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1202 - Critical Reading and Problem Solving Dr, Barbara Huff
December 8, 2006
1 Abstract ......................................................................................................................................2 Introduction................................................................................................................................3 Literature review............................................................................................................................. 4 Subjects ........................................................................................................................................... 9 Data Gathering Tools...................................................................................................................... 9 Results........................................................................................................................................... 11 Discussion and conclusion.......................................................................................................20 References................................................................................................................................27 Appendix: A.............................................................................................................................28 Appendix: B .............................................................................................................................31
2 Abstract The aim of the research paper is to check whether the team’s assumptions about gender differences in communication are verified or not through the answers obtained from a survey and an interview. The survey was randomly distributed to AUI community, including students and staff, and the interview was done with two experts in the domain of communication: Doctor Mobashiri and Doctor Paquin. The team’s research questions were: what are the causes of gender differences in communication? How do they manifest themselves? What are the consequences of it and what is the best way to remedy the misunderstandings genders face? The team had some assumptions from the beginning of which some were verified and some were rejected. The main results showed that differences in communication between males and females actually exist, that there are some biological, some cultural and other educational reasons that lead both genders to be different, and that even if people think of having possible solutions for the misunderstandings they have with the other sex, they do not really apply them in the reality.
and emotions. staff. and faculty of Al Akhawayn University (AUI). there is a difference in communication between genders which may lead sometimes to misunderstandings. ones understanding can go from 0 to 100% and people end up understanding what it has been actually said. sending and receiving messages or information through signals such as verbal and non verbal ones (eye contact. In addition. That is why it is important to first be aware of the differences of communication between males and females. communication is part of the every day life since it is a reality that every man and woman face without really being aware of it. which contributes to enrich this research. Communication differences touch every man and woman all over the world including students. and have different backgrounds. and probably accept the differences. and learn how to appreciate them to live better. In fact. It is also a way of exchanging thoughts. This study could help us solve our personal problems with the opposite sex. men and women do not communicate in the same way because they interpret the same message differently. traditions. and then try to understand them in order to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts. However.3 Introduction Communication is a way of interaction. This study was important because the problem of misunderstanding between genders is a common one and that it happens to every one. feeling. voice tone. Each person has his or her own way to interpret things. All human beings are involved in relationships since it takes major part of life especially that communication is inescapable and people interact with each other because they are part of a society where it is impossible to not communicate. and that’s what strikes one’s attention concerning communication. What is so strange about communication is that it is not the words that have a meaning but people. especially as the people of AUI come from different cultures. . and gestures).
Concerning the physiological side. men have a tendency to use only one hemisphere at a time.) The team assumptions are: The communication differences between genders actually exist. and that is why they can be logical even when emotional. Concerning the biological side.d. Lathrop. and they agreed that there were many misunderstandings or misinterpretations in . n. Nevertheless. why is there a communication difference between men and women? How do communication differences between men and women manifest itself? And what are the consequences of it? Literature review The different sources that the team used in the literature review presented different points of view and analysis for the subjects by reliable writers and authorities in this issue. (Communication styles. men and women react differently to the same situation such as stressors especially conflict.4 The purpose of the study was to reveal the causes of the problem of miscommunication between genders which may help people understand and know themselves better as well as the consequences of the gap that exist between people of the different sex. The team assumed also that the differences in communication affect more women than men in their every day life and that women are more concerned and aware of this issue. This research project looked at three main questions: first. All the documents that were used assume that there was a difference in communication between men and women. there is a difference in the size of the part of the brain between the right and the left hemispheres which is called the collosum. and women can use both sides of the brain at the same time. This may contribute to establishing a better understanding and acceptance of the differences of the others. Communication styles depend mostly on people’s physiological and biological differences. for either logical or emotional. and it should be considered as an issue because it creates misunderstandings.
