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MASSACHUSETTES INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF OCEAN ENGINEERING
Cambridge, MASS. 02139
WAMIT
THEORY MANUAL
by
C.-H. Lee
Report No. 95-2
October 1995
This work was conducted under the Joint Industry Project ‘Wave effects on offshore
structures’. The sponsors have included Chevron, Conoco, David Taylor Model Basin, Det
Norske Veritas, Exxon, Mobil, the National Research Council of Canada, Offshore Tech-
nology Research Center, Norsk Hydro AS, Petrobr´ as, Saga Petroleum, Shell Development
Company, and Statoil AS.
Copyright c Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1995
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Description of the Problem
2. THE FIRST-ORDER PROBLEM
2.1 Boundary Value Problem
2.1.1 Multiple bodies
2.1.2 Body deformations
2.1.3 Bodies near walls
2.2 Integral Equations
2.2.1 Green function
2.2.2 Linear system
2.3 Removal of the Irregular Frequencies
3. THE SECOND-ORDER PROBLEM
3.1 Boundary Value Problem
3.2 Second-order Incident Waves
3.3 Second-order Scattering Waves
4. THE FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER FORCE
4.1 Force and Moment
4.1.1 Coordinate system
4.1.2 Coordinate transform
4.1.3 Pressure integration
4.1.4 Hydrostatic force and moment of O(1)
4.1.5 Linear force and moment
4.1.5 Second-order force and moment
4.2 Haskind Force and the Second-order Indirect Force
4.3 Equations of Motion
REFERENCES A
REFERENCES B
APPENDICIES
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
This Theory Manual describes the theoretical background of the computer program
WAMIT (WaveAnalysisMIT). It provides an overview of the theories and the computa-
tional methodologies in a concise manner. For detailed information on the selected subjects,
some of the published and unpublished articles are included in the Appendix. The use of
the program WAMIT and its capabilities are described in a separate User Manual.
WAMIT is a panel program designed to solve the boundary-value problem for the inter-
action of water-waves with prescribed bodies in finite- and infinite- water depth. Viscous
effects of the fluid are not considered throughout and thus the flow field is potential with-
out circulation. A perturbation series solution of the nonlinear boundary value problem is
postulated with the assumption that the wave amplitude is small compared to the wave
length. It is also assumed that the body stays at its mean position and, if it is not fixed,
the oscillatory amplitude of the body motion is of the same order as the wave amplitude.
The time harmonic solutions corresponding to the first- and second-terms of the series
expansion are solved for a given steady-state incident wave field. The incident wave field
is assumed to be represented by a superposition of the fundamental first-order solutions of
particular frequency components in the absence of the body. The boundary value problem
is recast into integral equations using the wave source potential as a Green function. The
integral equation is then solved by a ‘panel’ method for the unknown velocity potential
and/or the source strength on the body surface. Using the latter, the fluid velocity on the
body surface is evaluated.
For incident waves of specific frequencies and wave headings, the linear problem is solved
first. Chapter 2 describes the linear boundary value problem and the solution procedure.
The quadratic interaction of two linear solutions defines the boundary condition for the
second-order problem. Chapter 3 is devoted to the discussion of the second-order problem.
In Chapter 4, the rigid body motion is discussed in the context of the perturbation series
and the expressions for the hydrodynamic forces are derived. Chapter 5 lists the references
quoted in this manual and Chapter 6 lists the references illustrating the computational
results obtained from WAMIT. The Appendix includes the articles on the subjects which
are not explained in detail in this manual.
Since the following will focus primarily on the hydrodynamic interaction, it is appropri-
1
ate to mention here restrictions on the bodies which may be analyzed using WAMIT. The
bodies may be fixed, constrained or neutrally buoyant and they may be bottom mounted,
submerged or surface piercing. Multibody interactions between any combinations of these
bodies can be analyzed. If only first-order quantities are required, the bodies need not be
rigid. Flexible bodies can be analyzed if the oscillatory displacements of the body surface
are described by specified mode shapes.
An extremely thin submerged body may be difficult to analyze when the small thickness
between the two facing surfaces compared to the other dimensions of the body may render
the integral equation ill-conditioned
1
. However, a thin body floating on the free surface (in
other words the draft is very small) is not included in this category, since it has only one
large wetted surface. In the extreme case of the latter, a body touching the free surface
may be analyzed.
1.1 Description of the Problem
The flow is assumed to be potential, free of separation or lifting effects, and it is governed
by the velocity potential Φ(x, t) which satisfies Laplace’s equation in the fluid domain:

2
Φ = 0 (1.1)
Here t denotes the time and x=(x, y, z) denotes the Cartesian coordinates of a point in
space. x may be expressed as the sum of the component vectors as x = xi +yj +zk. The
undisturbed free surface is the z = 0 plane with the fluid domain z < 0.
The fluid velocity is given by the gradient of the velocity potential
V(x, t) = ∇Φ =
∂Φ
∂x
i +
∂Φ
∂y
j +
∂Φ
∂z
k (1.2)
The pressure follows from Bernoulli’s equation:
p(x, t) = −ρ(
∂Φ
∂t
+
1
2
∇Φ · ∇Φ +gz) (1.3)
where ρ is the density of the fluid and g is the gravitational acceleration.
The velocity potential satisfies the nonlinear free-surface condition:
∂Φ
∂t
2
+g
∂Φ
∂z
+ 2∇Φ · ∇
∂Φ
∂t
+
1
2
∇Φ · ∇(∇Φ · ∇Φ) = 0 (1.4)
applied on the exact free surface
ζ(x, y) = −
1
g
(
∂Φ
∂t
+
1
2
∇Φ · ∇Φ)
z=ζ
(1.5)
1
See Martin and Rizzo (1993)
2
With the assumption of a perturbation solution in terms of a small wave slope of the
incident waves, the velocity potential is expanded in a form
Φ(x, t) = Φ
(1)
(x, t) + Φ
(2)
(x, t) +· · · (1.6)
When the body is not fixed the motion amplitude
2
of the body is also expanded in a
perturbation series
ξξ ξ = ξξ ξ
(1)
+ξξ ξ
(2)
+· · · (1.7)
From (1.5) and (1.6) and with aid of the Taylor expansion with respect to the mean
free surface, the free surface elevation also takes the form of the perturbation series,
ζ(x, y) = ζ
(1)
(x, y) +ζ
(2)
(x, y) +· · · (1.8)
with
ζ
(1)
(x, y) = −
1
g
∂Φ
∂t
(1)
(1.9)
ζ
(2)
(x, y) = −
1
g
(
∂Φ
∂t
(2)
+
1
2
∇Φ
(1)
· ∇Φ
(1)

1
g
∂Φ
∂t
(1)

2
Φ
(1)
∂z∂t
) (1.10)
In the equations (1.9) and (1.10), the right-hand sides are evaluated on z = 0.
From the equations (1.4), (1.6) and (1.8-10), the free surface boundary conditions for
Φ
(1)
and Φ
(2)
imposed on z = 0 are derived. For a moving body, from the equations (1.6)
and (1.7) and with the Taylor expansion of Φ with respect to the mean body surface, the
body boundary condition is derived. These boundary conditions are discussed in later
chapters.
Given a wave spectrum, it is customary to assume the spectrum is expressed as a linear
superposition of the first-order incident waves of different frequencies. Thus the total first
order potential for the wave-body interaction can be expressed by a sum of components
having circular frequency ω
j
> 0:
Φ
(1)
(x, t) = Re

j
φ
j
(x)e

j
t
(1.11)
Here we introduce the complex velocity potential φ
j
(x), indepedent of time, with the
understanding that the real part of the time harmonic solution is physically relevant.
In (1.11) φ
j
(x) denotes the first-order solution in the presence of the incident wave of
frequency ω
j
and the wave heading β
j
. The directional spreading of the incident waves is
not shown explicitly in (1.11). However if it is necessary, one can easily incorporate it by
expressing φ
j
(x) as a sum of the velocity potential components each of which corresponds
to a particular wave heading.
At the second-order, the total velocity potential takes a form
2
Here ξξ ξ includes both the translational and the rotational modes of the rigid body. Frequently ξξ ξ is
used, in a restrictive sense, to denote only the translational modes. In that case αα α is used for the rotational
modes.
3
Φ
(2)
(x, t) = Re

i

j
φ
+
ij
(x)e
i(ω
i

j
)t


ij
(x)e
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)t
(1.12)
with symmetric conditions
φ
+
ij
= φ
+
ji
and φ

ij
= φ
−∗
ji
(1.13)
Here we may assume ω
i
≥ ω
j
≥ 0 without loss of the generality. φ
+
ij
and φ

ij
are
referred to as the sum- and difference-frequency velocity potential with frequencies ω
i

j
and ω
i
−ω
j
, respectively. These are determined by two linear incident wave components:
one has frequency ω
j
and wave heading β
j
and the other ω
i
and β
i
. If one consider the
directional spreading of the incident waves, φ
±
ij
(x) are represented by a double summation
over wave headings (β
i
, β
j
).
In the next two chapters, we discuss the solution procedures for the complex velocity
potentials φ
j
and φ
±
ij
in (1.11) and (1.12).
4
Chapter 2
THE FIRST-ORDER PROBLEM
In this Chapter, we review the first-order boundary value problem and its solution proce-
dure. Here we consider one particular frequency component, ω
j
from the discrete spectrum
(1.12). Thus we omit the subscript j indicating the frequency component in this Chapter.
The velocity potential of the first-order incident wave is defined by
φ
I
=
igA
ω
Z(κz)e
−iκ(x cos β+y sin β)
(2.1)
representing a plane progressive wave of the circular frequency ω and the wave heading
angle β. β is an angle of incidence to the positive x − axis. A denotes the complex wave
amplitude.
The function Z represents the depth dependence of the flow and is given by
Z(κz) = e
κz
(2.2)
for infinite water depth, where κ =
ω
2
g
≡ ν. For a fluid of depth h, it is given by
Z(κz) =
cosh(κ(z +h))
cosh(κh)
(2.3)
where the wavenumber κ is the real root of the dispersion relation
κ tanhκh =
ω
2
g
(2.4)
An efficient root finding algorithm for the computation of κ from equation (2.4) is
explained in Newman (1990).
The scattering velocity potential φ
S
represents the disturbance to the incident wave due
to the presence of the body in its fixed position. Linearity of the problem allows it to be
distinguished from the disturbance due to the the motion of the body which is represented
by the radiation potential φ
R
. Thus the total velocity potential is given by
φ = φ
I

S

R
= φ
D

R
(2.5)
5
where the diffraction potential φ
D
is defined to be the sum of φ
I
and φ
S
.
The radiation potential itself is a linear combination of the components corresponding
to the modes of motion such that
φ
R
= iω
6

k=1
ξ
k
φ
k
(2.6)
Here ξ
k
is the complex amplitude of the oscillatory motion in mode k of the six degrees of
freedom, and φ
k
the corresponding unit-amplitude radiation potential (specifically, unit-
amplitude means the unit-amplitude linear or angular velocity of the rigid body motion).
These modes are referred to as surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw in the increasing
order of j.
2.1 Boundary Value Problem
The total first-order velocity potential φ, along with each of its components, satisfies the
Laplace equation in the fluid domain:

2
φ = 0, (2.7)
the linear free-surface condition:
φ
z
−νφ = 0 on z = 0, (2.8)
and a condition on the sea bottom:
∇φ →0 as z →−∞, (2.9a)
or
φ
z
= 0 on z = −h (2.9b)
for infinite- and finite- water depth, respectively.
In addition, the scattering and the radiation potentials are subject to a radiation con-
dition stating that the wave energy associated with the disturbance due to the body is
carried away from the body in all direction in the far field.
Finally, the conditions on the body surface complete the description of the boundary
value problem. They take the form
∂φ
k
∂n
= n
k
(2.10)
and
∂φ
S
∂n
= −
∂φ
I
∂n
(2.11)
6
where (n
1
, n
2
, n
3
) = n and (n
4
, n
5
, n
6
) = x × n. The unit vector n is normal to the
body boundary and it is assumed the normal vector points out of the fluid domain. x is
the position of a point on the body boundary. From (2.5), it follows that
∂φ
D
∂n
= 0 (2.12)
Variations to the canonical problem specified above include multibody interactions,
generalized modes and the presence of the vertical walls.
1
These topics are reviewed briefly
next, along with the exploitation of the symmetry of the bodies.
2.1.1 Multiple bodies
The decomposition of the radiation potential into components, corresponding to the modes
of the rigid body motion, can be extended to multi-body interaction. This is done by
defining φ
k
as the velocity potential corresponding to a particular mode of one body while
the other bodies are kept stationary. In this way, the total radiation potential consists of
6N components, where N is the number of bodies.
2.1.2 Body deformations
Appication can also be made to analyze the more general modes of motion of the structure,
beyond the rigid body motions. Examples are the bending modes of structural deformation
and the compressible modes of a flexible body. To analyze these modes, the mode shapes are
described in terms of the vector displacement of the body boundary. Let u
k
(x) be the mode
shape given as a function of the points on the body boundary. Then the corresponding
radiation potential φ
k
satisfies
∂φ
k
∂n
= u
k
· n (2.13)
on the body boundary. The details of the analysis for generalized modes and its applications
are described in Newman (1994).
2.1.3 Bodies near walls
When walls are present, the velocity potential is subject to the condition
∂φ
∂n
= 0 (2.14)
on the walls. If we define the incident wave as in (2.1), a reflected wave (φ
r
I
) should be
added to φ
I
to describe the wave field in the absence of the body. The resultant wave field
1
Walls are assumed to coincide with the x = 0 or the y = 0 planes. When there are two walls they
meet perpendicularly at the origin.
7
satisfies (2.14) and it is a standing wave with maximum free surface elevation 2|A|. (The
actual free surface elevation depends on the incident wave heading β.) The total velocity
potential is then expressed in the form
φ = φ
I

r
I

S

R
(2.15)
If the body geometry is symmetric with respect to the x = 0 plane, the y = 0 plane or
both, the computational domain for φ
D
, φ
S
and φ
R
can be reduced to half or one quadrant
of the entire domain. In these cases, the velocity potentials are expressed as a sum of the
symmetric and antisymmetric components with respect to the planes of symmetry. On
these planes, the symmetric component satisfies
∂φ
∂n
= 0 (2.16)
and the antisymmetric component satisfies
φ = 0 (2.17)
2.1.4 Integral Equations
The boundary value problem is solved by the integral equation method. Thus the velocity
potential φ
k
on the body boundary is obtained from the integral equation
2πφ
k
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξφ
k
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
=
__
S
B
dξξ ξn
k
G(ξξ ξ; x) (2.18)
where S
B
denotes the body boundary.
The corresponding equation for the total diffraction velocity potential φ
D
is (Korsmeyer
et al (1988))
2πφ
D
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξφ
D
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
= 4πφ
I
(x) (2.19)
Alternatively, the scattering potential can be obtained from
2πφ
S
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξφ
S
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
=
__
S
B
dξξ ξ(−
∂φ
I
∂n
)G(ξξ ξ; x) (2.20)
and the diffraction potential follows from (2.5). From a computational point of view,
(2.19) is slightly more efficient than (2.20) due to the simpler form of the right-hand-side.
We need to evaluate the fluid velocity on the body surface and in the fluid domain for
the computation of the second-order wave forces as discussed in Chapter 4. The velocity
may be computed from the spacial derivatives of Green’s integral equations, (2.18) to
(2.20). However when these equations are solved using a low order panel method, they
can not predict the velocity accurately on or close to the body boundary. This is due to
the hypersingular integral arising from the double derivative of the constant strength wave
8
source potential distributed on a quadrilateral panel. For this reason, the fluid velocity is
computed based on the source formulation. The integral equation for the source strength
σ
k
corresponding to the radiation potential φ
k
takes the form (Lee and Newman (1991))
2πσ
k
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξσ
k
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
x
= n
k
(2.21)
and that of σ
S
corresponding to the scattering potential φ
S
2πσ
S
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξσ
S
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
x
= −
∂φ
I
∂n
(2.22)
The fluid velocity on the body boundary or in the fluid domain due to φ
k
or φ
S
is then
obtained from
∇φ(x) = ∇
__
S
B
dξξ ξσ(ξξ ξ)G(ξξ ξ; x) (2.23)
The fluid velocity due to the incident wave is evaluated directly from (2.1).
Integral equations, (2.18) to (2.22) are solved by the panel method. The wetted body
surface is represented by an ensemble of quadrilateral panels (a triangular panel is a special
type of quadrilateral panel where two vertices coalesce). The unknowns are assumed to
be constant over each panel and the integral equation is enforced at the centroid of each
panel (a collocation method). For example, the discrete form of the equation (2.20) takes
the form
2πφ
S
(x
k
) +
NEQN

n=1
φ
S
(x
n
)
_
Sn
dξξ ξ
∂G(ξξ ξ; x
k
)
∂n
ξξ ξ
=
NEQN

n=1

∂φ
I
(x
n
)
∂n
_
Sn
dξξ ξG(ξξ ξ; x
k
) (2.24)
where NEQN is the total number of panels (unknowns) and x
k
are the coordinates of
the centroid of the k-th panel.
2.1.5 The Green Function
The Green function G(x; ξξ ξ), which is referred to as the wave source potential, is the velocity
potential at the point x due to a point source of strength −4π located at the point ξξ ξ. It
satisfies the free-surface and radiation conditions, and in infinite water depth it is defined
by (Wehausen and Laitone (1960))
G(x; ξξ ξ) =
1
r
+
1
r

+

π
_

0
dk
e
k(z+ζ)
k −ν
J
0
(kR) (2.25)
r
2
= (x −ξ)
2
+ (y −η)
2
+ (z −ζ)
2
(2.26)
9
r
2
= (x −ξ)
2
+ (y −η)
2
+ (z +ζ)
2
(2.27)
where J
0
(x) is the Bessel function of zero order. In finite depth, it is defined by
G(x; ξξ ξ) =
1
r
+
1
r

+ 2
_

0
dk
(k +ν) cosh k(z +h) cosh k(ζ +h)
k sinh kh −ν cosh kh
e
−kh
J
0
(kR) (2.28)
(r

)
2
= (x −ξ)
2
+ (y −η)
2
+ (z +ζ + 2h)
2
. (2.29)
In both expressions (2.25) and (2.28), the Fourier k−integration is indented above the
pole on the real axis in order to enforce the radiation condition.
In the equation (2.24), the influence due to the continuous distribution of the Rank-
ine part of the wave source potential on a quadrilateral panel is evaluated based on the
algorithms described in Newman (1985). The remaining wave part of the Green function
is evaluated based on the algorithms described in Newman (1992). The integration of the
latter part over a panel is carried out using either one or four point Gauss quadrature.
When the field and source points are close together and in the vicinity of the free surface,
G takes a form
G(x; ξξ ξ) =
1
r
+
1
r

−2νe
ν(z+ζ)
(log(r

+|z +ζ|) + (γ −log 2) +r

+O(r

log r

)) (2.30)
where γ is the Euler constant. The logarithmic singularity in (2.30) may not be evaluated
accurately using Gauss quadrature in this situation. The algorithm for evaluating the
influence of the logarithmic singularity distributed over a panel can be found in Newman
and Sclavounos (1988). When the panel is on the free surface, special care is required for
the evaluation of Green function as is discussed in Newman (1993) and Zhu (1994). The
former is attached in the appendix.
When there are walls or when we exploit the symmetry/antisymmetry of the flow, the
velocity potentials are subject to the conditions (2.14), (2.16) or (2.17). In this case, the
image source must be placed at the reflected points of x with respect to the planes of
symmetry. The Green function is then modified to be a sum of (2.15) or (2.28) and its
image sources.
2.1.6 Linear system
The linear system, generated by implementing the solution procedure described above (for
example (2.24)), is solved by an iterative method, a block iterative method or Gauss elim-
ination. The details on the iterative method is described in Lee (1988). The relative
computational efficiency between the iterative method and Gauss elimination can be illus-
trated by the ratio of the number of floating point operations. This ratio, the former to the
latter, is O(
3KM
NEQN
). Where NEQN is the number of unknowns or the dimension of the
linear system and K is the number of iterations. M is the number of the right-hand sides
of the linear system sharing a left-hand side. (As an example, in (2.24) the number of the
10
right-hand-side vectors is the same as the number of the different wave headings of φ
I
for a
fixed left-hand-side matrix.) In most applications the iterative method converges in 10-15
iterations and is the most efficient way to solve the linear system. Gauss elimination is not
only slower than the iterative method for large NEQN but also requires sufficiently large
core memory to store the entire matrix elements, since the LU decomposition is performed
using the core memory. On the other hand, in the iterative method, all or part of the
matrix may be stored on the auxiliary storage devise (hard disk) and then retrieved at
each iteration.
There are some problems for which the iterative method is slowly convergent or non-
convergent due to bad conditioning of the linear system. Some examples are i) barges with
shallow draft, ii) bodies with large flare and iii) multiple bodies separated by small gaps.
Another case where the iterative method may be slowly convergent is in the linear system
for the extended boundary integral equation (see Section 2.3). For these problems, Gauss
elimination or the block iterative method should be used. The block iterative method is
based on the same algorithm as the iterative method, but Gauss elimination is applied
locally for the specified diagonal blocks. At each stage of the iterations, the back substitu-
tion is performed for the diagonal blocks. This accelerates the rate of convergence as the
dimension of the block increases. The limiting case is the same as Gauss elimination. The
opposite limit is the case when the dimension of the blocks is one, which is identical to the
iterative method. The block iterative method requires core memory to store the elements
of one block for LU decomposition.
2.1.7 Removal of Irregular Frequencies
The integral equations (2.18-22) have nonunique solutions at the common irregular fre-
quencies corresponding to the Dirichlet eigen-frequencies for the closed domain defined
by the body boundary, and the interior free surface, S
i
. The eigenmodes correspond to
the solution with the homogeneous Dirichlet condition on S
B
and the linear free-surface
condition on S
i
. Numerical solutions of these equations are erroneous near the irregular
frequencies. The extended boundary integral equation method is applied to remove the
irregular frequency effect from the velocity potentials in (2.18-20).
The extended boundary integral equations for φ
k
are
2πφ
k
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξφ
k
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
+
_
S
f
dξξ ξφ

k
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
=
__
S
B
dξξ ξn
k
G(ξξ ξ; x) (2.31a)
−4πφ

k
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξφ
k
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
+
_
S
f
dξξ ξφ

k
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
=
__
S
B
dξξ ξn
k
G(ξξ ξ; x) (2.31b)
where φ

k
is an artificial velocity potential defined in the interior domain. Equations
(2.31a) and (2.31b) are for x on S
B
and S
i
, respectively. These two equations are solved
simultaneously for φ
k
on S
B
and φ

k
on S
i
. We discard φ

k
after we solve the equations,
since only φ
k
on S
B
is physically relevant.
11
The equations for the diffraction potential φ
D
are given by
2πφ
D
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξφ
D
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
+
_
S
f
dξξ ξφ

D
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
= 4πφ
I
(x) (2.32a)
−4πφ

D
(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξφ
D
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
+
_
S
f
dξξ ξφ

D
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
= 4πφ
I
(x) (2.32b)
The scattering potential takes the same form as the radiation potential but −
∂φ
I
∂n
replaces n
k
on the right-hand side of the equations (2.31a) and (2.32b).
The extended boundary integral equation for the source formulation of the radiation
or scattering problem takes a form
2πσ(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξσ(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
+
_
S
f
dξξ ξσ

(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
= g(x) (2.33a)
−4πσ

(x) +
__
S
B
dξξ ξσ(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
+
_
S
f
dξξ ξσ

(ξξ ξ)
∂G(ξξ ξ; x)
∂n
ξξ ξ
= −V (x) (2.33b)
where g(x) = n
k
(g(x) = −
∂φ
I
∂n
) for the radition (scattering) problem. The proper
condition of the function V (x) is discussed in Lee et al (1995).
The details of the derivation of these equations are described in Kleinman (1982), Lee
et al (1995) and Zhu (1994). Zhu (1994) also makes a comparison with other methods
for the removal of the irregular frequency effect and demonstrates the effectiveness of the
present method.
12
Chapter 3
THE SECOND-ORDER PROBLEM
From the quadratic interaction of the two linear wave components of the frequencies ω
i
and ω
j
in the discrete spectrum (1.11)
1
, we have the second-order waves of the frequency
components ω
i
+ ω
j
and ω
i
− ω
j
in (1.12). In this Chapter we restrict our attention to
the solution of the second-order boundary value problem, i.e. the second-order potential.
Other second-order quantities, such as the quadratic second-order force , obtainable from
the first-order solution, are discussed in Chapter 4.
The second-order velocity potential Φ
(2)
(x, t) is subject to the free surface condition

2
Φ
(2)
∂t
2
+g
∂Φ
(2)
∂z
= Q
F
(x, y; t) (3.1)
and the body boundary condition
∂Φ
(2)
∂n
= Q
B
(x; t) (3.2)
where the inhomogeneous right-hand-side of the second-order free-surface condition
(3.1) defines the quadratic forcing function (Newman (1977, Section 6.4))
Q
F
=
1
g
∂Φ
(1)
∂t

∂z
(

2
Φ
(1)
∂t
2
+g
∂Φ
(1)
∂z
) −

∂t
(∇Φ
(1)
· ∇Φ
(1)
) (3.3)
Q
F
is to be evaluated on z = 0. The forcing function on the body boundary is given
by (Ogilvie (1983))
Q
B
= −
∂Φ
(2)
I
∂n
+n ·
∂H
∂t
x + (αα α
(1)
×n) · (
∂(ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x)
∂t
−∇Φ
(1)
)
−n · ((ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x) · ∇)∇Φ
(1)
+
6

k=1
∂ξ
(2)
k
∂t
n
k
(3.4)
1
When body is not fixed, the first-order motion affects the second-order solution as shown in the
equation (3.4) below.
13
and it is to be evaluated on the mean body boundary. H in (3.4) is the quadratic
components of the coordinate transformation matrix due to the rotation of the body and it
takes a form (3.14) and (3.15), for sum- and differency-frequency problems. In (3.4), Φ
(2)
I
is
referred to as the second-order incident wave potential. This is the second-order potential
in the absence of the body and will be discussed in Section 3.2. n
k
is the appropriate
component of n for the translational modes and of a component of (x×n) for the rotational
modes.
In the following evaluations of second-order products of two first-order oscillatory quan-
tities, use is made of the relation
Re(Ae

i
t
)Re(Be

j
t
) =
1
2
Re[(Ae

i
t
)(Be

j
t
+B

e
−iω
j
t
)] (3.5)
where (

) denotes the complex conjugate.
In accordance with the definition of the second-order potential (1.12), Q is expressed
as
Q(x, t) = Re

i

j
_
Q
+
ij
(x)e
i(ω
i

j
)t
+Q

ij
(x)e
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)t
_
(3.6)
With the symmetry condition,
Q
+
ij
= Q
+
ji
and Q

ij
= Q
−∗
ji
(3.7)
The other second-order quantities such as the motion amplitude ξξ ξ
(2)
= ξ
±
ij
are expressed
in a form of (3.6) with the symmetry condition (3.7). With this in mind, we will omit the
subscript ij hereafter.
From combining (1.11) and (3.3), we have the expressions for the complex amplitudes
of the free-surface forcing functions. Sum- and difference- frequency forcings on z = 0 are
given by
Q
+
F
=
i
4g
ω
i
φ
i
(−ω
2
j
∂φ
j
∂z
+g

2
φ
j
∂z
2
) +
i
4g
ω
j
φ
j
(−ω
2
i
∂φ
i
∂z
+g

2
φ
i
∂z
2
)

1
2
i(ω
i

j
)∇φ
i
· ∇φ
j
(3.8)
and
Q

F
=
i
4g
ω
i
φ
i
(−ω
2
j
∂φ

j
∂z
+g

2
φ

j
∂z
2
) −
i
4g
ω
j
φ

j
(−ω
2
i
∂φ
i
∂z
+g

2
φ
i
∂z
2
)

1
2
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)∇φ
i
· ∇φ

j
(3.9)
For future reference, we note that the first-order potential φ
i
and φ
j
in (3.8-9), consist
of the incident wave potential (φ
I
) and the body disturbances (φ
B
= φ
S
+ φ
R
). Thus
we may decompose Q
±
F
into the quadratic interactions of the two incident wave potentials
14
(Q
±
II
), the incident and the body disturbance waves (Q
±
IB
), and two body disturbance waves
(Q
±
BB
) such that
Q
±
F
= Q
±
II
+Q
±
IB
+Q
±
BB
(3.10)
Next we consider the sum- and difference-frequency forcing on the body boundary.
They are given by
Q
+
B
= −
∂φ
+
I
∂n
+
i(ω
i

j
)
2
n · H
+
x
+
i
4
[(αα α
i
×n) · (ω
j
(ξξ ξ
j
+αα α
j
×x) −∇φ
j
) + (αα α
j
×n) · (ω
i
(ξξ ξ
i
+αα α
i
×x) −∇φ
i
)]

1
4
n · [((ξξ ξ
i
+αα α
i
×x) · ∇)∇φ
j
+ ((ξξ ξ
j
+αα α
j
×x) · ∇)∇φ
i
] (3.11)
and
Q

B
= −
∂φ

I
∂n
+
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)
2
n · H

x
+
i
4
[(αα α
i
×n) · (ω
j
(ξξ ξ

j
+αα α

j
×x) −∇φ

j
) + (αα α

j
×n) · (ω
i
(ξξ ξ
i
+αα α
i
×x) −∇φ
i
)]

1
4
n · [((ξξ ξ
i
+αα α
i
×x) · ∇)∇φ

j
+ ((ξξ ξ

j
+αα α

j
×x) · ∇)∇φ
i
] (3.12)
The sum- and difference-frequency components of the last term of (3.4),
Q
±
B
= i(ω
i
±ω
j
)

k
ξ
±
n
k
(3.13)
are omitted from (3.11-12), since they are not a quadratic function of the first-order so-
lution. These are proportional to the second-order motion and can be treated separately
from the rest of body forcing as is discussed below.
The matrices H
±
which account for the rotational motion of the body are given by
H
+
=
1
2
_
_
_
−(α
2i
α
2j

