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What is the standard height for stanchion supports? Height of stanchion should be about 1.2 to 1.5m (i.e same as height of human being) so that operator can take reading of transmitter easily. Purpose of a cascade control loop. A cascade control system can limit the effect of the disturbances entering the secondary variable on the primary output. In the second case, a cascade control system can limit the effect of actuator or secondary process gain variations on the control system performance.

What is hook up drawing? and How to read a hook up drawing? Drawings which represents installation standards is called hook up drawings. With hook up drawings engineer can understand how an instrument to be installed in the plant. With hook up drawing we can calculate the material requirement. Two types of hook up drawings are there. 1. Pneumatic hookup. It is independent of process connection. Pneumatic hookup is basically Tubing/piping 2. Process hook up. Here instruments are directly connected to process line. An example of hookup drawing is given below.

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What is difference between Piping Layout, Plot Plan, P&ID and Piping Isometrics? (i) Piping Layout is dimensional drawing showing plan of pipelines laying view between starting and end points. This incorporates size of pipe (inches), thickness in inch or schedule or std.,XS-XXS., fitting detail bend, elbow, tees, reducers, valves),elevation of piping points and all details to lay pipe between two points in consideration. (ii) Plot plan is showing drawing of land detail with adjacent reference points, where project is to take or taken place. This is dimensional drawing (iii) P&ID. Means Process & Instrumentation Diagram, it is showing piping with instrumentation control system. Generally not drawn to scale. (iv) Piping isometric means isometric view of pipe line between two points in consideration. Drawn to the scale. Gives correct detail of Bill of Material needed for execution of the piping job. The Process Variables used in instrumentation are: Flow - Defined as volume per unit of time at specified temperature and pressure conditions, is generally measured by positive-displacement or rate meters. Units : kg / hr , litter / min, gallon / min , m3 / hr , Nm3 / hr. ( gases ) Pressure - Force acting per unit Area. P = F/A. Units: bar , pascal , kg / cm2 , lb / in2. Temperature - It is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Units: Degree Centigrade, Degree Fahrenheit, Degree Kelvin, Degree Rankine. Level - Different between two heights. Units: Meters, mm, cm, percentage. Quality i. e. % O2, CO2, pH etc. - It deals with analysis.( pH, % CO2, % 02, Conductivity, Viscosity ) 1 :: How to write the program for single push button by using Ladder diagram? 1. Create a Push button 2. Connect a Counter series to PB 3. Create a compare button 4. Initialize 1 at one end 5. Counter output in another 6. Connect the Coil which has to be energized 7. Initialize 2 at one end 8. Counter output in another 9. Connect the Coil which has to be reenergized. 2 :: What is remote mount with MTA option? (In case of Dual Sensor Vortex Flowmeter, rosemount has written in its Catalog drawings)? Remote mount with MTA means MTA connector for mounting remote connection. MTA is the Connector used for connection. Generally we called it MTA Connector. There are many types of MTA connector such as MTA 100connectors, Mta 156 connectors etc... 3 :: Why 4-20 mA signal is preferred over a 0-10V signal? Generally in a transistor some amount of voltage is required for turning it on. This voltage is the cut in voltage. Up to this voltage that exists a non-linearity in its characteristics. Beyond this cut in voltage the char. of transistor is linear. This nonlinear region lies between 0-4ma, beyond 4ma is linear. This is why 4-20 ma range is used. 4 :: Can we use a control valve without positioner? Control valve cannot be without positioner. The purpose of the positioner is to control the control valve stroke so as to keep the valve in desired position. The positioner receives signal from the controller, and send the boosted signal to the actuator to reach the desired position as and when the valve reaches the desired position the positioner cuts the boosted signal to the actuator and keeps the position.