p 23). The differences that exist between genders and the reason why women can’t be more like a man play an important role in the creation of misunderstanding in communication.5 communication between genders. also there is a kind of competitiveness that exists between men and women. 87). there are biological ones. our educational background. there is another form of differences between genders. the cultural part enters also into consideration. These styles are the result of many factors “where we're from. how and where we were brought up. However. our age. . From reading this article. Communication can be verbal. there are some factors that contribute to the instinctive differences that exist between genders. for instance as mentioned on the article. it was clear that gender differences in communication existed also in the written way because we can determine the gender of a person just by reading its written words. Because people can communicate using the mail system. generally men and women have special manners and styles of speaking also a specific subject. and it also can depend on our gender” (p. Also differences present the essential causes that lead to a disagreement in communication between the two genders. non verbal. In addition. each document and source presented its own examination of the miscommunication. According to Schrage (1999). or written because people can communicate also using the mail system. Coates (1986. According to an article entitled Online Communication (2001). and they proposed different ways by which to investigate this social issue. In communication. Another point stated by Hall (2002) is that there are many styles of communication. the written way is added to the interpersonal communication in addition of course to the verbal and non verbal ways.
6 Many studies have been done to clarify the difference in communication between men and women. boys form a big group and one is the leader. 1996. supportive. It is said that these differences should not exist because men and women might belong to the same environment as being neighbours or brothers and sisters. In addition. so they start giving advice and trying to help. . but men think that women need help. egalitarian. p 96). women are found to be more expressive. According to Canaray and Dindia (2006): “Researchers typically report that men are more likely to emerge as leaders. p. yet the difference is present even if they have a similar background. 1992. and cooperative than men. it was clear that women convey their ideas and feelings and cooperate more than men who want to be the leaders and to direct. to dominate in groups by talking more and interrupting more. 1987. For example. facilitative. 121). and the groups they form. however. and to focus more on relationships and share more personally with others” (Aries. Another important point argued in the research of Tanner (2002) is the reason why difference exists in communication between genders. From this description of the difference between men and women at a level of behaviours. For example. to be directive and hierarchical. However. women behave like that in order to get closer to others not to get solutions (Gray. 2002). girls tend to form small groups and they disclose their feeling and their opinions (Tanner. In contrast. The dissimilarity rises from the games that boys and girls play since their childhood. women might disclose their feelings and the problems that they are facing. the difference between genders in communication causes misunderstanding and leads to conflicts.
d. As what was said before. merry and happy whereas men more often stick to their independence and try to keep it intact whatever the situation may be. women want to establish an emotional and passionate interdependence with men. Moreover. 2006).. women try to satisfy the others as much as possible to make everyone satisfied. They should not misinterpret words and body language. and in order to overcome this problem men and women should deal with each other as if they are from different cultures. In other words. the difference of communication between men and women can trigger some misunderstandings. n. The possible way for coping with miscommunication is to try to be aware of the differences that exist with the other sex as well as to figure out what is the point of view or the angle from which the other sees the situation. they have to clarify and make sure that they understand the other by asking questions and doing perception checking (Lathrop. and try to understand what the other wants to convey. women are more likely to depend on others. Moreover. That is due to the difference in the way of interpreting messages by the two genders. the spirit of competition inside them let these ones think of themselves more than any other one. Besides. Nevertheless.7 Torppa claims that “women and men sometimes perceive the same messages to have different meanings” (2002. the misunderstandings between these two genders are mostly due to a difference in the way each one expresses oneself. Many examples of the normal life analysed by Torppa revealed that misunderstandings can be caused by a distortion in the manner people want to manifest their emotions and feelings to the other sex: women tend more to use words while men prefer generally to show them with acts. In fact. Design In this research project the team used both qualitative and quantitative methods to look at . p112).
the team usually used experiments and surveys which helped to reduce the data collected to a numerical form and made the research paper clearer and complete. The team also made interviews with the psychologist of the university and a specialist in the field of communication in order to have the opinions of some experts who have a large background on this subject and are the most suited to help us having a better understanding of the issue of misunderstanding and differences in communication between genders. The design was also explanatory because the team was also looking for the reasons why there is a communication difference between men and women as well as the consequences of it. the team used the qualitative method that included study of documents. In this method. The survey also ensured the reliability because the sample was scientifically chosen. The survey was very useful in the research because it showed people’s opinions in order to check if they supported the assumptions that the team made. passive observation. which means that everyone had a chance of selection.8 the topic of gender differences in communication and answer the research questions. Since the topic is related to humanities and social sciences. Moreover. That way. the results of the sample represented the population reliably with a certain degree of precision and certainty. and interviews. the survey helped to analyze data using statistics. The study was descriptive since it gave an idea about the differences that exist between men and women in communication. It also showed in what way the two genders communicate and interpret messages differently and illustrated these differences through concrete examples from the everyday life. The quantitative method was useful to convert the information collected into a numerical form and percentages. Two data gathering tools were used: interviews and surveys. .
