You are on page 1of 11

IRAN 1

The Study of Iran’s Nuclear Weapons Program and How it affects the International Community Writing For The Sciences, Period 9 January 8, 2008

Up to this point UN resolutions and diplomatic overtures by the United States have failed to create change.IRAN 2 Abstract Throughout twenty-five years of strained relations. including a complete denial of the Holocaust and a threat to wipe Israel off the map. . U. largely because Washington has failed to influence Iran’s motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons. In addition.S. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has made many offensive claims. policy efforts have delayed but not thwarted Iran’s clandestine nuclear weapons program. Iran continues to flaunt international law by developing a nuclear weapons capability.

run by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (De Luce. In March 1974. more precisely the government and leaders of the country. By 1957. CIA-supported coup that over threw the democratically-elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and brought Shah (King) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to power. Atoms for Peace program.” Iran. 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants” Then President Gerald Ford signed a directive in 1976 offering Tehran the chance to buy and operate a United States-built reprocessing facility for extracting plutonium from nuclear reactor fuel.S. . as soon as possible. Iran's nuclear activities are continuing to cause concern in the Western nations. ally then. 2003). much too valuable to burn. the Shah envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out. succeeds in acquiring nuclear weapons.S. The deal was for a complete nuclear fuel cycle. a civil nuclear co-operation program was established under the U. a U.IRAN 3 The Study of Iran’s Nuclear Weapons Program and How it affects the International Community Former Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel recently stated in a November 2007 interview that. a radical Islamist state that actively supports international terrorism.. the West judged the regime sufficiently stable and friendly that nuclear proliferation would not become a threat. is one of the countries noted above. "Petroleum is a noble material. That year. History of Iran’s Nuclear Weapons Program The foundations for Iran's nuclear program were laid after a 1953. It is clear enough that the world will become a significantly more dangerous place if Iran. The Islamic Republic’s nuclear ambitions present probably the most troublesome problem facing United States foreign policymakers today. We envision producing. the Tehran Nuclear Research Center was established. “America and the world must prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. In 1967. and declared.. Iran.

and a heavy water facility in Arak. Iran removed seals on its uranium enrichment equipment in Isfahan. Under the terms of the Paris Agreement.S. 2006. U. It is possible that intelligence agencies already knew about these facilities but the reports had been classified. and European companies scrambled to do business there. On August 14. 2006) On April 11. and Germany acting on behalf of the European Union. where he said "I am officially announcing that Iran joined the group of those countries which have nuclear technology." Qolam Ali Hadadadel. Iran's chief nuclear negotiator announced a voluntary and temporary suspension of its uranium enrichment program and the voluntary implementation of the Additional Protocol. that Iran had the right to "peaceful application of nuclear technology and all other officials agree with this decision. revealed to the general public the existence of two nuclear sites under-construction: a uranium enrichment facility in Natanz . speaker of Iran's parliament. "Iran opened the door to negotiations for . a spokesman for an Iranian rebel group National Council of Resistance of Iran.part of which is underground. France.IRAN 4 had deep pockets and close ties to Washington. 2006." according to the semi-official Iranian Students News Agency. President Ahmadinejad made the announcement in a televised address from the northeastern city of Mashhad. Germany and the United Kingdom undertook a diplomatic initiative with Iran to resolve questions about its nuclear program. The International Atomic Energy Agency immediately sought access to these facilities and further information and co-operation from Iran regarding its nuclear program."(Edgendorf. 2002. France. 2004. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully enriched uranium. In early August 2005. after pressure from the United Kingdom. which United Kingdom officials termed a "breach of the Paris Agreement. on November 14. said on August 30. Alireza Jafarzadeh.