P age |3 5 :: What is Instrumentation Measurement? Instrumentation can be used to measure certain field parameters (physical values): These measured values include: * pressure, either differential or static * flow * temperature - Temperature_measurement * level - Level Measurement * density * viscosity * radiation * current * voltage * inductance * capacitance * frequency * resistivity * conductivity * chemical composition * chemical properties * various physical properties 6 :: What is Instrumentation Control? In addition to measuring field parameters, instrumentation is also responsible for providing the ability to modify some field parameters. Some examples include: Device Field Parameter(s) Valve Flow, Pressure Relay Voltage, Current Solenoid Physical Location, Level Circuit breaker Voltage, Current 7 :: What is Instrumentation Instrumentation engineering? Instrumentation engineering is the engineering specialization focused on the principle and operation of measuring instruments which are used in design and configuration of automated systems in electrical, pneumatic domains etc. They typically work for industries with automated processes, such as chemical or manufacturing plants, with the goal of improving system productivity, reliability, safety, optimization and stability. 8 :: What is Instrumentation technologists and mechanics? Instrumentation technologists, technicians and mechanics specialize in troubleshooting and repairing instruments and instrumentation systems. This trade is so intertwined with electricians, pipefitters, power engineers, and engineering companies, that one can find him/herself in extremely diverse working situations. An over-arching term, "Instrument Fitter" is often used to describe people in this field, regardless of any specialization. oo nga. 9 :: Difference between DCS and PLC including date processing and architecture. If we have more I/o's in digital signals than analogue signals normally we choose DCS....and vice versa. Difference between DCS and PLC including date processing and architecture. If we have more I/o's in digital signals than analogue signals normally we choose DCS....and vice versa.

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Why SCAN time of DCS is more than PLC? or Why does PLC have scan time less than DCS. If so, then why do we use DCS instead of PLC? Scan time of DCS is more than the scan time of PLC when the I/O's are digital. Whereas the scan time of DCS is less than the scan time of PLC when the I/O's are analog. Hence DCS is better when analog signals are considered whereas PLC is better when digital signals are considered. However DCS do handle both analog and digital signals. It can also have more no. of I/O's compared to PLC. About 1 lakh I/O s are available in DCS. Hence we use DCS. What is the difference between an UPS and an Inverter? Inverter is device which is convert dc supply to ac supply. It has two units 1. charging, 2.inverter circuit(which covert dc supply into ac supply with the help mosfet or transistor).The proper meaning of inverter is a device which converts dc into ac. The inverter also contains a battery unit and a dc to an ac conversion unit. When the power fails the inverter will deliver power from switching from main source to battery source. The switching time here is normally greater than 20 ms. UPS: means uninterrupted power supply. The proper meaning of this is a device, which delivers power, even if the source power fails (Uninterrupted power supply).This is also contains the same thing as a inverter except here the switching time from main source to backup source is less than 10ms, so that the computer hard drives or insensitive power products should not be affected from this. Depending on the switching time there is a online ups and offline ups. Off line ups is same as inverter. What is the difference between volumetric flow meter and mass flow meter? Volumetric flow meter gives flow rate in terms of volume viz liters/hr, gallon, m3/hr etc whereas mass flow meter gives direct mass flow rate viz kg/hr or tons/hr etc Mass = density* volume Volumetric flow = area*velocity Volumetric flow gives how much volume is passing through a given point, it does not give the real mass of fluid is passing. Mass flow is highly depends on the density as well as on temperature, change in these, changes the mass flow. Why transmitter signal range is from 4-20 mA only? Why can t it be from 0-100 or 0-20mA? Because if use 0-100% instead of 0 -20 mA ,and if there is any signal cable damage or open cable then it will show only 0%.So we will not be able to know any error in the reading. But in the case of 4-20mA, a zero mA value means error. What is dead weight tester and where it is used? Dead weight tester is the test instruments, in which the required test instruments are checked against the standard weight. Dead weight tester used for pressure gauge, pressure transmitter, pressure switch calibration in high range. (Kg\cm2or bar). It is used for industrial purpose in instrumentation department. Electric Train Voltage Supplied? AC voltage of 25kv Interview Question: What is the Efficiency in Electric motor? Answer: Power (hp) Minimum Nominal Efficiency1) 1-4 78.8 5-9 84.0 10 - 19 85.5 20 - 49 88.5 50 - 99 90.2