which was composed of about 2000 students plus faculty and staff. Closed questions were chosen to support the assumptions that clarify the idea that we all live similar situations and have quite the same feelings while facing misunderstandings. 1998). Since the faculty is older than AUI student. The open questions were assigned to push people to talk about themselves as well as their own experiences and feelings. the team looked if there were differences in points of view between generations. they were supposed to have more experience in life. Besides. The population selected was AUI University. the sample size. the choice went to the AUI community since it is considered as being a small community that represents a view of how people in general communicate. since the study compared the points of view of each gender. undergraduate and graduate students from all three schools (School of Business Administration. Since a big part of the research was descriptive and the population was large. Staff was not included. 22 people of the faculty in AUI community were selected.9 Subjects For the research about gender differences in communication. and School of Social Science) and both Moroccan and exchange students. The survey contained 13 questions and two of them were open questions. School of Engineering. according to the Roscoe’s simple rules of thumb in what sample size is “Enough” in Internet survey research (Hill. which gave 200 to be sampled. Data Gathering Tools The team did the survey on one sheet of paper in order to avoid tediousness and encourage respondents to provide answers to each question. These 200 people were randomly selected in order to have different perspectives and included both males and females. The team chose mostly closed questions because . should have been 10% of population.
the consequences. A pilot test was done by another 1202 section that had the same background knowledge on that field. The members of the team agreed on dividing the tasks. and another from mixed men and women.10 often people do not have enough time and patience to respond to questions that need deep reflection. All of the three gave to people some time to answer the questions and collected most of the surveys right after. This study not only provided the team with quantitative data as statistics. . The last one who had to do it with faculty people did it in four times from Thursday morning to Friday afternoon in their different offices. The questions were formulated carefully. thus. and the other one from faculty. and also about the solutions of these misunderstandings. Faculty were offered the choice of taking some of their time to answer the survey at all. One team member was assigned to collect data from men. Each member of the group had his/her own way of collecting data. The one who was designated to collect data from men distributed the surveys in the laboratories and to some students he knew. also the choice to either answer immediately or do it later with an agreement that the team member would come back the same day or the day after to collect them. but it also used qualitative methods by doing two interviews with the instructors of the university. The questions in the interview were mainly about the reasons of the differences in communication that actually exist between men and women. and 110 surveys were quite equally divided between the team members. The one who was appointed to gather it from both men and women did it also in the laboratories and with people she knew. and the wording of questions was also chosen vigilantly to make sure that everyone would understand them. The other who was supposed to collect data from women did it in her building on Tuesday evening and Friday. another from women. the team could modify the survey and made it efficient. so it was used to reveal strengths and weaknesses of the survey.
36% 43.91% 47.36% _ 47.73% 45.45% 56. Finally. two data gathering tools were used: survey and interviews.91% _ 65.27% 27. the second gathering tool that was used is interview. A 13 question survey of two pages in length was administrated to a sample of the AUI community (students.82% 34.27% 1.72% 1.64% Question2 Question4 Question5 Question7 Question12 . and multiple choice questions.82% 50.45% 1.55% 65.64% 36. The five closed questions of the survey were as follows: 2-Are you aware of the differences in communication between males and females? 4-Do you feel concerned by this issue? 5-Do you think that women disclose their feelings and their opinions more than men? 7. The survey began with closed questions in order to have some brief responses concerning the awareness and the opinions of respondents on the issue of communication differences between men and women.64% 72. faculty.09% 10.82% 67.73% 3. and 110 surveys were completed and returned.Have you ever experienced one situation where the difference in communication between genders was a real problem? Table 1: Response to yes/no questions of the survey.45% _ 23. by gender: Females (number of respondents 50) Yes No No answer 89.82% Males (number of respondents 50) Yes No No answer 63.11 Results In order to answer the research questions _why is there a communication difference between men and women? How does the difference in communication between men and women manifest itself? What are the consequences of it_. and staff).27% 5.90% 1. yes or no questions.64% _ 52.27% 50. The types of questions employed were open questions.45% 32. Survey results will be presented first.