2006) Reasons why the Iranian Government continues its pursuit of Nuclear Weapons Iran claims it is threatened by Israel and the United States. The Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. Its control of the Iranian . (Edgendorf. nuclear weapons appeal to power and popular will and convince leaders of the security imperative that can only be answered by developing or possessing nuclear weapons. at the universal level. The Pasdaran is the Iranian’s regime’s principal point of contact with the terrorist group Hezbollah. well placed governmental elites propel the nuclear security myth to spur support for nuclear weapons. is the largest branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran's military. First. Iran's current president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was a member of the Guards. also known as Pasdaran. 2003) Second. equipped. Iran’s Support of Terrorism To call Iran a terrorist nation is a great understatement. At the universal level. Iran has chosen a defensive doctrine against threat nations equipped with nuclear. at the individual level. It is the epicenter of Islamic jihadism. 2003) At the individual level. Like many young Iranians during the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq war. biological. and a deterrent doctrine against states with formidable conventional military capabilities. There are three main motivations behind Iran’s nuclear program. and chemical weapons. and funded terrorist organization.IRAN 5 Europe and hopes that the answer which was given to the nuclear package would bring them to the table. external threats drive Iran’s perceived need for a nuclear deterrent. (Bolten. Deeper analysis at the universal and individual levels reveals additional. but in reality those two states would not attack Iran unless it was developing or in possession of nuclear weapons. Iran created. more compelling reasons for Iran’s pursuit of nuclear weapons. (Bolten.

hundreds of thousands of people could die. it is threatened everywhere.IRAN 6 nuclear program raises the possibility that Iran’s nuclear advances could translate into substantial terrorist gains. a few deep breaths and then a series of questions. If a terrorist group exploded just one nuclear weapon. a . the only real solution is to prevent terrorists from obtaining nuclear bomb materials or weapons in the first place. The Islamic Republic’s nuclear ambitions present probably the most troublesome problem facing U. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad confirmed publicly that his government is prepared to provide nuclear technology to any number of other Muslim states. 2007) There was a moment of silence. foreign policymakers today. walked into the Oval Office to see President Bush to give the President's daily intelligence briefing and informed him that a CIA agent. code-named Dragonfire.” The reason for going to war needs to be just and can therefore be recapturing things taken or punishing people who have done wrong. (Haugen. 2007) Nuclear Terrorism Of all the terrorist threats facing the United States and the world. (Haugen. (Berman. perhaps the gravest is the possibility of terrorists constructing or obtaining a nuclear weapon and detonating it in a city. as Director of Central Intelligence. One month to the day after the 9/11 attacks. Because there is no effective protection against a nuclear blast. reported that a ten-kiloton weapon—that is a small nuclear weapon that would fit in the back of a van—from the former Soviet arsenal was now in control of Al Qaeda and was in New York City.S. How the International Community Failed to stop Iran Someone once said that “Democracy threatened anywhere. Some people believe that not adhering to international policies could be justification for war with Iran. George Tenet. 2005) It is clear enough that the world will become a significantly more dangerous place if Iran. Iran’s nuclear activities are continuing to cause concern in Western nations.

All other options for the United States will flow from the intelligence reports. . the United States must make sure that its intelligence gathering community is the finest the world has ever seen. in August 2005. succeeds in acquiring nuclear weapons. like when there is a report that is time sensitive and it can not be double checked with other reports and has to be acted upon as quickly as possible. It has to be corroborated with other intelligence reports. a former Central Intelligence Agency officer. This does happen and sometimes this intelligence is wrong. What Actions the United States should take against Iran The world is a much smaller place today with all of the new advancements of telecommunications and technology. As an example. along with the world community will not tolerate a nuclear armed Iran. It is imperative that Iran’s leaders know that the United States. there has been a constant reference back to the “faulty intelligence” that helped set the stage for the invasion of Iraq. Not all intelligence that we gather is one hundred percent accurate. In my opinion. The finding represented a striking about face from a 2005 intelligence report that said Iran was actively trying to build a bomb. when United States led diplomatic pressure led them to halt it. the United States must get it right or some country or population will pay the price. recent articles in the press indicate that Iran’s capability is not at the previously believed level. As always there are exceptions. claimed that United States Vice President Dick Cheney had instructed United States Strategic Command to prepare a contingency plan to be employed in response to Iran obtaining a functioning nuclear weapon.IRAN 7 radical Islamist state that actively supports international terrorism. In fact. When it comes to the subject of nuclear weapons. Also. These inconsistencies must be rectified. These articles stated that Iranian leaders tried to develop nuclear weapons until 2003.

