temperature of preheat and consequently reduce fuel economy. Accumulation of dust on the bricks and slagging of the brick surfaces, cause the efficiency of heat transfer in the regenerator to decrease as the furnace becomes old. Heat losses from the walls of the regenerator and leakage of air inwards during the gas period and out during the air period also cause an apparent decrease in the heat transfer coefficient. Taking into effect all the above factors, the operating with natural draft can be taken as 4.0 to 6.5 Kcal/m2/oC. Besides, the checker brickwork heat can be salvaged from flow gases by means of ceramic balls or rotary regenerators. This device consists of multiples of slightly separated metal plates supported in "frame attached to a slowly moving rotor shaft, which is arranged edge on to the gas and air flow. As these plates pass; progressively through the gas stream, they give up heat to the air before re-entering the hot gas stream, thus maintaining the regenerative cycle. Seals are provided to reduce air infiltration into the gas. Soot blowers are located periodically.



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Recuperators A recuperator is a heat exchange between the waste gases and the air to be preheated. It usually consists of a system of ducts or tubes, some of which carry the air for combustion to be pre-heated: the others contain the sources of waste heat. The recuperators may be of ceramic or metallic types. The ceramic recuperators are bulky and offer considerable resistance to transfer of heat because of low conductivity and also have a greater tendency for leakages. Metallic recuperators. however, are less prone to leaks and thermal expansions and can be controlled. Metallic recuperators are easier to maintain and install and involve less initial cost. Due to the above reason, ceramic recuperators are not widely in use. Some of the common flow arrangements encountered in recuperators are depicted. However, in a cross flow recuperator the air arid hot gases flow at right angles to each other. The considerations for design and selection of a metallic recuperator must take into account. Waste gas temperature Desired air/fuel gas pre-heat Initial cost and maintenance cost Materials available for use in recuperator Operating pressure, on the fuel gas and combustion air side. as well as permissible pressure drops in the recuperator system Availability of space for installation of recuperator Campaign life of furnace and reliability desired in the system

Metallic recuperators can be of three basic types depending on the method of heat transfer, viz. radiation, convection, combined convection and radiation type.







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Radiation Recuperator In a radiation recuperator, the products of combustion enter the recuperator through an opening in the furnace roof while air flows at a higher velocity through a narrow annulus between the outer and inner walls. The outer shell is insulated. Fins are provided on the inner shell to increase the heat transfer area. This type of a simple recuperator is particularly suitable for small forging furnaces. This is shown ahead.

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Radiation recuperators can operate with waste gas temperatures in the range of 1000 to 1500oC to pre-heat air up to 600oC. The advantages of radiation recuperator over convection is that the heat transfer is intensive through radiation and also offers possibility of a higher air pre-heat. Other advantages are low-pressure drop in fuel gas side because of larger cross sections; thereby enhancing the possibility of using dust laden waste gases. Convective Recuperator The shell and tube type recuperator are called convective recuperator. As shown in the Figure below the cold air is carried through a number of parallel small diameters tubes, while the outgoing hot gas enters a shell surrounding the tubes and passes over the cool tubes one or more times in a direction normal to their axis. Shell and tube recuperator are generally more compact and have a higher effectiveness than radiant recuperator. This is because of the larger heat transfer area made possible though the use of multiple tubes and multiple passes of the gases through baffling.

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In order to overcome the temperature limitation of metallic recuperators, which is about 1000oC on the gas side, ceramic tube recuperators have been developed. The materials of ceramic recuperators allow operation on the gas side up to 13000C and on the preheated airside up to 850C. Ceramic recuperators have limited use because of difficulties in maintaining tight air/water gas seals and also due to their susceptibility to thermal shock. Later development have led to various" kinds of short silicon carbide tubes joined by flexible seals located in the air headers. It is important when installing a recuperator in the fuel system to ensure that draught loss is minimized, otherwise furnace operation and performance may suffer. Increase in the fuel gas temperature or decrease in air preheat temperature after the recuperator, indicates the need for cleaning the recuperator tubes. Cross Flow Recuperator These recuperator are used in re-rolling mill furnaces by directing hot fuel gases at 90 angel to the direction of flow of air through the tubes. The heat exchange in surface required by a cross flow recuperator is greater than that required by a counter flow recuperator, for equal heat transfer. For a given heat exchange areas, the heat transfer of parallel flow, cross flow and counter flow are roughly as 2 to 2.8 to 3, under average condition. Combined radiation and convection recuperator The advantages of tradition and convention recuperators are combined in the arrangement of heat exchanging surfaces. In this system, a tube bundle is arranged in a ring inside a double shell type recuperator.