men’s opinions were totally different because as the graph for men illustrates. From the charts it is obvious that female thought that biological reasons were less important in the issue of communication while education and culture were the major reasons for these differences in communication. However. an almost equal number chose one of the three reasons as the main of communication differences between genders. .12 Figure 1: Reasons for the differences in communication between men and women respondents (Males) Female respondents 34% 32% Educational Biological Cultural 34% 40% 41% Educational Biological Cultural 19% N=55 N=55 Figure1 represents the data obtained from respondents concerning the reasons for the differences in communication between men and women.
and they thought that the main consequence of miscommunication was that it was causing problems and tension in relationship. males and females had the same results. the improvement of communication skills as a consequence of miscommunication was ranked as the second effect of this issue.13 Figure 2: Consequences of miscommunication between men and women respondents (Males) Female respondents Cause problems or tension in relationship 5% 21% 7% Improve communication skills No answer 69% 24% 5% 2% Cause problems or tension in relationship Improve communication skills No answer 67% Others Others N=55 N=55 Figure 2 illustrates the consequences of miscommunication between men and women. However. . Both.
and also non-verbal. hurt and anger. intimidation. anger. non-verbal. misunderstanding. stress. They prefer to keep silent. confusion. . such as every day interaction. to stay calm and they do not want to get involved. so males and females considered that miscommunication was more obvious in verbal communication. disappointment and confusion. on the other hand. males’ feelings were: embarrassment. The result of the open questions of the survey varied again according to genders and type of question.14 Figure 3: Types of communication in which miscommunication is obvious respondents (Males) Female respondents 4% 1% Verbal way Non verbal way 40% 55% Wrtitten way No response 33% 7% 4% Verbal way Non verbal Written way 56% No response N=55 N=55 These charts show miscommunication in relationship to type of communication. The results were approximately similar. such as verbal. such as gestures or body languages were the second most common form of miscommunication. shock. or written. shame. They tried to analyse the situation. Females’ responses to the open-question « what were your reactions and feelings when you have experienced a situation where the difference in communication between genders was a real problem? » were: feeling of frustration.
miscommunication between genders might slow down the evolution of team work. -Trying to find some common points between the two genders in order to accept the differences in communication. .Open and frank discussions. They have to argue and to explain. . -More women in visible responsible. but this education should not neglect the biological differences which are natural. . Female’s responses to the open-question: “what is the best way to remedy to the misunderstandings we face” were varied. create problems and lead to conflicts. give more attention to women by .73% of the female respondents stated that miscommunication affected their everyday life in many ways: in their personal life with their partners. in what way?” 52. and at work with their males’ colleagues. Males ‘responses to this question were: have more interaction between the sexes. . .More tolerance and open-mindness. try to omit the discrimination between men and women by educating the new generation.Changing males’ mentality.Being empathic.15 To the question: “do you feel that this miscommunication affects your everyday life? If yes. For males. especially with their male colleagues who do not listen carefully and take seriously their opinions and ideas. Specific responses included: -More awareness of the issue of miscommunication.Respecting each other’s way of communication.Public positions. .Teaching to men the skill of listening. .