The United States has tried every process to avoid a war. Augustine’s Just War Theory. is not the greatest evil which a nation can suffer. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. This not the only time that the United States has stepped in to try and stop Iran. Conclusion In response to Iran’s blatant disregard of international laws be growing their nuclear weapons programs. For example. and that war is the only option left.IRAN 8 British philosopher John Stuart Mill once said that “But war. The United States tried bargaining for the stop their pursuit of nuclear power in exchange for a relief package. there are three principles that the United States should adhere to in their dealings with Iran. every conceivable means is taken to protect a non-combatant. According to St.” War is often the best possible step toward peace. This plan of action should only be followed if the United States has exhausted all other non-military measures. but not the ugliest of things: the decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth a war. In response to Iran’s blatant disregard of international laws by growing their nuclear weapons programs. every conceivable means should be taken to protect the non-combatants of the country. is much worse. every conceivable means is taken . the United States should increase their military presence in Iran if the following criteria are met: if it is a war that is in self defense. The only option that is left to stop Iran of further quest of nuclear weapons would be to go to war with them. (Edgendorf. War is an ugly thing. Up to this point the United Nations resolutions and diplomatic overtures by the United States have failed to create any type of change. the United States tried to reason with who the Iranian president. 2006) In war. in a good cause. the United States should increase their military presence in Iran if the following criteria are met: if it is a war that is in self defense.

In the particular instance. Therefore it is clear that the criteria of a just war have been met. . In conclusion. the United States should keep all of its options open in an attempt to prevent Iran from acquiring a nuclear capability.IRAN 9 to protect a non-combatant. and that was is the only option left. Iran has disregarded international law regarding nuclear weaponry.

August 20). [Electronic Version]: The United States Must Prevent Iran from Developing Nuclear Weapons.com/ovrc/informark.IRAN 10 Reference Berman. (2006). Washington D.do?&contentSet= GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T010&prodID=OVRC&docId=EJ3010448206&source=ga le&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=beth92669&version=1.0 Bolton. Retrieved December 11. December 2). The spectre of Operation Ajax. Iran is a Nuclear Threat. From Bethel Park High School Student Resource Center: http://find. Speech to the Conference of the Institute For Foreign Policy Analysis and the Fletcher School’s International Security Studies Program. Retrieved December 12.do? &contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T010&prodID=OVRC&docId=EJ30104512 06&source=gale&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=beth92669&version=1.galegroup.com/ovrc/informark. com/ovrc/informark. 2007. Retrieved December 11. Washington D. [Electronic Version]: Iran Poses a Serious Threat. The Guardian Egendorf. (2005. D (2003. From Bethel Park High School Student Resource Center: http://find. From Bethel Park High School Student Resource Center: http://find. (2003. L.galegroup.C.C. November 15). I.0 De Luce.0 . Speech to the Committee on Senate Homeland Security and Government Affairs Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management.galegroup. Government Information and International Security. 2007.do?&contentSet= GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T010&prodID=OVRC&docId=EJ3010238239&source=ga le&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=beth92669&version=1. Opposing Viewpoints: Iran. M. 2007.

From Bethel Park High School Student Resource Center: http://find. 2007. (2007). Retrieved December 12.galegroup. S.do?&contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve &tabID=T010&prodID=OVRC&docId=EJ30104522&source=gale&srcprod=OVRC&us erGroupName=beth92669&version=1. Opposing Viewpoints: Iran.galegroup. D. The United States Should Attack Iran. & Musser. B.com/ovrc/informark. Middle East Security Issues: In the Shadow of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation. 2007. Opposing Viewpoints: Iran.0 Schneider. NBC and Missile Proliferation Issues in the Middle East. L. From Bethel Park High School Student Resource Center: http://find.com/ovrc/info rmark. (2006). (1999). Maxwell Air Force Base.do? &contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T010&prodID=OVRC&docId=EJ30104512 17&source=gale&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=beth92669&version=1. AL: Air University Press.IRAN 11 Egendorf. The United States Must Use Military Strikes to End Iran’s Nuclear Weapons Program. Retrieved December 12.0 Haugen. .