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Global Vision International 2011 Report Series No.

001

GVI Mexico
Pez Maya Marine Expedition Sian Kaan Biosphere Reserve

Quarterly Report 111 January- March 2011

GVI Mexico, Pez Maya Expedition Report 111 Submitted in whole to GVI Amigo de Sian Kaan Comisin Nacional de reas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) Produced by Vicki Bush Base Manager Edward Houlcroft Science and Dive Officer Nicola Weeden Science Officer Martin Stelfox Science and Dive Officer Jack Fazey Dive Officer Sarah Davies Science Officer And
Zoe Baty Christina Ruffle Kylie Nordstrand Simon Nunn Michelle Thomas Susanna Burmeister Martha Schnellmann Rachael Boothman Lee Christina Sotis Susie Bradwell Ida Dotevall Carla Deane Kristina Stepan Oliver Hefford Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Carolyn Popoli Jacob Kowalewski Patrick Vincent Jamie Coleman Philip Holmqvist Arely Penguilly Macias Araceli Lopez Patoni Caro Daniel Mendoza Emily Ross Tobias Spegel-Lexne Nicholas Chisholm Samantha Mehltretter Charlotte Wallmark Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer NSP NSP Scholar Scholar Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer

Edited by Sarah Davies Lluvia Soto GVI Mexico, Pez Maya Email: mexico@gviworld.com Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
The 31st ten week phase of the Pez Maya, Mexico, GVI expedition has now been completed. The programme has maintained working relationships with local communities through both English classes and local community events. The programme has continued to work towards the gathering of important environmental scientific data whilst working with local, national and international partners. The following projects have been run during Phase 111: Monitoring of strategic sites along the coast. Training of volunteers in the MBRS methodology including fish, hard coral, and algae identification.

Continuing the MBRS Synoptic Monitoring Programme (SMP) for the selected sites within the northern Sian Kaan Biosphere to provide regional decision makers with up to date information on the ecological condition of the reef.

Providing English lessons and environmental education opportunities for the local community.

Further developing of the recycling Project Punta Allen Verde. Continuation of the Mayan Farm Project, Nuevo Durango Organic farm, assisting a local Mayan community to establish and develop a composting programme.

Liaising with local partners to develop a successful and feasible programme of research in collaboration with GVI into the future. Continue adding to a coral and fish species list that will expand over time as a comprehensive guide for the region. Continuation of weekly beach cleans within the reserve, monitoring waste composition and trends. Daily bird monitoring and Incidental sightings program. Marine Turtle Monitoring Programme along the Pez Maya beach. Continuation of the National Scholarship Programme, whereby GVI Pez Maya accepts a Mexican national on a scholarship basis into the expedition.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary...........................................................................................................ii List of Figures...................................................................................................................iv List of Tables....................................................................................................................iv 1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................5 2. Synoptic Monitoring Programme...................................................................................6 2.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................6 2.2 Aims....................................................................................................................8 2.3 Methodology.......................................................................................................8 2.4 Results...............................................................................................................10 2.5 Discussion.........................................................................................................13 3. Community programme...............................................................................................16 3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................16 3.2 Aims..................................................................................................................16 3.3 Activities and Achievements............................................................................16 3.4 Review..............................................................................................................17 4. Incidental Sightings.....................................................................................................19 4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................19 4.2 Aims..................................................................................................................19 4.3 Methodology.....................................................................................................19 4.4 Results...............................................................................................................20 4.5 Discussion.........................................................................................................21 5. Marine Litter Monitoring Programme.........................................................................24 5.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................24 5.2 Aims..................................................................................................................24 5.3 Methodology.....................................................................................................24 5.4 Results...............................................................................................................25 5.5 Discussion.........................................................................................................26 6. Bird Monitoring Programme........................................................................................27 6.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................27 6.2 Aims..................................................................................................................27 6.3 Methodology.....................................................................................................28 6.4 Results...............................................................................................................28 7. References....................................................................................................................32 8. Appendices...................................................................................................................34 Appendix I SMP Methodology Outlines.............................................................34 Appendix II - Adult Fish Indicator Species List.....................................................38 Appendix III - Juvenile Fish Indicator Species List...............................................39 Appendix IV - Coral Species List...........................................................................40 Appendix V - Fish Species List..............................................................................41 Appendix VI - Bird Species List.............................................................................43

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List of Figures
Figure 2-3-1 The monitoring sites of Pez Maya (Courtesy of JuniperGIS) Figure 2-4-1 Percentage of diseased colonies presenting different diseases, across all sites Figure 2-4-2 Breakdown of percentage coral cover observed this phase, by site Figure 2-4-3 Total number of individuals recorded within each family for each monitoring site Figure 5-4-1 Breakdown of marine litter collected Figure 6-4-1 Total composition of birds sighted in phase 111 (Other refers to species presenting a percentage of 1% or less). Figure 6-4-2 The most commonly recorded species (more than 50) in the first quarter of 2011 (phase 111) compared to 2010 (phase 101) Figure 6-4-3 Bird sightings by status

List of Tables
Table 2-3-1 GPS locations of the monitoring sites. GPS points are listed here in the WGS84 datum. Table 2-4-1 Total number of individuals recorded for each monitoring site and the average number of individuals recorded per transect for adult and juvenile fish Table 4-4-1 Number of sightings for each category during phase 111

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1. Introduction
The Yucatan Peninsula is fringed by the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS), the second largest barrier reef system in the world, extending over 4 countries. Starting from Isla Contoy at the North of the Yucatan Peninsula it stretches down the Eastern coast of Mexico down to Belize via Honduras and Guatemala. The GVI Marine Programme was initiated within Mexico with the setup of its first base, Pez Maya, in the Sian Kaan Biosphere Reserve in 2003. Since then the programme has flourished, with a sister site being set up in the south of Quintana Roo at Punta Gruesa. Both projects assist our partners, Amigos de Sian Kaan (ASK) and Comisin Nacional de reas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) in obtaining baseline data along the coast of Quintana Roo through marine surveys. This data allows ASK to focus on the areas needing immediate environmental regulation depending on susceptibility and therefore, implement management protection plans as and when required. With the continuing development of the Riviera Maya, effective monitoring is becoming ever-more important. Inadvertent environmental degradation can be prevented if the appropriate measures are taken to advocate long-term, sustainable ecotourism. Continual assessment of Sian Kaans reef health can support and develop management strategies for the area, the work outlined in this report forming a key part of that assessment. Methodologies continue to be improved and focused as experience is gained and improvement to data quality is continuous. A full Annual Report will collate and summarize all data and enable more descriptive and accurate analysis. The following research/monitoring programmes have been carried out this phase: The MBRS Synoptic Monitoring Programme Community Work Programme Incidental Sightings Marine Littering Monitoring Programme Bird Monitoring Programme

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2. Synoptic Monitoring Programme