3i
α
3j
) 0 0
α
1i
α
2j

1j
α
2i
−α
1i
α
1j

3i
α
3j
0
α
1i
α
3j

1j
α
3i
α
2i
α
3j

2j
α
3i
−α
1i
α
1j

2i
α
2j
_
_
_ (3.14)
H

=
1
2
_
_
_
−(α
2i
α

2j

3i
α

3j
) 0 0
α
1i
α

2j


1j
α
2i
−α
1i
α

1j

3i
α

3j
0
α
1i
α

3j


1j
α
3i
α
2i
α

3j


2j
α
3i
−α
1i
α

1j

2i
α

2j
_
_
_ (3.15)
As in the first-order problem, it is convenient to decompose the total second-order
potential into three components: the second order incident wave potential (φ
±
I
), the second-
order scattering wave potential (φ
±
S
) and the second-order radiation potential (φ
±
R
). We
define φ
±
I
as the potential that satisfies the second-order free surface condition in absence
of the body. φ
±
R
describes the disturbance due the second-order motion of the body and
15
is linearly proportional to the motion amplitude. It can be decomposed into the mode
dependent components
φ
±
R
= i(ω
i
±ω
j
)
6

k=1
ξ
k
φ
k
(3.16)
where the unit-amplitude radiation velocity potential φ
k
is defined in the same way as φ
k
in Chapter 2. The rest of the second-order potential is defined to be φ
±
S
, whether the
body is fixed or moving. This decomposition is in accordance with the convention for the
first-order problem where the wave exciting force is the pressure force due to the sum of
the incident and scattering waves.
3.1 Boundary Value Problem
The total second-order potential φ
±
satisfies Laplace’s equation in z < 0 and the condition
on the sea bottom (equations (2.7) and (2.9a-9b)). The boundary condition on the free
surface, on the body boundary and at the far field are specified below for each component
potential.
The incident wave potential is subject to
−(ω
i
±ω
j
)
2
φ
±
I
+g
∂φ
±
I
∂z
= Q
±
II
on z = 0 (3.17)
The unit amplitude radiation potential is subject to
−(ω
i
±ω
j
)
2
φ
k
+g
∂φ
k
∂z
= 0 on z = 0 (3.18)
and
∂φ
k
∂n
= n
k
(3.19)
on the mean body boundary S
B
.
Finally, the scattering potential is subject to
−(ω
i
±ω
j
)
2
φ
±
S
+g
∂φ
±
S
∂z
= Q
±
IB
+Q
±
BB
on z = 0 (3.20)
and
∂φ
±
S
∂n
= Q
±
B
(3.21)
At the far field φ
±
R
satisfies the same radiation condition as that for φ
R
of the first-order.
For φ
±
S
, we apply the ‘weak radiation condition’ suggested by Molin (1979). Thus based
on the asymptotic behaviours of G and Q
±
F
(in other words, from the behaviours of φ
i
and
φ
j
), the surface integral at the far field can be shown to vanish with the result shown in
(3.28). The detailed analysis is in Molin (1979).
16
3.2 The Second-order Incident Waves
Each of the two first-order incident waves is defined by the amplitude A, frequency ω, and
vector wavenumber K with Cartesian components (κ cos β, κ sin β, 0). Here β is the angle
of incidence relative to the x−axis. The first-order incident wave potential (2.1) can be
written in the form
φ
I
=
igA
ω
Z(κz)e
−iK·x
(3.22)
On z = 0, the first- and the second-derivatives of Z in vertical direction are
_
∂Z(κz)
∂z
_
z=0
= ν and
_

2
Z(κz)
∂z
2
_
z=0
= κ
2
(3.23)
Combining (3.22) with (3.8-9) gives
Q
+
II
= −
1
2
ig
2
A
i
A
j
exp(−i(K
i
+K
j
) · x)
__
κ
2
j
−ν
2
j

j
_
+
_
κ
2
i
−ν
2
i

i
_
+

i

j
)
ω
i
ω
j
(K
i
· K
j
−ν
i
ν
j
)
_
(3.24)
and
Q

II
=
1
2
ig
2
A
i
A

j
exp(−i(K
i
−K
j
) · x)
__
κ
2
j
−ν
2
j

j
_

_
κ
2
i
−ν
2
i

i
_


i
−ω
j
)
ω
i
ω
j
_
K
i
· K
j

i
ν
j
__
(3.25)
Solutions for the second-order incident-wave potential follow from (3.17) in the form
φ
±
I
=
Q
±
II
(x, y)Z(κ
±
ij
z)
−(ω
i
±ω
j
)
2
+gκ
±
ij
tanhκ
±
ij
h
(3.26)
where
κ
±
ij
= |K
i
±K
j
| (3.27)
Note that in infinite water depth, Q
II
= 0 if β
i
= β
j
. Thus the sum frequency incident
wave potential φ
+
I
vanishes in unidirectional regular and irregular waves.
3.3 The Second-order Scattering Waves
The solution for the second-order scattering potential, φ
±
S
, is obtained from Green’s integral
equation
17
2πφ
±
S
(x) +
_ _
S
B
φ
±
S
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(x; ξξ ξ)
∂n
ξ
dS =
_ _
S
B
Q
±
B
(ξξ ξ)G(x; ξξ ξ)dS
+
1
g
_ _
S
F
Q
±
F
(ξξ ξ)G(x; ξξ ξ)dS (3.28)
where G is the wave source potential defined in (2.25) and (2.28).
After the solution of (3.28), φ
±
S
on the free surface and in the fluid domain can be
obtained from
4πφ
±
S
(x) +
_ _
S
B
φ
±
S
(ξξ ξ)
∂G(x; ξξ ξ)
∂n
ξ
dS =
_ _
S
B
Q
±
B
(ξξ ξ)G(x; ξξ ξ)dS
+
1
g
_ _
S
F
Q
±
F
(ξξ ξ)G(x; ξξ ξ)dS (3.29)
The integral equation (3.28) is solved by the panel method. The left-hand side of (3.28)
is identical to the integral equation for the first-order potential and thus the discrete form
of it is the same as that of (2.24) (but with G corresponding to the same frequency ω and
wavenumber as φ
±
S
).
The evaluation of the integrals on the right hand side is described below. We consider
the integral over S
B
first. For a fixed body, the evaluation Q
±
B
(x) is simple, since it contains
only the normal velocity due to φ
±
I
which are derived in Section 3.2. When the body is
not fixed, we first modify the terms involving the double spacial derivative of the first-
order velocity potential by applying Stokes’s theorem to avoid the inaccurate numerical
evaluation of the second-order derivatives based on the lower order panel method (Lee and
Zhu (1993)).
__
S
B
dSG{n · [(ξξ ξ +αα α ×x) · ∇]∇φ} =
__
S
B
dS[n · (ξξ ξ +αα α ×x)](∇φ · ∇G)
+
__
S
B
dSG{n · [(∇φ · ∇)(ξξ ξ +αα α ×x)]} −
__
S
B
dS
∂φ
∂n
[(ξξ ξ +αα α ×x) · ∇G]
+
_
WL
dl · G[∇φ ×(ξξ ξ +αα α ×x)] (3.30)
After substituting (3.30) into Q
±
B
, the integral over S
B
is represented by a sum of the
integral over each panel assuming Q
±
B
(x) is constant on each panel. Q
±
B
(x) is evaluated
on the centroids of the panels. The waterline is approximated by line segments (consisting
of the sides of the panels adjacent to the free surface) and Q
±
B
(x) is evaluated on the
midpoints of the segments.
The free-surface integral which is displayed as the last term in (3.28) will be considered
next in which the ‘quadratic forcing function’ Q
±
F
is given by (3.8-9). For the purposes
of numerical evaluation, the free-surface integral is evaluated separately in two domain
divided by a partition circle of radius ρ = b. b issufficiently large to neglect the effect of
the evanescent waves outside the circle. Here ρ =

x
2
+y
2
. Following the methodology of
18
Kim and Yue(1989), the integration in the inner domain ρ < b is carried out numerically.
In the outer domain (b ≤ ρ) both the Green function and the asymptotics of the first-
order potentials are expanded in Fourier-Bessel series. After integrating the trigonometric
functions with respect to the angular coordinate, the free-surface integrals are reduced
to the sum of the line integrals with respect to the radial coordinate ρ. The method of
integration on the inner domain is described below and that on the outer domain follows
in the next Section.
In the inner domain, in order to avoid the evaluation of second-order derivatives of the
first-order potentials in (3.8-9), the surface integral is transformed, using Gauss theorem,
to a form involving only the first-order derivatives and line integrals around the waterline
(WL) and the partition circle (PC) as is shown below.
__
S
F
φ
i

2
φ
j
∂z
2
GdS = −
__
WL+PC
φ
i
(∇φ
j
· n)Gdl
+
__
S
F
[(∇φ
i
· ∇φ
j
)G+φ
i
(∇φ
j
· ∇G)]dS (3.31)
where S
F
denotes only the inner domain of the free surface. The divergence ∇ and the
normal vector n must be interpreted in the two dimensional sense on the z = 0 plane.
The line integrals over WL and PC are carried out in a similar way to the line integral
in (3.30). To achieve a better computational efficiency for the remaining surface integral,
we divide the inner domain further into two parts separated by a circle of radius ‘a

with
a < b. a is sufficiently large to enclose the body. Inside this circle, the free surface is
discretized with quadrilateral panels, in an analogous manner to the body surface. Thus
the integration on this region is the sum of the integral over each panels assuming the
constant Q
±
F
on each panel evaluated at the centroid. The domain outside the circle of
radius a to the partition circle forms an annulus. The integral on this domain is carried out
by Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature in the azimuthal direction and Gauss-Legendre quadrature
in the radial direction as discussed in Lee and Zhu (1993).
When the field point x on the body and the source point ξξ ξ on the annulus are close, the
Rankine singularity of G(x; ξξ ξ) renders Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature inefficient. Discussion
on the selection of the optimum a is provided in Chapter 11 of the WAMIT User Manual
(1995). The analysis on the integral over the far-field free surface is described in detail in
Newman (1991) which is included in the Appendix
19
Chapter 4
THE FIRST- AND
SECOND-ORDER FORCES
The expressions for the first- and second-order forces are derived from direct integration of
the fluid pressure over a body boundary in Section 4.1. By making use of Green’s theorem,
part of the forces can be obtained without solving the scattering potential. The first-order
Haskind exciting force and the second-order force via indirect approach are discussed in
Section 4.2. The equations of motion for the first- and second-order problem are derived
in Section 4.3.
4.1 Hydro-static and -dynamic Force and Moment
4.1.1 Coordinate system
We consider three coordinate systems. X = (X, Y, Z) is a global coordinate system and
with Z = 0 the undisturbed free-surface. The positive Z axis points upward. x = (x, y, z)
is a body-fixed coordinate system and z also is positive upward when the body is at rest.
We introduce a third coordinate system which is fixed in space and coincides with “x at
rest”. This coordinate system is denoted by ˆ x = (ˆ x, ˆ y, ˆ z). Note that X = (X, Y, Z) and
ˆ x = (ˆ x, ˆ y, ˆ z) are inertial reference frames but x = (x, y, z) is not. The origin of ˆ x may be
displaced from the free-surface and Z
o
denotes the Z-coordinate of the origin of ˆ x.
4.1.2 Coordinate transform
The position vectors in the ˆ x− and x− coordinate systems are related to each other by
linear transformation
ˆ x = ξξ ξ +T
t
x (4.1)
20
and the normal vector by
ˆ n = T
t
n (4.2)
In (4.1-2), T
t
is the transpose of T = T
3
T
2
T
1
and T
1
, T
2
and T
3
take forms
T
1
=
_
_
_
1 0 0
0 cos α
1
sin α
1
0 −sin α
1
cos α
1
_
_
_
T
2
=
_
_
_
cos α
2
0 −sin α
2
0 1 0
sin α
2
0 cos α
2
_
_
_ (4.3)
T
3
=
_
_
_
cos α
3
sin α
3
0
−sin α
3
cos α
3
0
0 0 1
_
_
_
ξξ ξ = (ξ
1
, ξ
2
, ξ
3
) and αα α = (α
1
, α
2
, α
3
) are the translational and rotational displacements
of x(-coordinate system) with respect to ˆ x, respectively. They also represent the mo-
tion amplitudes of the body in the order of surge-sway-heave and roll-pitch-yaw. Further
discussion on T can be found in Ogilvie (1983).
4.1.3 Pressure integration
In the following derivation, it is understood that the pressure, the velocity potential and
the body motion amplitudes are functions of time, though the time t does not appear
explicitly.
The total pressure at ˆ x is given by Bernoulli’s equation
P(ˆ x) = −ρ[Φ
t
(ˆ x) +
1
2
∇Φ(ˆ x) · ∇Φ(ˆ x) +g(ˆ z +Z
o
)] (4.4)
The hydro-static and -dynamic force and moment are obtained from the integration of
the pressure over the instantaneous wetted surface.
F =
__
ˆ
S
B
P(ˆ x)ˆ ndS (4.5)
and
M =
__
ˆ
S
B
P(ˆ x)(ˆ x × ˆ n)dS (4.6)
where
ˆ
S
B
denotes the instantaneous wetted body boundary.
The pressure on the exact body surface (ˆ x ∈
ˆ
S
B
) may be approximated by Taylor
expansion with respect to the mean body surface (x ∈ S
B
)
P(ˆ x) = P(x) + [ξξ ξ + (T
t
−I)x] · ∇P(x) +... (4.7)
21
Substituting (4.7) into (4.1-2), we have
ˆ x = x +ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x +Hx +ξξ ξ
(2)
+αα α
(2)
×x +O(A
3
) (4.8)
ˆ n = n +αα α
(1)
×n +Hn +αα α
(2)
×n +O(A
3
) (4.9)
The cross product of (4.8) and (4.9) then takes a form
ˆ x × ˆ n = x ×n +ξξ ξ
(1)
×n +αα α
(1)
×(x ×n) +ξξ ξ
(1)
×(αα α
(1)
×n)
+ H(x ×n) +ξξ ξ
(2)
×n +αα α
(2)
×(x ×n) +O(A
3
) (4.10)
From (4-4), (4-7) and (4.11), the pressure is expressed by the values on the mean body
position
P(ˆ x) = −ρ{g(z +Z
o
) + [Φ
(1)
t
(x) +g(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]
+ [
1
2
∇Φ
(1)
(x) · ∇Φ
(1)
(x) + (ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x) · ∇Φ
(1)
t
(x) +gHx · ∇z]
+ [Φ
(2)
t
(x) +g(ξ
(2)
3

(2)
1
y −α
(2)
2
x)]} +O(A
3
) (4.11)
H in (4.7-11) is the second-order component of T
t
and it takes a form
H =
_
_
_
_

1
2
((α
(1)
2
)
2
+ (α
(1)
3
)
2
) 0 0
α
(1)
1
α
(1)
2

1
2
((α
(1)
1
)
2
+ (α
(1)
3
)
2
) 0
α
(1)
1
α
(1)
3
α
(1)
2
α
(1)
3

1
2
((α
(1)
1
)
2
+ (α
(1)
2
)
2
)
_
_
_
_
(4.12)
Substituting the expansions (4.7-11) into (4.5-6), we have the series expansion of the
integrals (4.5-6).
4.1.4 Hydrostatic force and moment of O(1)
These are the buoyancy force and moment when the body is at rest and are expressed by
F = −ρg
_ _
S
B
(z +Z
o
)ndS
(4.13)
M = −ρg
_ _
S
B
(z +Z
o
)(x ×n)dS = −ρg
_ _
S
B
[(z +Z
o
)x] ×ndS
The following relations are invoked frequently in this Chapter.

_ _
S
ψndS =
_ _ _
V
∇ψdV

_ _
S
n ×ψdS =
_ _ _
V
∇×ψdV (4.14)
∇×(z +Z
o
)x = k ×x
22
where S is a closed surface consisting of S
B
and the waterplane area A
wp
. V denotes
the volume of the body.
Using the relations (4.14), the force and moment are expressed in familiar forms
F = ρgV k
(4.15)
M = ρgV (y
b
i −x
b
j)
where x
b
and y
b
are the x and y coordinates of the center of buoyancy.
In (4.15), i, j, and k are the unit vectors in ˆ x coordinate system.
4.1.5 Linear force and moment
The linear force and moment are obtained from
F
(1)
= − ρ
_ _
S
B

(1)
t
dS
− ρg
_ _
S
B
(αα α
(1)
×n)(z +Z
o
)dS
− ρ
_ _
S
B
ng(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)dS
(4.16)
M
(1)
= − ρ
_ _
S
B
(x ×n)Φ
(1)
t
dS
− ρg
_ _
S
B
(x ×n)(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)dS
− ρg
_ _
S
B
(ξξ ξ
(1)
×n)(z +Z
o
)dS
− ρg
_ _
S
B
[αα α
(1)
×(x ×n)](z +Z
o
)dS
In (4.16), the first terms are the hydrodynamic force and moment and the rest are the
hydrostatic. Following the decomposition (2.5), we consider component potentials such
that Φ
(1)
= Φ
(1)
I
+ Φ
(1)
S
+ Φ
(1)
R
= Φ
(1)
D
+ Φ
(1)
R
. The hydrodynamic force and moment are
divided into two components: the “wave exciting force” due to Φ
(1)
D
and the force due to
Φ
(1)
R
expressed in terms of the added mass and damping coefficients.
The integrals of the hydrostatic pressure can be simplified by applying (4.14) and their
variations with the results
F
(1)
= − ρ
_ _
S
B
Φ
(1)
t
ndS −ρgA
wp

(1)
3

(1)
1
y
f
−α
(1)
2
x
f
)k
23
(4.17)
M
(1)
= − ρ
_ _
S
B
(x ×n)Φ
(1)
t
dS
− ρg[−V ξ
(1)
2
+A
wp
y
f
ξ
(1)
3
+ (V z
b
+L
22

(1)
1
−L
12
α
(1)
2
−V x
b
α
(1)
3
]i
− ρg[ V ξ
(1)
1
−A
wp
x
f
ξ
(1)
3
−L
12
α
(1)
1
+ (V z
b
+L
11

(1)
2
−V y
b
α
(1)
3
]j
where L
ij
is the second moment over the waterplane area. For example, L
12
=
_ _
Awp
xydS.
x
f
and y
f
are the coordinates of the center of floatation.
Following (1.10), the force can be represented by a discrete spectrum (the moment takes
an identical form and is omitted here)
F
(1)
= Re

j
F
(1)
j
e

j
t
(4.18)
4.1.6 Second-order force and moment
The second-order force and moment are obtained from
F
(2)
= − ρg
_ _
S
B
(z +Z
o
)HndS −ρ
_ _
S
B
(αα α
(1)
×n)[Φ
(1)
t
+g(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]dS
− ρ
_ _
S
B
[
1
2
∇Φ
(1)
· ∇Φ
(1)
+ (ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x) · ∇Φ
(1)
t
]ndS −ρg
_ _
S
B
(Hx · k)ndS
+
1
2
ρg
_
WL

(1)
−(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]
2
_
1 −n
2
z
dl
− ρgA
wp

(2)
3

(2)
1
y
f
−α
(2)
2
x
f
)k
− ρ
_ _
S
B
Φ
(2)
t
ndS
(4.19)
M
(2)
=
1
2
ρg
_
wl

(1)
−(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]
2
_
1 −n
2
z
(x ×n)dl
− ρ
_ _
S
B
[
1
2
∇Φ
(1)
· ∇Φ
(1)
+ (ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x) · ∇Φ
(1)
t
](x ×n)dS
− ρ
_ _
S
B
(ξξ ξ
(1)
×n)[Φ
(1)
t
+g(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]dS
− ρg
_ _
S
B
ξξ ξ
(1)
×(αα α
(1)
×n)(z +Z
o
)dS
− ρ
_ _
S
B
αα α
(1)
×(x ×n)[Φ
(1)
t
+g(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]dS
− ρg
_ _
S
B
(z +Z
o
)H(x ×n)dS −ρg
_ _
S
B
(Hx · k)(x ×n)dS
− ρgi[−V ξ
(2)
2
+A
wp
y
f
ξ
(2)
3
+ (V z
b
+L
22

(2)
1
−L
12
α
(2)
2
−V x
b
α
(2)
3
]
− ρgj[ V ξ
(2)
1
−A
wp
x
f
ξ
(2)
3
−L
12
α
(2)
1
+ (V z
b
+L
11

(2)
2
−V y
b
α
(2)
3
]
24
− ρ
_ _
S
B
(x ×n)Φ
(2)
t
dS
We apply (4.14) and their variations to the hydrostatic pressure integrals of (4.19) and
make use of the following relations to simplify (4.19).
−ρ
_ _
S
B
(αα α
(1)
×n)[Φ
(1)
t
+ g(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]dS
= αα α ×F
(1)
+ρgαα α ×
_ _
S
B
(αα α
(1)
×n)(z +Z
o
)dS
= αα α ×F
(1)
+ρgV [−α
(1)
1
α
(1)
3
i −α
(1)
2
α
(1)
3
j + ((α
(1)
1
)
2
+ (α
(1)
2
)
2
)k]
(4.20)
−ρ
_ _
S
B
(ξξ ξ
(1)
×n)[Φ
(1)
t
+ g(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]dS
= ξξ ξ
(1)
×F
(1)
+ρg
_ _
S
B
ξξ ξ
(1)
×(αα α
(1)
×n)(z +Z
o
)dS
−ρ
_ _
S
B
αα α
(1)
×(x ×n) [Φ
(1)
t
+g(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]dS
= αα α
(1)
×M
(1)
+ρgαα α
(1)
×{
_ _
S
B
(ξξ ξ
(1)
×n)(z +Z
o
)dS +
_ _
S
B
[αα α
(1)
×(x ×n)](z +Z
o
)dS}
= αα α
(1)
×M
(1)
−ρgV αα α
(1)
×(ξξ ξ
(1)
× k) −ρgV αα α
(1)
×[αα α
(1)
×(y
b
i −x
b
j)]
The second-order force or moment due to Φ
(2)
is decomposed into a part due to Φ
(2)
I
+
Φ
(2)
S
and the other part due to Φ
(2)
R
as in the first-order. Then the force and moment (4.19)
take forms
F
(2)
= F
q
+F
p
− ρgA
wp

(2)
3

(2)
1
y
f
−α
(2)
2
x
f
)k
− ρ
_ _
S
B
n
∂Φ
(2)
R
∂t
dS
(4.21)
M
(2)
= M
q
+M
p
− ρgi[−V ξ
(2)
2
+A
wp
y
f
ξ
(2)
3
+ (V z
b
+L
22

(2)
1
−L
12
α
(2)
2
−V x
b
α
(2)
3
]
− ρgj[V ξ
(2)
1
−A
wp
x
f
ξ
(2)
3
−L
12
α
(2)
1
+ (V z
b
+L
11

(2)
2
−V y
b
α
(2)
3
]
− ρ
_ _
S
B
(x ×n)
∂Φ
(2)
R
∂t
dS
where the subscript q denotes the force and moment due to the quadratic interaction of
the first-order solution and p due to the second-order potential. The quadratic force and
moment are defined by
25
F
q
=
1
2
ρg
_
wl

(1)
−(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]
2
_
1 −n
2
z
ndl
− ρ
_ _
S
B
[
1
2
∇Φ
(1)
· ∇Φ
(1)
+ (ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x) · ∇Φ
(1)
t
]ndS
+ αα α
(1)
×F
(1)
−ρgA
wp

(1)
1
α
(1)
3
x
f

(1)
2
α
(1)
3
y
f
+
1
2
((α
(1)
1
)
2
+ (α
(1)
2
)
2
)Z
o
]k
(4.22)
M
q
=
1
2
ρg
_
wl

(1)
−(ξ
(1)
3

(1)
1
y −α
(1)
2
x)]
2
_
1 −n
2
z
(x ×n)dl
− ρ
_ _
S
B
[
1
2
∇Φ
(1)
· ∇Φ
(1)
+ (ξξ ξ
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×x) · ∇Φ
(1)
t
](x ×n)dS
+ ξξ ξ
(1)
×F
(1)
+αα α
(1)
×M
(1)
+ ρg(−V ξ
(1)
1
α
(1)
3
+V α
(1)
1
α
(1)
2
x
b
−V α
(1)
2
α
(1)
3
z
b

1
2
V ((a
(1)
1
)
2
−(a
(1)
3
)
2
)y
b
−α
(1)
1
α
(1)
3
L
12
−α
(1)
2
α
(1)
3
L
22

1
2
((α
(1)
1
)
2
+ (α
(1)
2
)
2
)Z
o
A
wp
y
f
)i
+ ρg(−V ξ
(1)
2
α
(1)
3
+V α
(1)
1
α
(1)
3
z
b
+
1
2
V ((a
(1)
2
)
2
−(a
(1)
3
)
2
)x
b

(1)
1
α
(1)
3
L
11

(1)
2
α
(1)
3
L
12
+
1
2
((α
(1)
1
)
2
+ (α
(1)
2
)
2
)Z
o
A
wp
x
f
)j
+ ρg(V ξ
(1)
1
α
(1)
1
+V ξ
(1)
2
α
(1)
2
+V α
(1)
2
α
(1)
3
x
b
−V α
(1)
1
α
(1)
3
y
b
)k
The second-order potential force and moment are given by
F
p
= −ρ
_ _
S
B
∂(Φ
(2)
I
+ Φ
(2)
S
)
∂t
ndS
(4.23)
M
p
= −ρ
_ _
S
B
(x ×n)
∂(Φ
(2)
I
+ Φ
(2)
S
)
∂t
dS
Adopting a form analogous to (1.12) the second-order force F
(2)
can be expressed as (the
moment takes an identical form),
F
(2)
= Re

i

j
F
+
ij
e
i(ω
i

j
)t
+F

ij
e
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)t
(4.24)
4.1.7 Haskind Exciting Force and Indirect Second-order Force
The linear wave exciting force and the second-order potential force F
p
may be evaluated not
from the scattering solution but from the appropriate component of the radiation solution.
The first-order force evaluated in this way is referred to as the Haskind exciting force and
the second-order force as the indirect force.
26
4.1.8 Haskind exciting force
We consider a complex amplitude of a spectral component of the first-order wave exciting
force. The force for the mode j is given by
F
j
= −iωρ
_ _
S
B
n
j

I

S
)dS (4.25)
From Green’s theorem, applied to φ
S
and a component of the radiation potential φ
j
,
we have
0 =
_ _
S
B
(
∂φ
j
∂n
φ
S

∂φ
S
∂n
φ
j
)dS (4.26)
It can be shown that integrals over the free surface, on the bottom and at the far field
vanish due to the boundary conditions for φ
S
and φ
j
on these surfaces. (Newman (1977,
Section 6.18)) Thus they do not appear in (4.26).
Upon substituting (4.26) into (4.25) with the conditions (2.10) and (2.11), the Haskind
relation follows in the form
F
j
= −iωρ
_ _
S
B
(n
j
φ
I

∂φ
I
∂n
φ
j
)dS (4.27)
4.1.9 Indirect second-order force
We consider a complex amplitude of a spectral component of the second-order potential
force F
p
. The force for the mode j is given by
F
±
pj
= −i(ω
i
±ω
j

_ _
S
B
n
j

±
I

±
S
)dS (4.28)
From Green’s theorem, applied to φ
±
S
and φ
±
j
, we have
0 =
_ _
S
B
(
∂φ
±
j
∂n
φ
±
S

∂φ
±
S
∂n
φ
±
j
)dS +
_ _
S
F
(
∂φ
±
j
∂z
φ
±
S

∂φ
±
S
∂z
φ
±
j
)dS (4.29)
It can be shown that the integrals on the sea bottom and at the far field vanish due to
the boundary conditions. Upon substituting (3.18-21) into (4.29), we have
_ _
S
B
n
j
φ
±
S
dS =
_ _
S
B
Q
±
B
φ
±
j
dS +
1
g
_ _
S
F
(Q
±
IB
+Q
±
BB

±
j
dS (4.30)
Thus the force can be obtained from
F
±
pj
= −i(ω
i
±ω
j
)ρ[
_ _
S
B
(n
j
φ
±
I
+Q
±
B
φ
±
j
)dS +
1
g
_ _
S
F
(Q
±
IB
+Q
±
BB

±
j
dS] (4.31)
The radiation potential φ
±
j
with the frequency ω
i
±ω
j
is often referred to as an assisting
potential.
27
4.2 Equations of Motion
The translational and rotational motions of the body are governed by
mˆ x
gtt
= F
T
(4.32)
and
L
t
= M
T
(4.33)
In (4.32), ˆ x
gtt
is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body and F
T
is the total
force due to the fluid pressure, the body mass and the external force. In (4.33), M
T
is the
total moment about the ˆ x
g
and L
t
is the time rate of change of the angular momentum in
the ˆ x coordinate system.
It is convenient to express (4.33) in the body-fixed coordinate system, x, in which the
moment of inertia is time invariant. Following Ogilvie(1983),
I
g
ωω ω
t
+ωω ω ×I
g
ωω ω = TM
T
(4.34)
where I
g
is the moment of inertia about the center of mass, ωω ω
t
(ωω ω) the angular acceler-
ation (velocity) and T the tranform matrix (4.3).
If we are interested in the motion about the origin of the body coordinate system, x
o
,
which may differ from the center of mass, the following relations are to be substitued into
(4.34).
I
g
ωω ω = Iωω ω −mx
g
×(ωω ω ×x
g
) (4.35)
and
M
T
= M
o
− ˆ x
g
×F
T
(4.36)
where I and M
o
are the moment of inertia and moment about o.
(4.32) and (4.34) with (4.35-6), describe the motion of the rigid body.
To derive the first- and the second-order equations of motion, we express ˆ x
g
, F
T
, TM
T
and ωω ω in perturbation series.
ˆ x
g
= x
g
+ξξ ξ +αα α ×x
g
+Hx
g
+O(A
3
) (4.37)
F = F
(1)
+ F
(1)
B
+F
(1)
E
+F
(2)
+F
(2)
B
+F
(2)
E
+O(A
3
) (4.38)
TM
T
= M
(1)
−x
g
×F
(1)
+M
(2)
−x
g
×F
(2)
−ξξ ξ
(1)
×F
(1)
−αα α
(1)
×M
(1)
+ x
g
×(αα α
(1)
×F
(1)
) + Γ
(1)
+ Γ
(2)
+O(A
3
) (4.39)
In (4.38-39), the subscript
B
denotes the gravitational force on the body mass,
E
external
force which is assumed to be expandable in a perturbation series. The force without
28
subscript is the hydro-static and -dynamic force derived in Sections 4.1 and 4.2. Γ
(1)
and
Γ
(2)
are the first- and second-order components of
Γ = T[M
(1)
B
+M
(2)
B
+M
(1)
E
+M
(2)
E
− ˆ x
g
×(F
(1)
E
+F
(2)
E
) +O(A
3
)] (4.40)
Equilibrium, when the body is at rest, leads to the conditions
F
(0)
+F
(0)
B
+ F
(0)
E
= 0 and M
(0)
+M
(0)
B
+M
(0)
E
= 0 (4.41)
The moment M
E
consists of a pure torque M
τ
and the moment due to the external
force
M
E
= M
τ
+ ˆ x
e
×F
E
(4.42)
The angular velocity in the ˆ x coordinate system can be obtained by linear superposition
of the contributions from time derivatives of Euler-angles.
ˆ ωω ω =
_
_
_
α
1t
0
0
_
_
_ +T
t
1
_
_
_
0
α
2t
0
_
_
_ +T
t
1
T
t
2
_
_
_
0
0
α
3t
_
_
_ (4.43)
and angular velocity in the x coordinate system, ωω ω, is obtained from
ωω ω = T
t
ˆ ωω ω (4.44)
Thus we have at the first-order
ωω ω
(1)
=
_
_
_
α
(1)
1t
α
(1)
2t
α
(1)
3t
_
_
_ (4.45)
and at the second-order
ωω ω
(2)
=
_
_
_
α
(2)
1t