P age |5 100 - 124 91.7 > 125 92.4 as per NEMA Electrical motor efficiency is the ratio between the shaft output power - and the electrical input power. Electrical Motor Efficiency when Shaft Output is measured in WattIf power output is measured in Watt (W), efficiency can be expressed as:m = Pout / Pin? where m = motor efficiency Pout = shaft power out (Watt, W) Pin = electric power in to the motor (Watt, W) Electrical Motor Efficiency when Shaft Output is measured in Horsepower. Why is Flow measure in Square-root? Where orifice plate is used to measure flow alone, the signal is square rooted. It is by the formula Q=K (squareroot of Differential pressure). If other types of FT are used then the signal from that FT need not to be square rooted. Difference between megger and earth tester? Megger is an instrument which in addition to measurement of high resistance can be used to test the quality of the insulation at or above its operating voltage. Whereas earth tester is used to measure low earth resistance. Megger is used for measuring an insulation resistance of motor winding of cable etc. which is measured in megaohm. While earth tester has earth electrodes which are used to measure earth pit resistance & it is measured in ohm. What is the main difference between electrical& electronics? Define them. In Electronics, as we study about the motion of electrons in the semi conducting materials, the currents and voltages are of very negligible values. With the less amounts of current and voltages we are able to perform many tasks using Electronics. Where as in electrical, it is the study of motion of electrons in metals. So, usually the conductivity is more for metals, so more voltage of order 230v and more currents of higher order amps are used. How to Calibrate Control Valve? Which Instrument is used? For the calibration of a control valve a loop calibrator or a pressure calibrator can be used between 3-15psi.Check the valve position for 3psi which is to be 0 for a NC type valves. In such manner check the valve position for various ranges(6psi,9psi,12psi & 15psi).the valve position should be 0 for 3psi and 50% for 9 psi and completely opened for15psi. The same procedure is applicable for NO type valves. The valve is open for 3 psi and completely closed for 15psi.Any errors occurred may be rectified by Zero span adjustment. Why transmitter signal range is from 4-20 mA only? Why can t it be from 0-100 or 0-20mA? Because if use 0-100% instead of 0 -20 mA ,and if there is any signal cable damage or open cable then it will show only 0%.So we will not be able to know any error in the reading. But in the case of 4-20mA, a zero mA value means error.

P age |6 What is dead weight tester and where it is used? Dead weight tester is the test instruments, in which the required test instruments are checked against the standard weight. Dead weight tester used for pressure gauge, pressure transmitter, pressure switch calibration in high range. (Kg\cm2or bar). It is used for industrial purpose in instrumentation department. What would happen if a transformer is made to operate at 60Hz instead of 50Hz? There will be no effect on the secondary side voltage because in transformer frequency remains constant, but the hysteresis losses will increase when the transformer is made to operate at 60Hz. PS:Eddy current loss is not dependent on frequency. What are the key components of control loop? A closed control loop in a very basic manner consists of sensor, transmitter, controller, signal converters and final control elements. Actually in a practical loop there will be many other instruments apart from this to support the working of above mentioned instruments. What is Cryogenic? Cryogenic means to work in lower temperature range (-50 and below than that). What is coriolis principle for mass flowmeter? This meter uses the Coriolis effect to measure the amount of mass moving through the element. The substance to be measured runs through a U-shaped tube that is caused to vibrate in a perpendicular direction to the flow. Fluid forces running through the tube interact with the vibration, causing it to twist. The greater the angle of the twist, the greater the flow. How to use level transmitter in closed tank application? In closed systems, the transmitter location is restricted by the maximum allowable distance above the lower tap. In pressurized systems, this is the same as the 1 atmosphere equivalent seen previously. In sub-atmospheric systems (vacuum systems), the transmitter should be mounted at or below the lower tap. This ensures the transmitter always sees a positive pressure on both the measurement and the reference sides. In two seal systems, the distance between the taps becomes the reference offset from zero. The calculations are the same regardless of where the transmitter is mounted. If we have 450 mm height boiler drum level, so what is span & zero value for a dp transmitter? Zero will be -400mm and span will be LRV will be -400mm and URV will be 0 mm. What is the meaning of wet leg & where is it used? A process used to determine the differential pressure present within a liquid-filled space. The formula for determining the differential pressure within a wet leg design is: d/p = h (SG) Where: d/p = differential pressure, h = height of liquid

P age |7 present, and SG = specific gravity When the process vapors condense at normal ambient temperatures or are corrosive, this reference leg can be filled to form a wet leg. If the process condensate is corrosive, unstable, or undesirable to use to fill the wet leg, this reference leg can be filled with an inert liquid. Why use MMWC unit? Millimeter water column used to measure pressure Explain types of valves? Various types of valves are used in industrial process controls. Various types of valves are ball valve, gate valve, globe valve, needle valve, mixing valve, diverting valve, butterfly valve etc. Actually this is just an overview of the types. To be elaborate we have several categories and types. How to trim the pressure transmitter? Ensure that you have the necessary document on your hand such as PTW. Connect a HART Communicator, then close the Tx isolation valve and open the VENT isolation to atmosphere. Apply LRV and check w/ HART Comm, if the LRV is out, perform TRIM function using HART 375/475 What is difference between differential pressure & delta pressure? Differential pressure means difference between high pressure & low pressure. Delta pressure means it is the pressure drop.

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