2.1 Introduction The Synoptic Monitoring Programme looks to evaluate the overall health of the reef by looking at three main areas: Benthic cover, fish populations and physical parameters. Benthic Cover Caribbean reefs were once dominated by hard coral, with huge Acropora palmata stands on the reef crests and Acropora cervicornis and Montastraea annularis dominating the fore reef. Today, many reefs in the Caribbean have been overrun by macro algae during a phase shift which is thought to have been brought about by numerous factors including a decrease in herbivory from fishing and other pressures, eutrophication from land-based activities and disease (McClanahan & Muthiga, 1998). Benthic transects record the abundance of all benthic species as well as looking at coral health. The presence of corals on the reef is in itself an indicator of health, not only because of the reefs current state, but also for its importance to fish populations (Spalding & Jarvis, 2002). Coral health is not only impacted by increased nutrients and algal growth, but by other factors, both naturally occurring and anthropogenically introduced. A report produced by the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) in 2004 stated that nearly 66% of Caribbean reefs are at risk from anthropogenic activities, with over 40% of reefs at high to very high risk (UNEP-WCMC, 2006). Through monitoring the abundances of hard corals, algae and various other key benthic species, as well as numbers of Diadema urchin encountered, we aim to determine not only the current health of the local reefs but also to track any shifts in phase state over time. Fish Populations Fish surveys are focused on specific species that play an important role in the ecology of the reef as herbivores, carnivores, commercially important fish or those likely to be affected by human activities (AGRRA, 2000).

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For more in depth rationale of the importance of each of the key fish families please see previous GVI Pez Maya reports. All reef fish play an important role in maintaining the health and balance of a reef community. Fishing typically removes larger predatory fish from the reef, which not only alters the size structure of the reef fish communities, but with the reduction in predation pressure, the abundance of fish further down the food chain is now determined through competition for resources (AGRRA, 2000). Although each fish is important, the removal of herbivores can have a considerable impact on the health of the reef, particularly in an algal dominated state, which without their presence has little chance of returning to coral dominance. Through the monitoring of these fish and by estimating their size, the current condition of the reef at each site can be assessed, any trends or changes can be tracked and improvements or deteriorations determined. The monitoring of juvenile fish concentrates on a few specific species. The presence and number of larvae at different sites can be used as an indication of potential future population size and diversity. Due to the extensive distribution of larvae, however, numbers cannot be used to determine the spawning potential of a specific reef. The removal of fish from a population as a result of fishing, however, may influence spawning potential and affect larval recruitment on far away reefs. The removal of juvenile predators through fishing may also alter the number of recruits surviving to spawn themselves (AGRRA, 2000). Together with the information collected about adult fish a balanced picture of the reef fish communities at different sites can be obtained. Physical Parameters For the optimum health and growth of coral communities certain factors need to remain relatively stable. Measurements of turbidity, water temperature, salinity, cloud cover, and sea state are taken during survey dives. Temperature increases or decreases can negatively influence coral health and survival. As different species have different optimum

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temperature ranges, changes can also influence species richness. Corals also require clear waters to allow for optimal photosynthesis. The turbidity of the water can be influenced by weather, storms or high winds stirring up the sediment, or anthropogenic activities such as deforestation and coastal construction. Increased turbidity reduces light levels and can result in stress to the coral. Any increase in coral stress levels can result in them becoming susceptible to disease or result in a bleaching event. In the near future, GVI Pez Maya hopes to be able to use this data for analysis of temporal and seasonal changes and try to correlate any coral health issues with sudden or prolonged irregularities within these physical parameters. 2.2 Aims The projects at Pez Maya and Punta Gruesa aim to identify coral and fish species with a long term, continuous dataset allowing changes in the ecosystem to be identified. The projects also aim to ascertain areas of high species diversity and abundance. The data is then supplied to the project partners who can use the data to support management plans for the area. 2.3 Methodology The methods employed for the underwater visual census work are those outlined in the MBRS manual (Almada-Villela et al., 2003), but to summarize, GVI use three separate methods for buddy pairs: Buddy method 1: Surveys of corals, algae and other sessile organisms Buddy method 2: Belt transect counts for coral reef fish Buddy Method 3: Coral Rover and Fish Rover diver The separate buddy pair systems are outlined in detail in Appendix I. The 9 sites that are monitored as part of the MBRS programme at GVI Pez Maya, replicates a similar study conducted over 15 years ago (Padilla et al. 1992), concentrating monitoring efforts on the reefs in the northern area of the Sian Kaan Biosphere (See Figure 2-3-1 below.

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These sites have 21 stations in total and are monitored every 3 months to give a long term evaluation of the reef health.

Figure 2-3-1 The monitoring sites of Pez Maya (Courtesy of JuniperGIS)

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Location La Colonia Paso Juana Paso Lagrimas Punta Xamach

Site ID LC10 LC20 PJ05 PJ10 PL05 PL10 PL20 PX05 PX10 PX20

Depth (m) 10.9 17.9 6.1 9.1 3 6.7 16.7 7.4 12.3 16.2

Latitude 19.78693 N 19.78637 N 20.01498 N 20.01690 N 20.05045 N 20.05200 N 20.05138 N 19.93205 N 19.93395 N 19.93333 N

Longitude 087.43310 W 087.42628 W 087.46475 W 087.46215 W 087.47035 W 087.46625 W 087.46275 W 087.43415 W 087.43355 W 087.43213 W

Table 2-3-1 GPS locations of the monitoring sites. GPS points are listed here in the WGS84 datum.

The sites have a wide range of types of reef including spur and groove formations. 2.4 Results A total of 104 transects were successfully completed, from three stations. However, due to rough sea conditions and strong winds, the 5m sites at Paso Juana and Paso Lagrimas and all depths at Punta Xamach and La Colonia were not monitored. Benthic Cover A total of 216 corals were monitored for coral community studies, sighting 58 incidences of disease (26.85%). Dark spot disease was the most prevalent, accounting for 60.34% of the diseases seen; approximately 94% of the dark spot recorded was found on Siderastrea siderea colonies. Other diseases noted during this phase were white plague, black band and yellow blotch (Figure 2-4-1). There were no recorded sightings of hyperplasms, neoplasms or patchy necrosis. Different levels of bleaching were recorded on 29.17% of all corals monitored; 19.05% of these were partially bleached and 80.95% pale bleached. No corals were recorded as totally bleached. The majority of pale bleaching (66.67%) was seen on Siderastrea siderea. Sponges were the most common form of predation recorded, accounting for 68.97% of all coral colonies affected by different predators. Other forms of predation seen were the encrusting gorgonian, damselfish predation, zoanthids, Millepora predation and mat tunicates.

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Figure 2-4-1. Percentage of diseased colonies presenting different diseases, across all sites

The point intercept data showed average hermatypic coral coverage to be 12.94% across all the sites, while macroalgae coverage remains considerably higher, at 49.78%. The remaining 50.22% is made up of smaller and less abundant reef creatures, such as bryozoans, corallimorphs, coralline algae, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates and zoanthids. Of the 233 corals monitored along the PI transects, Siderastrea siderea was the most commonly seen, accounting for 25.75%, while Agaricia agaricites was the second most common coral (18.03%). PL20 showed the highest percentage coral cover with 17.17%, whereas PJ10 had the least coral cover with just 8.33% (Figure 2-4-2).