(1)
2t
α
(1)
3
α
(2)
2t
−α
(1)
1t
α
(1)
3
α
(2)
3t

(1)
1t
α
(1)
2
_
_
_ (4.46)
Upon substitution of (4.35-46) into (4.32) and (4.34), the equations of motion at each
order follows. These are given by
[(M +M
E
+A){
ξξ ξ
(1)
tt
αα α
(1)
tt
} + (B +B
E
){
ξξ ξ
(1)
t
αα α
(1)
t
} + (C +C
E
){
ξξ ξ
(1)
αα α
(1)
}] = {
F
(1)
exc
M
(1)
exc
}(4.47)
and
[(M +M
E
+A){
ξξ ξ
(2)
tt
αα α
(2)
tt
} + (B +B
E
){
ξξ ξ
(2)
t
αα α
(2)
t
} + (C +C
E
){
ξξ ξ
(2)
αα α
(2)
}] = {
F
(2)
exc
M
(2)
exc
}(4.48)
29
where A and B are the added mass and damping coefficients and they depend on the
frequency. M
E
, B
E
and C
E
are the external force components which are proportional to
the unknown body acceleration, velocity and the motion amplitude, respectively. They
may or may not be different for the first and the second-order motions. M and C are the
same in (4.47) and (4.48) and they are given by
M =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
m 0 0 0 mz
g
−my
g
0 m 0 −mz
g
0 mx
g
0 0 m my
g
−mx
g
0
0 −mz
g
my
g
I
11
I
12
I
13
mz
g
0 mx
g
I
21
I
22
I
23
−my
g
mx
g
0 I
31
I
32
I
33
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(4.49)
C = g
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 ρA
wp
ρA
wp
y
f
−ρA
wp
x
f
0
0 0 ρA
wp
y
f
ρ(V z
b
+L
22
) −mz
g
−ρL
12
−ρV x
b
+mx
g
0 0 −ρA
wp
x
f
−ρL
12
ρ(V z
b
+L
11
) −mz
g
−ρV y
b
+my
g
0 0 0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(4.50)
Finally the force and moment on the right-hand side of (4.47) are
F
(1)
exc
= −ρ
_ _
S
B
Φ
D(1)
t
ndS + (ΣF
(1)
E
)
ex
(4.51)
M
(1)
exc
= −ρ
_ _
S
B
(x ×n)Φ
D(1)
t
dS + (ΣM
(1)
τ
+ Σx
e
×F
(1)
E
)
ex
and those on the right-hand side of (4.48) are
F
(2)
exc
= F
q
+F
p
−mH
tt
x
g
+ (ΣF
(2)
E
)
ex
(4.52)
M
(2)
exc
= M
q
+M
p
−ξξ ξ
(1)
×F
(1)
−αα α
(1)
×M
(1)
+ ρg[V ξ
(1)
1
α
(1)
3
i +V ξ
(1)
2
α
(1)
3
j −(V ξ
(1)
1
α
(1)
1
−V ξ
(1)
2
α
(1)
2
)k]
+ mg[(
1
2
((α
(1)
1
)
2
−(α
(1)
3
)
2
)y
g
−α
(1)
1
α
(1)
2
x
g

2
α
3
z
g
)i
− (
1
2
((α
(1)
2
)
2
−(α
(1)
3
)
2
)x
g

1
α
3
z
g
)j + (α
1
α
3
y
g
−α
2
α
3
x
g
)k]
+ x
g
×(αα α
(1)
×F
(1)
) −mx
g
×H
tt
x
g
−I
g
αα α
q
tt
− αα α
(1)
t
×I
g
αα α
(1)
t
+ Σ[Hx
e
×F
(0)
E
−αα α
(1)
×((αα α
(1)
×x
e
) ×F
(0)
E
)]
+ {Σ[M
(2)
τ
+x
e
×F
(2)
E
−αα α
(1)
×M
(1)
τ
−(x
e
−x
g
) ×(αα α
(1)
×F
(1)
E
)]}
ex
30
The subscript
ex
denotes the part of the force and moment which is not linearly propor-
tional to the motion amplitude, the velocity or the acceleration at each order. In (4.52),
αα α
q
tt
is a vector and its components are the time derivatives of the second terms of the vector
elements of (4.46).
31
REFERENCES A
Kim, M.-H. & Yue, D. K. P. 1989 ‘The complete second-order diffraction solution for an
axisymmetric body Part 1. Monochromatic incident waves,’ J. Fluid Mech. 200, 235–264.
Kleinman, R. E. 1982 ‘On the mathematical theory of the motion of floating bodies - an
update,’ DTNSRDC Rep 82/074.
Korsmeyer, F. T., Lee, C.-H., Newman, J. N., & Sclavounos, P. D., 1988 ‘The analysis
of wave interactions with tension leg platforms,’ OMAE Conference, Houston.
Lee, C.-H. 1988 ‘Numerical methods for the solution of three-dimensional integral equa-
tions in wave-body interactions,’ Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Ocean Engineering, MIT.
Lee, C.-H. & Newman, J. N. 1991 ‘First- and second-order wave effects on a submerged
spheroid,’ J. Ship Research 35, No 3, 183-190.
Lee, C.-H., Newman J.N. & Zhu X. 1995 “An extended boundary integral equation for
the removal of the irregular frequency effect”, Submitted for publication .
Lee, C.-H., & Zhu, X. 1993 ‘Second-order diffraction and radiation solutions on floating
bodies,’ 8-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, St. John’s,
Newfoundland.
Martin & Rizzo 1993 ‘Boundary integral equations for bodies of small, but finite, thickness’
8-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, St. John’s, Newfound-
land.
Molin, B. 1979 ‘Second order diffraction loads upon three dimensional bodies,’ Applied
Ocean Research 1, 197-202.
Newman, J. N. 1977 ‘Marine Hydrodynamics’. MIT Press.
Newman, J. N. 1985 ‘Algorithms for the Free-Surface Green Function’. Journal of Engi-
neering Mathematics, Vol. 19, pp. 57-67.
Newman, J. N. 1990 “Numerical solutions of the water-wave dispersion relation,” Applied
Ocean Research, 12, 14-18.
Newman, J. N. 1991 ‘WAMIT V3.1S (Second-Order Module) - Theoretical Background,’
unpublished report included in April 1991 Steering Committee Report.
Newman, J. N. 1992 ‘The approximation of free-surface Green functions,’ in ‘Wave As-
ymptotics,’ P. A. Martin & G. R. Wickham, editors, Cambridge University Press.
32
Newman, J. N. 1993 ‘Note on bodies and panels in the free surface,’ unpublished report.
Newman, J. N. 1994 ‘Wave effects on deformable bodies,’ Applied Ocean Research, 16,
1, 47-59.
Newman, J. N. & Sclavounos, P. D., 1988 ‘The computation of wave loads on large
offshore structures,’ 5th International Conference on the Behaviour of Offshore Structures
(BOSS ‘88) Trondheim.
Ogilvie, T. F. 1983 ‘Second-order hydrodynamic effects on ocean platforms,’ International
Workshop on Ship and Platform Motions, Berkeley.
WAMIT User Manual 1999 WAMIT Inc.
Wehausen, J. V. and Laitone, E. V., 1960 ‘Surface waves,’ Handbuch der Physik, 9,
446-778, Springer, Berlin.
Zhu, X. 1994 ‘Irregular Frequency Removal from the Boundary Integral Equation for the
Wave-body Problem’, Master Thesis, Dept. of Ocean Eng., MIT.
33
REFERENCES B
Korsmeyer, F. T., Lee, C.-H., Newman, J. N., & Sclavounos, P. D., ‘The analysis of wave
interactions with tension leg platforms,’ OMAE Conference, Houston, 1988.
Newman, J. N. & Sclavounos, P. D., ‘The computation of wave loads on large offshore
structures,’ 5th International Conference on the Behaviour of Offshore Structures BOSS
‘88 Trondheim, Norway, 1988.
Newman, J. N. ‘The numerical towing tank, fact or fiction?’ (Eleventh Georg Weinblum
Memorial Lecture), Ship Technology Research/Schiffstechnik, 36, 4, 155-168, 1989.
Emmerhoff, O. J., ‘Analysis and computation of wave effects on large volume structures,’
thesis prepared at M.I.T. for siv. ing. degree from NTH, Trondheim, 1989.
Lee, C.-H. & Newman, J. N. ‘First- and second-order wave effects on a submerged spher-
oid,’ J. Ship Research, 1991.
Lee C.-H., Second-order wave loads on a stationary body,’ 6th International Workshop on
Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Woods Hole, 1991.
Lee C.-H., Newman, J. N., Kim, M. H., & Yue, D. K. P. ‘The computation of second-order
wave loads,’ OMAE Conference, Stavanger, 1991.
Lee, C.-H. & Newman, J. N. ‘Sensitivity of wave loads to the discretization of bodies’
BOSS ‘92, London 1992.
Newman, J. N. ‘Panel methods in marine hydrodynamics,’ Keynote Lecture, Eleventh
Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Hobart, Australia 1992.
Lee, C.-H., & Zhu, X. ‘Second-order diffraction and radiation solutions on floating bodies,’
8-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, St. John’s, Newfound-
land 1993.
Newman, J. N. ‘Deformable floating bodies,’ Eighth International Workshop on Water
Waves and Floating Bodies, St. John’s, Newfoundland 1993.
Korsmeyer, F. T., Lee, C.-H., & Newman, J. N. ‘The computation of ship interaction
forces in restricted water,’ Journal of Ship Research 1993.
Newman, J. N. ‘Wave effects on deformable bodies,’ Applied Ocean Research, 16, 1, 47-59
1994.
Fathi, D., ‘Linear Hydrodynamic Loads due to Elastic Deformations of Large Volume
34
Structures’, thesis prepared at M.I.T. for siv. ing. degree from NTH, Trondheim 1993.
Fathi, D., Lee, C.-H., & Newman, J. N. ‘Computation of wave induced motions on a
flexible container,’ Symposium on Hydroelasticity, Trondheim, Norway 1994.
Lee, C.-H. & Newman, J. N. ‘Second-order wave effects on offshore structures’ BOSS ‘94,
MIT 1994.
Ferreira, M. D. & Lee, C.-H. ‘Computation of mean forces and moments in multibody
interaction,’ BOSS ‘94, MIT 1994.
Zhu, X. & Lee C.-H. ‘Removing the irregular frequencies from wave-body interactions,’
9-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Kuju, Japan. 1994
Newman, J. N. ‘To second order and beyond,’ TLP Technology Symposium, Texas Section
of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Houston 1995.
Newman, J. N. & Lee, C.-H. ‘Runup on a vertical cylinder in long waves,’ Tenth Interna-
tional Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Oxford, UK 1995.
35
APPENDICES
NOTES ON BODIES OR PANELS IN THE FREE SURFACE
JNN - September 1993
1. INTRODUCTION
These notes document recent work intended to (1) extend WAMIT to bodies where part or all of the
submerged surface is in the plane of the free surface, with zero draft; and (2) removal of irregular
frequencies by adding panels in the free surface interior to the body with an imposed homogeneous
Neumann (or Dirichlet) condition. The latter development was intended to follow the theory in
the report by Kleinman, denoted here by [K], but differences and questions have arisen which are
the principal motivation for the notes.
The notation of the WAMIT User Manual is followed. The most important differences from [K]
are the definition of the unit normal vector, here taken to be into the body and out of the fluid
domain, and the Green function G, defined here by equation (2.4)
G(x; ξξ ξ) =
1
r
+
1
r

+
2K
π


0
dk
e
k(z+ζ)
k −K
J
0
(kR) (1.1)
r
2
= (x −ξ)
2
+ (y −η)
2
+ (z −ζ)
2
(1.2)
r
2
= (x −ξ)
2
+ (y −η)
2
+ (z + ζ)
2
, (1.3)
where J
0
(x) is the Bessel function of zero order. The correponding function γ in [K] is related to
G via the equation G = −2πγ. For simplicity the depth is assumed infinite.
The velocity potential φ is governed by Laplace’s equation in the fluid domain, subject to a pre-
scribed Neumann condition φ
n
= V on the body surface S
b
, the linear free surface condition
φ
z
−Kφ = 0, on z = 0 (1.4)
and a radiation condition at infinity. The wavenumber is K = ω
2
/g, and g is the acceleration of
gravity.
The Green function G satisfies the free surface condition (1.4) with respect to both coordinate
systems. More explicitly,
G
z
−KG = 0, on z = 0 (1.5)
G
ζ
−KG = 0, on ζ = 0 (1.6)
It is not obvious that these relations can be applied in the limit when r = r

= 0, i.e. when the
source and field points coincide on the free surface. In the vicinity of this singular point it is known
that G is of the form
G(x; ξξ ξ) =
1
r
+
1
r

−2Ke
K(z+ζ)

log(r

+|z + ζ|) + (γ −log 2) + r

+ O(r
2
log r

)

(1.7)
1
If this expansion is substituted in (1.5) or (1.6), it can be confirmed that the same relations apply
even at the singular point. Thus there is no ‘delta function’ in the free-surface conditions (1.5) and
(1.6).
2 CONVENTIONAL INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR THE VELOCITY POTENTIAL
In the ‘normal’ case of a floating body, the submerged surface S
b
is entirely below the plane z = 0,
except for a line of intersection of the two surfaces. The fluid domain D
+
is exterior to the body,
below the free surface, and extends to infinity horizontally and vertically. The complementary
domain D

is inside the body, below the plane z = 0.
With the above definitions, it follows from Green’s theorem that
2πα(x)φ(x) +

S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ. (2.1)
Here, as in [K], α is equal to 2 for points in D
+
, 1 for points on S
b
, and 0 for points in D

.
The definitions of α in (2.1) are consistent with the ‘jump conditions’ corresponding to the singu-
larity 1/r in G. Thus, in the limits where the point x approaches S
b
from D
±
,
I
±
(φ) = lim
x→S
±

S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)

∂n
ξ
1
r
dξξ ξ = ∓2πφ +

−−−
S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)

∂n
ξ
1
r
dξξ ξ (2.2)
Here the symbol

− denotes, as in the simpler Cauchy principal-value integral, that a surface of
vanishingly small area including the singular point r = 0 is excluded from the integral. This is the
appropriate interpretation of the integral on the left side of (2.1) for the case where x is on S
b
.
Thus (2.1) is rewritten in the more explicit form
2πφ(x) +

−−−
S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ (x ∈ S
b
) (2.3)
3 INTEGRAL EQUATIONS FOR S
b
IN THE FREE SURFACE
The objective here is to extend (2.1) to the case where part or all of the body surface coincides
with the free surface. Examples of such bodies are a floating caisson where the interior ‘roof’ is in
the plane z = 0, and a ‘cicular dock’ consisting of a disk of zero draft.
In these cases, for those portions of S
b
lying in the free surface, the two Rankine singularities in the
Green function coalesce, and the effect is to double the jump in (2.2). However caution is required
to correctly account for the jump when the image source 1/r

is included. For completeness, in
relation to the corresponding equations [K, 51b-52b], we write the following derivatives and limits:

∂z

1
r

=
−(z −ζ)
r
3
(3.1a)

∂z

1
r

=
−(z + ζ)
r
3
(3.1b)
2

∂ζ

1
r

=
(z −ζ)
r
3
(3.1c)

∂ζ

1
r

=
−(z + ζ)
r
3
(3.1d)
Thus

∂z

1
r
+
1
r

=
−2z
r
3
on ζ = 0 (3.1e)

∂ζ

1
r
+
1
r

= 0 on ζ = 0 (3.1f)
In the limit z → 0− (3.1e) tends to a delta function with area 4π, but (3.1f) is identically zero
and does not contribute a jump. The former is consistent with [K] equation (51b), but the latter
contradicts the jump in (52b).
I will proceed assuming (3.1f) is correct. Two alternative derivations are given for the case where
S
b
coincides with the plane z = 0.
First start with (2.1), with the field point in the fluid domain, below the body surface, and approach
the surface at a point where the surface coincides with the plane z = 0. Prior to the limit, the free
term in (2.1) has the value 4πφ. In the limit the same value applies, since the singular contribution
to the kernel from the two Rankine singularties is

∂n
ξ

1
r
+
1
r

S
b
=

∂ζ

1
r
+
1
r

ζ=0
= 0 (3.1)
Thus, (2.1) is applicable to such a body surface with the understanding that α = 2 when the point
x is on the body surface, in the plane z = 0. Note in this case that the unit normal is positive
upwards, pointing from the fluid domain toward the complementary domain above the free surface.
In the case of a body which is entirely in the plane z = 0, the resulting integral equation is
4πφ(x) +

−−−
S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂ζ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ. (x ∈ S
b
) (3.2)
As an alternative approach, consider a body with small finite draft T, e.g. with a flat bottom and
vertical sides. In this case (2.3) is applicable on the exact body. Neglecting the contribution from
the vertical sides, the contribution from the image source to the left-hand side of (2.3) is

S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)

∂ζ

1
r

dξξ ξ =

S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)
−(z + ζ)
r
3
dξξ ξ on z = ζ = −T (3.2a)
In the limit T → 0 the kernel tends to a delta function with area 2π, augmenting the free term in
(2.3) and thus in agreement with (3.2).
Using the free-surface boundary conditions (1.5 - 1.6), two equivalent integral equations may be
written in the forms
4πφ(x) +

−−−
S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂z
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ. (x ∈ S
b
) (3.3)
3
and
4πφ(x) + K

S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ. (x ∈ S
b
) (3.4)
Equation (3.4) is most effective for numerical computations since the logarithmic singularity in
(1.7) is not amplified by differentiation. WAMIT has been modified in accordance with (3.4), and
used to solve the circular dock problem. The results appear to be consistent. It is essential in this
case to use the ‘ILOG=1’ option to integrate the logarithmic singularity in (1.7) analytically over
each panel in the free surface.
Presumably the integral equations (3.2-4) have no homogeneous solutions, or irregular frequencies.
This can be inferred from the fact that the interior volume between S
b
and the free surface is zero.
4 EXISTENCE OF IRREGULAR FREQUENCIES
Hereafter the body is assumed to have nonzero submerged volume, to intersect the free surface
normally, and no portion of its surface lies in the plane z = 0 except for the normal intersection
along a waterline contour. Define S
i
as the portion of the plane z = 0 interior to S
b
. The union
of S
b
and S
i
is the closed surface S, with the unit normal defined in a consistent manner to point
into the interior volume D

. Define an interior potential φ

which is harmonic in D

, and satisfies
the free surface condition (1.4) on S
i
. Applying Green’s theorem in the usual manner,

α(x) −2

φ

(x) +

S
b
φ

(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V

(ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ. (4.1)
Here V

= φ

n
is the corresponding normal velocity on S
b
.
Now assume that the interior potential φ

satisfies the homogeneous Dirichlet condition φ

= 0 on
S
b
. It is known that nontrivial solutions exist for certain body shapes at discrete eigenfrequencies,
and it is assumed that the same is true for general bodies. Physically, these are analogous to
‘sloshing modes’ corresponding to standing waves inside the body, except that the homogeneous
body boundary condition is Dirichlet instead of Neumann. For such solutions the normal velocity
V

is generally nonzero on S
b
, but from (4.1) and the boundary condition φ

= 0 on S
b
it follows
that

S
b
V

(ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ = 0 (x ∈ S
b
∪ D
+
) (4.2)
This proves that there is a discrete set of eigenfrequencies (i.e. the irregular frequencies) where the
corresponding normal velocity V

is orthogonal to G on the body.
Next we define an external ‘radiation’ potential φ which satisfies the usual conditions outside the
body, as in §1, with the specified normal derivative φ
n
= V = V

on S
b
. This is essentially a
radiation problem with a special distribution of normal velocity on the body. The solution is
assumed to exist and to be nontrivial and unique, just as for any more conventional radiation (or
scattering) problem. However for this particular external potential the right-hand side of (2.3) will
vanish when x is on S
b
. It follows that φ is a homogeneous solution of (2.3). This proves the
existence of irregular frequencies in the context of the exterior potential problem.
4
5 EXTENDED-BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATIONS
In [K] it is shown that while (2.3) may have homogeneous solutions at the irregular frequencies,
there is (at most) one solution of the integral equation (2.1) in the extended domain S = S
b
∪ S
i
.
Thus we augment (2.3) by the additional equation

S
b
φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ (x ∈ S
i
) (5.1)
A more useful second-kind equation [K, 86] is derived which, in the present notation, takes the
form
2πΦ(x) +

−−−
S
b
Φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ +
1
2

−−−
S
i
Φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ (x ∈ S
b
∪ S
i
) (5.2)
In [K] it is shown (using the questionable jump relation (52b)) that (5.2) has (at most) only one
solution, and that this solution is equal to φ on S
b
.
At a more pragmatic level, our numerical experience indicates that the appropriate replacement
for (5.2) is
2πΦ(x) +

−−−
S
b
Φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ −
1
2

−−−
S
i
Φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ (x ∈ S
b
∪ S
i
) (5.3)
The only difference is the sign preceding the integral over S
i
.
In fact, the numerical tests are performed with a modified version of WAMIT where the influence
functions correspond to the slightly different integral equations
2πΦ(x) +

−−−
S
b
Φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ +

S
i
Φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ (x ∈ S
b
) (5.4a)
−4πΦ(x) +

S
b
Φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ −K

S
i
Φ(ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ =

S
b
V (ξξ ξ)Gdξξ ξ (x ∈ S
i
) (5.4b)
Equations (5.3) and (5.4) are equivalent after multiplying the unknown Φ by a factor -2 in the
domain of S
i
, and using (1.6) to replace the normal derivative of G on S
i
in (5.4b). This should be
borne in mind in judging the relevance of the statement that the numerical tests support (5.3a-b),
but not (5.2).
Note that the first and third terms in (5.4b) are precisely the same as (minus) the left side of (3.2),
suggesting a possible connection with the absence of irregular frequencies in the dock problem.
Finally we want to show that there are no homogeneous solutions of (5.4), that is no nontrivial
solutions Φ
0
of the pair of integral equations
2πΦ
0
(x) +

−−−
S
b
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ +

S
i
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ = 0 (x ∈ S
b
) (5.5a)
5
−4πΦ
0
(x) +

S
b
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ +

S
i
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ = 0 (x ∈ S
i
) (5.5b)
For this purpose, asume that Φ
0
is a nontrivial solution of (5.5) and define the following two
potentials (which together are used in place of [K 88]):
φ
b
=

S
b
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ (x ∈ D

) (5.6a)
φ
i
=

S
i
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ = −K

S
i
Φ
0
Gdξξ ξ (x ∈ D

∪ S
b
∪ D
+
) (5.6b)
The following conditions apply on S
b
:
φ
b
= 2πΦ
0
(x) +

−−−
S
b
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ (x ∈ S
b
) (5.7a)
φ
i
=

S
i
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ (x ∈ S
b
) (5.7b)
Thus, from (5.5a),
φ
b
+ φ
i
= 0 (x ∈ S
b
) (5.8)
The following conditions apply as z → 0− on S
i
:
φ
b
=

S
b
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ (x ∈ S
i
) (5.9a)
φ
i
=

−−−
S
i
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ (x ∈ S
i
) (5.9b)
The free-surface condition (1.5) can be invoked to show that
φ
bz
= Kφ
b
= K

S
b
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ (x ∈ S
i
) (5.10a)
where (5.9a) is used in the latter relation. For the analogous derivative of φ
i
, the jump associated
with (3.1e) gives an extra contribution and it follows from the last form of (5.6b) that
φ
iz
= Kφ
i
−4πKΦ
0
= K

−−−
S
i
Φ
0
(ξξ ξ)
∂G
∂n
ξ
dξξ ξ −4πKΦ
0
(x ∈ S
i
) (5.10b)
Combining (5.10a) and (5.10b), and invoking (5.5b),
φ
bz
+ φ
iz
= 0 (x ∈ S
i
) (5.11)
¿From (5.8) and (5.11), and the uniqueness proof for solutions of Laplace’s equation with combined
Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, it follows that
φ
b
+ φ
i
= 0 (x ∈ D

) (5.12)
The remainder of the proof follows as in [K 89-95].
6
WAMIT V3.1S (Second-Order Module) – Theoretical Background
by J. N. Newman
Department of Ocean Engineering, MIT
Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
28 March 1991
1. INTRODUCTION
The WAMIT Second-Order Module, currently Version 3.1S, is designed to solve the second-
order boundary-value problem for the interaction of monchromatic or bichromatic incident
waves with a prescribed body. As in the first-order program (Version 3.1ID), the body is
defined by an ensemble of panels. In the second-order solution the boundary conditions
on both the body and free surface must be re-considered, with particular care required
in the case of the free surface. This document is intended to describe the corresponding
analysis in sufficient detail to explain the logic of the program. As the second-order module
is extended and refined this document will be modified in parallel. The date and version
number above should be referenced in this context.
In the notation to be followed the subscripts i, j, k are used to denote the frequencies of
different linear solutions, and , m, n are used to denote the Fourier components of the
same solutions, respectively. κ will be used for the wavenumber, to distinguish from the
integer subscript k. First-order components such as the velocity potentials φ
j
in (1.2) are
distinguished from second-order components φ
ij
by the number of subscripts.
The velocity potential is expanded in the form
Φ(x, t) = Φ
(1)
(x, t) +
2
Φ
(2)
(x, t) +· · · (1.1)
where x is a fixed Cartesian coordinate system, and t denotes time. Assuming a discrete
spectrum with frequency components ω
j
> 0,
Φ
(1)
(x, t) = Re

j
φ
j
(x)e

j
t
(1.2)
Φ
(2)
(x, t) = Re

i

j
_
φ
+
ij
(x)e
i(ω
i

j
)t
+ φ

ij
(x)e
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)t
_
(1.3)
1
The second-order potentials φ
±
ij
can be defined to satisfy the symmetry relations
φ
+
ij
= φ
+
ji
and φ

ij
= φ
−∗
ji
(1.4)
since anti-symmetric components will not contribute to (1.3).
The free-surface boundary conditions satisfied by these potentials are

2
Φ
(1)
∂t
2
+g
∂Φ
(1)
∂z
= 0 (1.5)

2
Φ
(2)
∂t
2
+g
∂Φ
(2)
∂z
= Q(x, y; t) (1.6)
on z = 0. Here the inhomogeneous right-hand-side of the second-order free-surface condi-
tion (1.6) defines the quadratic forcing function
Q =
1
g
∂Φ
(1)
∂t

∂z
(

2
Φ
(1)
∂t
2
+g
∂Φ
(1)
∂z
) −

∂t
(∇Φ
(1)
· ∇Φ
(1)
) (1.7)
where the right-hand-side is to be evaluated on z = 0. In the following evaluations of
second-order products of first-order oscillatory quantities use is made of the relation
Re(Ae

i
t
)Re(Be

j
t
) =
1
2
Re(Ae

i
t
)(Be

j
t
+ B

e
−iω
j
t
)
where (

) denotes the complex conjugate. Adopting a form for Q analogous to (1.3),
Q(x, t) = Re

i

j
_
Q
+
ij
(x)e
i(ω
i

j
)t
+ Q

ij
(x)e
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)t
_
(1.8)
As in (1.4) it is appropriate to symmetrize the functions Q
±
ij
such that
Q
+
ij
= Q
+
ji
and Q

ij
= Q
−∗
ji
(1.9)
Combining (1.2) and (1.7) gives the expressions
Q
+
ij
=
i
4g
ω
i
φ
i
(−ω
2
j
∂φ
j
∂z
+ g

2
φ
j
∂z
2
) +
i
4g
ω
j
φ
j
(−ω
2
i
∂φ
i
∂z
+g

2
φ
i
∂z
2
)

1
2
i(ω
i

j
)∇φ
i
· ∇φ
j
(1.10)
and
2
Q

ij
=
i
4g
ω
i
φ
i
(−ω
2
j
∂φ

j
∂z
+ g

2
φ

j
∂z
2
) −
i
4g
ω
j
φ

j
(−ω
2
i
∂φ
i
∂z
+ g

2
φ
i
∂z
2
)

1
2
i(ω
i
−ω
j
)∇φ
i
· ∇φ

j
(1.11)
where the right-hand-sides of (1.10-11) are evaluated on z = 0. With these definitions the
free-surface boundary condition for the second-order potential is given by
−(ω
i
±ω
j
)
2
φ
±
ij
+ g
∂φ
±
ij
∂z
= Q
±
ij
(1.12)
on z = 0.
3
2. INCIDENT WAVES
The incident wave potential Φ
I
is defined to be the total first- and second-order velocity
potential that would exist in the absence of the body. Each first-order component is defined
by the amplitude A
j
, frequency ω
j
, and vector wavenumber K
j
with Cartesian components

j
cos β
j
, κ
j
sin β
j
, 0). Here β
j
is the angle of incidence relative to the x−axis. The total
first-order velocity potential is
Φ
(1)
I
= Re ig

j
A
j
ω
j
Z(κ
j
z) exp i(ω
j
t −K
j
· x) (2.1)
Here, for a fluid of depth h,
Z(κ
j
z) =
cosh(κ
j
(z +h))
cosh(κ
j
h)
(2.2)
In accordance with the first-order free-surface condition,
κ
j
tanh(κ
j
h) = ω
2
j
/g ≡ ν
j
(2.3)
It is helpful to anticipate the relations
_
∂Z(κ
j
z)
∂z
_
z=0
= ν
j
and
_