. and women in one.How do these differences manifest in the everyday life? « These differences manifest in the every day life in classrooms. listen more to each other. The 1205 class teaches communication skills to students. » 4. The first interview done with doctor Mobasheri was as follow: 1. use more eye contact and touch each other. they do. That is why there is some people who think that women should study alone to get a better education without being hurt by the non-equality that exists between genders.Do communication differences between genders actually exist? « Yes. » 2. boys get more attention than girls. the actions to take. and it was manifested by the difference of the answers to the questions asked.What are the main differences between the two genders in communication? « When we observe men in a group.. No genders .Etc. keep in mind that the way each gender expressed himself/herself may vary and finally accept these differences and learn how to appreciate them. and a comparison between these interviews was performed. they tend to be more action-oriented. we notice that women get closer.Should communication differences between genders be considered as an issue worth studying? « Yes. and that is why we have a communication class here at AUI.What are the main reasons for these differences? «Biological reasons (level of hormones) Educational-family-training » 5.16 asking them questions and looking for more details. There was who thought that there was no solution to this problem of misunderstandings between genders. » 3. These differences also manifest at work when males do not take women's ideas and opinions seriously. they do some exercises in this course to know in what way both genders communicate differently. use more body language. An interview of 11 questions was conducted with two experts of both genders. Men are more direct than women. They think about the steps to follow.
but they still smoke. they have to work harder to maintain their place. Another consequence is the misunderstandings in the relationships and the impact of this in the marriages which has an impact on the children and consequently an impact on the future generation.Why do we have so many misunderstandings and disappointments in our communication with our mates if we have the answers? « It is the human nature. in the parliament or in business meetings.". for example.. » 11. » 8. Because of the misunderstandings that genders face..etc. no one is responsible » 6. we should practice the communication skills to make our communication with our mates better: perception checking. » The second interview done with Dr Paquin was as follow: 1. Men do not express themselves as easily as women do. summarizing. women are more hesitating than men: "I suppose that. each side becomes defensive. how can we remedy the misunderstandings we face? « Differences can be good. » .Do communication differences between genders actually exist? « Yes. As human we can evolve but we can not reach the perfection. » 9. so we should try to appreciate them. For example. » 7.17 should feel guilty for these misunderstandings. business. Change is a very difficult thing to do.How can communication differences between genders influence the other fields in the society (for example: politics. » 10.. For example.We do have answers to all these questions. To accept the differences is also one way to make communication better..What are the consequences of these differences in communication between the two genders? « We notice the consequences of these differences in communication between the two genders at work places.. people know that cigarette cause cancer. As long as communication takes a huge part of our time. So why the problem of miscommunication still exists? «We are self-observers.)? « People tend to assume that what women say is less valuable in comparison to what men say. they do. but we put less energy to understand and react. awareness and practice.How can men and women communicate better? « Change comes from knowledge..I n your opinion.
There is no real discussion. business. In their minds. Outside family.Why do we have so many misunderstandings and disappointments in our communication with our mates if we have the answers? . » 9. they act while women express their feelings more.18 2-Should communication differences between genders be considered as an issue worth studying? « Of course. Although they disclose their feelings more.How can men and women communicate better? « Men should be more accountable for what they do. » 6. men and women do not meet much. Women are more transparent while men generally do not want to justify all what they do like coming back home late for example. who bring money… » 10. Men are happy with the way things are. they do not talk a lot when they go outside. For example.)? « Because there is so little communication. they are more vulnerable. men and women can found common grounds. the roots (men and women) do not change. For example. there is no willingness of men to improve things. » 3..What are the main differences between the two genders in communication? « Men talk less and keep things inside more. Indeed.How can communication differences between genders influence the other fields in the society (for example: politics. even if women go out more than before and are freer.We do have answers to all these questions. if the king put a rule about communication that people should follow. » 4. concerning religion. » 5.What are the consequences of these differences in communication between the two genders? « This issue of communication between genders is transmitted from generation to generation. Politics and religion do not push them to change. Men do not want to talk. So why the problem of miscommunication still exists? « There is no real willingness of men to change things.What are the main reasons for these differences? « Cultural: Men are more doers than women. They perform tasks. it is men who finally take decisions. » 7. » 8. Traditions are strong: women usually stay home and men go out and play… Men have a fear of intimacy: they think that by talking more.. they still have to stay home.How do these differences manifest in the everyday life? « We find only men talking in the cafe whereas women are talking in the Hammam. yes.