Figure 2-4-2- Breakdown of percentage coral cover observed this phase, by site

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Fish Populations. 349 adult target fish and 298 juvenile fish were recorded over 24 transects. The average number of fish recorded per transect ranged from 12.25 (PL20) to 16.5 (PL10) (Figure 2-43). PJ10 shows the highest biomass for all fish for each of the sites with 24.03g/m (Table 2-4-1). PJ10 also showed the highest diversity (Shannon H 11.48 and Simpson D 8.28). The most commonly record family was Acanthuridae (Surgeonfish), making up 51.6% of the total number of adult fish recorded, followed by Haemulidae (Grunts) with 17.8%.

Figure 2-4-3. Total number of individuals recorded within each family for each monitoring site

Table 2-4-1. Total number of individuals recorded for each monitoring site and the average number of individuals recorded per transect for adult and juvenile fish

Total number of adult individuals Average number of adult fish per transect Total fish biomass (g/m) Total number of juvenile individuals Average number of juveniles per transect

PJ10 119 14.88 24.03 120 15

PL10 132 16.5 22.56 110 13.75

PL20 98 12.25 15.96 67 8.38

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The 298 juvenile fish recorded covered four families. The most commonly recorded juvenile family was Labridae, with the three most common species recorded being; Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bluehead Wrasse), Stegastes partitus (Bicolour Damsel) and Chromis cyanea (Blue Chromis).

2.5 Discussion Macroalgae is consistently the dominant benthic species recorded at Pez Maya. This is in line with benthic cover in the rest of the Caribbean, since a recent phase shift from coral to algal dominance. The average percentage coral cover across the Caribbean is approximately 16% (Schutte et al., 2010), but at Pez Maya this phase, it was found to be 12.94%. The variation in percentage coral cover could be attributable to the differences in location, which will allow for variation in currents and therefore nutrient cycling, along with variation in growth factors such as salinity, temperature and turbidity. As seen in the fish data analysis section of this report, PJ10 has a low number of grazing fish species. This could contribute to the low percentage coral cover at this site, as corals are competing with algal species for space, light and nutrients. The fish analysis also shows that PL20, the site with the highest percentage coral cover, shows the greatest number of grazing fish species, which could be aiding coral growth by constantly grazing down algae. Siderastrea siderea was recorded as the most abundant coral this phase this species tends to be particularly susceptible to bleaching, which explains the high percentage of pale bleached corals recorded, as the majority of those observed with bleaching were S. siderea. Its susceptibility to bleaching could be a result of the clade of zooxanthellae housed by the coral. Coral bleaching can occur through an increase in water temperature, which causes the zooxanthellae to die and be expelled by the coral. When this happens, the coral can no longer photosynthesise, the flesh loses its colour which is usually created by the zooxanthellae, and the colony becomes bleached. Zooxanthellae are dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, of which there are several clades, or groups. Sampayo et al. (2008) found that each clade has fine-scale differences, which allows some to be more thermally tolerant than others. Some coral species can harbour more than one clade, whereas others may be restricted to only one.

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Dark spot disease was the most prevalent disease recorded this phase. Dark spot disease was most frequently seen on Siderastrea siderea a coral which is particularly susceptible to this disease. Siderastrea siderea was also the species observed with the most bleaching therefore this result is unsurprising, as bleaching causes great stress to a coral and the colony can become much more vulnerable to diseases (Humann & DeLoach, 2008). Sponges were the most prevalent predator on corals this phase; perhaps as a direct result of the vast numbers of sponges growing on the reefs around Pez Maya. Ten per cent of the PI transect points were accounted for by different types of sponge. Acanthuridae was once again the dominant family recorded during this phase making up over half of all adult fish sightings. Acanthuridae are an important grazer on the reefs keeping down algae levels allowing space for new coral recruits to attach and grow. Within shallow reef areas it is not uncommon to observe large mixed aggregations of Acanthurus coeruleus (Blue Tang), A.bahianus (Ocean Surgeonfish) and A.chirurgus (Doctorfish) grazing on the algae abundant on these reefs (Deloach, N. 1999). Haemulidae were seen to be the dominant family on PJ10. Haemulidae have been known to show the largest biomass in areas that have large expanses of seagrass bed or sand flats (Humann & DeLoach 2008b) feeding on the crustaceans and invertebrates which are known to forage in these areas. The surrounding area of PJ10 would be perfect for this with the spur and grove reef surrounded by sandy areas and has seagrass beds boarding the shallower areas of the reef. The trend of Juvenile recruitment tends to be lower in the winter months at Pez Maya. After the high number of juvenile fish recorded last year the average number recorded per transect for this phase was lower. The target juvenile fish species were common on the reef although the majority were too large to be counted indicating that these are the individuals monitored during pervious phases. The later phases of this year will show whether the recruitment on the reefs will continue to show the promising results of increased numbers seen during 2010. It is also an encouraging sign to see more juveniles on the reefs as over the last year the number of Lionfish sighted on the reef has been increasing with each phase. Lionfish are known to target juvenile fish and have a dramatic effect on the recruitment of the reef (Morris, J. et al. 2009). When Lionfish have been caught at Pez Maya their stomach are dissected and the most commonly seen fish are

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juvenile wrasse species. Future studies will enable us to find out if the increase in lionfish sightings has an effect on the recruitment of the reefs.

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3. Community programme
3.1 Introduction GVI is committed to working with the local communities, assisting them to guide their development towards a sustainable future. For that, activities are centred in two main aspects: English and Environmental Education. GVI hopes to provide the local community with the tools to develop the area beneficially for themselves, their professions and needs, whilst protecting it for the future. Consequently, during both the child and adult education programs, wherever possible an environmental theme has been included within the structure of the lessons. 3.2 Aims The aims of the community programme in Pez Maya are:

1. To raise awareness about the importance of the ecosystems that surround their
area, providing them with information about it and organizing activities to reinforce the knowledge given. 2. To provide locals with English lessons that will help them to develop a skill that is necessary for them in order to be able to communicate with the growing tourist visitors that come to the area.

3. To participate in the different activities that are organized by the locals and provide
help if it is needed. 3.3 Activities and Achievements Nuevo Durango Due to the soil composition, amount of rocks and lack of nutrients found within the thin soil of the Yucatn Peninsula, growing crops can be a challenging business. During the weekly visits to Nuevo Durango, staff and volunteers work on farms collecting soil and cutting vegetation, in preparation for setting up a compost pit; each week a different family is helped. The compost produced is used by local families to grow a range of organic crops that can be sold locally. In order to expose volunteers to the way of life in Nuevo Durango, each week, the host family prepares lunch for the volunteers, allowing the group to exchange experiences and learn about each others life and culture.

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Pez Maya also supports the Mayan farmers by purchasing some of the weekly fruit and vegetable supply from the host families. Punta Allen Volunteers visit the village once a week during the phase. English lessons for children are carried out during school hours to ensure the maximum number of children benefit from the curricula. Three different educational levels are targeted: Kindergarten, Primary and Secondary school. Volunteers are in charge of preparing lesson plans, including English language topics and fun activities, such as games, song and painting. Often an environmental theme is included in the lessons. Pez Maya also started a recycling project Punta Allen Verde (PAVER) in April 2010. The project has several objectives: to create a solid waste separation programme, to encourage people to participate and separate household solid waste with which a proportion of the profits will support financially the recycling centre, and to establish Punta Allen as an exemplary community for the region. Following the delivery of the classes, volunteers participate in a range of activities at the recycling centre, for example plastic collection around town, tidying up the centre, making containers for the recycling. The activities vary depending on what have the people in the village needing doing.