2
Z(κ
j
z)
∂z
2
_
z=0
= κ
2
j
(2.4)
Combining (2.1) and (1.10-11) gives
Q
+
ij
=−
1
2
ig
2
A
i
A
j
exp(−i(K
i
+K
j
) · x)
__
κ
2
j
−ν
2
j

j
_
+
_
κ
2
i
−ν
2
i

i
_
+

i

j
)
ω
i
ω
j
(K
i
· K
j
−ν
i
ν
j
)
_
(2.5)
and
Q

ij
=
1
2
ig
2
A
i
A

j
exp(−i(K
i
−K
j
) · x)
__
κ
2
j
−ν
2
j

j
_

_
κ
2
i
−ν
2
i

i
_


i
−ω
j
)
ω
i
ω
j
_
K
i
· K
j
+ ν
i
ν
j
__
(2.6)
Solutions for the second-order components of the incident-wave potential follow from (1.12)
in the form
φ
±
ij
=
Q
±
ij
(x, y)Z(κ
±
ij
z)
−(ω
i
±ω
j
)
2
+gκ
±
ij
tanhκ
±
ij
h
(2.7)
4
where
κ
±
ij
= |K
i
±K
j
| (2.8)
Subsequently in the analysis of the free-surface integral of the second-order problem, a
Fourier-Bessel expansion of the first-order incident-wave potential will be required. In
terms of the polar coordinates x = ρ cos θ, y = ρ sinθ the appropriate expansion is
φ
Ij
=
igA
j
ω
j
Z(κ
j
z)

n=0

n
(−i)
n
J
n

j
ρ) cos n(θ −β
j
) (2.9)
where
0
= 1,
n
= 2 for (n ≥ 1), and J
n
is the first-kind Bessel function of order n. It will
be convenient to redefine the coefficients in (2.9), writing this equation in the form
φ
Ij
= Z(κ
j
z)

n=0
J
n

j
ρ)[A
c
jn
cos nθ + A
s
jn
sin nθ] (2.10)
where the coefficients are
_
A
c
jn
A
s
jn
_
=
igA
j
ω
j

n
(−i)
n
_
cos nβ
j
sin nβ
j
_
(2.11)
3. VELOCITY POTENTIAL DUE TO THE BODY
In this section general properties will be listed for the solution of the velocity potential
Φ
B
due to the presence of the body. This includes both the scattered potential Φ
S
which
accounts for the effects of the incident waves on the fixed body, and for the radiation
potential Φ
R
due to the motions of the body about its fixed mean position. In all cases
the decompositions and expansions (1.1-1.3) are applicable.
The boundary condition on the mean position S
B
of the body can be written in the generic
form
∂φ
∂n
= q
B
on S
B
(3.1)
Similarly, on the free surface,
−ω
2
φ + g
∂φ
∂z
= q
F
on z = 0 (3.2)
where ω is the frequency corresponding to the component φ.
5
The solution for φ can be derived from Green’s theorem in terms of the integral equation
2πφ(x) +
_ _
S
B
φ(ξξ ξ)
∂G(x; ξξ ξ)
∂n
ξ
dS =
_ _
S
B
q
B
(ξξ ξ)G(x; ξξ ξ)dS
+
_ _
S
F
q
F
(ξξ ξ)G(x; ξξ ξ)dS
(3.3)
In this equation φ represents any first- or second-order velocity potential, subject to (3.1)
and (3.2) and a suitable radiation condition at infinity. G is the free-surface Green function
corresponding to the same frequency ω and wavenumber as φ. Since (3.3) can be applied
to an arbitrary closed surface, this equation holds on the mean position of S
B
and on the
plane z = 0 corresponding to the mean position of S
F
, and it is not necessary to apply
(3.3) to the exact boundaries of the fluid domain.
For the first-order components of the potential q
F
= 0, and (3.3) reduces to the conven-
tional form of the integral equation for φ on the body. In the fluid domain the solution for
each first-order component of the potential can be expressed in the form
φ(x) =
_ _
S
B
σ(ξξ ξ)G(x; ξξ ξ)dS (3.4)
For the formulation based on Green’s theorem, σ is the linear operator
σ =
1

_
q
B
−φ

∂n
_
(3.5)
Alternatively, in the source formulation, the parameter σ is defined as the first-order source
strength, and can be found directly as the solution of the integral equation
2πσ(x) +
_ _
S
B
σ(ξξ ξ)
∂G(x; ξξ ξ)
∂n
x
dS = q
B
(x) (3.6)
In the subsequent analysis of the free-surface integral of the second-order problem, a Fourier
expansion of the first-order body potential will be required to complement (2.9) in the far-
field domain outside of a partition circle of radius b which is sufficiently large to completely
surround the body. Consider a generic wavenumber κ which may be equal to either κ
i
, κ
j
,
or the wavenumber κ
k
of the second-order potential. With the additional restriction that
κb is sufficiently large, evanascent (local) nonradiating components of the Green function
can be excluded from consideration, and
G 2πicZ(κz)Z(κζ)H
(2)
0
(κR) (3.7)
Here the function Z is defined by (2.2), R is the horizontal distance between the source
and field points (x, ξξ ξ), and H
(2)
0
(κR) = J
0
(κR) − iY
0
(κR) is the Hankel function of the
6
second kind. (In the following analysis the superscript (2) will be deleted.) The constant
c is defined by
c =
ν
2
−κ
2
κ
2
h −ν
2
h + ν
cosh
2
(κh) =
−κ
2
κ
2
h −ν
2
h +ν
(3.8)
The error in the far-field approximation (3.7) is of order exp(−CR/h) where the constant C
is greater than π/2. In the infinite-depth limit the corresponding error is of order (κR)
−2
,
or of order (κR)
−3
in the special case where z = 0.
Graf’s addition theorem (Abramowitz & Stegun, eq. 9.1.79) may be used to expand (3.7)
in a Fourier-Bessel series analogous to (2.9):
G(x; ξξ ξ) 2πicZ(κz)Z(κζ)

n=0

n
H
n
(κρ)J
n
(κρ

) cos n(θ −θ

) (3.9)
where ξ = ρ

cos θ

, η = ρ

sin θ

, and (3.9) is valid in the domain (ρ ≥ ρ

). Substituting
this result into (3.4) gives the corresponding far-field representation of the body potential
φ(x) Z(κz)

n=0
H
n
(κρ)[B
c
n
cos nθ +B
s
n
sin nθ] (3.10)
where the coefficients in this expansion are
_
B
c
n
B
s
n
_
= 2πic
n
_ _
S
B
σ(ξξ ξ)Z(κζ)J
n
(κρ

)
_
cos nθ

sin nθ

_
dS (3.11)
4. THE FREE-SURFACE INTEGRAL
The free-surface integral which is displayed as the last term in (3.3) will be considered
here, with the ‘quadratic forcing function’ q
F
defined by the relations (1.6-12). Since
we are considering the evaluation of the second-order velocity potential Φ
B
due to the
presence of the body, the incident-wave potential Φ
I
should be subtracted from the left
side of the free-surface conditions (1.6) and (1.12), and also from the evaluation of the
quadratic forcing function. Thus we seek to evaluate the difference between (1.10-1.11)
and (2.5-2.6), which includes terms on the right side of (1.10-1.11) due to (a) quadratic
interactions of the body potential with itself, and (b) cross-terms between Φ
B
and Φ
I
.
For purposes of numerical evaluation, the free-surface integral is composed of two parts,
separated by the partition circle of radius ρ = b. Following the methodology of Kim and
Yue, the integration in the inner domain ρ < b is carried out numerically. Thus the inner
free surface is discretized with quadrilateral panels, in an analogous manner to the body
surface. To avoid the evaluation of second-order derivatives of the first-order potentials in
(1.10-11), the surface integral is transformed using Stokes’ theorem to a form involving only
7
first-order derivatives and line integrals around the inner and outer boundaries. Details
are given in the paper by Kim.
4.1. THE FREE-SURFACE INTEGRAL IN THE FAR FIELD
In the remainder of this section the ‘far-field integral’ in the domain (b ≤ ρ < ∞) is
considered. For this purpose the incident- and body-potentials are defined by the Fourier-
Bessel expansions (2.10) and (3.10), respectively.
The first task is to evaluate (1.10) and (1.11). We begin with the sum-frequency compo-
nent Q
+
ij
, considering first the ‘BB’ component due to quadratic interactions of the body
potential (3.10). Associating the Fourier indices (, m) with the frequency indices (i, j)
respectively, we obtain
Q
+
BiBj
=
i
4

=0

m=0
_
_
ω
i

2
j
−ν
2
j
) + ω
j

2
i
−ν
2
i
) −2(ω
i

j

i
ν
j
¸
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)
(B
c
i
cos θ + B
s
i
sin θ)(B
c
jm
cos mθ + B
s
jm
sin mθ)
−2(ω
i

j

i
κ
j
H


i
ρ)H

m

j
ρ)
(B
c
i
cos θ + B
s
i
sin θ)(B
c
jm
cos mθ + B
s
jm
sin mθ)
−2(ω
i

j
)
m
ρ
2
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)
(B
s
i
cos θ −B
c
i
sin θ)(B
s
jm
cos mθ −B
c
jm
sin mθ)
_
(4.1)
where H

denotes the first derivative of the Hankel function with respect to its argument.
4.2. THE FOURIER INTEGRALS IN THE ANGULAR COORDINATE
The integration with respect to the angular coordinate θ can be evaluated after multiplica-
tion by the angular components of the Green function (3.9). Thus we consider the Fourier
integrals
_

0
Q
+
ij
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_

The only nonzero components involve the integrals
_

0
cos θ cos mθ cos nθdθ =
π

n

n,|−m|

n,+m
] ≡ λ
+
mn
(4.2a)
_

0
sin θ sin mθ cos nθdθ =
π

n

n,|−m|
−δ
n,+m
] ≡ λ

mn
(4.2b)
8
_

0
cos θ sin mθ sin nθdθ =
π


,|n−m|
−δ
,n+m
] = λ

mn
(4.2c)
_

0
sin θ cos mθ sin nθdθ =
π

m

m,|n−|
−δ
m,n+
] = λ

nm
(4.2d)
where δ
mn
is the Kronecker delta function, equal to one if the subscripts are equal and
otherwise equal to zero. The factors λ defined above are nonzero if and only if = m+n,
or m = n + , or n = +m.
The Fourier integrals of the quadratic forcing function (4.1) are then given by
_

0
Q
+
BiBj
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_
dθ =
i
4

=0

m=0
_
_
ω
i

2
j
−ν
2
j
) + ω
j

2
i
−ν
2
i
) −2(ω
i

j

i
ν
j
¸
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)
_
B
c
i
B
c
jm
λ
+
mn
+ B
s
i
B
s
jm
λ

mn
B
s
i
B
c
jm
λ

nm
+ B
c
i
B
s
jm
λ

mn
_
−2(ω
i
+ ω
j
)
_
κ
i
κ
j
H


i
ρ)H

m

j
ρ)
_
B
c
i
B
c
jm
λ
+
mn
+ B
s
i
B
s
jm
λ

mn
B
s
i
B
c
jm
λ

nm
+ B
c
i
B
s
jm
λ

mn
_
+
m
ρ
2
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)
_
B
c
i
B
c
jm
λ

mn
+B
s
i
B
s
jm
λ
+
mn
−B
c
i
B
s
jm
λ

nm
−B
s
i
B
c
jm
λ

mn
_
__
(4.3)
The second term, which involves derivatives of the Hankel functions, can be reduced using
the relation H

ν
=
1
2
(H
ν−1
−H
ν+1
). Thus
H


i
ρ)H

m

j
ρ) =
1
4
_
H
−1
H
m−1
−H
−1
H
m+1
+ H
+1
H
m+1
−H
+1
H
m−1
_
(4.4)
Similarly, the third term resulting from the angular derivatives can be reduced using the
recurrence relation 2νH
ν
/z = H
ν−1
+ H
ν+1
to remove the factor ρ
−2
. Three alternative
relations result; the one which is most useful is obtained by setting ν equal to and then
to m:
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)ρ
−2
=
κ
i
κ
j
4m
_
H
−1
H
m−1
+H
−1
H
m+1
+H
+1
H
m+1
+H
+1
H
m−1
_
(4.5)
Substituting (4.4-5) in (4.3) gives
9
_

0
Q
+
BiBj
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_
dθ =
i
4

=0

m=0
_
_
ω
i

2
j
−ν
2
j
) + ω
j

2
i
−ν
2
i
) −2(ω
i

j

i
ν
j
¸
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)
_
B
c
i
B
c
jm
λ
+
mn
+ B
s
i
B
s
jm
λ

mn
B
s
i
B
c
jm
λ

nm
+ B
c
i
B
s
jm
λ

mn
_

1
2

i
+ ω
j

i
κ
j
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H
m−1

j
ρ) + H
+1

i
ρ)H
m+1

j
ρ)
_
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
+ B
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
−B
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
1
2

i
+ ω
j

i
κ
j
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H
m+1

j
ρ) +H
+1

i
ρ)H
m−1

j
ρ)
_
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
−B
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
+ B
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
_
(4.6)
The corresponding integrals for the difference-frequency function are
_

0
Q

BiBj
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_
dθ =
i
4

=0

m=0
_
_
ω
i

2
j
−ν
2
j
) −ω
j

2
i
−ν
2
i
) −2(ω
i
−ω
j

i
ν
j
¸
H


i
ρ)H

m

j
ρ)
_
B
c
i
B
c∗
jm
λ
+
mn
+ B
s
i
B
s∗
jm
λ

mn
B
s
i
B
c∗
jm
λ

nm
+ B
c
i
B
s∗
jm
λ

mn
_

1
2

i
−ω
j

i
κ
j
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H

m−1

j
ρ) + H
+1

i
ρ)H

m+1

j
ρ)
_
_
(B
c
i
B
c∗
jm
+ B
s
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c∗
jm
−B
c
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
1
2

i
−ω
j

i
κ
j
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H

m+1

j
ρ) +H
+1

i
ρ)H

m−1

j
ρ)
_
_
(B
c
i
B
c∗
jm
−B
s
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c∗
jm
+ B
c
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
_
(4.7)
It is helpful to define the factors

±
ij
= ω
i

2
j
−ν
2
j
) ±ω
j

2
i
−ν
2
i
) −2(ω
i
±ω
j

i
ν
j
(4.8)
10
and
Λ
±
ij
= (ω
i
±ω
j

i
κ
j
(4.9)
(These definitions differ by multiplicative factors from the corresponding parameters used
by Kim.)
Equations (4.6) and (4.7) can then be written in a more compact form, after noting that
the first factor contained within large parentheses in each equation is equivalent to half
the sum of the second and third factors. Thus
_

0
Q
+
BiBj
_
cos nθ
sinnθ
_
dθ =
i
8

=0

m=0
__

+
ij
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)
−Λ
+
ij
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H
m−1

j
ρ) + H
+1

i
ρ)H
m+1

j
ρ)
__
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
+ B
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
−B
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_

+
ij
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ) + Λ
+
ij
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H
m+1

j
ρ) + H
+1

i
ρ)H
m−1

j
ρ)
__
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
−B
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
+ B
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
_
(4.10)
Similarly for the difference-frequency integral
_

0
Q

BiBj
_
cos nθ
sinnθ
_
dθ =
i
8

=0

m=0
__


ij
H


i
ρ)H

m

j
ρ)
−Λ

ij
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H

m−1

j
ρ) + H
+1

i
ρ)H

m+1

j
ρ)
__
_
(B
c
i
B
c∗
jm
+ B
s
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c∗
jm
−B
c
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_


ij
H


i
ρ)H

m

j
ρ) + Λ

ij
_
H
−1

i
ρ)H

m+1

j
ρ) + H
+1

i
ρ)H

m−1

j
ρ)
__
_
(B
c
i
B
c∗
jm
−B
s
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c∗
jm
+ B
c
i
B
s∗
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
_
(4.11)
4.3. THE INTEGRALS IN THE RADIAL COORDINATE
In the context of the free-surface integral represented by the last term in (3.3) it is necessary
to multiply the preceding results by the Hankel functions in (3.9), and integrate in the radial
domain b < ρ < ∞. Since the differential element of surface area is ρdρdθ, the integrals
which must be evaluated in (4.10) and (4.11) are of the basic form
11
_

b
H


i
ρ)H
m

j
ρ)H
n

k
ρ)ρdρ = b
2
_

1
H

(αx)H
m
(βx)H
n
(γx)xdx ≡ b
2
F
mn
(α, β, γ)
(4.12)
Additional integrals will also be required to analyze the interaction between the body and
incident-wave potentials, where one of the first pair of Hankel functions in (4.12) is replaced
by the corresponding Bessel function J
ν
, of the same order and with the same argument.
Similarly, in (4.11), the second Hankel function is replaced by its complex conjugate or the
Hankel function of the first kind.
To make the above results more explicit, we define the following nondimensional integrals:
F
(1,2)
mn
=
_

1
H
(2)

(αx)H
(1,2)
m
(βx)H
(2)
n
(γx)xdx (4.13a)
G
(1,2)
mn
=
_

1
J

(αx)H
(1,2)
m
(βx)H
(2)
n
(γx)xdx (4.13b)
H
(1,2)
mn
=
_

1
H
(2)

(αx)J
m
(βx)H
(2)
n
(γx)xdx (4.13c)
(The superscript for the third function is superfluous, but it is retained for uniformity in
the notation.) With these definitions applied, and the contributions included from the
incident-wave potential, the appropriate radial integrals are
12
_

b
H
(2)
n

k
ρ)ρdρ
_

0
Q
+
ij
(ρ, θ)
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_
dθ =
i
8
b
2

=0

m=0
__

+
ij
F
(2)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) −Λ
+
ij
_
F
(2)
−1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+F
(2)
+1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
+ B
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
−B
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_

+
ij
F
(2)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) + Λ
+
ij
_
F
(2)
−1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+F
(2)
+1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
−B
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
+B
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm


mn
)
_
+
_

+
ij
G
(2)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) −Λ
+
ij
_
G
(2)
−1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+G
(2)
+1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(A
c
i
B
c
jm
+ A
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(A
s
i
B
c
jm
−A
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_

+
ij
G
(2)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) + Λ
+
ij
_
G
(2)
−1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+G
(2)
+1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(A
c
i
B
c
jm
−A
s
i
B
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(A
s
i
B
c
jm
+ A
c
i
B
s
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
+
_

+
ij
H
(2)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) −Λ
+
ij
_
H
(2)
−1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+H
(2)
+1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
A
c
jm
+ B
s
i
A
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
A
c
jm
−B
c
i
A
s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_

+
ij
H
(2)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) + Λ
+
ij
_
H
(2)
−1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+H
(2)
+1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
A
c
jm
−B
s
i
A
s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
A
c
jm
+ B
c
i
A
s
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
_
(4.14)
13
_

b
H
(2)
n

k
ρ)ρdρ
_

0
Q

ij
(ρ, θ)
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_
dθ =
i
8
b
2

=0

m=0
__


ij
F
(1)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) −Λ

ij
_
F
(1)
−1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+F
(1)
+1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
B
∗c
jm
+ B
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
∗c
jm
−B
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_


ij
F
(1)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) + Λ

ij
_
F
(1)
−1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+F
(1)
+1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
B
∗c
jm
−B
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
B
∗c
jm
+B
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ

nm


mn
)
_
+
_


ij
G
(1)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) −Λ

ij
_
G
(1)
−1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+G
(1)
+1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(A
c
i
B
∗c
jm
+ A
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(A
s
i
B
∗c
jm
−A
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_


ij
G
(1)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) + Λ

ij
_
G
(1)
−1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+G
(1)
+1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(A
c
i
B
∗c
jm
−A
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(A
s
i
B
∗c
jm
+ A
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
+
_


ij
H
(1)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) −Λ

ij
_
H
(1)
−1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+H
(1)
+1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
A
∗c
jm
+ B
s
i
A
∗s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
+ λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
A
∗c
jm
−B
c
i
A
∗s
jm
)(λ

nm
−λ

mn
)
_
+
_


ij
H
(1)
,m,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) + Λ

ij
_
H
(1)
−1,m+1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+H
(1)
+1,m−1,n

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
_
_
_
(B
c
i
A
∗c
jm
−B
s
i
A
∗s
jm
)(λ
+
mn
−λ

mn
)
(B
s
i
A
∗c
jm
+ B
c
i
A
∗s
jm
)(λ

nm
+ λ

mn
)
_
_
(4.15)
14
The four factors which involve sums and differences of the parameters λ will now be
considered, with reference to the definitions (4.2). Excluding the special case = m = n =
0, where
λ
+
000
= 2π and λ

000
= 0
the four factors can be simplified in the forms

+
mn
+ λ

mn
) = πδ
,m+n
+πδ
m,+n
(4.16a)


nm
−λ

mn
) = πδ
,m+n
−πδ
m,+n
(4.16b)

+
mn
−λ

mn
) = πδ
n,+m
(4.16c)


nm
+ λ

mn
) = πδ
n,+m
(4.16d)
In the three-dimensional space , m, n, the first two factors are nonzero only on the two
planes = m + n and m = + n, whereas the last two factors are nonzero only on
the complementary plane n = + m. Collectively these three planes form a cone with
triangular sections, and with its apex at the origin. The four expressions (4.16) apply also
on the intersections of each pair of adjacent planes. Thus the double sums in (4.14-15)
can be expressed in terms of the separate contributions from each of the three surfaces. A
compact form can be derived if we first define the three functionals
U
(ij)±
m
(F) = Ω
±
ij
F
,m,−m

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
−Λ
±
ij
_
F
−1,m−1,−m

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) +F
+1,m+1,−m

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
¸
(4.17a)
V
(ij)±
m
(F) = Ω
±
ij
F
,m,m−

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
−Λ
±
ij
_
F
−1,m−1,m−

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) +F
+1,m+1,m−

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
¸
(4.17b)
W
(ij)±
m
(F) = Ω
±
ij
F
,m,+m

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
+ Λ
±
ij
_
F
−1,m+1,+m

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b) +F
+1,m−1,+m

i
b, κ
j
b, κ
k
b)
¸
(4.17c)
If the series are truncated at the upper limit = M, m = M, (4.14-15) are equivalent to
15
_

b
H
(2)
n

k
ρ)ρdρ
_

0
Q
+
ij
(ρ, θ)
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_
dθ =
πi
8
b
2
_
M

=n
(1 + δ
n
)
_
U
(ij)+
m
(F
(2)
)
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
+B
s
i
B
s
jm
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
−B
c
i
B
s
jm
)
_
+ U
(ij)+
m
(G
(2)
)
_
(A
c
i
B
c
jm
+ A
s
i
B
s
jm
)
(A
s
i
B
c
jm
−A
c
i
B
s
jm
)
_
+ U
(ij)+
m
(H
(2)
)
_
(B
c
i
A
c
jm
+ B
s
i
A
s
jm
)
(B
s
i
A
c
jm
−B
c
i
A
s
jm
)
_
_
m=−n
±
M−n

=0
(1 +δ
0
)
_
V
(ij)+
m
(F
(2)
)
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
+ B
s
i
B
s
jm
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
−B
c
i
B
s
jm
)
_
+ V
(ij)+
m
(G
(2)
)
_
(A
c
i
B
c
jm
+A
s
i
B
s
jm
)
(A
s
i
B
c
jm
−A
c
i
B
s
jm
)
_
+ V
(ij)+
m
(H
(2)
)
_
(B
c
i
A
c
jm
+B
s
i
A
s
jm
)
(B
s
i
A
c
jm
−B
c
i
A
s
jm
)
_
_
m=+n
+
n−1

=1
_
W
(ij)+
m
(F
(2)
)
_
(B
c
i
B
c
jm
−B
s
i
B
s
jm
)
(B
s
i
B
c
jm
+ B
c
i
B
s
jm
)
_
+ W
(ij)+
m
(G
(2)
)
_
(A
c
i
B
c
jm
−A
s
i
B
s
jm
)
(A
s
i
B
c
jm
+A
c
i
B
s
jm
)
_
+ W
(ij)+
m
(H
(2)
)
_
(B
c
i
A
c
jm
−B
s
i
A
s
jm
)
(B
s
i
A
c
jm
+ B
c
i
A
s
jm
)
_
_
m=n−
_
(4.18)
16
_

b
H
(2)
n

k
ρ)ρdρ
_

0
Q

ij
(ρ, θ)
_
cos nθ
sin nθ
_
dθ =
πi
8
b
2
_
M

=n
(1 + δ
n
)
_
U
(ij)−
m
(F
(1)
)
_
(B
c
i
B
∗c
jm
+ B
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)
(B
s
i
B
∗c
jm
−B
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)
_
+ U
(ij)−
m
(G
(1)
)
_
(A
c
i
B
∗c
jm
+ A
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)
(A
s
i
B
∗c
jm
−A
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)
_
+ U
(ij)−
m
(H
(1)
)
_
(B
c
i
A
∗c
jm
+ B
s
i
A
∗s
jm
)
(B
s
i
A
∗c
jm
−B
c
i
A
∗s
jm
)
_
_
m=−n
±
M−n

=0
(1 + δ
0
)
_
V
(ij)−
m
(F
(1)
)
_
(B
c
i
B
∗c
jm
+ B
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)
(B
s
i
B
∗c
jm
−B
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)
_
+ V
(ij)−
m
(G
(1)
)
_
(A
c
i
B
∗c
jm
+ A
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)
(A
s
i
B
∗c
jm
−A
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)
_
+ V
(ij)−
m
(H
(1)
)
_
(B
c
i
A
∗c
jm
+ B
s
i
A
∗s
jm
)
(B
s
i
A
∗c
jm
−B
c
i
A
∗s
jm
)
_
_
m=+n
+
n−1

=1
_
W
(ij)−
m
(F
(1)
)
_
(B
c
i
B
∗c
jm
−B
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)
(B
s
i
B
∗c
jm
+ B
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)
_
+ W
(ij)−
m
(G
(1)
)
_
(A
c
i
B
∗c
jm
−A
s
i
B
∗s
jm
)
(A
s
i
B
∗c
jm
+ A
c
i
B
∗s
jm
)
_
+ W
(ij)−
m
(H
(1)
)
_
(B
c
i
A
∗c
jm
−B
s
i
A
∗s
jm
)
(B
s
i
A
∗c
jm
+ B
c
i
A
∗s
jm
)
_
_
m=n−
_
(4.19)
Special attention is required when the integers , m are equal to zero. Since the Bessel and
Hankel functions are odd functions of the (integer) order it follows that F
(1,2)
−1,m,n
= −F
(1,2)
1,m,n
,
and similarly for the case m = ±1 and for the integrals (4.13b,c). Thus it follows from
(4.17) that U
0
= W
0
and V
0m
= W
0m
. It can then be shown, with regard for the limits
of each sum in (4.18-19), and for the factors of two applied to the first term in each of the
first two sums, that the contributions from these equations are equivalent to those from
(4.14-15) when one or more of the integers , m, n is equal to zero.
Note also that when n = 0 the contributions from the first two sums in (4.18-19) are
identical, giving a net contribution of twice that of the first sum in the case of the cosine
integrals (upper factors) and zero for the sine integrals (lower factors).
4.4. EVALUATION OF THE RADIAL INTEGRALS
Suitable algorithms are required to evaluate the three families of integrals defined by (4.13).
From the asymptotic approximations of the Bessel and Hankel functions it is apparent
that, for sufficiently large values of x, the integrands are proportional to x
−1/2
exp(iσx),
17
where the factor σ involves sums and differences of the three parameters α, β, γ. These
integrals are convergent provided σ = 0. Hereafter it is assumed that the three parameters
α, β, γ > 0, and σ = 0. The former assumption is appropriate since these parameters
correspond physically to the products of three positive wavenumbers with the partition
radius b. The latter assumption will be considered in future work.
Numerical integration along the semi-infinite real x-axis is not practical, due to the very
slow convergence and oscillatory feature of the integrand. These difficulties can be over-
come simply by adopting appropriate contours of integration in the complex z-plane, de-
pending on the sign of σ. To determine the appropriate contours for each of the integrals
(4.13), consideration must be given to the basic definitions H
(1,2)
ν
= J
ν
± iY
ν
, where the
Bessel functions J, Y are real on the real axis, and the corresponding asymptotic approxi-
mations
H
(1,2)
ν
(z)
_
2
πz
exp(±i(z −
1
2
νπ −
π
4
)) (4.20)
which are valid for |z| >> 1 and |z| >> ν. When the order is large it also is necessary to
consider the complementary approximations
J
ν
(z) ∼ z
ν
, Y
ν
∼ z
−ν
(4.21)
¿From the basic relations between the Hankel and Bessel functions the integrals (4.13c)
can be evaluated as one-half times the sum of the two integrals defined by (4.13a), and a
similar approach can be followed with (4.13b). Such a decomposition is essential in some
cases for the contour integrals, since for large values of the argument J
ν
(z) includes two
components proportional respectively to exp(±iz) which may require different choices of
the contour of integration. However when >> αx or m >> βx it is clear from (4.21)
that severe cancellation errors will result from this approach. This difficulty is avoided by
integrating (4.13) along a finite segment of the positive real axis 1 ≤ x ≤ x
max
, before
deforming the contour of integration into the complex plane. This procedure is robust
provided the parameter x
max
is sufficiently large to satisfy the inequalities ≤ αx
max
and
m ≤ βx
max
.
The remaining integrals are of the general form
_

x
max
f(x)e
iσx
dx (4.22)
where f(x) denotes a slowly-varying function of order x
−1/2
, for large x, and in all cases
σ = (±α ± β − γ). If σ > 0 the contour of integration in (4.22) may be deformed in the
first quadrant of the complex plane z = x +iy, and a convenient choice is the straight line
upward parallel to the imaginary axis from z = x
max
to z = x
max
+ i∞. Thus (4.22) is
replaced in this case by the semi-infinite integral
18
_

x
max
f(x)e
iσx
dx = i exp(iσx
max
)
_

0
f(x
max
+ iy)e
−σy
dy, (σ > 0) (4.23)
Conversely, if σ < 0, the contour of integration may be deformed in the fourth quadrant
along a similar contour parallel to the negative imaginary axis.
For programming purposes it is convenient to modify these integrals so that in all cases
the contour of integration is in the first quadrant. Thus, when σ < 0, (4.22) is replaced by
_

x
max
f(x)e
iσx
dx =
_
_

x
max
f

(x)e
−iσx
dx
_

=
−i
_

0
_
f

(x
max
+ iy)e
−iσx+σy
_

dy (σ < 0)
(4.24)
Note that the function f(z) is defined, apart from a multiplicative exponential factor, by
the integrands of (4.13), and the conjugate function f