awareness. However. Dr Mobasheri stated that first both sides needed to accept the differences that existed and that changes came from knowledge. Nevertheless. the two Doctors agreed that these differences that exist between genders would have consequences on generations. said that men should be more accountable for what they do and women had to be more flexible with men. and talked more than women. At the opposite. and practice. the two sides agreed that even if we had answers and solutions to our problems. they tended to be more action-oriented. » There were some differences that existed between the two interviews. Women are afraid of men.Etc. it was clearly said that it was due to culture and was related to customs and strong traditions. » 11. Dr Mobasheri stated that it was due to biological reasons (level of hormones) and educationalfamily-training. That way. the . As a solution that they could propose. in both interviews they agreed that differences of genders manifested in everyday life by men that were on the top and were taken more seriously. the actions to take. how can we remedy the misunderstandings we face? « More women in power.19 « To know and practise are not the same. men will see women more worthy of respect. Dr Paquin on the contrary. in the answer of what were the reasons that built these differences between genders. They were thinking about the steps to follow. which were manifested by different answers to the questions asked. took much space. they do not want to speak their minds and men do not want to change. Dr Paquin thought that men were talking less and keeping things inside more. Moreover. however.. To conclude.In your opinion. In addition.. Dr Mobasheri thought that men were more direct than women. in the second interview. The first difference that was faced was clearly stated in the answers of the question about what were the main differences between genders. we still have difficulties to apply it.
and a total of 110 surveys were finished and returned. and staff. the team can suppose that they think the differences in communication are not noticeable between genders because it exists between people in general. almost 20% of men feel more unconcerned by this issue than women. Maybe men are not really aware of the existence of miscommunication between genders or are not interested in it. It was not expected that more than 36% of the males surveyed would not be aware of the differences in communication between males and females. only 10. which is the core of our research. This leads the team to relate the results found to the causes of the misunderstandings genders face. Discussion and conclusion The survey that the team performed was conducted with the community of AUI including students. or at least they are less interested than women are. The team first thought that everyone was conscious of this issue but it was not the case and it was surprising that men have the largest rate of unawareness. in their answers provided useful data for the study. . The data gathered by the surveys and the interviews showed that differences in communication between genders actually exist. This makes a difference in the genders’ conception of the world where they live and may have a repercussion on their communication: some disagreements between the two genders.20 differences that were stated by both Dr Mobasheri as a female and Dr Paquin as a male. If taking the whole group: men and women who are unaware of this issue. Indeed. faculty. In contrast. This supposition is also confirmed by the question in the survey which is about who feels concerned about this issue where. and that it is certainly not a matter of sexes.91% of the females are not conscious of it. a considerable number of men are not even aware of this issue.
21 A very large number of men (65. It may be due to the idea deduced from the interview with Doctor Paquin. Consequently. in other words. they are the ones who try to impose their own way of dealing with the problem. who stated that men are more individualist.73%) think that the problem of miscommunication doesn’t affect their everyday life while 45. This result was somewhat expected since men are not aware of the issue miscommunication or it is not important for them. men want always to be powerful and directive. a significant number of men (72. Indeed. however.45%) stated in the answers for the survey never having experienced a situation where the differences in communication between genders were a real problem while only 43. They may not accept that women can have an advantage in comparison to them. One unpredicted result was when 47. they are the ones who generally try to cope with it.45% of women believe that lack of communication with the other sex affects their lives. This result can be related to the previous one that showed that men do not feel that much concerned by the issue. tend to be directive and leaders in groups and try to dominate in groups: if there is a conflict with the other sex. This leads them to be generally satisfied with the result they got since it is their choice and women are more sensitive to this as they may not have been able to face men’s decision. . answers from the interviews showed that women were more expressive and sensible than men. this can be an explanation of why men do not feel that miscommunication affects their everyday life. All this supports the idea that men do not really see the misunderstandings they face with the other sex as a real problem. This remark is also derived from the results to the question: do you feel that miscommunication affects your everyday life? In fact. in contrast to women.27% of men said that women do not disclose their feelings and their opinions more than men.64% affirmed that they had.