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A case study of a galvanizing furnace in a steel tube plant showed significant fuel savings on installation of a metallic recuperator as illustrated below: System: heating of combustion air in a recuperator Average consumption of furnace oil in the furnace: 3000 litres/day (24 hrs) Temperature of flue gases before heat recovery: 5800C Temperature of fuel gases after installation of recuperator at the exit: 300oC Temperature of combustion air at recuperator outlet: 320oC Quantity of heat recycled back to the furnace by preheating of combustion air: 171,000 Kcal/hr Quantity of furnace oil saved per day: 500 litres / day Monthly saving in furnace oil: 500 x 25 = 12500 ltrs. Payback period on investment: 1 months Quantitatively, every 21oC rise in combustion air temperature results in one percent fuel oil savings However, the quantum of savings is normally greater with higher flame temperature, reduced excess air levels and higher productivity of the furnace.

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Every tank or receptacle for storage of petroleum in bulk (other than a well-head tank) shall be constructed of iron or steel in accordance with the relevant Indian Standards or specifications approved by the chief controller (Ref. Page-103 of the Petroleum Rules, 1976) However, API-R21615-1987 recommends that underground petroleum storage tanks may also be manufactured from Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP).


When 2 or more tanks are installed in one enclosure, the total capacity of the tanks in the enclosure shall not exceed 60,000 Kl in case of conventional fixed roof tanks and 1,20,000 Kl in the case of floating roof type tanks. A combination of fixed and floating roof tanks can be also located in the same enclosure/premises but the total capacity in this case shall not exceed 60,000 Kl.

3. 4.

CI valves are not permitted in oil installations. Height of storage tanks shall not exceed one and a half times their diameter or 20 in whichever is less. An air space of not less than 5% of the total storage capacity shall be considered while designing oil storage tank capacity. (Ref. Pt.4 of page104, Petroleum Act, 1934) All tanks for the storage of petroleum in bulk installed above or below ground shall be protected against corrosion by use of protective coatings and cathodic protection. Tanks after erection or repair shall be tested with water pressure. The water used for testing shall be free from petroleum and shall not be passed through any pipe or pump used for the conveyance of petroleum. Ministry of Petroleum prescribes that for large industries either a full rake of 76 tank wagons or half rake of 38 tank wagons shall be procured and unloading points shall be accordingly provided. Every storage and handling facility shall, at all times, maintain the distances from any other facility in accordance with table-I & tableII. Grouping of petroleum products for storage purposes shall be based on the product classification. Class- A and /or Class-B petroleum can be stored in the same dyked enclosure. Class-C should preferably be stored in separate enclosure. However, where class-C is stored in a common dyke along with Class- A and/or ClassB, all safety stipulations applicable for class A or B should apply. No fire water/foam ring main shall pass through dyked enclosure.








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Piping from/to any tank located in a single dyked enclosure should not pass through any other dyked enclosure. Piping within the dyked enclosure should be minimised. Tanks shall be arranged in maximum two rows so that each tank is approachable from the road/area surrounding the enclosure. However, tank having capacity of 50, 000 m3 and above shall be laid in a single row. Any tank having a diameter more than 30 m should be separated with fire walls from other tanks. Firewalls should be constructed by limiting the aggregate capacity of each group of tanks within 20,000 m3. The minimum distance between a tank shell and the inside of the dyke wall shall not be less than half of the tank diameter.






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