(z) therefore involves the same
integrands except that the Hankel functions of first- and second-kind are reversed.
In both the finite integral along the real axis and the semi-infinite integrals (4.23-4) nu-
merical integration is practical using adaptive Romberg quadratures to ensure a speci-
fied tolerance of accuracy. It is computationally efficient to evaluate all three integrals
(4.13a,b,c) together, for all required combinations of the orders (, m, n), with the same
integration algorithm and different integrands. The domain of integration is subdivided,
based on the maximum value of |σ|, so that large values of this parameter do not retard
convergence. The parameter x
max
is set equal to the largest value of the ratios /α or
m/β, except that if the largest ratio is less than 1.1, x
max
is set equal to one and the
integral along the real axis is skipped. For the semi-infinite integrals in y, the length of the
first segment is set equal to four divided by the maximum value of the exponential factor
σ. The length of each subsequent segment is increased in a linear manner, proportional to
the number of the segment, to take advantage of the exponentially diminishing magnitude
of the integrand in that segment. Two convergence tests are required, first within each
finite segment to determine that the order of the Romberg quadratures is sufficient, and
secondly after the (converged) integral in each segment is added to the total integral to
determine when the range of integration can be truncated. Typically a tolerance of 10
−8
is
used, with absolute accuracy specified if the integral is smaller than one in absolute value,
and relative accuracy in the converse case. In the program this procedure is followed for
the complete set of required integrals, of all combinations of the orders , m, n required in
(4.18-19) and for all three of the integrals defined in (4.13). Convergence tests are applied
to all members of this set simultaneously, and the integration of the entire set continues
until the convergence test is satisfied for the entire set. This precludes the possibility
of false convergence for one particular integrand, and permits the simultaneous recursive
evaluation of the required Bessel and Hankel functions of all orders.
Effective subroutines for the Bessel and Hankel functions are required, for both the integral
along the real axis where the arguments are all real, and also in the integrals (4.23-4) where
the arguments are in the first quadrant. These will be described separately below.
19
For the functions with real argument the functions J
ν
(x) and Y
ν
(x) are evaluated following
the general methodology described in Numerical Recipes, §6.4, and the Hankel functions
are evaluated from the relations J ± iY . For J
ν
(x) the backward recursion algorithm of
Miller (cf. Abramowitz & Stegun, pp. 385-6) is used with the starting value ν = M
chosen to be the smallest even integer M which satisfies the inequalities M > 1.36|x| +24
and M > N + 12, where N is the maximum order required. Normalization is based on
the Neumann series with unit value (Abramowitz & Stegun, equation 9.1.46). Numerical
experiments indicate that the accuracy of the results is at least 14 decimals, with relative
accuracy preserved for x << ν. Chebyshev expansions are used to evaluate the functions
Y
0
, Y
1
and the functions Y
ν
are evaluated for all required higher orders by forward recursion.
A similar backward recursion algorithm is used to evaluate the functions J
ν
(z) with com-
plex argument z in the first quadrant, using the same starting value M defined above
except that |x| is replaced by |z|. In this case it is appropriate to use as the normalization
relations the Neumann series for cos, sinz (Abramowitz & Stegun, equations 9.1.47-8), se-
lecting whichever of these functions has the largest absolute value to avoid instability near
the zeros on the real axis. To avoid the possibility of overflow, the subroutine evaluates
the normalized functions exp(iz)J
ν
(z) and applies an appropriate exponential factor to
the final integrand.
For the Hankel functions of the first kind, with complex argument z in the first quadrant,
forward recursion is used based on the starting values of order zero and one. The evaluation
of these is based on two complementary algorithms, suitable for small and large values of
|z|. For small |z| ascending series are summed to evaluate J
0,1
and Y
0,1
, (Abramowitz
& Stegun equations 9.1.10-11), and these are then combined to form the corresponding
Hankel functions. These ascending series are used in the quadrilateral domain of the plane
z = x + iy such that x ≥ 0, 0 ≤ y ≤ 3 and x + y ≤ 8. The series are truncated with a
total of 22 terms. For larger values of z outside the quadrilateral domain, rational fraction
approximations of the form described by Luke (Table 66) are effective. To obtain sufficient
accuracy in the domain where |z| is large, the coefficients in Luke’s Tables 66.1 and 66.6
have been extended to n = 10, giving rational-fraction approximations as the ratios of
tenth-degree polynomials. Comparison of the two complementary algorithms along the
common boundary of the partition indicates that the minimum relative accuracy of this
subroutine is 14 decimals. The rational-fraction approximations are not effective for the
Hankel functions of the second kind, but the latter can be evaluated directly from the
relation H
(2)
ν
= 2J
ν
− H
(1)
ν
, using the values of J
ν
obtained from backward recursion.
The exponential normalization factors exp(∓iz) are applied to H
(1,2)
ν
, respectively, and
corrected in the final evaluation of the integrand.
For checking purposes it is useful to derive recursion formulae for the integrals (4.13). For
this purpose we consider the more general integrals
F
(µ)
mn
=
_

1
H

(αx)H
m
(βx)H
n
(γx)x
µ
dx (4.25)
where H
ν
denotes any of the three functions J
ν
, H
(1)
ν
, or H
(2)
ν
. These integrals are defined
20
in the ordinary sense for µ < 3/2 (assuming the sum of the wavenumbers is nonzero), and
will be applied ultimately with µ = 1. Integrating the derivative of the integrand and
employing the formula H

ν
= H
ν−1
−(ν/z)H
ν
to differentiate the integrand in accordance
with the chain rule, it follows that
−H

(α)H
m
(β)H
n
(γ) = αF
(µ)
−1,m,n
+βF
(µ)
,m−1,n
+γF
(µ)
,m,n−1
−(+m+n−µ)F
(µ−1)
,m,n
(4.26)
Using the recursion 2νH
ν
/z = H
ν−1
+ H
ν+1
to evaluate the last term in (4.13), with the
index ν replaced successively by , m, n, three relations are obtained as follows:
F
(µ−1)
,m,n
=
α
2
[F
(µ)
−1,m,n
+F
(µ)
+1,m,n
] =
β
2m
[F
(µ)
,m−1,n
+F
(µ)
,m+1,n
] =
γ
2n
[F
(µ)
,m,n−1
+F
(µ)
,m,n+1
]
(4.27)
Combining each of these alternative relations with (4.26) and setting µ = 1 gives the
desired relations
F
+1,m,n
=
2
α( + m+ n −1)
_
αF
−1,m,n
+ βF
,m−1,n
+ γF
,m,n−1
+H

(α)H
m
(β)H
n
(γ)
_
−F
−1,m,n
(4.28a)
F
,m+1,n
=
2m
β( +m + n −1)
_
αF
−1,m,n
+ βF
,m−1,n
+γF
,m,n−1
+ H

(α)H
m
(β)H
n
(γ)
_
−F
,m−1,n
(4.28b)
F
,m,n+1
=
2n
γ( + m+ n −1)
_
αF
−1,m,n
+βF
,m−1,n
+ γF
,m,n−1
+H

(α)H
m
(β)H
n
(γ)
_
−F
,m,n−1
(4.28c)
The relations used here for differentiation and recursion of the Hankel functions apply to
any linear combination of Bessel functions of the first and second kind, including the Hankel
functions of the first and second kind. Thus the same generality applies to the relations
(4.28). In particular, one of the Hankel functions may be replaced by the Bessel function
J
ν
, as is required in (4.13b-c). The only requirements here are that the starting values for
the recursion are evaluated for the appropriate combination of Bessel and Hankel functions,
and that the triple product of Hankel functions H

(α)H
m
(β)H
n
(γ) which appears in (4.28)
21
is likewise replaced by the corresponding product of the appropriate Bessel and Hankel
functions, i.e. the integrand of (4.13a,b,c) evaluated at the lower limit of integration.
Collectively the three recursion relations (4.28) can be used to evaluate the integrals F, G, H
for any combination of the three orders , m, n, provided suitable starting values are avail-
able. To proceed in this manner throughout a three-dimensional cube 0 ≤ (, m, n) ≤ M it
is sufficient to evaluate the eleven starting values where the three integers have the values
000, 100, 010, 001, 011, 101, 110, 111, 200, 020, 002. However this procedure has two
important disadvantages. First, to evaluate only the required ‘two-dimensional’ combina-
tions of , m, n in (4.18) and (4.19) it is not efficient to evaluate the ‘three-dimensional’
combinations as is required in the recursion relations. More importantly, for large values
of α, β, γ the recursion relations are unstable with substantial cancellation error occur-
ring over several successive values of the integers. (Since forward recursion is stable for
the Hankel functions it was originally thought that this problem would not be serious.
However the inhomogeneous terms in (4.28) appear to be important in this context, and
numerical tests indicate that there is a substantial loss of accuracy in the use of (4.28) for
, m, n > O(10) unless the parameters α, β, γ = O(1).)
The recursion relations are nevertheless useful to check the subroutines used to evaluate
(4.13). Extensive tests have been made in this manner, throughout the two-dimensional
space where the three integrals (4.13) are required in (4.18-19) up to the maximum order
M = 32; with a specified Romberg tolerance (typically 10
−8
) the differences between the
left- and right-hand sides of the recursion relations (4.28) are consistently smaller than
this tolerance.
5. REFERENCES
Abramowitz, M., & Stegun, I. A., 1964 Handbook of Mathematical Functions with For-
mulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Government Printing Office, Washington and
Dover, New York.
Kim, M.-H. 1990 ‘Second-order sum-frequency wave loads on large-volume structures,’
App. Ocean Research, to appear.
Kim, M.-H. & Yue, D. K. P. 1989 ‘The complete second-order diffraction solution for an
axisymmetric body Part 1. Monochromatic incident waves,’ J. Fluid Mech. 200, 235–264.
Kim, M.-H. & Yue, D. K. P. 1990 ‘The complete second-order diffraction solution for
an axisymmetric body Part 2. Bichromatic incident waves and body motions,’ J. Fluid
Mech., 211, 557–593.
Lee, C.-H. & Newman, J. N. 1989 ‘First- and second-order wave effects on a submerged
spheroid,’ J. Ship Research, to appear.
Ogilvie, T. F. 1983 ‘Second-order hydrodynamic effects on ocean platforms,’ International
Workshop on Ship and Platform Motions, Berkeley.
22

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Description of the Problem 2. THE FIRST-ORDER PROBLEM 2.1 Boundary Value Problem 2.1.1 Multiple bodies 2.1.2 Body deformations 2.1.3 Bodies near walls 2.2 Integral Equations 2.2.1 Green function 2.2.2 Linear system 2.3 Removal of the Irregular Frequencies 3. THE SECOND-ORDER PROBLEM 3.1 Boundary Value Problem 3.2 Second-order Incident Waves 3.3 Second-order Scattering Waves 4. THE FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER FORCE 4.1 Force and Moment 4.1.1 Coordinate system 4.1.2 Coordinate transform 4.1.3 Pressure integration 4.1.4 Hydrostatic force and moment of O(1) 4.1.5 Linear force and moment 4.1.5 Second-order force and moment 4.2 Haskind Force and the Second-order Indirect Force 4.3 Equations of Motion REFERENCES A REFERENCES B APPENDICIES

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
This Theory Manual describes the theoretical background of the computer program WAMIT (WaveAnalysisMIT). It provides an overview of the theories and the computational methodologies in a concise manner. For detailed information on the selected subjects, some of the published and unpublished articles are included in the Appendix. The use of the program WAMIT and its capabilities are described in a separate User Manual. WAMIT is a panel program designed to solve the boundary-value problem for the interaction of water-waves with prescribed bodies in finite- and infinite- water depth. Viscous effects of the fluid are not considered throughout and thus the flow field is potential without circulation. A perturbation series solution of the nonlinear boundary value problem is postulated with the assumption that the wave amplitude is small compared to the wave length. It is also assumed that the body stays at its mean position and, if it is not fixed, the oscillatory amplitude of the body motion is of the same order as the wave amplitude. The time harmonic solutions corresponding to the first- and second-terms of the series expansion are solved for a given steady-state incident wave field. The incident wave field is assumed to be represented by a superposition of the fundamental first-order solutions of particular frequency components in the absence of the body. The boundary value problem is recast into integral equations using the wave source potential as a Green function. The integral equation is then solved by a ‘panel’ method for the unknown velocity potential and/or the source strength on the body surface. Using the latter, the fluid velocity on the body surface is evaluated. For incident waves of specific frequencies and wave headings, the linear problem is solved first. Chapter 2 describes the linear boundary value problem and the solution procedure. The quadratic interaction of two linear solutions defines the boundary condition for the second-order problem. Chapter 3 is devoted to the discussion of the second-order problem. In Chapter 4, the rigid body motion is discussed in the context of the perturbation series and the expressions for the hydrodynamic forces are derived. Chapter 5 lists the references quoted in this manual and Chapter 6 lists the references illustrating the computational results obtained from WAMIT. The Appendix includes the articles on the subjects which are not explained in detail in this manual. Since the following will focus primarily on the hydrodynamic interaction, it is appropri1

since it has only one large wetted surface. If only first-order quantities are required.3) where ρ is the density of the fluid and g is the gravitational acceleration. submerged or surface piercing. t) = −ρ( ∂Φ 1 + ∇Φ · ∇Φ + gz) ∂t 2 (1. An extremely thin submerged body may be difficult to analyze when the small thickness between the two facing surfaces compared to the other dimensions of the body may render the integral equation ill-conditioned1 .1) Here t denotes the time and x=(x.2) The pressure follows from Bernoulli’s equation: p(x.ate to mention here restrictions on the bodies which may be analyzed using WAMIT. z) denotes the Cartesian coordinates of a point in space. The fluid velocity is given by the gradient of the velocity potential V(x. a thin body floating on the free surface (in other words the draft is very small) is not included in this category. the bodies need not be rigid. y. The bodies may be fixed. Flexible bodies can be analyzed if the oscillatory displacements of the body surface are described by specified mode shapes. However. The undisturbed free surface is the z = 0 plane with the fluid domain z < 0. free of separation or lifting effects. x may be expressed as the sum of the component vectors as x = xi + yj + zk. The velocity potential satisfies the nonlinear free-surface condition: ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ∂Φ + 2∇Φ · ∇ + ∇Φ · ∇(∇Φ · ∇Φ) = 0 +g 2 ∂t ∂z ∂t 2 applied on the exact free surface 1 ∂Φ 1 + ∇Φ · ∇Φ)z=ζ ζ(x. Multibody interactions between any combinations of these bodies can be analyzed. a body touching the free surface may be analyzed. 1.1 Description of the Problem The flow is assumed to be potential. In the extreme case of the latter.5) See Martin and Rizzo (1993) 2 . constrained or neutrally buoyant and they may be bottom mounted. t) = ∇Φ = ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂z (1. and it is governed by the velocity potential Φ(x.4) (1. t) which satisfies Laplace’s equation in the fluid domain: ∇2 Φ = 0 (1. y) = − ( g ∂t 2 1 (1.

Thus the total first order potential for the wave-body interaction can be expressed by a sum of components having circular frequency ωj > 0: Φ(1) (x. the velocity potential is expanded in a form Φ(x.9) and (1. t) = Φ(1) (x. The directional spreading of the incident waves is not shown explicitly in (1. from the equations (1. t) + Φ(2) (x.8) (1. In (1.4). These boundary conditions are discussed in later chapters. y) = − 1 ∂Φ (1) g ∂t (1. the free surface elevation also takes the form of the perturbation series.10) 1 ∂Φ (2) 1 1 ∂Φ (1) ∂ 2 Φ(1) ζ (2) (x. ζ(x. In that case α is used for the rotational modes.11). Frequently ξ is used. t) = Re j φj (x)eiωj t (1.10). At the second-order. However if it is necessary. y) = − ( + ∇Φ(1) · ∇Φ(1) − ) g ∂t 2 g ∂t ∂z∂t In the equations (1. to denote only the translational modes.6) and with aid of the Taylor expansion with respect to the mean free surface. y) = ζ (1) (x.6) When the body is not fixed the motion amplitude2 of the body is also expanded in a perturbation series (1. in a restrictive sense. (1.6) and (1. one can easily incorporate it by expressing φj (x) as a sum of the velocity potential components each of which corresponds to a particular wave heading. with the understanding that the real part of the time harmonic solution is physically relevant. y) + ζ (2) (x.5) and (1. Given a wave spectrum. 2 3 . y) + · · · with ζ (1) (x. the free surface boundary conditions for Φ(1) and Φ(2) imposed on z = 0 are derived. indepedent of time. it is customary to assume the spectrum is expressed as a linear superposition of the first-order incident waves of different frequencies.11) Here we introduce the complex velocity potential φj (x).With the assumption of a perturbation solution in terms of a small wave slope of the incident waves. For a moving body.9) (1.11) φj (x) denotes the first-order solution in the presence of the incident wave of frequency ωj and the wave heading βj .6) and (1. From the equations (1. the total velocity potential takes a form Here ξ includes both the translational and the rotational modes of the rigid body.7) and with the Taylor expansion of Φ with respect to the mean body surface. the body boundary condition is derived.8-10). t) + · · · (1. the right-hand sides are evaluated on z = 0.7) ξ = ξ (1) + ξ (2) + · · · From (1.

These are determined by two linear incident wave components: one has frequency ωj and wave heading βj and the other ωi and βi . we discuss the solution procedures for the complex velocity potentials φj and φ± in (1. In the next two chapters. If one consider the directional spreading of the incident waves. φ± (x) are represented by a double summation ij over wave headings (βi . βj ).13) Here we may assume ωi ≥ ωj ≥ 0 without loss of the generality.12).and difference-frequency velocity potential with frequencies ωi + ωj and ωi − ωj .11) and (1. t) = Re i j φ+ (x)ei(ωi +ωj )t + φ− (x)ei(ωi −ωj )t ij ij (1.Φ(2) (x. φ+ and φ− are ij ij referred to as the sum. ij 4 . respectively.12) with symmetric conditions φ+ = φ+ ij ji and φ− = φ−∗ ij ji (1.

5) . Thus we omit the subscript j indicating the frequency component in this Chapter. we review the first-order boundary value problem and its solution procedure. For a fluid of depth h.1) ω representing a plane progressive wave of the circular frequency ω and the wave heading angle β. Linearity of the problem allows it to be distinguished from the disturbance due to the the motion of the body which is represented by the radiation potential φR .4) An efficient root finding algorithm for the computation of κ from equation (2. β is an angle of incidence to the positive x − axis. The velocity potential of the first-order incident wave is defined by igA Z(κz)e−iκ(x cos β+y sin β) (2.12). it is given by g cosh(κ(z + h)) (2. ωj from the discrete spectrum (1. The scattering velocity potential φS represents the disturbance to the incident wave due to the presence of the body in its fixed position. Thus the total velocity potential is given by φ = φI + φS + φR = φD + φR 5 (2.Chapter 2 THE FIRST-ORDER PROBLEM In this Chapter. A denotes the complex wave amplitude.4) is explained in Newman (1990). where κ = (2. Here we consider one particular frequency component.3) Z(κz) = cosh(κh) ω2 κ tanh κh = g where the wavenumber κ is the real root of the dispersion relation (2.2) ω2 ≡ ν. The function Z represents the depth dependence of the flow and is given by φI = Z(κz) = eκz for infinite water depth.

the linear free-surface condition: φz − νφ = 0 on z = 0. pitch and yaw in the increasing order of j. These modes are referred to as surge. roll. Finally. and a condition on the sea bottom: ∇φ → 0 as z → −∞.1 Boundary Value Problem The total first-order velocity potential φ. along with each of its components. or φz = 0 on z = −h (2.9a) (2.10) (2. sway. the conditions on the body surface complete the description of the boundary value problem. heave.and finite.11) (2. 2. They take the form ∂φk = nk ∂n and ∂φI ∂φS =− ∂n ∂n (2. the scattering and the radiation potentials are subject to a radiation condition stating that the wave energy associated with the disturbance due to the body is carried away from the body in all direction in the far field.where the diffraction potential φD is defined to be the sum of φI and φS .7) 6 . In addition. and φk the corresponding unit-amplitude radiation potential (specifically.water depth. respectively.6) Here ξk is the complex amplitude of the oscillatory motion in mode k of the six degrees of freedom.8) (2. unitamplitude means the unit-amplitude linear or angular velocity of the rigid body motion). satisfies the Laplace equation in the fluid domain: ∇2 φ = 0. The radiation potential itself is a linear combination of the components corresponding to the modes of motion such that 6 φR = iω k=1 ξ k φk (2.9b) for infinite.

1). 1 7 . n5 . Then the corresponding radiation potential φk satisfies ∂φk = uk · n (2. Examples are the bending modes of structural deformation and the compressible modes of a flexible body.1 These topics are reviewed briefly next. the total radiation potential consists of 6N components. This is done by defining φk as the velocity potential corresponding to a particular mode of one body while the other bodies are kept stationary. the velocity potential is subject to the condition (2. 2.12) Variations to the canonical problem specified above include multibody interactions.2 Body deformations Appication can also be made to analyze the more general modes of motion of the structure. the mode shapes are described in terms of the vector displacement of the body boundary. 2. along with the exploitation of the symmetry of the bodies. n2 . The resultant wave field Walls are assumed to coincide with the x = 0 or the y = 0 planes. The unit vector n is normal to the body boundary and it is assumed the normal vector points out of the fluid domain. In this way. it follows that ∂φD =0 ∂n (2.3 Bodies near walls ∂φ =0 ∂n When walls are present. generalized modes and the presence of the vertical walls. 2. beyond the rigid body motions. When there are two walls they meet perpendicularly at the origin. From (2.1 Multiple bodies The decomposition of the radiation potential into components.13) ∂n on the body boundary. To analyze these modes. The details of the analysis for generalized modes and its applications are described in Newman (1994). corresponding to the modes of the rigid body motion.where (n1 .1. where N is the number of bodies. can be extended to multi-body interaction.5). n6 ) = x × n.14) on the walls.1. Let uk (x) be the mode shape given as a function of the points on the body boundary. a reflected wave (φr ) should be I added to φI to describe the wave field in the absence of the body.1. n3 ) = n and (n4 . If we define the incident wave as in (2. x is the position of a point on the body boundary.

17) (2. (2. x) (2. the symmetric component satisfies ∂φ =0 ∂n and the antisymmetric component satisfies φ=0 (2. the computational domain for φD .4 Integral Equations The boundary value problem is solved by the integral equation method.19) 2πφD (x) + = 4πφI (x) ∂nξ SB Alternatively. However when these equations are solved using a low order panel method.18) SB SB where SB denotes the body boundary. From a computational point of view. x) = ∂nξ ξ dξ (− ∂φI ξ )G(ξ .15) If the body geometry is symmetric with respect to the x = 0 plane.satisfies (2. φS and φR can be reduced to half or one quadrant of the entire domain. the velocity potentials are expressed as a sum of the symmetric and antisymmetric components with respect to the planes of symmetry. This is due to the hypersingular integral arising from the double derivative of the constant strength wave 8 .14) and it is a standing wave with maximum free surface elevation 2|A|.18) to (2. We need to evaluate the fluid velocity on the body surface and in the fluid domain for the computation of the second-order wave forces as discussed in Chapter 4. Thus the velocity potential φk on the body boundary is obtained from the integral equation 2πφk (x) + ξ ξ dξ φk (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ .20) SB SB and the diffraction potential follows from (2. x) = ∂nξ ξ ξ dξ nk G(ξ .20).5).) The total velocity potential is then expressed in the form φ = φI + φr + φS + φR I (2. x) ξ ξ dξ φD (ξ ) (2.20) due to the simpler form of the right-hand-side. they can not predict the velocity accurately on or close to the body boundary. the scattering potential can be obtained from 2πφS (x) + ξ ξ dξ φS (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ .19) is slightly more efficient than (2. On these planes. the y = 0 plane or both. The velocity may be computed from the spacial derivatives of Green’s integral equations. In these cases. x) ∂n (2. (2.16) 2. (The actual free surface elevation depends on the incident wave heading β.1. The corresponding equation for the total diffraction velocity potential φD is (Korsmeyer et al (1988)) ξ ∂G(ξ .

1. which is referred to as the wave source potential.5 The Green Function The Green function G(x. the discrete form of the equation (2.26) r 2 = (x − ξ)2 + (y − η)2 + (z − ζ)2 9 .22) are solved by the panel method.21) SB and that of σS corresponding to the scattering potential φS 2πσS (x) + SB ξ ξ dξ σS (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ .22) The fluid velocity on the body boundary or in the fluid domain due to φk or φS is then obtained from ∇φ(x) = ∇ SB ξ ξ ξ dξ σ(ξ )G(ξ . The integral equation for the source strength σk corresponding to the radiation potential φk takes the form (Lee and Newman (1991)) 2πσk (x) + ξ ξ dξ σk (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ .1). The wetted body surface is represented by an ensemble of quadrilateral panels (a triangular panel is a special type of quadrilateral panel where two vertices coalesce). (2.source potential distributed on a quadrilateral panel.20) takes the form N EQN 2πφS (xk ) + n=1 N EQN φS (xn ) − n=1 Sn ξ dξ ξ ∂G(ξ . x) = nk ∂nx (2. For example. and in infinite water depth it is defined by (Wehausen and Laitone (1960)) G(x.25) (2.24) = ∂φI (xn ) ∂n Sn where NEQN is the total number of panels (unknowns) and xk are the coordinates of the centroid of the k-th panel. ξ ) = 1 1 2ν + + r r π ∞ 0 dk ek(z+ζ) J0 (kR) k−ν (2.23) The fluid velocity due to the incident wave is evaluated directly from (2. x) (2. xk ) (2. ξ ). For this reason. 2. x) ∂φI =− ∂nx ∂n (2.18) to (2. Integral equations. xk ) ∂nξ ξ ξ dξ G(ξ . It satisfies the free-surface and radiation conditions. the fluid velocity is computed based on the source formulation. The unknowns are assumed to be constant over each panel and the integral equation is enforced at the centroid of each panel (a collocation method). is the velocity potential at the point x due to a point source of strength −4π located at the point ξ .

The integration of the latter part over a panel is carried out using either one or four point Gauss quadrature. it is defined by 1 1 + +2 r r ∞ 0 (2.6 Linear system The linear system. In both expressions (2. in (2. is O( ). The relative computational efficiency between the iterative method and Gauss elimination can be illustrated by the ratio of the number of floating point operations.27) G(x. In the equation (2.30) may not be evaluated accurately using Gauss quadrature in this situation. The former is attached in the appendix. the Fourier k−integration is indented above the pole on the real axis in order to enforce the radiation condition. The remaining wave part of the Green function is evaluated based on the algorithms described in Newman (1992). the influence due to the continuous distribution of the Rankine part of the wave source potential on a quadrilateral panel is evaluated based on the algorithms described in Newman (1985). 2.28). the former to the 3KM latter. The details on the iterative method is described in Lee (1988). The logarithmic singularity in (2. Where NEQN is the number of unknowns or the dimension of the NEQN linear system and K is the number of iterations. In finite depth. the velocity potentials are subject to the conditions (2. The Green function is then modified to be a sum of (2. generated by implementing the solution procedure described above (for example (2.24) the number of the 10 . The algorithm for evaluating the influence of the logarithmic singularity distributed over a panel can be found in Newman and Sclavounos (1988).24)). special care is required for the evaluation of Green function as is discussed in Newman (1993) and Zhu (1994).17).28) (2.r 2 = (x − ξ)2 + (y − η)2 + (z + ζ)2 where J0 (x) is the Bessel function of zero order. G takes a form G(x.29) (r )2 = (x − ξ)2 + (y − η)2 + (z + ζ + 2h)2 .14). When there are walls or when we exploit the symmetry/antisymmetry of the flow.24). (2. In this case.30) where γ is the Euler constant. When the panel is on the free surface.1.25) and (2. ξ ) = 1 1 + − 2νeν(z+ζ) (log(r + |z + ζ|) + (γ − log 2) + r + O(r log r )) r r (2. (As an example. This ratio.16) or (2. a block iterative method or Gauss elimination.15) or (2. ξ ) = dk (k + ν) cosh k(z + h) cosh k(ζ + h) −kh e J0 (kR) k sinh kh − ν cosh kh (2. When the field and source points are close together and in the vicinity of the free surface. M is the number of the right-hand sides of the linear system sharing a left-hand side. is solved by an iterative method.28) and its image sources. the image source must be placed at the reflected points of x with respect to the planes of symmetry.