3.4 Review Nuevo Durango Over seven weeks, seven families were worked with at the organic farm. Volunteers travelled to the farm to spend the day working on setting up composting areas and making the compost itself. They were also shown how to make the growing areas needed to be able to grow the crops the village uses themselves and those that are sold on. Good relationships have formed between volunteers and the families, and most days have involved a tour of the villages insect museum to learn a little more about the local wildlife.

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Punta Allen The deterioration of the road meant that Punta Allen could only be visited once during this quarter. During this visit the kindergarten children reviewed the lessons from the previous year covering colours, numbers and shapes and also introductions. The Primary and Secondary school children were helped with working through their English text books. In the afternoon volunteers worked in the recycling centre helping with the PAVER project. The volunteers went around town collecting the recycling and helping to prepare the recycling centre to make it more inviting to the local people.

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4. Incidental Sightings
4.1 Introduction GVI Pez Maya has implemented an incidental sightings program since 2003. This species are good indicators of reef health and provide early warnings of changes, therefore it is useful to continue keeping long-term records of which species are around. Species that make up the incidental sightings list are: Sharks Rays Eels Turtles Marine Mammals Lionfish Snakes and crocodiles Terrestrial mammals

These groups are identified to species level where possible and added to the data collected by the Ocean Biogeographic Information Systems Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations (OBIS-SEAMAP) database. An interactive online archive for marine mammal, seabird and turtle data, OBIS-SEAMAP aims to improve understanding of the distribution and ecology of marine mega fauna by quantifying global patterns of biodiversity, undertaking comparative studies, and monitoring the status of and impacts on threatened species. 4.2 Aims The aim of the project is to record all mega fauna sightings in the vicinity of Pez Maya and to keep track of the population numbers and spread of lionfish. 4.3 Methodology Each time an incidental sighting species is seen on a dive, snorkel or around Pez Maya base, it is identified, and the date, time, location, depth it was seen at, and size are all

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recorded. The volunteers are provided with a Mega fauna presentation during science training, which aids in identification of shark, ray and turtle species. For the first time in 093 GVI Pez Maya began recording lionfish sightings. Over the past decade the Pacific Lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) has established itself along the Atlantic coast as a result of multiple releases (intentional or otherwise) from private aquaria. This invasive species lacking in natural predators, has adapted well to the warm waters of the Caribbean, and is currently spreading its geographical range along the Mesoamerican coastline. 4.4 Results During phase 111 a total of 279 incidental sightings were recorded, 138 of these being lionfish sightings.
Table 4-4-1. Number of sightings for each category during phase 111

Category Lionfish Rays Eels Marine Mammals Turtles Sharks Snakes and Crocodiles

Total Number of Sightings 138 61 22 16 16 15 11

A total of 16 turtle sightings were recorded, an increase from the 9 that were recorded during the previous 3 months. A total of 3 different turtle species were recorded; the Green turtle, the Hawksbill turtle and the Loggerhead turtle. The fourth species that can be found in the area, the Leatherback, is categorised as critically endangered by the IUCN, and has not been recorded since monitoring began. Within the total of 16 individuals, 8 were Green, 3 were Hawksbill, 1 was a Loggerhead and 4 were unidentified individuals.

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When broken down into categories, the shark species sighted were 13 Nurse sharks, 1 Bull shark and 1 Scalloped Hammerhead (a first for Pez Maya!). The 3 other species that have been sighted previously (Blacktip, Reef shark and Great Hammerhead) were not seen. Rays were the most commonly sighted species with a total of 61 sightings. There are several species of ray that are monitored; the Caribbean Stingray, Giant Manta Ray, Lesser Electric Ray, Southern Stingray, Spotted Eagle Ray and Yellow Stingray. The Southern Stingray was the most commonly sighted of the rays with a total of 45 sightings; this seems to be the case for every phase. Of the marine mammals sighted, Bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins accounted for the majority; with totals of 6 and 7 sightings respectively. It is worth noting, however, that they were seen as one pod of 7 Atlantic spotted, and two pods of 3 Bottlenose dolphins. Manatees follow the trend of low numbers of sightings since 2007 with just 3 recorded. Phase 111 saw low numbers in recorded sightings of snakes and crocodiles; 4 American crocodiles and 7 unidentified snake sightings. Since 2010, sightings of snakes and crocodiles have been steadily increasing with the majority being snake sightings; however the data from this phase does not seem to follow this pattern. Since the lionfish monitoring started there has been a dramatic increase in sightings. This phase 138 individual sightings were recorded; this makes up nearly half of all the incidental sightings, and is almost double the 98 that were sighted over the previous 3 month phase.

4.5 Discussion Incidental sightings of large marine creatures are often good indicators of how healthy an ecosystem is. As can be seen from the data, the number of sightings and species recorded varies from phase to phase, with few obvious trends. These species are highly mobile animals and therefore their movements depend on a range of external factors. Phase 101 had the greatest total number of recorded incidental sightings since the

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implementation of the programme. However, variation in recorded numbers could be a reflection of the amount of diving that occurred. Over the past two years there has been a steady increase in the number of sightings, suggesting an increase in reef health. In 2007, Hurricane Dean hit the coast of Mexico and greatly affected the reef and animals that live in and around it. The number of incidental sightings recorded during and since 2010 shows a return to similar numbers before the hurricane hit, suggesting some reef recovery. Turtles were one of the least recorded species, this follows a predictable pattern. Nesting season for all turtle species found on the Yucatan runs between May and September which coincides with the second and third quarters or phases of each year. Phase 111 is outside the season and subsequently would show reduced numbers of turtle sightings. This pattern is encouraging and shows a relatively stable population of turtle species in Pez Mayas region. There appears to be a general trend over previous phases of rays being the most commonly sighted species, aside from lionfish. This is again true and could be for a number of reasons; rays tend to lay stationary on sandy bottoms in open water and would therefore be more easily spotted. They are also frequently seen close to the shore whilst observers are swimming or snorkeling and this too could explain the slightly higher numbers recorded. Since the project began, there is a clear trend that sightings of Southern stingrays are slowly on the rise, a thriving species could be the reason for incline, however this doesnt appear to be a seasonal trend and could simply be improvements in what is now a well established incidental sightings program. It is worth noting that, during one dive, a group of 10 Southern stingrays were observed together resting on the sand whilst one swam around above them. This behaviour has not been observed here before, and it seems likely it was a mating ritual. The lower numbers of eel and shark sightings could be due to the lifestyle of the species. Eels hide in rocky crevices away from passing predators or prey and are therefore more difficult to spot. Sharks are generally mobile and pelagic, and sightings would subsequently not be as common. This is with the exception of the nurse shark however, which was the most commonly sighted shark species. Nurse sharks are reef dwellers and are able to remain in one place without having to move to breathe; therefore they are most likely to be spotted on Pez Maya sites. The Scalloped Hammerhead shark that was