where their male colleagues do not take their ideas and opinions seriously which makes them a little bit frustrated and creates a feeling of inferiority. confused. both men and women gave almost the same answers concerning the way they felt when confronted with a misunderstanding with the opposite sex.22 which is the ability to express their feelings and opinions and to share more personal things with others. It is manifested not only at work. on the one hand. trying to understand what the conflict is really about in order to get it over with as soon as possible. However. At the opposite. On the other hand. The team was surprised by the fact that males were stressed in that kind of situation.but also with their . Doctor Paquin said that this answer was not really true because the reason why men do not disclose their feelings is because they are afraid of intimacy. men would choose to ignore the problem. and disappointed. In the survey. The answer to the question about how communication differences between genders manifest itself differs between males and female. they are more vulnerable. Concerning how to resolve a conflict. which was that they felt angry. women were more numerous in answering this question. thinking that not talking about it or postponing the discussion would solve the conflict. the team’s assumption that women were frustrated and that they would feel very involved in the subject was demonstrated in the survey. creates problems and lead to conflicts. most women would want to talk about the problem immediately. which confirmed the team’s assumption that states that communication differences affect more women more than men in everyday life. during the interview. Finally. the team could not help but notice that half of the males surveyed were actually saying that they shared their feelings and emotions just like women do if not more. The few males who answered the question only said that it slows down the evolution of team work. But. and also because they think that by expressing their feelings more.
When comparing faculty and student answers. as Dr Mobashiri said: “It is human nature”. Even if they have approximately the same professional training. the answers were different between males and females in general. the team did not notice any difference between them. so the issue of gender played a major role in these dissimilarities. The differences in the answers did not take into consideration people’s age. The differences manifested are due to many factors. They are the ones who suffer the most from the differences with the “strong sex”. Doctor Paquin as being from a French culture and Doctor Mobasheri from an American one contributed to having different answers for the same questions. personal experience. The answers showed that there is a difference between genders. they are opposite genders and individuals that think differently and have different conception of subjects. In addition. However. In each opinion given. It is noticeable that for the answers obtained from them. but do not try to apply them to themselves? It is perhaps due to the fact that it is easier to give suggestions than to act and also because. In the interviews done with Doctor Mobasheri and Doctor Paquin. we can consider that culture played a role also.23 partners with whom they experience many misunderstandings. because the fact of being from different cultural backgrounds may have participated in creating differences. Almost everyone surveyed answered the last question about the best way to remedy the misunderstandings genders face. One factor to consider is that Doctor Mobasheri is a female and Doctor Paquin is a male. they both refer to these aspects . but not really between generations. and culture. which pushed the team to think deeply about it and wonder: why do most of the people suggest many solutions. there are many factors that contribute to it such as knowledge. the team noticed that there were some differences in their answers. which supports the real existence of differences between the genders.
24 that influence them while answering. In the results obtained from males. so the three reasons: biological. helps her understanding somehow differences between genders and the forms they take. biological. differences in communication between men and women as an issue have their causes. only 19% of 60 females think that biological reasons elucidate these misunderstandings. while the others reports that both cultural and educational are responsible for these differences. Besides. however. while men. Doctor Mobashiri stated that the causes can be cultural and biological. according to Doctor Mobasheri. what are the main differences between men are and women. Doctor Paquin had direct and short answers. whereas Doctor Mobashiri developed hers and did not answer only the questions but gave many examples. the direct consequences of misunderstandings between . Doctor Paquin insisted on the fact that one cause of the miscommunication between genders is that women are afraid of men. To conclude. Doctor Mobasheri. are more direct than women. and cultural. support the existence of gender differences in communication. In the next question. the first interviewee. which is related to solving problems and conflict. and cultural. so her background as a professor of personal communication. educational. which were divided into three main parts: educational. the fact of getting different answers from these specialists in the communication field and who are male and female. is a professor of 1205 courses of interpersonal communication. First. It is obvious in the response for the question. Moreover. the results contained charts that illustrated the questions about causes and consequences and the types in which miscommunication is obvious. On the other hand. they are more vulnerable. explain these differences. the reasons were divided equally. to which Doctor Paquin said that men are do not disclose their feelings and talk less. while men have a fear of intimacy: they think that by talking more. Also. even from her personal life or from people’s everyday life.