Si .31a) SB Sf SB SB ξ ξ dξ φk (ξ ) Sf ξ ξ dξ φk (ξ ) SB (2. x) + ∂nξ ξ ξ dξ φk (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ . The opposite limit is the case when the dimension of the blocks is one. which is identical to the iterative method. 11 . x) = ∂nξ ξ ∂G(ξ . This accelerates the rate of convergence as the dimension of the block increases.31b) where φk is an artificial velocity potential defined in the interior domain. Some examples are i) barges with shallow draft.18-20). Gauss elimination is not only slower than the iterative method for large NEQN but also requires sufficiently large core memory to store the entire matrix elements. The block iterative method is based on the same algorithm as the iterative method. x) = ∂nξ ξ ξ dξ nk G(ξ . Equations (2.18-22) have nonunique solutions at the common irregular frequencies corresponding to the Dirichlet eigen-frequencies for the closed domain defined by the body boundary. ii) bodies with large flare and iii) multiple bodies separated by small gaps. all or part of the matrix may be stored on the auxiliary storage devise (hard disk) and then retrieved at each iteration. Numerical solutions of these equations are erroneous near the irregular frequencies. the back substitution is performed for the diagonal blocks. since only φk on SB is physically relevant. x) ξ ξ dξ nk G(ξ . The eigenmodes correspond to the solution with the homogeneous Dirichlet condition on SB and the linear free-surface condition on Si . Another case where the iterative method may be slowly convergent is in the linear system for the extended boundary integral equation (see Section 2. in the iterative method. The extended boundary integral equations for φk are 2πφk (x) + −4πφk (x) + ξ ξ dξ φk (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ . For these problems. These two equations are solved simultaneously for φk on SB and φk on Si .) In most applications the iterative method converges in 10-15 iterations and is the most efficient way to solve the linear system. We discard φk after we solve the equations. x) + ∂nξ ξ ∂G(ξ . There are some problems for which the iterative method is slowly convergent or nonconvergent due to bad conditioning of the linear system. On the other hand.right-hand-side vectors is the same as the number of the different wave headings of φI for a fixed left-hand-side matrix. The block iterative method requires core memory to store the elements of one block for LU decomposition.7 Removal of Irregular Frequencies The integral equations (2. since the LU decomposition is performed using the core memory.3). Gauss elimination or the block iterative method should be used. and the interior free surface. The extended boundary integral equation method is applied to remove the irregular frequency effect from the velocity potentials in (2.31a) and (2.1. x) (2.31b) are for x on SB and Si . but Gauss elimination is applied locally for the specified diagonal blocks. respectively. The limiting case is the same as Gauss elimination. 2. At each stage of the iterations.

Zhu (1994) also makes a comparison with other methods for the removal of the irregular frequency effect and demonstrates the effectiveness of the present method.32b) ∂φI ∂n The scattering potential takes the same form as the radiation potential but − replaces nk on the right-hand side of the equations (2. The proper ∂n condition of the function V (x) is discussed in Lee et al (1995). x) = 4πφI (x) ∂nξ ξ ∂G(ξ . x) + ∂nξ Sf ξ ξ dξ σ (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ .33b) ∂φI ) for the radition (scattering) problem. where g(x) = nk (g(x) = − 12 . x) + ∂nξ ξ ξ dξ σ (ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ . x) = 4πφI (x) ∂nξ 2πφD (x) + SB ξ ξ dξ φD (ξ ) Sf ξ ξ dξ φD (ξ ) (2.31a) and (2.32a) −4πφD (x) + SB ξ ξ dξ φD (ξ ) Sf ξ ξ dξ φD (ξ ) (2.The equations for the diffraction potential φD are given by ξ ∂G(ξ .32b). Lee et al (1995) and Zhu (1994).33a) SB Sf −4πσ (x) + SB ξ ξ dξ σ(ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ . x) + ∂nξ ξ ∂G(ξ . The details of the derivation of these equations are described in Kleinman (1982). x) + ∂nξ ξ ∂G(ξ . The extended boundary integral equation for the source formulation of the radiation or scattering problem takes a form 2πσ(x) + ξ ξ dξ σ(ξ ) ξ ∂G(ξ . x) = −V (x) ∂nξ (2. x) = g(x) ∂nξ (2.

the second-order potential. Section 6. t) (3.11)1 . In this Chapter we restrict our attention to the solution of the second-order boundary value problem.4) When body is not fixed. The forcing function on the body boundary is given by (Ogilvie (1983)) QB = − ξ ∂H ∂ΦI ∂(ξ (1) + α(1) × x) α +n· x + (α(1) × n) · ( − ∇Φ(1) ) ∂n ∂t ∂t ξ −n · ((ξ (1) + α(1) × x) · ∇)∇Φ(1) + 1 (2) ∂ξk nk k=1 ∂t 6 (2) (3.Chapter 3 THE SECOND-ORDER PROBLEM From the quadratic interaction of the two linear wave components of the frequencies ωi and ωj in the discrete spectrum (1. t) is subject to the free surface condition ∂Φ(2) ∂ 2 Φ(2) = QF (x.12). 13 . t) +g ∂t2 ∂z and the body boundary condition (3.4)) QF = ∂ 1 ∂Φ(1) ∂ ∂ 2 Φ(1) ∂Φ(1) ( ) − (∇Φ(1) · ∇Φ(1) ) +g g ∂t ∂z ∂t2 ∂z ∂t (3. Other second-order quantities.4) below. The second-order velocity potential Φ(2) (x. are discussed in Chapter 4. we have the second-order waves of the frequency components ωi + ωj and ωi − ωj in (1.1) ∂Φ(2) = QB (x. obtainable from the first-order solution.e. such as the quadratic second-order force . i.2) ∂n where the inhomogeneous right-hand-side of the second-order free-surface condition (3. y.3) QF is to be evaluated on z = 0. the first-order motion affects the second-order solution as shown in the equation (3.1) defines the quadratic forcing function (Newman (1977.

ΦI is referred to as the second-order incident wave potential. With this in mind.4) is the quadratic components of the coordinate transformation matrix due to the rotation of the body and it (2) takes a form (3. t) = Re i j Q+ (x)ei(ωi +ωj )t + Q− (x)ei(ωi −ωj )t ij ij (3.12).3).8) and ∗ ∂ 2 φ∗ i i ∂ 2 φi j 2 ∂φj 2 ∂φi ωi φi (−ωj + g 2 ) − ωj φ∗ (−ωi +g 2 ) j 4g ∂z ∂z 4g ∂z ∂z 1 − i(ωi − ωj )∇φi · ∇φ∗ (3.6) with the symmetry condition (3. Thus we may decompose Q± into the quadratic interactions of the two incident wave potentials F Q− = F 14 . From combining (1. we have the expressions for the complex amplitudes of the free-surface forcing functions. Q is expressed as Q(x. In (3. we will omit the subscript ij hereafter.14) and (3. In accordance with the definition of the second-order potential (1. consist of the incident wave potential (φI ) and the body disturbances (φB = φS + φR ).and differency-frequency problems.and difference. use is made of the relation 1 Re(Aeiωi t )Re(Beiωj t ) = Re[(Aeiωi t )(Beiωj t + B ∗ e−iωj t )] (3. nk is the appropriate component of n for the translational modes and of a component of (x×n) for the rotational modes.7) ± The other second-order quantities such as the motion amplitude ξ (2) = ξij are expressed in a form of (3.15).9) j 2 For future reference.7).8-9).6) With the symmetry condition.4).frequency forcings on z = 0 are given by Q+ = F ∂ 2 φj ∂ 2 φi i i 2 ∂φj 2 ∂φi ωi φi (−ωj + g 2 ) + ωj φj (−ωi +g 2 ) 4g ∂z ∂z 4g ∂z ∂z 1 − i(ωi + ωj )∇φi · ∇φj 2 (3. we note that the first-order potential φi and φj in (3. This is the second-order potential in the absence of the body and will be discussed in Section 3. Q+ = Q+ ij ji and Q− = Q−∗ ij ji (3.2. In the following evaluations of second-order products of two first-order oscillatory quantities.and it is to be evaluated on the mean body boundary.11) and (3.5) 2 where (∗ ) denotes the complex conjugate. for sum. Sum. H in (3.

15) As in the first-order problem. it is convenient to decompose the total second-order potential into three components: the second order incident wave potential (φ± ). These are proportional to the second-order motion and can be treated separately from the rest of body forcing as is discussed below. φ± describes the disturbance due the second-order motion of the body and R 15 . We S R define φ± as the potential that satisfies the second-order free surface condition in absence I of the body. and two body disturbance waves II IB (Q± ) such that BB (3. the secondI order scattering wave potential (φ± ) and the second-order radiation potential (φ± ). the incident and the body disturbance waves (Q± ).13) are omitted from (3. since they are not a quadratic function of the first-order solution.4). The matrices H ± which account for the rotational motion of the body are given by −(α2i α2j + α3i α3j ) 0 1 + −α1i α1j + α3i α3j H =  α1i α2j + α1j α2i 2 α2i α3j + α2j α3i α1i α3j + α1j α3i ∗ ∗ −(α2i α2j + α3i α3j ) 0 1 − ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ H =  α1i α2j + α1j α2i −α1i α1j + α3i α3j 2 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ α2i α3j + α2j α3i α1i α3j + α1j α3i  0  0  −α1i α1j + α2i α2j 0  0  ∗ ∗ −α1i α1j + α2i α2j   (3.and difference-frequency components of the last term of (3.(Q± ). They are given by Q+ = − B ∂φ+ i(ωi + ωj ) I + n · H +x ∂n 2 i ξ α ξ α + [(αi × n) · (ωj (ξ j + αj × x) − ∇φj ) + (αj × n) · (ωi (ξ i + αi × x) − ∇φi )] 4 1 ξ ξ − (3.10) Q± = Q± + Q± + Q± F II IB BB Next we consider the sum. Q± = i(ωi ± ωj ) B k ξ ± nk (3.12) j j 4 The sum.and difference-frequency forcing on the body boundary.11-12).11) n · [((ξ i + α i × x) · ∇)∇φj + ((ξ j + α j × x) · ∇)∇φi ] 4 and Q− = − B ∂φ− i(ωi − ωj ) I + n · H −x ∂n 2 i α ξj αj ξ [(αi × n) · (ωj (ξ ∗ + α∗ × x) − ∇φ∗ ) + (α∗ × n) · (ωi (ξ i + αi × x) − ∇φi )] + j j 4 1 ξ ξj n · [((ξ i + αi × x) · ∇)∇φ∗ + ((ξ ∗ + α ∗ × x) · ∇)∇φi ] − (3.14)  (3.

is linearly proportional to the motion amplitude. ω j )2 φ ± S ∂φ± + g S = Q± + Q± IB BB ∂z on z = 0 (3.21) B ∂n At the far field φ± satisfies the same radiation condition as that for φR of the first-order.16) where the unit-amplitude radiation velocity potential φk is defined in the same way as φk in Chapter 2. The rest of the second-order potential is defined to be φ± .28). The boundary condition on the free surface.1 Boundary Value Problem The total second-order potential φ± satisfies Laplace’s equation in z < 0 and the condition on the sea bottom (equations (2. R For φ± .9a-9b)). Thus based S on the asymptotic behaviours of G and Q± (in other words.7) and (2.18) ∂φk = nk ∂n (3. the scattering potential is subject to −(ωi ± and ∂φ± S = Q± (3. we apply the ‘weak radiation condition’ suggested by Molin (1979).20) 16 . on the body boundary and at the far field are specified below for each component potential. the surface integral at the far field can be shown to vanish with the result shown in (3. The incident wave potential is subject to −(ωi ± ωj )2 φ± + g I ∂φ± I = Q± II ∂z on z = 0 (3.17) The unit amplitude radiation potential is subject to −(ωi ± ωj )2 φk + g and ∂φk = 0 on z = 0 ∂z (3. from the behaviours of φi and F φj ). This decomposition is in accordance with the convention for the first-order problem where the wave exciting force is the pressure force due to the sum of the incident and scattering waves. The detailed analysis is in Molin (1979). 3. It can be decomposed into the mode dependent components φ± = i(ωi ± ωj ) R 6 ξ k φk k=1 (3. whether the S body is fixed or moving. Finally.19) on the mean body boundary SB .

y)Z(κ± z) ij II = 2 + gκ± tanh κ± h −(ωi ± ωj ) ij ij (3.26) Note that in infinite water depth. φ± . is obtained from Green’s integral S equation 17 .23) Combining (3.25) Solutions for the second-order incident-wave potential follow from (3. Here β is the angle of incidence relative to the x−axis.1) can be written in the form igA Z(κz)e−iK·x ω On z = 0. κ sin β. I 3.27) Q± (x. The first-order incident wave potential (2.17) in the form φ± I where κ± = |Ki ± Kj | ij (3.22) =ν and ∂ 2 Z(κz) ∂z 2 z=0 = κ2 (3.and the second-derivatives of Z in vertical direction are φI = ∂Z(κz) ∂z z=0 (3. and vector wavenumber K with Cartesian components (κ cos β.2 The Second-order Incident Waves Each of the two first-order incident waves is defined by the amplitude A.24) (3. Thus the sum frequency incident wave potential φ+ vanishes in unidirectional regular and irregular waves. frequency ω.8-9) gives 1 Q+ = − ig 2 Ai Aj exp(−i(Ki + Kj ) · x) II 2 2 κ2 − νj κ2 − νi2 (ωi + ωj ) j + i + (Ki · Kj − νi νj ) 2ωj 2ωi ωi ωj and Q− = II 1 2 ig Ai A∗ exp(−i(Ki − Kj ) · x) j 2 2 κ2 − νj κ2 − νi2 (ωi − ωj ) j − i − Ki · Kj + νi νj 2ωj 2ωi ωi ωj (3. 0). the first.22) with (3. QII = 0 if βi = βj .3 The Second-order Scattering Waves The solution for the second-order scattering potential.3.

When the body is I not fixed. the integral over SB is represented by a sum of the B integral over each panel assuming Q± (x) is constant on each panel.25) and (2. The waterline is approximated by line segments (consisting of the sides of the panels adjacent to the free surface) and Q± (x) is evaluated on the B midpoints of the segments. the free-surface integral is evaluated separately in two domain divided by a partition circle of radius ρ = b. We consider the integral over SB first.30) ξ dl · G[∇φ × (ξ + α × x)] After substituting (3. S The evaluation of the integrals on the right hand side is described below.28). we first modify the terms involving the double spacial derivative of the firstorder velocity potential by applying Stokes’s theorem to avoid the inaccurate numerical evaluation of the second-order derivatives based on the lower order panel method (Lee and Zhu (1993)). ξ )dS B ξ 1 g SF + Q± (ξ )G(x.29) The integral equation (3.24) (but with G corresponding to the same frequency ω and wavenumber as φ± ). After the solution of (3.30) into Q± . φ± on the free surface and in the fluid domain can be S obtained from 4πφ± (x) + S SB φ± (ξ ) S ξ ∂G(x. since it contains B only the normal velocity due to φ± which are derived in Section 3. ξ )dS F ξ (3.28).28) will be considered next in which the ‘quadratic forcing function’ Q± is given by (3. The free-surface integral which is displayed as the last term in (3.8-9). Following the methodology of 18 .28) is identical to the integral equation for the first-order potential and thus the discrete form of it is the same as that of (2.2. ξ dSG{n · [(ξ + α × x) · ∇]∇φ} = ξ dSG{n · [(∇φ · ∇)(ξ + α × x)]} − ξ dS[n · (ξ + α × x)](∇φ · ∇G) SB SB SB + + SB WL dS ∂φ ξ [(ξ + α × x) · ∇G] ∂n (3.2πφ± (x) + S SB φ± (ξ ) S ξ ∂G(x. ξ ) dS = ∂nξ SB Q± (ξ )G(x. b issufficiently large to neglect the effect of √ the evanescent waves outside the circle. Q± (x) is evaluated B B on the centroids of the panels. For a fixed body.28) where G is the wave source potential defined in (2. ξ )dS B ξ 1 g SF + Q± (ξ )G(x. ξ ) dS = ∂nξ SB Q± (ξ )G(x. ξ )dS F ξ (3. Here ρ = x2 + y 2 . For the purposes F of numerical evaluation. The left-hand side of (3.28) is solved by the panel method. the evaluation Q± (x) is simple.

The integral on this domain is carried out by Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature in the azimuthal direction and Gauss-Legendre quadrature in the radial direction as discussed in Lee and Zhu (1993). The divergence ∇ and the normal vector n must be interpreted in the two dimensional sense on the z = 0 plane. To achieve a better computational efficiency for the remaining surface integral. ξ ) renders Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature inefficient. The domain outside the circle of F radius a to the partition circle forms an annulus. When the field point x on the body and the source point ξ on the annulus are close. Inside this circle. the surface integral is transformed. Discussion on the selection of the optimum a is provided in Chapter 11 of the WAMIT User Manual (1995). the free surface is discretized with quadrilateral panels.Kim and Yue(1989). using Gauss theorem. In the inner domain. In the outer domain (b ≤ ρ) both the Green function and the asymptotics of the firstorder potentials are expanded in Fourier-Bessel series. The method of integration on the inner domain is described below and that on the outer domain follows in the next Section. Thus the integration on this region is the sum of the integral over each panels assuming the constant Q± on each panel evaluated at the centroid.30). the integration in the inner domain ρ < b is carried out numerically. the free-surface integrals are reduced to the sum of the line integrals with respect to the radial coordinate ρ. to a form involving only the first-order derivatives and line integrals around the waterline (W L) and the partition circle (P C) as is shown below. a is sufficiently large to enclose the body. The analysis on the integral over the far-field free surface is described in detail in Newman (1991) which is included in the Appendix 19 . in an analogous manner to the body surface. After integrating the trigonometric functions with respect to the angular coordinate. The line integrals over W L and P C are carried out in a similar way to the line integral in (3.8-9).31) SF W L+P C SF [(∇φi · ∇φj )G + φi (∇φj · ∇G)]dS where SF denotes only the inner domain of the free surface. the Rankine singularity of G(x. φi ∂ 2 φj GdS = − ∂z 2 + φi (∇φj · n)Gdl (3. we divide the inner domain further into two parts separated by a circle of radius ‘a with a < b. in order to avoid the evaluation of second-order derivatives of the first-order potentials in (3.

X = (X. Y. part of the forces can be obtained without solving the scattering potential.and second-order forces are derived from direct integration of the fluid pressure over a body boundary in Section 4. 4. y. The equations of motion for the first. z ) are inertial reference frames but x = (x. x = (x. Z) and x ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x = (ˆ.1. y. By making use of Green’s theorem. Z) is a global coordinate system and with Z = 0 the undisturbed free-surface. z) is not. The first-order Haskind exciting force and the second-order force via indirect approach are discussed in Section 4.1 Hydro-static and -dynamic Force and Moment Coordinate system We consider three coordinate systems.1) 20 .2. This coordinate system is denoted by x = (ˆ.1.2 Coordinate transform ˆ The position vectors in the x− and x− coordinate systems are related to each other by linear transformation ˆ x = ξ + T tx (4.3. The origin of x may be x ˆ ˆ ˆ displaced from the free-surface and Zo denotes the Z-coordinate of the origin of x.1 4.1. 4. Y. Note that X = (X. z) is a body-fixed coordinate system and z also is positive upward when the body is at rest.AND SECOND-ORDER FORCES The expressions for the first.Chapter 4 THE FIRST. y . We introduce a third coordinate system which is fixed in space and coincides with “x at ˆ rest”. y .and second-order problem are derived in Section 4. z ). The positive Z axis points upward.

ξ3 ) and α = (α1 .2) In (4.5) P (ˆ )(ˆ × n)dS x x ˆ (4.and the normal vector by ˆ n = T tn   (4.7) . T t is the transpose of T = T3 T2 T1 and T1 . the velocity potential and the body motion amplitudes are functions of time. α2 . They also represent the motion amplitudes of the body in the order of surge-sway-heave and roll-pitch-yaw. though the time t does not appear explicitly. 4. ξ2 . F= and M= ˆ SB ˆ SB P (ˆ )ˆ dS xn (4.3) ξ = (ξ1 .1.6) ˆ where SB denotes the instantaneous wetted body boundary. respectively.4) P(ˆ ) = −ρ[Φt (ˆ ) + ∇Φ(ˆ ) · ∇Φ(ˆ ) + g(ˆ + Zo )] x 2 The hydro-static and -dynamic force and moment are obtained from the integration of the pressure over the instantaneous wetted surface. Further discussion on T can be found in Ogilvie (1983).. ˆ The total pressure at x is given by Bernoulli’s equation 1 x x z x (4. ˆ The pressure on the exact body surface (ˆ ∈ SB ) may be approximated by Taylor x expansion with respect to the mean body surface (x ∈ SB ) ξ P(ˆ ) = P (x) + [ξ + (T t − I)x] · ∇P (x) + . α3 ) are the translational and rotational displacements ˆ of x(-coordinate system) with respect to x. T2 and T3 take forms 1 0  T1 =  0 cos α1 0 − sin α1 cos α2  T2 =  0 sin α2 cos α3  T3 =  − sin α3 0   0  sin α1  cos α1  0 − sin α2  1 0  0 cos α2 sin α3 cos α3 0 0  0 1  (4..3 Pressure integration In the following derivation.1-2). it is understood that the pressure. x 21 (4.

Substituting (4.7) into (4.1-2), we have ˆ x = x + ξ (1) + α(1) × x + Hx + ξ (2) + α(2) × x + O(A3 ) ˆ n = n + α(1) × n + Hn + α(2) × n + O(A3 ) The cross product of (4.8) and (4.9) then takes a form α ˆ ˆ x × n = x × n + ξ (1) × n + α(1) × (x × n) + ξ (1) × (α(1) × n) + H(x × n) + ξ (2) × n + α(2) × (x × n) + O(A3 ) (4.10) From (4-4), (4-7) and (4.11), the pressure is expressed by the values on the mean body position P(ˆ ) = −ρ{g(z + Zo ) + [Φt (x) + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)] x 1 (1) ξ + [ ∇Φ(1) (x) · ∇Φ(1) (x) + (ξ (1) + α (1) × x) · ∇Φt (x) + gHx · ∇z] 2 (2) (2) (2) (2) (4.11) + [Φt (x) + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]} + O(A3 ) H in (4.7-11) is the second-order component of T t and it takes a form − 1 ((α2 )2 + (α3 )2 ) 0 0  2  (1) (1) (1) 2 (1) 2 1   H = − 2 ((α1 ) + (α3 ) ) 0 α1 α2  (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 2 (1) 2 1 α2 α3 − 2 ((α1 ) + (α2 ) ) α1 α3

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(4.8) (4.9)

(4.12)

Substituting the expansions (4.7-11) into (4.5-6), we have the series expansion of the integrals (4.5-6).

4.1.4

Hydrostatic force and moment of O(1)
F = −ρg M = −ρg (z + Zo )ndS (4.13)
SB

These are the buoyancy force and moment when the body is at rest and are expressed by
SB

(z + Zo )(x × n)dS = −ρg

SB

[(z + Zo )x] × ndS

The following relations are invoked frequently in this Chapter. − −
S

S

ψndS =

V V

∇ψdV ∇ × ψdV (4.14)

n × ψdS =

∇ × (z + Zo )x = k × x 22

where S is a closed surface consisting of SB and the waterplane area Awp . V denotes the volume of the body. Using the relations (4.14), the force and moment are expressed in familiar forms

F = ρgV k (4.15) M = ρgV (yb i − xb j) where xb and yb are the x and y coordinates of the center of buoyancy. ˆ In (4.15), i, j, and k are the unit vectors in x coordinate system.

4.1.5

Linear force and moment

The linear force and moment are obtained from F(1) = − ρ − ρg − ρ M(1) = − ρ − ρg − ρg − ρg
(1)

SB

nΦt dS α (α(1) × n)(z + Zo )dS
(1) (1) (1)

SB SB

ng(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)dS (4.16)
(1)

SB

(x × n)Φt dS (x × n)(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)dS ξ (ξ (1) × n)(z + Zo )dS α [α(1) × (x × n)](z + Zo )dS
(1) (1) (1)

SB SB SB

In (4.16), the first terms are the hydrodynamic force and moment and the rest are the hydrostatic. Following the decomposition (2.5), we consider component potentials such (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) that Φ(1) = ΦI + ΦS + ΦR = ΦD + ΦR . The hydrodynamic force and moment are (1) divided into two components: the “wave exciting force” due to ΦD and the force due to (1) ΦR expressed in terms of the added mass and damping coefficients. The integrals of the hydrostatic pressure can be simplified by applying (4.14) and their variations with the results F(1) = − ρ Φt ndS − ρgAwp(ξ3 + α1 yf − α2 xf )k 23
(1) (1) (1) (1)

SB

(4.17) M(1) = − ρ
SB

(x ×
(1) (1)

(1) n)Φt dS (1) (1) (1) (1)

− ρg[−V ξ2 + Awp yf ξ3 + (V zb + L22 )α1 − L12 α2 − V xb α3 ]i − ρg[ V ξ1 − Awp xf ξ3 − L12 α1 + (V zb + L11 )α2 − V ybα3 ]j where Lij is the second moment over the waterplane area. For example, L12 =
Awp (1) (1) (1) (1)

xydS.

xf and yf are the coordinates of the center of floatation. Following (1.10), the force can be represented by a discrete spectrum (the moment takes an identical form and is omitted here) F(1) = Re
j (1) Fj eiωj t

(4.18)

4.1.6

Second-order force and moment
(z + Zo )HndS − ρ
(1) (1) (1) (1) α (α(1) × n)[Φt + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]dS

The second-order force and moment are obtained from F(2) = − ρg − ρ +
SB SB

1 (1) ξ [ ∇Φ(1) · ∇Φ(1) + (ξ (1) + α(1) × x) · ∇Φt ]ndS − ρg SB 2

SB

(Hx · k)ndS

1 (1) (1) (1) ρg [η (1) − (ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]2 1 − n2 dl z 2 WL (2) (2) (2) − ρgAwp (ξ3 + α1 yf − α2 xf )k − ρ M(2) =
1 2 SB

Φt ndS (4.19)
(1) (1) (1)

(2)

ρg

wl

[η (1) − (ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]2 1 − n2 (x × n)dl z

− ρ − ρ − ρg − ρ − ρg

1 (1) ξ [ ∇Φ(1) · ∇Φ(1) + (ξ (1) + α(1) × x) · ∇Φt ](x × n)dS SB 2
SB (1) (1) (1) (1) ξ (ξ (1) × n)[Φt + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]dS

SB SB

α ξ (1) × (α(1) × n)(z + Zo )dS

(1) (1) (1) (1) α(1) × (x × n)[Φt + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]dS

SB

(z + Zo )H(x × n)dS − ρg
(2) (2) (2) (2) (2)

SB

(Hx · k)(x × n)dS
(2) (2) (2) (2) (2)

− ρgi[−V ξ2 + Awp yf ξ3 + (V zb + L22 )α1 − L12 α2 − V xb α3 ] − ρgj[ V ξ1 − Awp xf ξ3 − L12 α1 + (V zb + L11 )α2 − V yb α3 ] 24

19) take forms F(2) = Fq + Fp − ρgAwp (ξ3 + α1 yf − α2 xf )k − ρ M (2) SB (2) (2) (2) n ∂ΦR dS ∂t (4.14) and their variations to the hydrostatic pressure integrals of (4. The quadratic force and moment are defined by 25 . −ρ SB (1) (1) (1) (1) α (α(1) × n)[Φt + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]dS α = α × F (1) + ρgα × = α × F (1) + ρgV −ρ SB (1) (1) [−α1 α3 i α (α(1) × n)(z + Zo )dS − α2 α3 j + ((α1 )2 + (α2 )2 )k] (4.21) (2) = Mq + Mp − ρgi[−V ξ2 + Awp yf ξ3 + (V zb + L22 )α1 − L12 α2 − V xb α3 ] − ρgj[V ξ1 − Awp xf ξ3 − L12 α1 + (V zb + L11 )α2 − V yb α3 ] − ρ ∂Φ (x × n) R dS ∂t SB (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) where the subscript q denotes the force and moment due to the quadratic interaction of the first-order solution and p due to the second-order potential.− ρ SB (x × n)Φt dS (2) We apply (4.20) (1) (1) (1) (1) SB (1) (1) (1) (1) ξ (ξ (1) × n)[Φt + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]dS = ξ (1) × F (1) + ρg −ρ α(1) × (x × n) SB (1) (1) (1) SB (1) α ξ (1) × (α(1) × n)(z + Zo )dS (1) SB [Φt + g(ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]dS ξ (ξ (1) × n)(z + Zo )dS + SB α = α (1) × M (1) + ρgα(1) × { ξ = α(1) × M (1) − ρgV α(1) × (ξ α [α(1) × (x × n)](z + Zo )dS} α × k) − ρgV α(1) × [α(1) × (yb i − xb j)] (2) The second-order force or moment due to Φ(2) is decomposed into a part due to ΦI + (2) (2) ΦS and the other part due to ΦR as in the first-order. Then the force and moment (4.19).19) and make use of the following relations to simplify (4.

7 Haskind Exciting Force and Indirect Second-order Force The linear wave exciting force and the second-order potential force Fp may be evaluated not from the scattering solution but from the appropriate component of the radiation solution.1.12) the second-order force F(2) can be expressed as (the moment takes an identical form).24) 4.22) 1 ρg = 2 [η (1) − (ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]2 1 − n2 (x × n)dl z (1) (1) (1) Mq wl − ρ + + + + 1 (1) ξ [ ∇Φ(1) · ∇Φ(1) + (ξ (1) + α(1) × x) · ∇Φt ](x × n)dS SB 2 ξ (1) × F (1) + α(1) × M (1) 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) ρg(−V ξ1 α3 + V α1 α2 xb − V α2 α3 zb − V ((a1 )2 − (a3 )2 )yb 2 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) −α1 α3 L12 − α2 α3 L22 − ((α1 )2 + (α2 )2 )Zo Awp yf )i 2 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) ρg(−V ξ2 α3 + V α1 α3 zb + V ((a2 )2 − (a3 )2 )xb 2 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) +α1 α3 L11 + α2 α3 L12 + ((α1 )2 + (α2 )2 )Zo Awp xf )j 2 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) ρg(V ξ1 α1 + V ξ2 α2 + V α2 α3 xb − V α1 α3 yb )k (2) (2) The second-order potential force and moment are given by Fp = −ρ ∂(ΦI + ΦS ) ndS ∂t SB (4.23) Mp = −ρ SB (x × n) (2) ∂(ΦI + ∂t (2) ΦS ) dS Adopting a form analogous to (1. F(2) = Re i j F+ ei(ωi +ωj )t + F− ei(ωi −ωj )t ij ij (4.Fq = 1 ρg 2 wl [η (1) − (ξ3 + α1 y − α2 x)]2 1 − n2 ndl z (1) (1) (1) − ρ 1 (1) ξ [ ∇Φ(1) · ∇Φ(1) + (ξ (1) + α(1) × x) · ∇Φt ]ndS SB 2 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) + α(1) × F (1) − ρgAwp [α1 α3 xf + α2 α3 yf + ((α1 )2 + (α2 )2 )Zo ]k 2 (4. The first-order force evaluated in this way is referred to as the Haskind exciting force and the second-order force as the indirect force. 26 .