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observed at a depth of around 18 meteres has been the only one sighted at a Pez Maya dive site. Hammerhead sharks are considered oceanic but sometimes cruise reefs or reef walls, they are also more likely to be seen in the colder waters of the winter season, the same being true for Bull sharks. On occasions sharks have also been observed in the shallows near the lagoon mouth; however exact numbers and species can often be mistaken as only the fin is seen. The majority of mammals seen were dolphins, with the exception of three manatees. Mammals are difficult to monitor as they generally inhabit deeper pelagic waters. In addition dolphins are mostly observed from the surface by boat, therefore exact numbers can be difficult to determine. Manatees generally prefer the calmer waters of the mangrove lagoons than the ocean, which could explain the reduced numbers. As in the previous three month phase (phase 104), there were lower numbers of sightings of snakes and crocodiles. Sightings have been steadily increasing over the past year with the majority being snake sightings. Mangroves are the likely place to encounter crocodiles which involves a walk to the bridge early morning or early evening. This would suggest that in previous phases more people are actively seeking to look for crocodiles, and results would therefore depend on the volunteers there are on base. Snakes are cold-blooded and tend to hibernate during the winter months; this could also indicate why the number of sightings was lower. The staggering increase in lionfish sightings poses a potentially large problem for the reefs at Pez Maya. This problem will only increase unless more efforts are made to keep the population in check. Regular catch and removal of this species is vital to reduce the increasing numbers. It could be thought that some categories or species (e.g. snakes and land mammals) may be under-represented, as observers tend to concentrate on known target species and forget to record other species. In general, sightings are on the increase, which not only indicates an improvement in the quality of data collection and recording, but is also a good indicator of reef health in the area.

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5. Marine Litter Monitoring Programme.


5.1 Introduction Pez Mayas location on the Yucatan Peninsula means that it faces the Caribbean Current. This is a circular current that combined with the Loop current and the Yucatan current, transports a significant amount of water northwest ward through the Caribbean Sea. The main source is from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean via the North Equatorial, North Brazil and Guiana Currents. Due to the volume of water that is transported and both the nature and origin of the said currents, it is possible that the litter being found is from quite far afield. Other factors also include outflows from rivers and storm drains etc. If this is the most common source for the marine debris then it is likely that weather changes, which have an impact on both tidelines and sea turbulence, will have a direct and noticeable effect on the amount of rubbish washed up. Marine litter is prevalent along the Caribbean coast and is not only unsightly but a health hazard to marine life and humans alike. In order to collect more data on this issue a beach clean program will be conducted every phase. This is part of a worldwide program and is just one method of investigation to discover where marine litter originates from and which materials are most common. 5.2 Aims This project has three main aims: Quantified data and photographic evidence as to the extent of marine litter. Conservation of terrestrial and marine fauna threatened by litter. Improvement of beach aesthetics. Creation of a monitoring programme that can be implemented in other locations within the reserve. 5.3 Methodology Marine litter is collected weekly on a 300 metre stretch of beach south of base. The transect is cleared one week prior to the commencement of the monitoring program, in order that only a weekly amount of debris is recorded. Materials are collected from the tidemark to the vegetation line to eliminate waste created by inland terrestrial sources.

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The waste is separated, weighed and recorded by the categories below: Fabric Glass Plastic Polystyrene Metal Natural material (modified) Medical waste Rubber Rope Other

5.4 Results Nine representative weekly litter picks were conducted this phase, collecting a total of 103.9 kg of marine litter. Plastic accounted for approximately 52.4% of the total weight collected. Even though polystyrene was one of the lightest categories in terms of weight, a large percentage of polystyrene contributed to the overall breakdown of total rubbish collected

Figure 5-4-1. Breakdown of marine litter collected

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5.5 Discussion As has been the case for the majority of monitors, plastics have again constituted the largest volume of all the categories this phase. This could be due to its light weight making it easy to transport and its robustness against degradation. The fact that the level of plastic found is consistently high from phase to phase is a worrying trend as when plastics such as Polythene, found in plastic bags, breakdown they form smaller plastic particles that can contaminate the food web and be passed on through the trophic levels. Plastic debris can act like a sponge soaking up toxic chemical compounds. Once these are ingested into the food chain the high concentrations will be spread from organism to organism until the levels become fatal. Even though the data shows a large volume of rubbish being collected from a relatively small section of beach, the results do not do justice to the actual problem at hand. Plastic bottles collected may not necessarily be washed up by sea, but could be deposited on land by visitors. In addition, heavier materials such as metals and water logged fabrics are likely to sink to the sea bed, and subsequently would not get washed up on our shorelines and included in the monitoring transects.

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6. Bird Monitoring Programme


6.1 Introduction With regard to avi-fauna, Mexico, Central and South America can be divided into three distinct regions separated by mountain ranges: the Pacific slope, the Interior and the Atlantic slope. These regions can be further divided into other sub-zones, based on a variety of habitats. The Yucatan Peninsula lies on the Atlantic slope and is geographically very different from the rest of Mexico: It is a low-level limestone shelf on the east coast extending north into the Caribbean. The vegetation ranges from rainforest in the south to arid scrub environments in the north. The coastlines are predominantly sandy beaches but also include extensive networks of mangroves and lagoons, providing a wide variety of habitats capable of supporting large resident populations of birds. Due to the location of the Yucatan peninsula, its population of resident breeders is significantly enlarged by seasonal migrants. There are four different types of migratory birds: Winter visitors migrate south from North America during the winter (August to May). Summer residents live and breed in Mexico but migrate to South America for the winter months. Transient migrants are birds that breed in North America and migrate to South America in the winter but stop or pass through Mexico. Pelagic visitors are birds that live offshore but stop or pass through the region. Pez Maya is located near the town of Tulum inside the Sian Kaan Biosphere Reserve between a network of mangrove lagoons and the Caribbean Sea. The local area contains three key ecosystems; wetland, forest and marine environments. 6.2 Aims Develop a species list for the area Gain an idea of the abundance and diversity of bird species. Long-term bird data gathered over a sustained period could highlight trends not noticeable to short-term surveys.

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Educate the volunteers in bird identification techniques, expanding on their general identification skills. The birding project also provides a good opportunity to obtain a better understanding of area diversity and the ecosystem as a whole. 6.3 Methodology

Bird monitoring surveys are conducted using a simple methodology based on the bird monitoring program at Costa Rica Expedition. A member of staff accompanied by volunteers monitor the transects daily between 6 and 8am. There are five transects Beach, Bridge, Road, Base and Mangrove. These transects were selected to cover a range of habitats, including coastline, mangroves, secondary growth and scrub. The transects are completed in approximately 30 minutes to allow for consistency of data. To reduce duplication of data, recordings are taken in one direction only which also helps to avoid double-counting where individuals are very active or numerous. Birds are identified using binoculars, cameras and a range of identification books. Identification of calls is also possible for a limited number of species for experienced observers. species cannot be identified then birds are recorded to family level. Each survey records the following information; location, date, start time, end time, name of recorders and number of each species seen. Wind and cloud cover have also been recorded to allow consideration of physical parameters. 6.4 Results During phase 111, 27 transects were carried out, 6 at the bridge, 8 at the beach, 4 on the road, 6 at in the mangroves and 3 on base. Each transect lasted an average of 29 minutes (range 15-31 minutes) conducted by 1-5 observers. A total of 812 individuals were recorded 703 were identified by species level and 109 by genus. The Royal Tern was the most commonly sighted species with 116 recorded, followed by the Great-tailed grackle (96 sightings), the magnificent frigate bird (63 sightings), the Brown pelican (74 sightings), the Ruddy turnstone (42 sightings) and the Tropical mocking bird (42 sighting) (Figure 6-4-1). If the individual

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Yellow-throated warbler 1% Great blue heron 1% Golden-fronted Bananaquit Hooded Oriole 0% Snowy egret Woodpecker 0% 0% 0% Turkey vulture 4% White Ibis 1% Black catbird 3% Osprey 1% Yellow warbler 3% Sanderling 5%

Other 18%

Great-tailed grackle 14%

Magnificent frigatebird 9%

Ruddy turnstone 6%

Royal tern 17%

Brown pelican 11%

Tropical mockingbird 6%

Figure 6-4-1 Total composition of birds sighted in phase 111 (Other refers to species presenting a percentage of 1% or less).

