Progress is an axiological or a normative concept, which should be distinguished from such neutral descriptive terms as change and development

(Niiniluoto 1995a). It can be argued against the naturalists that progress should not be defined by the actual developments of science: the definition of progress should give us a normative standard for appraising the choices that the scientific communities have made. Quality is primarily an activity-oriented concept, concerning the skill and competence in the performance of some task. Progress is a result-oriented concept, concerning the success of a product relative to some goal. It might seem natural to expect that the main rival accounts of scientific progress would be based upon the positions of instrumentalism and realism. But this is only partly true. In 1908 Duhem expressed this idea by a simile: scientific progress is like a mounting tide, where waves rise and withdraw, but under this to-and-fro motion there is a slow and constant progress. However, he gave a realist twist to his view by assuming that theories classify experimental laws, and progress means that the proposed classifications approach a natural classification (Duhem 1954). Realist theories of scientific progress take truth to be an important goal of inquiry. This view is built into the classical definition of knowledge as justified true belief: if science is a knowledge-seeking activity, then it is also a truth-seeking activity. The scientific realist may continue this line of thought by arguing that all measures of empirical success in fact are at best indicators of real cognitive progress, measured in terms of truth or truth likeness. This means that the best explanation of the empirical progress of science is the hypothesis that science is also progressive on the level of theories. The thesis that science is progressive is an overall claim about scientific activities. It does not imply that each particular step in science has in fact been progressive: individual scientists make mistakes, and even the scientific community is fallible in its collective judgments. For this reason, we should not propose such a definition that the thesis about the progressive nature of science becomes a tautology or an analytic truth. This undesirable consequence follows if we define truth as the limit of scientific inquiry (this is sometimes called the consensus theory of truth), as then it is a mere tautology that the limit of scientific research is the truth (Laudan 1984a). But this trivialization of the self-corrective thesis cannot be attributed to Peirce who realized that truth and the limit of inquiry coincide at best with probability one (Niiniluoto 1980). The notion of truthlikeness allows us to make sense of the claim that science converges towards the truth. But the characterization of progress as increasing truthlikeness, given in Section 3.5, does not presuppose teleological metaphysics (Stegmüller 1976), convergent realism (Laudan 1984), or scientific eschatology (Moulines 2000), as it does not rely on any assumption about the future behavior of science. Kant argues that, for the most part, human psychology and the natural environment, rather than human reason, could have driven the human race forward. First, he attributes progress to the unsocial

Yet they are unsocial because they always want to get their own way. or Spirit. 44) of human beings. The freedom of Spirit is achieved through the achievement of free social institutions and free human beings.sociability (1784. According to Marx. we look to human history to understand the realization of Spirit. So. Part of the world's development is the self-realization of its spiritual aspect. known simply as Geist. by which Marx means its material and technological resources. . Humans are social because they cannot develop their capabilities in isolation. the fundamental fact about a society at a given moment is not its ideological orientation but rather its productive forces (1845. According to Hegel. 150). the world as a whole is in the process of development through conflict.

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