26) into (4.18-21) into (4.25) with the conditions (2.29). 27 . on the bottom and at the far field vanish due to the boundary conditions for φS and φj on these surfaces.1. applied to φS and a component of the radiation potential φj .10) and (2. (Newman (1977. we have SB nj φ± dS = S SB Q± φ± dS + B j 1 g SF (Q± + Q± )φ± dS IB BB j (4. The force for the mode j is given by ± Fpj = −i(ωi ± ωj )ρ SB nj (φ± + φ± )dS I S (4.18)) Thus they do not appear in (4.4. Upon substituting (4. applied to φ± and φ± . Section 6.26).8 Haskind exciting force We consider a complex amplitude of a spectral component of the first-order wave exciting force. we have ∂φj ∂φS 0= φS − φj )dS ( (4.28) From Green’s theorem.29) SF It can be shown that the integrals on the sea bottom and at the far field vanish due to the boundary conditions.25) From Green’s theorem. we have j S 0= ∂φ± ± ∂φ± ± j φ − S φj )dS + ∂n S ∂n SB ( ( ∂φ± ± ∂φ± ± j φ − S φj )dS ∂z S ∂z (4.30) Thus the force can be obtained from ± Fpj = −i(ωi ± ωj )ρ[ SB (nj φ± + Q± φ± )dS + I B j 1 g SF (Q± + Q± )φ± dS] IB BB j (4. Upon substituting (3. The force for the mode j is given by Fj = −iωρ SB nj (φI + φS )dS (4.9 Indirect second-order force We consider a complex amplitude of a spectral component of the second-order potential force Fp .31) The radiation potential φ± with the frequency ωi ±ωj is often referred to as an assisting j potential.11).26) ∂n SB ∂n It can be shown that integrals over the free surface. the Haskind relation follows in the form Fj = −iωρ (nj φI − ∂φI φj )dS ∂n (4.1.27) SB 4.

2 Equations of Motion The translational and rotational motions of the body are governed by mˆ gtt = FT x and Lt = MT (4. we express xg . which may differ from the center of mass.36) (4.34) with (4.and the second-order equations of motion. xgtt is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body and FT is the total force due to the fluid pressure. FT .35-6). the body mass and the external force. ˆ xg = xg + ξ + α × xg + Hxg + O(A3) F = F (1) + FB + FE + F (2) + FB + FE + O(A3 ) (1) (1) (2) (2) (4.34).38-39).33) in the body-fixed coordinate system.3). the subscript B denotes the gravitational force on the body mass. describe the motion of the rigid body. If we are interested in the motion about the origin of the body coordinate system.32) ˆ In (4. T MT and ω in perturbation series. The force without 28 . Ig ω t + ω × Ig ω = T MT (4.33) (4.32).37) (4. x.4. MT is the ˆ total moment about the xg and Lt is the time rate of change of the angular momentum in ˆ the x coordinate system.35) where I and Mo are the moment of inertia and moment about o. E external force which is assumed to be expandable in a perturbation series. ˆ To derive the first. In (4.33). ω t (ω ) the angular acceleration (velocity) and T the tranform matrix (4. Following Ogilvie(1983). the following relations are to be substitued into (4. (4. ω ω Ig ω = Iω − mxg × (ω × xg ) and ˆ MT = Mo − xg × FT (4.38) T MT = M (1) − xg × F (1) + M (2) − xg × F (2) − ξ (1) × F (1) − α (1) × M (1) α + xg × (α(1) × F (1) ) + Γ(1) + Γ(2) + O(A3 ) (4. It is convenient to express (4.39) In (4. xo .32) and (4. in which the moment of inertia is time invariant.34) ω where Ig is the moment of inertia about the center of mass.

the equations of motion at each order follows.40) (4.45) α1t + α2t α3  (2) (1) (1)  =  α2t − α1t α3  (2) (1) (1) α3t + α1t α2  (2) (1) (1)  (4.34). These are given by ξ (1) ξ (1) F (1) ξ (1) E tt [(M + M + A){ (1) } + (B + B ){ t(1) } + (C + C E ){ (1) }] = { exc }(4.43) (4. leads to the conditions F (0) + FB + FE = 0 and M (0) + MB + ME = 0 (0) (0) (0) (0) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (4. Γ(1) and Γ(2) are the first.32) and (4.46) Upon substitution of (4.41) The moment ME consists of a pure torque Mτ and the moment due to the external force ˆ ME = Mτ + xe × FE (4. α1t 0 0     t t t ˆ ω =  0  + T1  α2t  + T1 T2  0  α3t 0 0 and angular velocity in the x coordinate system. ω .47) (1) Mexc α αtt αt E and ξ (2) ξ (2) F (2) ξ (2) E tt [(M + M + A){ (2) } + (B + B ){ t(2) } + (C + C E ){ (2) }] = { exc }(4.42) ˆ The angular velocity in the x coordinate system can be obtained by linear superposition of the contributions from time derivatives of Euler-angles.35-46) into (4.1 and 4.and second-order components of ˆ Γ = T [MB + MB + ME + ME − xg × (FE + FE ) + O(A3 )] Equilibrium. is obtained from ˆ ω = T tω Thus we have at the first-order  (1)        (4. when the body is at rest.44) ω and at the second-order ω (2) (1) =  (1)   α2t  (1) α3t α1t (4.48) (2) Mexc α αtt αt E 29 .2.subscript is the hydro-static and -dynamic force derived in Sections 4.

49) 0 0 0 0 0 ρAwp 0 ρAwp yf 0 −ρAwp xf 0 0 ρAwp yf ρ(V zb + L22 ) − mzg −ρL12 0 0 0 −ρAwp xf −ρL12 ρ(V zb + L11 ) − mzg 0 0  0    0  −ρV xb + mxg    −ρV yb + myg  0 (4. They may or may not be different for the first and the second-order motions.where A and B are the added mass and damping coefficients and they depend on the frequency. velocity and the motion amplitude.52) Mq + Mp − ξ + ρg[V (1) (1) ξ1 α3 i (1) (2) = ×F (1) −α (1) ×M (1) (1) (1) (1) +V (1) (1) ξ2 α3 j − (V ξ1 α1 − V ξ2 α2 )k] (1) 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) + mg[( ((α1 )2 − (α3 )2 )yg − α1 α2 xg + α2 α3 zg )i 2 1 (1) (1) − ( ((α2 )2 − (α3 )2 )xg + α1 α3 zg )j + (α1 α3 yg − α2 α3 xg )k] 2 α + xg × (α(1) × F (1) ) − mxg × Htt xg − Ig αq tt (1) (1) (0) (0) α − αt × Ig αt + Σ[Hxe × FE − α(1) × ((α(1) × xe ) × FE )] (2) (1) (2) (1) α + {Σ[Mτ + xe × FE − α(1) × Mτ − (xe − xg ) × (α(1) × FE )]}ex 30 . B E and C E are the external force components which are proportional to the unknown body acceleration.47) and (4. respectively.48) are (2) Fexc = (2) Mexc Fq + Fp − mHtt xg + (ΣFE )ex (4. M and C are the same in (4.47) are (1) Fexc = −ρ D(1) (1) SB Φt ndS + (ΣFE )ex (4.48) and they are given by m   0   0 M =  0    mzg −myg 0  0  0 C = g 0   0 0   0 m 0 −mzg 0 mxg 0 0 0 0 m myg mxg 0 0 −mzg myg I11 I21 I31 mzg 0 −mxg I12 I22 I32 −myg mxg    0   I13    I23  I33  (4.51) D(1) (1) dS + (ΣMτ + Σxe × FE )ex (1) (1) Mexc = −ρ SB (x × n)Φt and those on the right-hand side of (4.50)  Finally the force and moment on the right-hand side of (4. M E .

In (4.52). αq is a vector and its components are the time derivatives of the second terms of the vector tt elements of (4.46).The subscript ex denotes the part of the force and moment which is not linearly proportional to the motion amplitude. 31 . the velocity or the acceleration at each order.

an update. R. Dept. 1977 ‘Marine Hydrodynamics’. C. & Sclavounos. D.’ J.1S (Second-Order Module) . P. N.D. MIT Press. Lee. Martin & G. & Zhu.-H.-H. Molin. C. Lee. J. Martin & Rizzo 1993 ‘Boundary integral equations for bodies of small. J. R. Kleinman. Wickham.’ J. Newfoundland. T. E. editors. 1991 ‘First.-H. John’s. C. & Yue. 1989 ‘The complete second-order diffraction solution for an axisymmetric body Part 1. J. St.-H. Korsmeyer. 1982 ‘On the mathematical theory of the motion of floating bodies . thickness’ 8-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies. & Newman. A. Newman. 200. J. Newman. 183-190. 197-202. X. 235–264. Lee. 1991 ‘WAMIT V3.-H. N. N. Newman. D. F. Lee. Newman. 32 . Newman J. pp.’ P. but finite. K.Theoretical Background. C. 12. Cambridge University Press. 1992 ‘The approximation of free-surface Green functions. 14-18. J.N. & Zhu X. N. 1990 “Numerical solutions of the water-wave dispersion relation.. 1979 ‘Second order diffraction loads upon three dimensional bodies.-H. John’s.’ Applied Ocean Research 1..’ in ‘Wave Asymptotics. of Ocean Engineering. J. Newfoundland. Journal of Engineering Mathematics. Fluid Mech. 1988 ‘Numerical methods for the solution of three-dimensional integral equations in wave-body interactions.’ 8-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies. P. Lee.” Applied Ocean Research.’ unpublished report included in April 1991 Steering Committee Report. St. B. Monochromatic incident waves.’ DTNSRDC Rep 82/074. Newman. M. Houston. Submitted for publication .. C. N. MIT. No 3. 1988 ‘The analysis of wave interactions with tension leg platforms. 57-67. 19. J. 1993 ‘Second-order diffraction and radiation solutions on floating bodies.and second-order wave effects on a submerged spheroid. 1985 ‘Algorithms for the Free-Surface Green Function’. Thesis.. N. Ship Research 35...’ Ph. Newman.’ OMAE Conference. Vol.REFERENCES A Kim. 1995 “An extended boundary integral equation for the removal of the irregular frequency effect”. N.

1993 ‘Note on bodies and panels in the free surface. J.’ 5th International Conference on the Behaviour of Offshore Structures (BOSS ‘88) Trondheim. WAMIT User Manual 1999 WAMIT Inc. Zhu. N. Dept. 9. Berlin. & Sclavounos. and Laitone. V. D.’ Applied Ocean Research. 1960 ‘Surface waves. 1994 ‘Wave effects on deformable bodies. X. F. 1. 1994 ‘Irregular Frequency Removal from the Boundary Integral Equation for the Wave-body Problem’.. of Ocean Eng. MIT. 1983 ‘Second-order hydrodynamic effects on ocean platforms.’ unpublished report. Berkeley. Springer.Newman. Newman. 1988 ‘The computation of wave loads on large offshore structures.. P.’ International Workshop on Ship and Platform Motions. V. Newman. 33 .. J.’ Handbuch der Physik. Master Thesis. 16. 47-59. Wehausen. J. Ogilvie. T. J. N. 446-778. E. N.

Newman. J. Lee C. Woods Hole. London 1992.’ OMAE Conference. ‘Wave effects on deformable bodies. Lee. T. N. Newman. T. ‘Sensitivity of wave loads to the discretization of bodies’ BOSS ‘92. C. C. ‘The computation of wave loads on large offshore structures.. 16. J. ‘Panel methods in marine hydrodynamics. & Newman. ‘Second-order diffraction and radiation solutions on floating bodies. & Zhu. Newfoundland 1993. & Sclavounos. 1989. D. John’s. fact or fiction?’ (Eleventh Georg Weinblum Memorial Lecture). N..-H.-H. J. & Yue.. J. C. Fathi. D.. 1991. N. 1988.. Trondheim. K. J. 4..-H. 36. N. Emmerhoff.. D. Lee C.. P.’ OMAE Conference. ‘Deformable floating bodies.’ 5th International Conference on the Behaviour of Offshore Structures BOSS ‘88 Trondheim.. ‘Linear Hydrodynamic Loads due to Elastic Deformations of Large Volume 34 . St. 155-168. F. & Newman.’ Eighth International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies. & Sclavounos.’ Keynote Lecture. ‘The numerical towing tank. Second-order wave loads on a stationary body. Lee. Kim. Hobart. F. Norway. N. ing.’ 8-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies.’ 6th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies.. Newfoundland 1993. ‘The analysis of wave interactions with tension leg platforms. Korsmeyer. J. P. J. for siv. ‘The computation of second-order wave loads. X. D. O. 47-59 1994.-H.. St. & Newman.-H.’ Applied Ocean Research. N. John’s. 1. Ship Research. Lee.. C. ‘The computation of ship interaction forces in restricted water. N. 1988. 1989. Newman.’ thesis prepared at M.-H. ‘First. J. J. 1991. N.-H. Newman. ‘Analysis and computation of wave effects on large volume structures. N..I. Lee. Newman. J. M.and second-order wave effects on a submerged spheroid. Lee. H.’ J. Eleventh Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. N.’ Journal of Ship Research 1993. C. P. Newman. 1991. Australia 1992.. J. Stavanger. Houston.T. degree from NTH.REFERENCES B Korsmeyer. Newman. Ship Technology Research/Schiffstechnik.

D.I. Fathi. X.. ‘Second-order wave effects on offshore structures’ BOSS ‘94.-H. J. Texas Section of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Houston 1995. Japan. ‘Computation of wave induced motions on a flexible container. 1994 Newman. J. & Lee. ‘Computation of mean forces and moments in multibody interaction.Structures’.-H. J.’ Symposium on Hydroelasticity.’ BOSS ‘94. thesis prepared at M. & Newman. Zhu. N.-H. C.T. Norway 1994. D. Kuju. M.’ 9-th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies. ‘Removing the irregular frequencies from wave-body interactions. N. UK 1995. Lee. N. for siv.. ing. Trondheim. ‘Runup on a vertical cylinder in long waves. Oxford.’ Tenth International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies.-H. Lee. 35 . Ferreira. C. N.-H. degree from NTH. & Lee. Newman. C. MIT 1994.’ TLP Technology Symposium. ‘To second order and beyond. MIT 1994. J. Trondheim 1993. C. & Lee C. & Newman.

APPENDICES .

The most important differences from [K] are the definition of the unit normal vector.1) r 2 = (x − ξ)2 + (y − η)2 + (z − ζ)2 r = (x − ξ) + (y − η) + (z + ζ) . 2 2 2 2 (1. and (2) removal of irregular frequencies by adding panels in the free surface interior to the body with an imposed homogeneous Neumann (or Dirichlet) condition. and the Green function G. For simplicity the depth is assumed infinite. The wavenumber is K = ω 2 /g. and g is the acceleration of gravity.4) with respect to both coordinate systems. with zero draft. More explicitly. the linear free surface condition φz − Kφ = 0. The notation of the WAMIT User Manual is followed. ξ ) = dk 0 ek(z+ζ) J0 (kR) k−K (1. here taken to be into the body and out of the fluid domain.3) where J0 (x) is the Bessel function of zero order.September 1993 1. denoted here by [K].6) It is not obvious that these relations can be applied in the limit when r = r = 0. Gζ − KG = 0. The Green function G satisfies the free surface condition (1.7) .4) 1 2K 1 + + r r π ∞ G(x. on z = 0 (1. when the source and field points coincide on the free surface. INTRODUCTION These notes document recent work intended to (1) extend WAMIT to bodies where part or all of the submerged surface is in the plane of the free surface. The correponding function γ in [K] is related to G via the equation G = −2πγ.4) and a radiation condition at infinity. i.NOTES ON BODIES OR PANELS IN THE FREE SURFACE JNN .e. defined here by equation (2. In the vicinity of this singular point it is known that G is of the form G(x.2) (1.5) Gz − KG = 0. but differences and questions have arisen which are the principal motivation for the notes. on z = 0 (1. subject to a prescribed Neumann condition φn = V on the body surface Sb . The velocity potential φ is governed by Laplace’s equation in the fluid domain. ξ ) = 1 1 + − 2KeK(z+ζ) log(r + |z + ζ|) + (γ − log 2) + r + O(r 2 log r ) r r 1 (1. on ζ = 0 (1. The latter development was intended to follow the theory in the report by Kleinman.

1) to the case where part or all of the body surface coincides with the free surface. 2 CONVENTIONAL INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR THE VELOCITY POTENTIAL In the ‘normal’ case of a floating body. However caution is required to correctly account for the jump when the image source 1/r is included. and the effect is to double the jump in (2. Examples of such bodies are a floating caisson where the interior ‘roof’ is in the plane z = 0. The complementary domain D− is inside the body.1b) . it follows from Green’s theorem that ∂G ξ dξ = ∂nξ 2πα(x)φ(x) + Sb ξ φ(ξ ) ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ . Sb (2. 51b-52b]. and extends to infinity horizontally and vertically. Thus there is no ‘delta function’ in the free-surface conditions (1. This is the appropriate interpretation of the integral on the left side of (2. it can be confirmed that the same relations apply even at the singular point.If this expansion is substituted in (1. and 0 for points in D− .5) and (1.1) for the case where x is on Sb . in the limits where the point x approaches Sb from D± . With the above definitions. Thus.1) are consistent with the ‘jump conditions’ corresponding to the singularity 1/r in G. as in the simpler Cauchy principal-value integral. that a surface of vanishingly small area including the singular point r = 0 is excluded from the integral. as in [K]. The fluid domain D+ is exterior to the body.1) is rewritten in the more explicit form ξ 2πφ(x) + −− φ(ξ ) − Sb ∂G ξ dξ = ∂nξ ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ Sb (x ∈ Sb ) (2. 1 for points on Sb . α is equal to 2 for points in D+ . The definitions of α in (2. we write the following derivatives and limits: −(z − ζ) ∂ 1 = ∂z r r3 −(z + ζ) ∂ 1 = ∂z r r3 2 (3. Thus (2.1) Here. I± (φ) = lim x→S± ξ φ(ξ ) Sb ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ξ ξ ξ dξ = ∓2πφ + −− φ(ξ ) − dξ ∂nξ r ∂nξ r Sb (2. except for a line of intersection of the two surfaces. and a ‘cicular dock’ consisting of a disk of zero draft.5) or (1.2) Here the symbol − denotes. the submerged surface Sb is entirely below the plane z = 0. In these cases.6).6). For completeness.1a) (3. below the plane z = 0.2). in relation to the corresponding equations [K.3) 3 INTEGRAL EQUATIONS FOR Sb IN THE FREE SURFACE The objective here is to extend (2. for those portions of Sb lying in the free surface. the two Rankine singularities in the Green function coalesce. below the free surface.

1d) on ζ = 0 on ζ = 0 (3. in the plane z = 0. and approach the surface at a point where the surface coincides with the plane z = 0. The former is consistent with [K] equation (51b). the contribution from the image source to the left-hand side of (2. Note in this case that the unit normal is positive upwards.3) and thus in agreement with (3. In the limit the same value applies.1e) tends to a delta function with area 4π.2).g. with a flat bottom and vertical sides. In the case of a body which is entirely in the plane z = 0.1) has the value 4πφ.1f) is identically zero and does not contribute a jump. since the singular contribution to the kernel from the two Rankine singularties is 1 ∂ 1 + ∂nξ r r Sb = 1 ∂ 1 + ∂ζ r r ζ=0 =0 (3.1) Thus.1e) (3.6). with the field point in the fluid domain. pointing from the fluid domain toward the complementary domain above the free surface. but (3.1. In this case (2.1f) is correct. consider a body with small finite draft T .3) is ξ φ(ξ ) Sb ∂ 1 ξ dξ = ∂ζ r ξ φ(ξ ) Sb −(z + ζ) ξ dξ r3 on z = ζ = −T (3.1) is applicable to such a body surface with the understanding that α = 2 when the point x is on the body surface. I will proceed assuming (3.(z − ζ) ∂ 1 = ∂ζ r r3 −(z + ζ) ∂ 1 = ∂ζ r r3 Thus 1 −2z ∂ 1 + = 3 ∂z r r r 1 ∂ 1 + =0 ∂ζ r r (3. First start with (2.5 . (2. two equivalent integral equations may be written in the forms ξ 4πφ(x) + −− φ(ξ ) − Sb ∂G ξ dξ = ∂z 3 ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ . Sb (x ∈ Sb ) (3.2) As an alternative approach. e. Two alternative derivations are given for the case where Sb coincides with the plane z = 0.1). but the latter contradicts the jump in (52b). augmenting the free term in (2.1f ) In the limit z → 0− (3.1c) (3.3) . the free term in (2.3) is applicable on the exact body. Prior to the limit. Using the free-surface boundary conditions (1.2a) In the limit T → 0 the kernel tends to a delta function with area 2π. Sb (x ∈ Sb ) (3. below the body surface. Neglecting the contribution from the vertical sides. the resulting integral equation is ξ 4πφ(x) + −− φ(ξ ) − Sb ∂G ξ dξ = ∂ζ ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ .

WAMIT has been modified in accordance with (3.3) will vanish when x is on Sb . It is known that nontrivial solutions exist for certain body shapes at discrete eigenfrequencies. Next we define an external ‘radiation’ potential φ which satisfies the usual conditions outside the body. (x ∈ Sb ) (3. and no portion of its surface lies in the plane z = 0 except for the normal intersection along a waterline contour.4). However for this particular external potential the right-hand side of (2. This is essentially a radiation problem with a special distribution of normal velocity on the body. and used to solve the circular dock problem. just as for any more conventional radiation (or scattering) problem.2-4) have no homogeneous solutions. Now assume that the interior potential φ satisfies the homogeneous Dirichlet condition φ = 0 on Sb . 4 EXISTENCE OF IRREGULAR FREQUENCIES Hereafter the body is assumed to have nonzero submerged volume. 4 .7) is not amplified by differentiation. except that the homogeneous body boundary condition is Dirichlet instead of Neumann. to intersect the free surface normally.3). Physically.2) Sb This proves that there is a discrete set of eigenfrequencies (i.and 4πφ(x) + K Sb ξ ξ φ(ξ )Gdξ = Sb ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ .1) Here V = φn is the corresponding normal velocity on Sb . the irregular frequencies) where the corresponding normal velocity V is orthogonal to G on the body. Define Si as the portion of the plane z = 0 interior to Sb . The union of Sb and Si is the closed surface S. 2π α(x) − 2 φ (x) + ξ φ (ξ ) Sb ∂G ξ dξ = ∂nξ ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ .7) analytically over each panel in the free surface. Applying Green’s theorem in the usual manner. Sb (4. as in §1.4) on Si . It follows that φ is a homogeneous solution of (2. but from (4. It is essential in this case to use the ‘ILOG=1’ option to integrate the logarithmic singularity in (1.4) is most effective for numerical computations since the logarithmic singularity in (1. The solution is assumed to exist and to be nontrivial and unique.e. The results appear to be consistent. and satisfies the free surface condition (1. with the unit normal defined in a consistent manner to point into the interior volume D− . For such solutions the normal velocity V is generally nonzero on Sb .1) and the boundary condition φ = 0 on Sb it follows that ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ = 0 (x ∈ Sb ∪ D+ ) (4. Define an interior potential φ which is harmonic in D− . or irregular frequencies. these are analogous to ‘sloshing modes’ corresponding to standing waves inside the body. This can be inferred from the fact that the interior volume between Sb and the free surface is zero. with the specified normal derivative φn = V = V on Sb . and it is assumed that the same is true for general bodies. This proves the existence of irregular frequencies in the context of the exterior potential problem. Presumably the integral equations (3.4) Equation (3.

3) The only difference is the sign preceding the integral over Si . 86] is derived which.2). This should be borne in mind in judging the relevance of the statement that the numerical tests support (5. in the present notation.2).4b).4b) are precisely the same as (minus) the left side of (3.3) by the additional equation ξ φ(ξ ) Sb ∂G ξ dξ = ∂nξ ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ Sb (x ∈ Si ) (5.2) is ξ 2πΦ(x) + −− Φ(ξ ) − Sb ∂G 1 ∂G ξ ξ ξ − dξ − −− Φ(ξ ) dξ = ∂nξ 2 ∂nξ Si ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ Sb (x ∈ Sb ∪ Si ) (5. takes the form ξ 2πΦ(x) + −− Φ(ξ ) − Sb ∂G 1 ∂G ξ ξ ξ − dξ + −− Φ(ξ ) dξ = ∂nξ 2 ∂nξ Si ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ Sb (x ∈ Sb ∪ Si ) (5. Note that the first and third terms in (5. At a more pragmatic level. and using (1.2) In [K] it is shown (using the questionable jump relation (52b)) that (5. In fact. Thus we augment (2.4) are equivalent after multiplying the unknown Φ by a factor -2 in the domain of Si .4).4b) −4πΦ(x) + ξ Φ(ξ ) Sb ξ ξ Φ(ξ )Gdξ = Si Sb ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ Equations (5. suggesting a possible connection with the absence of irregular frequencies in the dock problem.5a) .3) and (5. that is no nontrivial solutions Φ0 of the pair of integral equations ξ − 2πΦ0 (x) + −− Φ0 (ξ ) Sb ∂G ξ dξ + ∂nξ 5 Si ξ Φ0 (ξ ) ∂G ξ dξ = 0 ∂nξ (x ∈ Sb ) (5.1) in the extended domain S = Sb ∪ Si . there is (at most) one solution of the integral equation (2.3a-b). Finally we want to show that there are no homogeneous solutions of (5. the numerical tests are performed with a modified version of WAMIT where the influence functions correspond to the slightly different integral equations ∂G ξ dξ + ∂nξ ∂G ξ dξ − K ∂nξ ∂G ξ dξ = ∂nξ ξ 2πΦ(x) + −− Φ(ξ ) − Sb ξ Φ(ξ ) Si ξ ξ V (ξ )Gdξ Sb (x ∈ Sb ) (x ∈ Si ) (5.3) may have homogeneous solutions at the irregular frequencies.2) has (at most) only one solution. but not (5. our numerical experience indicates that the appropriate replacement for (5.5 EXTENDED-BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATIONS In [K] it is shown that while (2.1) A more useful second-kind equation [K.6) to replace the normal derivative of G on Si in (5. and that this solution is equal to φ on Sb .4a) (5.

1e) gives an extra contribution and it follows from the last form of (5.8) ξ Φ0 (ξ ) ∂G ξ dξ ∂nξ ∂G ξ dξ ∂nξ (x ∈ Si ) (5. asume that Φ0 is a nontrivial solution of (5.10b). 6 (x ∈ D− ) (5.5b).9a) ξ − φi = −− Φ0 (ξ ) Si (x ∈ Si ) (5.7b) φb + φi = 0 The following conditions apply as z → 0− on Si : φb = Sb (x ∈ Sb ) (5.11) ¿From (5. Si ξ Φ0 (ξ ) ∂G ξ dξ ∂nξ (x ∈ Sb ) (5.5) and define the following two potentials (which together are used in place of [K 88]): φb = φi = ξ Φ0 (ξ ) Sb ξ Φ0 (ξ ) ∂G ξ dξ ∂nξ Si (x ∈ D− ) (x ∈ D− ∪ Sb ∪ D+ ) (5.5b) For this purpose. it follows that φb + φi = 0 The remainder of the proof follows as in [K 89-95]. φbz + φiz = 0 (5.5a).7a) φi = Thus.6b) Si ∂G ξ dξ = −K ∂nξ ξ Φ0 Gdξ The following conditions apply on Sb : ξ − φb = 2πΦ0 (x) + −− Φ0 (ξ ) Sb ∂G ξ dξ ∂nξ (x ∈ Sb ) (5.5) can be invoked to show that φbz = Kφb = K Sb ξ Φ0 (ξ ) ∂G ξ dξ ∂nξ (x ∈ Si ) (5.9a) is used in the latter relation. and invoking (5.8) and (5.10b) Combining (5.10a) where (5.12) .6a) (5.9b) The free-surface condition (1.11). For the analogous derivative of φi .−4πΦ0 (x) + Sb ξ Φ0 (ξ ) ∂G ξ dξ + ∂nξ Si ξ Φ0 (ξ ) ∂G ξ dξ = 0 ∂nξ (x ∈ Si ) (5.10a) and (5. the jump associated with (3. from (5. and the uniqueness proof for solutions of Laplace’s equation with combined Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions.6b) that ξ − φiz = Kφi − 4πKΦ0 = K−− Φ0 (ξ ) Si ∂G ξ dξ − 4πKΦ0 ∂nξ (x ∈ Si ) (x ∈ Si ) (5.

1S (Second-Order Module) – Theoretical Background by J. m. t) + · · · (1. n are used to denote the Fourier components of the same solutions.2) are distinguished from second-order components φij by the number of subscripts. N. MIT Cambridge.1) where x is a fixed Cartesian coordinate system. This document is intended to describe the corresponding analysis in sufficient detail to explain the logic of the program. κ will be used for the wavenumber. t) = Re j φj (x)eiωj t (1. INTRODUCTION The WAMIT Second-Order Module. currently Version 3.1S. j. In the notation to be followed the subscripts i. Assuming a discrete spectrum with frequency components ωj > 0. Newman Department of Ocean Engineering. t) = Re i j φ+ (x)ei(ωi +ωj )t + φ− (x)ei(ωi −ωj )t ij ij 1 (1. the body is defined by an ensemble of panels. As in the first-order program (Version 3. The date and version number above should be referenced in this context. respectively.WAMIT V3. and t denotes time. t) + 2 Φ(2) (x. t) = Φ(1) (x. with particular care required in the case of the free surface. USA 28 March 1991 1. In the second-order solution the boundary conditions on both the body and free surface must be re-considered. The velocity potential is expanded in the form Φ(x. First-order components such as the velocity potentials φj in (1. is designed to solve the secondorder boundary-value problem for the interaction of monchromatic or bichromatic incident waves with a prescribed body. MA 02139.2) Φ(2) (x.1ID).3) . k are used to denote the frequencies of different linear solutions. As the second-order module is extended and refined this document will be modified in parallel. and . Φ(1) (x. to distinguish from the integer subscript k.