Figure 6-4-2 shows the most commonly recorded species (more than 50 individuals sighted) in the first quarter of 2010 (phase 101) compared to 2011 (phase 111). The royal tern was the most frequently recorded species in both years. The White ibis was sighted 57 times in 2010 with only 5 sightings recorded in 2011. Showing a reduction in sightings from 3% to 0.7% of the total individuals recorded. A higher percentage of great tailed grackles were recorded in 2011 (13.7%) compared to 2010 (8%).

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Figure 6-4-2 The most commonly recorded species (more than 50) in the first quarter of 2011 (phase 111) compared to 2010 (phase 101).

When broken down into status, almost half the species sighted were resident breeders (Figure 6-4-3) with winter non breeding visitors (32%) being the second most common category and 19% breeding colony. Neither transient migrants nor summer resident breeders were sighted during this phase. There was a lower percentage of winter visitors sighted compared to the equivalent quarter in 2010 (38%).

Breeding colony 19% Winter (non breeding) visitor 32%

Resident breeder 49%

Figure 6-4-3 Bird sightings by status

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6.5 Discussion From phase to phase Pez Maya experiences variations in the numbers and presence of many species of birds, as the Yucatan peninsula lies along a major migratory route. Fluctuations in numbers between phases reflect seasonal migration and breeding patterns. Phase 111 (January-March 2011) is a winter phase explaining the high numbers of winter visitors and lack of summer breeders. When comparing the most commonly sighted birds (more than 50 sightings), a similar percentage of birds were recorded compared to the previous year. In concordance with the previous phase (September-December 2010) the Great Tailed grackle was the most commonly sighted bird. The Great Blue heron was recorded as one of the most commonly sighted species in phase 101 (January-March 2010), interestingly in phase 111 (January-March 2011) only 7 were sighted. There was a dramatic decrease in the numbers of White ibis recorded in phase 111, only 5 were recorded compared to 57 the previous year (accounting for 1% and 3% of the total birds recorded respectively). Fewer transects were carried out this quarter (27 transects) therefore a decrease in the overall numbers of birds recorded would be seen in comparison to previous years or quarters. This also affects the most commonly sighted species and would explain the decrease in numbers of individuals previously described as common (more than 50 sightings).

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7. References
AGRRA (2000) Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA). The AGRRA Rapid Assessment Protocol. http://www.agrra.org/method/methodhome.htm

Almada-Villela P.C., Sale P.F., Gold-Bouchot G. Kjerfve B. (2003) Manual of Methods for the MBRS Synoptic Monitoring System: Selected Methods for Monitoring Physical and Biological Parameters for Use in the Mesoamerican Region. Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Systems Project (MBRS). Deloach, N. (1999) Reef fish behaviour. New World Publications, Inc Humann, N. & DeLoach, P. (2008) Reef Coral Identification: Florida, Caribbean, Bahamas. Florida: New World Publications, Humann, N. & DeLoach, P. (2008) Reef Fish Identification: Florida, Caribbean, Bahamas. Florida: New World Publications. Morris, J.R, Akins, J.L., Barse, A., Cerino, D., Freshwater, D. W., Green, S.J., Munoz, R.C. Paris, C., Whitfield, P.E. (2009). Biology and Ecology of the Invasive Lionfishes, Pterois miles and Pterois volitans. Proceedings of the 61st Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute November 10 - 14, 2008. 1-6.

McClanahan, T.R., Muthiga, N.A. (1998) An ecological shift in a remote coral atoll of Belize over 25 years. Environmental Conservation 25: 122-130.

Padilla C., Gutierrez D. Lara M., Garcia C. 1992. Coral Reefs of the Biosphere Reserve of Sian Kaan, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Proceedings of the International Coral Reef Symposium, Guam. 2, 986-992.

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Sampayo, E.M, Ridgeway, T., Bongaerts, P. & Hoegh-Goldberg, O. (2008). Bleaching susceptibility and mortality of corals are determined by fine-scale differences in symbiont type. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 105, 10444-10449. Schutte, V. G. W., Selig, E. R. & Bruno, J. F. (2010). Regional spatio-temporal trends in Caribbean coral reef benthic communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 402, 115-122.

Spalding, M.D., Jarvis, G.E. (2002). The impact of the 1998 coral mortality on reef fish communities in the Seychelles. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44: 309-321. UNEP-WCMC (2006). In the front line: shoreline protection and other ecosystem services from mangroves and coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

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8. Appendices

Appendix I SMP Methodology Outlines Buddy method 1: Surveys of corals, algae and other sessile organisms At each monitoring site five replicate 30m transect lines are deployed randomly within 100m of the GPS point. The transect line is laid across the reef surface at a constant depth, usually perpendicular to the reef slope. The first diver of this monitoring buddy pair collects data on the characterisation of the coral community under the transect line. Swimming along the transect line the diver identifies, to species level, each hermatypic coral directly underneath the transect that is at least 10cm at its widest point and in the original growth position. If a colony has been knocked or has fallen over, it is only recorded if it has become reattached to the substratum. The diver also records the water depth at the beginning and end of each transect. The diver then identifies the colony boundaries based on verifiable connective or common skeleton. Using a measuring pole, the colonies projected diameter (live plus dead areas) in plan view and maximum height (live plus dead areas) from the base of the colonies substratum are measured. From plane view perspective, the percentage of coral that is not healthy (separated into old dead and recent dead) is also estimated. The first diver also notes any cause of mortality including diseases and/or predation and any bleached tissue present. categories: Black band disease Red band disease White band disease Hyperplasm and Neoplasm (irregular growths) White plague Dark spot disease Yellow blotch disease Unknown The diseases are characterised using the following

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Predation and overgrowth are also recorded on each of the coral colonies. The following categories are considered: Parrotfish predation Damselfish predation Fireworm predation Short coral snail predation Overgrowing mat tunicate Variable boring sponge Fire coral predation Gorgonian predation Zoanthid predation Coralline algae overgrowth Sponge overgrowth Cliona sp.