The results for this part were really surprising because usually males and females have different opinions. education and biologic origin. Moreover. they even didn’t read the questions. At last. an expert in the field of communication who has a PHD in that domain. which means the interaction with others and the daily conversation. all of the ideas that were stated in the literature review were confirmed. the team decided to look for another male expert who could play the same role. Finally. while this time both genders think that the direct result of miscommunication is problems in relationships. faculty at their turn represented some problems to the team because some professors kept postponing the filling of the surveys. the team very often faced the refusal of the respondents. and some of them did not take it seriously. 67% of males and 69% of females. It was planned to do an interview with a psychiatrist. Men and women both said that the difference between genders is obvious in verbal communication. The consequences of these differences in communication which are: . In addition to that. The non verbal way. but it could not be done because of his very busy schedule. as body languages and gestures. it was manifested also in the types of communication where difference is obvious. The consequences of miscommunication were not the only results where men and women had the same opinions. the team faced some problems when it was conducting the surveys. these differences in communication are mostly due to culture. the fact that the differences between genders in communication exist.25 genders were suggested by the team as the cause of problems or tension in a relationship or the improvement of communication skills. So. To conclude. not only in the verbal way but also in the non-verbal one was proved true through the survey conducted by the team. were the second most common type of miscommunication between men and women. It was finally done with Doctor Paquin. For instance.
26 misunderstandings and fights were also proved right. However. . the team also found new ideas in the study such as the fact that a significant number of men are concerned about this issue and have feelings of disappointment when facing misunderstandings with the other sex.
(2002).) Gender Differences In Communication . (n. Men and Language Gray.d.d. (1998). D.) Communication styles.(2006). (1986).communicationstyles. Retrieved October 23. Personal communication Canaray & Dindia. 2006. Men Are From Mars. McGahee. (1999) Why Can’t a Woman Be More Like a Man? Retrieved October 16.org Shrage.27 References Arries. (1992). Retrieved November 2. (1987). Tripp. (1998). & Slate. Women Are From Venus Griffien. What sample size is “Enough” in Internet survey research Lathrop. Sex Differences and Similiraties in Communication Coates. Online communication Hill. You Just Don’t Understand. 2006.Women. from Academic Search Premier Tanner. 2006. from www. (n.
the most important reason for these differences? Biological.28 Appendix: A We are SSK 1202 students conducting a research on the communication differences between men and women. we will be grateful that you take some time to complete this survey. Cultural Educational..Written way (e-mail. _____________________________________________________________________ Please circle your choice: 1-What is your gender? Female male 2-Are you aware of the differences in communication between males and females? Yes no 3-What is. body language) ……... 4-Do you feel concerned by this issue? Yes No 5-Do you think that women disclose their feelings and their opinions more than men? Yes No 6-Do you think that differences in communication are more emphasized in the: …….Verbal way (talking) …….) 7.. in your point of view.Have you ever experienced one situation where the differences in communication between genders was a real problem? Yes No . In order to assist us in gathering important information..Non-verbal way (eye contact...
29 8-If yes.Do you feel that this miscommunication affects your everyday life? If yes. which gender feels more concerned by this issue? Females males 11-In your opinion. what is the best way to remedy the misunderstanding we face? . what were your reactions? How did you feel? 9-How could you have made it better? 10-In your opinion. what can be the consequences of this miscommunication? Cause problems or tension in relationship Improve communication skills Others (please specify): 12. in what way? No Specify: yes 13-In your opinion.
.30 Thank you for your cooperation.
Do communication differences between genders actually exist? 2.What are the main reasons for these differences? 5.Why do we have so many misunderstandings and disappointments in our communication with our mates if we have the answers? 11.We do have answers to all these questions. So why the problem of miscommunication still exists? 10.How can men and women communicate better? 9.How can communication differences between genders influence the other fields in the society (for example: politics. business….)? 8.What are the consequences of these differences in communication between the two genders? 7.Should communication differences between genders be considered as an issue worth studying? 3.How do these differences manifest in the everyday life? 6.In your opinion how can we remedy the misunderstandings we face? .What are the main differences between the two genders in communication? 4.31 Appendix: B This is the interview that was done with Doctor Mobasheri and Doctor Paquin: 1.
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