Bleaching is described as either pale, partial of total using the following definitions: Pale the majority of the colony is pale compared to the original colour of the coral Partial the colony has a significant amount of patchy white areas Total all, or almost all, of the colony is white Any other features of note are also recorded, including, orange icing sponge, coral competition and Christmas tree worms. The second diver measures the percentage cover of sessile organisms and substrate along the 30m transect, recording the nature of the substrate or organism directly every 25cm along the transect. Organisms are classified into the following groups: Coralline algae - crusts or finely branched algae that are hard (calcareous. Turf algae - may look fleshy and/or filamentous but do not rise more than 1cm above the substrate Macroalgae - include fleshy and calcareous algae whose fronds are projected more than 1cm above the substrate. Three of these are further classified into additional groups which include Halimeda, Dictyota, and Lobophora Gorgonians Hermatypic corals - to species level, where possible Bare rock, sand and rubble Any other sessile organisms e.g. sponges, tunicates, zoanthids and hydroids.

Buddy method 2: Belt transect counts for coral reef fish

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At each monitoring site 8 replicate 30m transects lines are deployed randomly within 100m of the GPS point. The transect line is laid just above the reef surface at a constant depth, usually perpendicular to the reef slope. The first diver is responsible for swimming slowly along the transect line identifying, counting and estimating the sizes of specific indicator fish species in their adult phase. The diver visually estimates a two metre by two metre corridor and carries a one meter T-bar divided into 10cm graduations to aid the accuracy of the size estimation of the fish identified. The fish are assigned to the following size categories: 0-5cm 6-10cm 11-20cm 21-30cm 31-40cm >40cm (with size specified)

The buddy pair then waits for three minutes at a short distance from the end of the transect line before proceeding. This allows juvenile fish to return to their original positions before they were potentially scared off by the divers during the adult transect. The second diver swims slowly back along the transect surveying a one metre by one metre corridor and identifying and counting the presence of newly settled fish of the target species. In addition, it is also this divers responsibility to identify and count the Banded Shrimp, Stenopus hispidus. This is a collaborative effort with UNAM to track this species as their population is slowly dwindling due to their direct removal for the aquarium trade. The juvenile diver also counts any Diadema antillarum individuals found on their transects. This is aimed at tracking the slow come back of these urchins. Buddy Method 3: Coral & Fish Rover divers At each monitoring site the third buddy pair completes a thirty minute survey of the site in an expanding square pattern, with one diver recording all adult fish species observed. The approximate density of each fish species is categorised using the following numerations: Single Few Many Abundant (1 fish) (2-10 fish) (11-100 fish) (>100 fish)

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The second diver swims alongside the Fish Rover diver and records, to species level, all coral communities observed, regardless of size. The approximate density of each coral species is then categorised using similar ranges to those for fish: Single Few Many Abundant (1 community) (2-10 communities) (11-50 communities) (>50 communities)

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Appendix II - Adult Fish Indicator Species List The following list includes only the adult fish species that are surveyed during monitoring
Scientific Name Acanthurus coeruleus, Acanthurus bahianus, Acanthurus chirurgus, Chaetodon striatus, Chaetodon capistratus, Chaetodon ocellatus, Chaetodon aculeatus, Haemulon flavolineatum Haemulon striatum Haemulon plumierii Haemulon sciurus Haemulon carbonarium Haemulon chrysargyreum Haemulon aurolineatum Haemulon melanurum Haemulon macrostomum Haemulon parra Haemulon album Anisotremus virginicus Anisotremus surinamensis Lutjanus analis Lutjanus griseus Lutjanus cyanopterus Lutjanus jocu Lutjanus mahogoni Lutjanus apodus Lutjanus synagris Ocyurus chrysurus Holacanthus ciliaris Pomacanthus paru Pomacanthus arcuatus Holacanthus tricolour Scarus coeruleus Scarus coelestinus Common Name Blue Tang Ocean Surgeonfish Doctorfish Banded Butterflyfish Four Eye Butterflyfish Spotfin Butterflyfish Longsnout Butterflyfish French Grunt Striped Grunt White Grunt Bluestriped Grunt Caesar Grunt Smallmouth Grunt Tomtate Cottonwick Spanish Grunt Sailors Choice White Margate Porkfish Black Margate Mutton Snapper Gray Snapper Cubera Snapper Dog Snapper Mahaogany Snapper Schoolmaster Lane Snapper Yellowtail Snapper Queen Angelfish French Angelfish Grey Angelfish Rock Beauty Blue Parrotfish Midnight Parrotfish Scientific Name Scarus guacamaia Scarus vetula Sparisoma viride Scarus taeniopterus Scarus iserti Sparisoma aurofrenatum Sparisoma chrysopterum Sparisoma rubripinne Sparisoma atomarium Sparisoma radians Epinephelus itajara Epinephelus striatus Mycteroperca venenosa Mycteroperca bonaci Mycteroperca tigris Mycteroperca interstitialis Epinephelus guttatus Epinephelus adscensionis Cephalopholis cruentatus Cephalopholis fulvus Balistes vetula Balistes capriscus Canthidermis sufflamen Xanithichthys ringens Melichthys niger Aluterus scriptus Cantherhines pullus Cantherhines macrocerus Bodianus rufus Lachnolaimus maximus Caranx rubber Microspathodon chrysurus Sphyraena barracuda Common Name Rainbow Parrotfish Queen Parrotfish Stoplight Parrotfish Princess Parrotfish Striped Parrotfish Redband Parrotfish Redtail Parrotfish Yellowtail Parrotfish Greenblotch Parrotfish Bucktooth Parrotfish Goliath Grouper Nassau Grouper Yellowfin Grouper Black Grouper Tiger Grouper Yellowmouth Grouper Red Hind Rock Hind Graysby Coney Queen Triggerfish Gray Triggerfish Ocean Triggerfish Sargassum Triggerfish Black Durgon Scrawled Filefish Orangespotted Filefish Whitespotted Filefish Spanish Hogfish Hogfish Bar Jack Yellowtail Damselfish Great Barracuda

dives.

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Appendix III - Juvenile Fish Indicator Species List The subsequent list specifies the juvenile fish species and their maximum target length that are recorded during monitoring dives
Scientific Name Acanthurus bahianus Acanthurus coeruleus Chaetodon capistratus Chaetodon striatus Gramma loreto Bodianus rufus Halichoeres bivittatus Halichoeres garnoti Halichoeres maculipinna Thalassoma bifasciatum Halichoeres pictus Chromis cyanea Stegastes adustus Stegastes diencaeus Stegastes leucostictus Stegastes partitus Stegastes planifrons Stegastes variabilis Scarus iserti Scarus taeniopterus Sparisoma atomarium Sparisoma aurofrenatum Sparisoma viride Common Name Ocean surgeonfish Blue tang Foureye butterflyfish Banded butterflyfish Fairy basslet Spanish hogfish Slipperydick Yellowhead wrasse Clown wrasse Bluehead wrasse Rainbow wrasse Blue chromis Dusky damselfish Longfin damselfish Beaugregory Bicolour damselfish Threespot damselfish Cocoa damselfish Striped parrotfish Princess parrotfish Greenblotch parrotfish Redband parrotfish Stoplight parrotfish Max. target length (cm) 5 5 2 2 3 3.5 3 3 3 3 3 3.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

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Appendix IV - Coral Species List

Family
Acroporidae Acroporidae Acroporidae Agariciidae Agariciidae Agariciidae Agariciidae Agariciidae Agariciidae Agariciidae Antipatharia Astrocoeniidae Caryophylliidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae Faviidae

Genus
Acropora Acropora Acropora Agaricia Agaricia Agaricia Agaricia Agaricia Agaricia Helioceris Cirrhipathes Stephanocoenia Eusmilia Colpophyllia Diploria Diploria Diploria Favia Manicina Montastraea Montastraea Montastraea Montastraea Solenastrea Solenastrea

Species
cervicornis palmata prolifera agaricites fragilis grahamae lamarcki tenuifolia undata cucullata leutkeni intersepts fastigiana natans clivosa labrynthiformis strigosa fragum areolata annularis cavernosa faveolata franksi bournoni hyades

Family
Meandrinidae Meandrinidae Meandrinidae Milliporidae Milliporidae Mussidae Mussidae Mussidae Mussidae Mussidae Mussidae Mussidae Mussidae Pocilloporidae Pocilloporidae Pocilloporidae Pocilloporidae Poritidae Poritidae Poritidae Poritidae Siderastridae Siderastridae Stylasteridae

Genus
Dendrogyra Dichocoenia Meandrina Millepora Millepora Isophyllastrea Isophyllia Mussa Mycetophyllia Mycetophyllia Mycetophyllia Mycetophyllia Scolymia Madracis Madracis Madracis Madracis Porites Porites Porites Porites Siderastrea Siderastrea Stylaster

Species
cylindrus stokesii meandrites alcicornis complanata rigida sinuosa angulosa aliciae ferox lamarckiana reesi sp. decactis formosa mirabilis pharensis astreoides divaricata furcata porites radians sidereal roseus

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Appendix V - Fish Species List This list was begun for Pez Maya in 2003. This list is compiled from the Adult and Rover diver surveys.

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Family Genus Acanthuridae Acanthurus Acanthuridae Acanthurus Acanthuridae Acanthurus Atherinidae, Clupeidae, Engraulididae Aulostomidae Aulostomus Balistidae Balistes Balistidae Balistes Balistidae Canthidermis Balistidae Melichthys Balistidae Xanithichthys Bothidae Bothus Carangidae Caranx Carangidae Caranx Carangidae Caranx Carangidae Trachinotus Centropomidae Centropomus Chaenopsidae Lucayablennius Chaetodontidae Chaetodon Chaetodontidae Chaetodon Chaetodontidae Chaetodon Chaetodontidae Chaetodontidae Cirrhitidae Congridae Dasyatidae Diodontidae Elopidae Gobiidae Gobiidae Gobiidae Gobiidae Gobiidae Gobiidae Gobiidae Grammatidae Family Grammatidae Grammatidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Haemulidae Holocentridae Holocentridae Holocentridae Holocentridae Holocentridae Holocentridae GVI 2010 Holocentridae Kyphosidae Labridae Chaetodon Chaetodon Amblycirrhitus Heteroconger Dasyatis Diodon Megalops Coryphopterus Coryphopterus Coryphopterus Coryphopterus Gnatholepis Gobiosoma Gobiosoma Gramma Genus Gymnothorax Gymnothorax Anisotremus Haemulon Haemulon Haemulon Haemulon Haemulon Haemulon Haemulon Haemulon Anisotremus Haemulon Holocentrus Holocentrus Myripristis Neoniphon Sargocentron Sargocentron Sargocentron Kyphosus Bodianus

Species Common Names Bahianus Ocean surgeonfish Chirurgus Doctorfish Coeruleus Blue tang Silversides, Herrings, Anchovies Maculates Trumpetfish Capriscus Gray triggerfish Vetula Queen triggerfish Sufflamen Ocean triggerfish Niger Black durgon Ringens Sargassum triggerfish Lunatus Peacock flounder Bartholomaei Yellow jack Crysos Blue runner Ruber Bar jack Falcatus Permit Undecimalis Common snook Zingaro Arrow blenny Aculeatus Longsnout butterflyfish Capistratus Foureye butterflyfish Ocellatus Spotfin butterflyfish Sedentarius Striatus Pinos Longissimus Americana Holocanthus Atlanticus Eidolon Glaucofraenum Lipernes personatus/hyalinus Thompsoni Oceanops Prochilos Loreto Species Funebris Moringa Virginicus Album Aurolineatum Carbonarium Flavolineatum Macrostomum Plumierii Sciurus Striatum Surinamensis Parra Adscensionis Rufus Jacobus Marianus Bullisi Coruscum Vexillarium sectatrix/incisor Rufus Reef butterflyfish Banded butterflyfish Red spotted hawkfish Brown garden eel Southern stingray Balloonfish Tarpon Palid Goby Bridled goby Peppermint goby Masked/glass goby Goldspot goby Neon goby. Broadstripe goby Fairy basslet Common Names Green moray Spotted moray Porkfish White margate Tomtate Ceaser Grunt French grunt Spanish grunt White grunt Bluestriped grunt Striped grunt Black margate Sailors choice Squirrelfish Longspine squirrelfish Blackbar soldierfish Longjaw squirrelfish Deepwater squirrelfish Reef squirrelfish Page 42 Dusky squirrelfish Chub Spanish hogfish

Appendix VI - Bird Species List Bird species identified to species level in Pez Maya.
Common name Great-tailed grackle Magnificent frigatebird Ruddy turnstone Royal tern Tropical mockingbird Brown pelican Sanderling Yellow warbler Osprey Black catbird White Ibis Turkey vulture Hooded Oriole Snowy egret Bananaquit Golden-fronted Woodpecker Great blue heron Yellow-throated warbler Bare-throated Tiger heron Semipalmated sandpiper White-collared Seedeater Great Kiskadee Plain Chachalaca Species Quiscalus mexicanus Fregata magnificens Arenaria interpres Sterna m. maxima Mimus gilvus Pelecanus occidentalis Calidris alba Dendroica petechia Pandion haliaetus Dumetella glabrirostris Eudocimus albus Cathartes aura Icterus cucullatus Egretta thula Coereba flaveola Centurus aurifrons Ardea herodias Dendroica dominica Tigrisoma mexicanum Calidris pusilla Sporophila torqueola Pitangus sulphuratus Ortalis vetula Common name Wilson's plover Belted Kingfisher Cinnamon hummingbird Common black-hawk Common ground-dove Melodious blackbird Mangrove Vireo Spot Breasted Wren Yellow-crowned NightHeron Black-bellied Plover Black-crowned NightHeron Black vulture Great Egret Green kingfisher Laughing gull Little Blue Heron Mangrove warbler Neotropic Cormorant Roseate spoonbill Solitary Sandpiper Tricolored heron White-winged dove Species Charadrius wilsonia Ceryle alcyon Amazilia rutila Buteogallus anthracinus Columbina passerina Dives dives Vireo pallens Thryothorus maculipectus Nycticorax violaceus Pluvialis squatarola Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli Coragyps atratus Egretta alba egretta Chloroceryle americana Larus atricilla Egretta caerulea Dendroica erithachorides Phalacrocorax brasilianus Platalea ajaja Tringa solitaria Egretta tricolor Zenaida asiatica

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