6) defines the quadratic forcing function ∂ ∂Φ(1) 1 ∂Φ(1) ∂ ∂ 2 Φ(1) ( ) − (∇Φ(1) · ∇Φ(1) ) +g 2 g ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂z ∂t Q= (1.3).3). t) = Re i j Q+ (x)ei(ωi +ωj )t + Q− (x)ei(ωi −ωj )t ij ij (1. t) ∂t2 ∂z (1.7) where the right-hand-side is to be evaluated on z = 0.5) (1.10) and 2 .2) and (1. Adopting a form for Q analogous to (1. In the following evaluations of second-order products of first-order oscillatory quantities use is made of the relation Re(Aeiωi t )Re(Beiωj t ) = 1 Re(Aeiωi t )(Beiωj t + B ∗ e−iωj t ) 2 where (∗ ) denotes the complex conjugate.The second-order potentials φ± can be defined to satisfy the symmetry relations ij φ+ = φ+ ij ji and φ− = φ−∗ ij ji (1.7) gives the expressions Q+ ij ∂ 2 φj ∂ 2 φi i i 2 ∂φj 2 ∂φi +g +g 2 ) = ωi φi (−ωj ) + ωj φj (−ωi 4g ∂z ∂z 2 4g ∂z ∂z 1 − i(ωi + ωj )∇φi · ∇φj 2 (1. The free-surface boundary conditions satisfied by these potentials are ∂ 2 Φ(1) ∂Φ(1) =0 +g ∂t2 ∂z ∂Φ(2) ∂ 2 Φ(2) +g = Q(x.8) As in (1. y.6) on z = 0.4) since anti-symmetric components will not contribute to (1. Here the inhomogeneous right-hand-side of the second-order free-surface condition (1. Q(x.4) it is appropriate to symmetrize the functions Q± such that ij Q+ = Q+ ij ji and Q− = Q−∗ ij ji (1.9) Combining (1.

Q− ij ∂φ∗ ∂ 2 φ∗ i i ∂ 2 φi j j 2 ∗ 2 ∂φi = ωi φi (−ωj ) − ωj φj (−ωi +g +g 2 ) 4g ∂z ∂z 2 4g ∂z ∂z 1 − i(ωi − ωj )∇φi · ∇φ∗ j 2 (1.12) 3 .11) where the right-hand-sides of (1. With these definitions the free-surface boundary condition for the second-order potential is given by −(ωi ± on z = 0. ωj )2 φ± ij ∂φ± ij = Q± +g ij ∂z (1.10-11) are evaluated on z = 0.

3) It is helpful to anticipate the relations ∂Z(κj z) ∂z = νj and ∂ 2 Z(κj z) ∂z 2 = κ2 j (2.7) . frequency ωj . INCIDENT WAVES The incident wave potential ΦI is defined to be the total first.1) In accordance with the first-order free-surface condition.and second-order velocity potential that would exist in the absence of the body.6) Solutions for the second-order components of the incident-wave potential follow from (1.2.12) in the form φ± = ij Q± (x.1) and (1. κj sin βj . y)Z(κ± z) ij ij −(ωi ± ωj )2 + gκ± tanh κ± h ij ij 4 (2. for a fluid of depth h. Z(κj z) = cosh(κj (z + h)) cosh(κj h) (2. and vector wavenumber Kj with Cartesian components (κj cos βj . Each first-order component is defined by the amplitude Aj .2) (1) j Aj Z(κj z) exp i(ωj t − Kj · x) ωj (2. 0).4) z=0 z=0 Combining (2.10-11) gives 1 Q+ = − ig 2 Ai Aj exp(−i(Ki + Kj ) · x) ij 2 2 2 κ2 − νj κ2 − νi (ωi + ωj ) j i (Ki · Kj − νi νj ) + + 2ωj 2ωi ωi ωj and 1 Q− = ig 2 Ai A∗ exp(−i(Ki − Kj ) · x) j ij 2 2 2 κ2 − νj κ2 − νi (ωi − ωj ) j i − − Ki · Kj + νi νj 2ωj 2ωi ωi ωj (2. The total first-order velocity potential is ΦI = Re ig Here. 2 κj tanh(κj h) = ωj /g ≡ νj (2. Here βj is the angle of incidence relative to the x−axis.5) (2.

on the free surface. and Jn is the first-kind Bessel function of order n. −ω 2 φ + g ∂φ = qF ∂z on z = 0 (3. and for the radiation potential ΦR due to the motions of the body about its fixed mean position. The boundary condition on the mean position S B of the body can be written in the generic form ∂φ = qB ∂n Similarly.9) where 0 = 1.1-1. y = ρ sin θ the appropriate expansion is igAj = Z(κj z) ωj n=0 ∞ n φIj n (−i) Jn (κj ρ) cos n(θ − βj ) (2. It will be convenient to redefine the coefficients in (2.11) 3.2) on S B (3.1) where ω is the frequency corresponding to the component φ. VELOCITY POTENTIAL DUE TO THE BODY In this section general properties will be listed for the solution of the velocity potential ΦB due to the presence of the body. writing this equation in the form ∞ φIj = Z(κj z) n=0 Jn (κj ρ)[Ac cos nθ + As sin nθ] jn jn (2.9). a Fourier-Bessel expansion of the first-order incident-wave potential will be required.10) where the coefficients are Ac jn As jn = igAj ωj n (−i) n cos nβj sin nβj (2. In terms of the polar coordinates x = ρ cos θ.3) are applicable.8) Subsequently in the analysis of the free-surface integral of the second-order problem. 5 . This includes both the scattered potential ΦS which accounts for the effects of the incident waves on the fixed body.where κ± = |Ki ± Kj | ij (2. n = 2 for (n ≥ 1). In all cases the decompositions and expansions (1.

κj .3) can be applied to an arbitrary closed surface. With the additional restriction that κb is sufficiently large. and G 2πicZ(κz)Z(κζ)H0 (κR) (2) (3. and can be found directly as the solution of the integral equation 2πσ(x) + SB ξ σ(ξ ) ∂G(x. R is the horizontal distance between the source (2) and field points (x.7) Here the function Z is defined by (2. In the fluid domain the solution for each first-order component of the potential can be expressed in the form φ(x) = SB ξ σ(ξ )G(x. ξ )dS In this equation φ represents any first. this equation holds on the mean position of SB and on the plane z = 0 corresponding to the mean position of SF .The solution for φ can be derived from Green’s theorem in terms of the integral equation 2πφ(x) + SB ξ φ(ξ ) ∂G(x. and (3.3) reduces to the conventional form of the integral equation for φ on the body. ξ )dS (3. G is the free-surface Green function corresponding to the same frequency ω and wavenumber as φ. ξ ). in the source formulation. Consider a generic wavenumber κ which may be equal to either κi . subject to (3.6) In the subsequent analysis of the free-surface integral of the second-order problem. evanascent (local) nonradiating components of the Green function can be excluded from consideration. the parameter σ is defined as the first-order source strength. ξ ) dS = qB (x) ∂nx (3.4) For the formulation based on Green’s theorem. Since (3.5) Alternatively. ξ )dS (3. ξ ) dS = ∂nξ SB ξ qB (ξ )G(x.3) to the exact boundaries of the fluid domain.3) SF + ξ qF (ξ )G(x. σ is the linear operator σ= ∂ 1 qB − φ 4π ∂n (3.2) and a suitable radiation condition at infinity.9) in the farfield domain outside of a partition circle of radius b which is sufficiently large to completely surround the body.1) and (3. and it is not necessary to apply (3. For the first-order components of the potential qF = 0.2). and H0 (κR) = J0 (κR) − iY0 (κR) is the Hankel function of the 6 . or the wavenumber κk of the second-order potential. a Fourier expansion of the first-order body potential will be required to complement (2.or second-order velocity potential.

with the ‘quadratic forcing function’ qF defined by the relations (1. For purposes of numerical evaluation.4) gives the corresponding far-field representation of the body potential ∞ c s Hn (κρ)[Bn cos nθ + Bn sin nθ] φ(x) Z(κz) n=0 (3.9) where ξ = ρ cos θ . η = ρ sin θ . the incident-wave potential ΦI should be subtracted from the left side of the free-surface conditions (1. To avoid the evaluation of second-order derivatives of the first-order potentials in (1. in an analogous manner to the body surface.79) may be used to expand (3.11) due to (a) quadratic interactions of the body potential with itself.3) will be considered here. the integration in the inner domain ρ < b is carried out numerically. THE FREE-SURFACE INTEGRAL The free-surface integral which is displayed as the last term in (3.9): ∞ G(x.10-11). ξ ) 2πicZ(κz)Z(κζ) n=0 n Hn (κρ)Jn (κρ ) cos n(θ − θ ) (3. 9. Since we are considering the evaluation of the second-order velocity potential ΦB due to the presence of the body. In the infinite-depth limit the corresponding error is of order (κR)−2 . eq.11) and (2.6) and (1. and also from the evaluation of the quadratic forcing function.10-1.6-12).10-1.7) in a Fourier-Bessel series analogous to (2. Following the methodology of Kim and Yue. and (3.1. and (b) cross-terms between ΦB and ΦI . Thus the inner free surface is discretized with quadrilateral panels. (In the following analysis the superscript (2) will be deleted. or of order (κR)−3 in the special case where z = 0.11) 4. the free-surface integral is composed of two parts. separated by the partition circle of radius ρ = b. Graf’s addition theorem (Abramowitz & Stegun.6).second kind.) The constant c is defined by −κ2 ν 2 − κ2 cosh2 (κh) = 2 κ2 h − ν 2 h + ν κ h − ν2h + ν c= (3.7) is of order exp(−CR/h) where the constant C is greater than π/2.10) where the coefficients in this expansion are c Bn s Bn = 2πic n SB ξ σ(ξ )Z(κζ)Jn (κρ ) cos nθ sin nθ dS (3. Substituting this result into (3.12).5-2. which includes terms on the right side of (1.9) is valid in the domain (ρ ≥ ρ ). the surface integral is transformed using Stokes’ theorem to a form involving only 7 . Thus we seek to evaluate the difference between (1.8) The error in the far-field approximation (3.

1. considering first the ‘BB’ component due to quadratic interactions of the body ij potential (3. THE FOURIER INTEGRALS IN THE ANGULAR COORDINATE The integration with respect to the angular coordinate θ can be evaluated after multiplication by the angular components of the Green function (3. THE FREE-SURFACE INTEGRAL IN THE FAR FIELD In the remainder of this section the ‘far-field integral’ in the domain (b ≤ ρ < ∞) is considered.and body-potentials are defined by the FourierBessel expansions (2.9). 4.10) and (1. For this purpose the incident.| −m| + δn. +m ] ≡ λ+ mn ≡ λ− mn (4.| [δn. Thus we consider the Fourier integrals 2π 0 Q+ ij cos nθ dθ sin nθ The only nonzero components involve the integrals 2π cos θ cos mθ cos nθdθ = 0 2π π n [δn.2a) (4. We begin with the sum-frequency component Q+ . The first task is to evaluate (1.2b) sin θ sin mθ cos nθdθ = 0 π n −m| +m ] 8 . we obtain Q+ BiBj i = 4 ∞ ∞ 2 2 ωi (κ2 − νj ) + ωj (κ2 − νi ) − 2(ωi + ωj )νi νj j i =0 m=0 H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) c s c s (Bi cos θ + Bi sin θ)(Bjm cos mθ + Bjm sin mθ) − 2(ωi + ωj )κi κj H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) c s c s (Bi cos θ + Bi sin θ)(Bjm cos mθ + Bjm sin mθ) m − 2(ωi + ωj ) 2 H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) ρ s c s c (Bi cos θ − Bi sin θ)(Bjm cos mθ − Bjm sin mθ) (4.first-order derivatives and line integrals around the inner and outer boundaries.11).10) and (3. respectively.1) where H denotes the first derivative of the Hankel function with respect to its argument.10). Associating the Fourier indices ( . Details are given in the paper by Kim. 4. j) respectively.2. m) with the frequency indices (i.10). − δn.

or n = + m.|n−m| −δ .5) Substituting (4.1) are then given by 2π 0 Q+ BiBj cos nθ i dθ = sin nθ 4 ∞ ∞ 2 2 ωi (κ2 − νj ) + ωj (κ2 − νi ) − 2(ωi + ωj )νi νj j i c c s s Bi Bjm λ+ + Bi Bjm λ− mn mn s c c s Bi Bjm λ− m + Bi Bjm λ− n mn =0 m=0 H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) − 2(ωi + ωj ) κi κj H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) c c s s Bi Bjm λ+ + Bi Bjm λ− mn mn s c c s Bi Bjm λ− m + Bi Bjm λ− n mn (4.|n− | − δm. or m = n + .3) + c c s s Bi Bjm λ− + Bi Bjm λ+ m mn mn H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) 2 c B s λ− s B c λ− ρ −Bi jm n m − Bi jm mn The second term.3) gives 9 . The Fourier integrals of the quadratic forcing function (4.n+m ] = λ− mn (4.4-5) in (4. which involves derivatives of the Hankel functions.2π cos θ sin mθ sin nθdθ = 0 2π π π [δ . can be reduced using the relation Hν = 1 (Hν−1 − Hν+1 ).2d) sin θ cos mθ sin nθdθ = 0 m [δm. the third term resulting from the angular derivatives can be reduced using the recurrence relation 2νHν /z = Hν−1 + Hν+1 to remove the factor ρ−2 . Thus 2 1 H 4 H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) = −1 Hm−1 −H −1 Hm+1 +H +1 Hm+1 −H +1 Hm−1 (4. equal to one if the subscripts are equal and otherwise equal to zero. the one which is most useful is obtained by setting ν equal to and then to m: H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ)ρ−2 = κi κj H 4 m −1 Hm−1 + H −1 Hm+1 + H +1 Hm+1 + H +1 Hm−1 (4.4) Similarly.n+ ] = λ− m n where δmn is the Kronecker delta function.2c) (4. Three alternative relations result. The factors λ defined above are nonzero if and only if = m + n.

8) 10 .6) 1 + (ωi + ωj )κi κj H −1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) + H +1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) 2 c c s s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) mn mn s c c s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn The corresponding integrals for the difference-frequency function are ∞ ∞ 2π 0 Q− BiBj cos nθ i dθ = sin nθ 4 H 2 2 ωi (κ2 − νj ) − ωj (κ2 − νi ) − 2(ωi − ωj )νi νj j i c c∗ s s∗ Bi Bjm λ+ + Bi Bjm λ− mn mn s c∗ c s∗ Bi Bjm λ− m + Bi Bjm λ− n mn =0 m=0 ∗ (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) 1 ∗ ∗ − (ωi − ωj )κi κj H −1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) + H +1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) 2 c c∗ s s∗ (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) mn mn s c∗ c s∗ (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ− m − λ− ) n mn (4.7) 1 ∗ ∗ + (ωi − ωj )κi κj H −1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) + H +1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) 2 c c∗ s s∗ (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) mn mn s c∗ c s∗ (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn It is helpful to define the factors 2 2 Ω± = ωi (κ2 − νj ) ± ωj (κ2 − νi ) − 2(ωi ± ωj )νi νj j i ij (4.2π 0 Q+ BiBj cos nθ i dθ = sin nθ 4 ∞ ∞ 2 2 ωi (κ2 − νj ) + ωj (κ2 − νi ) − 2(ωi + ωj )νi νj j i c c s s Bi Bjm λ+ + Bi Bjm λ− mn mn s c c s Bi Bjm λ− m + Bi Bjm λ− n mn =0 m=0 H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) 1 − (ωi + ωj )κi κj H −1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) + H +1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) 2 c c s s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) mn mn s c c s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ− m − λ− ) n mn (4.

Thus 2π 0 Q+ BiBj cos nθ i dθ = sin nθ 8 − Λ+ H ij ∞ ∞ =0 m=0 Ω+ H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) ij +H +1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) −1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) c c s s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) mn mn s c c s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ− m − λ− ) n mn −1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) + Ω+ H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) + Λ+ H ij ij +H +1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) c c s s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) mn mn s c c s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn (4. after noting that the first factor contained within large parentheses in each equation is equivalent to half the sum of the second and third factors. and integrate in the radial domain b < ρ < ∞.11) are of the basic form 11 . the integrals which must be evaluated in (4.3.10) Similarly for the difference-frequency integral 2π 0 Q− BiBj cos nθ i dθ = sin nθ 8 − Λ− H ij ∞ ∞ =0 m=0 ∗ Ω− H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) ij ∗ −1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) +H ∗ +1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) c c∗ s s∗ (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) mn mn s c∗ c s∗ (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ− m − λ− ) n mn ∗ −1 (κi ρ)Hm+1 (κj ρ) ∗ + Ω− H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ) + Λ− H ij ij +H ∗ +1 (κi ρ)Hm−1 (κj ρ) c c∗ s s∗ (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) mn mn s c∗ c s∗ (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn (4.3) it is necessary to multiply the preceding results by the Hankel functions in (3.9) (These definitions differ by multiplicative factors from the corresponding parameters used by Kim. THE INTEGRALS IN THE RADIAL COORDINATE In the context of the free-surface integral represented by the last term in (3.) Equations (4.11) 4. Since the differential element of surface area is ρdρdθ.9).6) and (4.10) and (4.and Λ± = (ωi ± ωj )κi κj ij (4.7) can then be written in a more compact form.

in (4.2) (2) J (αx)Hm (βx)Hn (γx)xdx H (1.13b) G (1. where one of the first pair of Hankel functions in (4. β. the second Hankel function is replaced by its complex conjugate or the Hankel function of the first kind.∞ b H (κi ρ)Hm (κj ρ)Hn (κk ρ)ρdρ = b 2 1 ∞ H (αx)Hm (βx)Hn (γx)xdx ≡ b2 F mn (α. and the contributions included from the incident-wave potential.12) Additional integrals will also be required to analyze the interaction between the body and incident-wave potentials.11).2) mn ∞ = 1 H (2) (2) (αx)Jm (βx)Hn (γx)xdx (4.13a) (4.2) (2) (αx)Hm (βx)Hn (γx)xdx (4.2) mn ∞ = 1 H ∞ (2) (1. Similarly. To make the above results more explicit. but it is retained for uniformity in the notation. of the same order and with the same argument. γ) (4.2) mn = 1 (1.12) is replaced by the corresponding Bessel function Jν .) With these definitions applied.13c) (The superscript for the third function is superfluous. we define the following nondimensional integrals: F (1. the appropriate radial integrals are 12 .

κj b.14) ) (2) .n (κi b.m−1.m. κj b. κj b.m−1.m+1.n (κi b.m. κj b.n (κi b. κk b) (As i − Ac i s Bjm )(λ− m n − λ− mn (4. κj b. κk b) − Λ+ G ij +G + Ω+ G ij + (2) +1. κj b.n (κi b. κj b.n (κi b. κk b) c s (Ac Bjm + As Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) i i mn mn c Bjm (2) . κk b) + Ω+ H ij + − Λ+ H ij (2) H +1. κj b.n (κi b.n (κi b. κj b.m+1. κj b.n (κi b.n (κi b.m−1. κk b) c s (Bi Ac + Bi As )(λ+ + λ− ) jm jm mn mn + Ω+ H ij + + Λ+ H ij (2) H +1.n (κi b. κk b) s c c s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ− m − λ− ) n mn (2) −1.∞ b (2) Hn (κk ρ)ρdρ 2π 0 Q+ (ρ. κj b. κk b) s c (Bi Ac − Bi As )(λ− m − λ− ) jm jm n mn (2) −1. κj b.m.m+1. κk b) s c c s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn (2) −1. κk b) (2) . κj b. κk b) i 2 b 8 ∞ ∞ =0 m=0 Ω+ F ij (2) . κk b) c c s s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) mn mn c c s s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) mn mn + Ω+ F ij + Λ+ F ij +F + Ω+ G ij (2) +1. κj b.n (κi b. κk b) (2) . κj b.m+1. κj b.n (κi b.m.n (κi b.n (κi b.m. κk b) (2) G +1.m+1. κk b) + Λ+ G ij (2) −1.m−1. κk b) + (2) F +1. κk b) s c (Bi Ac + Bi As )(λ− m + λ− ) jm jm n mn c s (Bi Ac − Bi As )(λ+ − λ− ) jm jm mn mn 13 . κj b. κk b) c s (Ac Bjm − As Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) i i mn mn c s (As Bjm + Ac Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn i i (2) −1.m+1.m−1. θ) ij cos nθ dθ = sin nθ − Λ+ F ij (2) −1.n (κi b. κk b) (2) .m−1.n (κi b.n (κi b.n (κi b.m. κj b.

κk b) (1) .n (κi b.n (κi b. κk b) (1) . κj b. κj b. κj b.m+1. κk b) s c (Bi A∗c + Bi A∗s )(λ− m + λ− ) jm jm n mn c s (Bi A∗c − Bi A∗s )(λ+ − λ− ) jm jm mn mn 14 .n (κi b.n (κi b. θ) ij cos nθ dθ = sin nθ − Λ− F ij (1) −1. κj b.m.m+1.m+1. κk b) s ∗c c ∗s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn (1) −1. κj b. κk b) − Λ− G ij +G + Ω− G ij + (1) +1. κk b) + (1) F +1.n (κi b. κj b.n (κi b.15) ) (1) . κj b.n (κi b. κj b.m.m+1.m.n (κi b.m. κj b.n (κi b.n (κi b.m+1. κj b. κk b) + Ω− H ij + − Λ− H ij (1) H +1.n (κi b.m−1. κj b. κk b) s ∗c c ∗s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ− m − λ− ) n mn (1) −1. κj b.m−1.m+1. κk b) + Λ− G ij (1) −1.n (κi b.n (κi b.n (κi b.m. κj b.m−1.n (κi b. κk b) s c (Bi A∗c − Bi A∗s )(λ− m − λ− ) jm jm n mn (1) −1.m.m−1. κk b) (1) G +1. κk b) c s (Bi A∗c + Bi A∗s )(λ+ + λ− ) jm jm mn mn + Ω− H ij + + Λ− H ij (1) H +1.m−1. κk b) ∗c ∗s (Ac Bjm − As Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) i i mn mn ∗c ∗s (As Bjm + Ac Bjm )(λ− m + λ− ) n mn i i (1) −1.m−1. κj b. κk b) ∗c ∗s (Ac Bjm + As Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) i i mn mn ∗c Bjm (1) . κj b. κk b) (1) . κj b.n (κi b.n (κi b. κj b.n (κi b. κk b) (As i − Ac i ∗s Bjm )(λ− m n − λ− mn (4. κj b.∞ b (2) Hn (κk ρ)ρdρ 2π 0 Q− (ρ. κk b) i 2 b 8 ∞ ∞ =0 m=0 Ω− F ij (1) . κk b) c ∗c s ∗s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm )(λ+ − λ− ) mn mn c ∗c s ∗s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm )(λ+ + λ− ) mn mn + Ω− F ij + Λ− F ij +F + Ω− G ij (1) +1.

n mn In the three-dimensional space . where λ+ = 2π and λ− = 0 000 000 the four factors can be simplified in the forms (λ+ + λ− ) = πδ mn mn (λ− m − λ− ) = πδ n mn .m+n .14-15) can be expressed in terms of the separate contributions from each of the three surfaces.16d) (λ+ − λ− ) = πδn. whereas the last two factors are nonzero only on the complementary plane n = + m.2). (4. Collectively these three planes form a cone with triangular sections. κj b.16) apply also on the intersections of each pair of adjacent planes. κk b) (4. +m (κi b.14-15) are equivalent to 15 . The four expressions (4.m−1. Excluding the special case = m = n = 0.m.m. κj b. κk b) (4.m−1. −m (κi b. mn mn (λ− m + λ− ) = πδn. − πδm.m.m− ij − Λ± ij (κi b. Thus the double sums in (4. κj b.m+1.17a) V (ij)± (F ) m = Ω± F .m+1. κk b) ij +F +1.17c) If the series are truncated at the upper limit = M . +m (κi b. κk b) − Λ± F ij −1.16a) (4. κk b) (4.m− (κi b. κj b. +m (κi b. −m (κi b. −m (κi b. the first two factors are nonzero only on the two planes = m + n and m = + n. and with its apex at the origin. κk b) ij + Λ± F −1. κj b. m. with reference to the definitions (4. κk b) F −1. +m +m +n +n (4. κj b. κj b.17b) (ij)± W m (F ) = Ω± F . κj b.m+n + πδm. A compact form can be derived if we first define the three functionals U (ij)± m (F ) = Ω± F ij . κj b.16c) (4. κk b) +F +1.m−1.16b) (4. κk b) + F +1. m = M . n.The four factors which involve sums and differences of the parameters λ will now be considered.m− (κi b.m+1.

18) c s (Bi Ac + Bi As ) jm jm s Ac − B c As ) (Bi jm jm i m= +n + =1 W (ij)+ (2) ) m (F c c s s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm ) s c c s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm ) c s (Ac Bjm − As Bjm ) i i c s (As Bjm + Ac Bjm ) i i +W +W (ij)+ (2) ) m (G (ij)+ (2) ) m (H c s (Bi Ac − Bi As ) jm jm s Ac + B c As ) (Bi jm jm i m=n− 16 .∞ b (2) Hn (κk ρ)ρdρ 2π 0 Q+ (ρ. θ) ij M cos nθ dθ = sin nθ (ij)+ U m (F (2) ) c c s s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm ) s c c s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm ) πi 2 b 8 (1 + δ n ) =n +U +U M −n (ij)+ (2) ) m (G (ij)+ (2) ) m (H c s (Ac Bjm + As Bjm ) i i c s (As Bjm − Ac Bjm ) i i c s (Bi Ac + Bi As ) jm jm s c (Bi Ac − Bi As ) jm jm m= −n ± =0 (1 + δ 0 ) V +V +V n−1 (ij)+ (F (2) ) m c c s s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm ) s c c s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm ) (ij)+ (G (2) ) m (ij)+ (H(2) ) m c s (Ac Bjm + As Bjm ) i i c s (As Bjm − Ac Bjm ) i i (4.

2) (1.13b.19) c s (Bi A∗c + Bi A∗s ) jm jm s A∗c − B c A∗s ) (Bi jm jm i m= +n + =1 W (ij)− (F (1) ) m c ∗c s ∗s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm ) s ∗c c ∗s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm ) ∗c ∗s (Ac Bjm − As Bjm ) i i ∗c ∗s (As Bjm + Ac Bjm ) i i +W +W (ij)− (G (1) ) m (ij)− (H(1) ) m c s (Bi A∗c − Bi A∗s ) jm jm s A∗c + B c A∗s ) (Bi jm jm i m=n− Special attention is required when the integers . for sufficiently large values of x. From the asymptotic approximations of the Bessel and Hankel functions it is apparent that. and similarly for the case m = ±1 and for the integrals (4. and for the factors of two applied to the first term in each of the first two sums.4. the integrands are proportional to x−1/2 exp(iσx). 17 . m are equal to zero.18-19).13).m. that the contributions from these equations are equivalent to those from (4. n is equal to zero.n = −F1. 4. θ) ij M cos nθ dθ = sin nθ (ij)− U m (F (1) ) c ∗c s ∗s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm ) s ∗c c ∗s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm ) πi 2 b 8 (1 + δ n ) =n +U +U M −n (ij)− (1) ) m (G (ij)− (1) ) m (H ∗c ∗s (Ac Bjm + As Bjm ) i i ∗c ∗s (As Bjm − Ac Bjm ) i i c s (Bi A∗c + Bi A∗s ) jm jm s c (Bi A∗c − Bi A∗s ) jm jm m= −n ± =0 (1 + δ 0 ) V +V +V n−1 (ij)− (F (1) ) m c ∗c s ∗s (Bi Bjm + Bi Bjm ) s ∗c c ∗s (Bi Bjm − Bi Bjm ) (ij)− (G (1) ) m (ij)− (H(1) ) m ∗c ∗s (Ac Bjm + As Bjm ) i i ∗c ∗s (As Bjm − Ac Bjm ) i i (4. Thus it follows from (4. Note also that when n = 0 the contributions from the first two sums in (4. giving a net contribution of twice that of the first sum in the case of the cosine integrals (upper factors) and zero for the sine integrals (lower factors). Since the Bessel and (1. with regard for the limits of each sum in (4. It can then be shown. m.m.18-19) are identical.c).17) that U 0 = W 0 and V0m = W0m .2) Hankel functions are odd functions of the (integer) order it follows that F−1.∞ b (2) Hn (κk ρ)ρdρ 2π 0 Q− (ρ. EVALUATION OF THE RADIAL INTEGRALS Suitable algorithms are required to evaluate the three families of integrals defined by (4.14-15) when one or more of the integers .n .

where the factor σ involves sums and differences of the three parameters α.2) Hν (z) 1 π 2 exp(±i(z − νπ − )) πz 2 4 (4.21) ¿From the basic relations between the Hankel and Bessel functions the integrals (4. Hereafter it is assumed that the three parameters α. before deforming the contour of integration into the complex plane. When the order is large it also is necessary to consider the complementary approximations Jν (z) ∼ z ν . due to the very slow convergence and oscillatory feature of the integrand. To determine the appropriate contours for each of the integrals (1. Y are real on the real axis.2) = Jν ± iYν . These integrals are convergent provided σ = 0.22) may be deformed in the first quadrant of the complex plane z = x + iy.13). The former assumption is appropriate since these parameters correspond physically to the products of three positive wavenumbers with the partition radius b. for large x. γ. Thus (4.21) that severe cancellation errors will result from this approach. and the corresponding asymptotic approximations (1. These difficulties can be overcome simply by adopting appropriate contours of integration in the complex z-plane. Numerical integration along the semi-infinite real x-axis is not practical. Such a decomposition is essential in some cases for the contour integrals.13b).13c) can be evaluated as one-half times the sum of the two integrals defined by (4. γ > 0. and a convenient choice is the straight line upward parallel to the imaginary axis from z = xmax to z = xmax + i∞. Yν ∼ z −ν (4. However when >> αx or m >> βx it is clear from (4. If σ > 0 the contour of integration in (4. and in all cases σ = (±α ± β − γ).22) is replaced in this case by the semi-infinite integral 18 . depending on the sign of σ. since for large values of the argument Jν (z) includes two components proportional respectively to exp(±iz) which may require different choices of the contour of integration. This difficulty is avoided by integrating (4. The remaining integrals are of the general form ∞ xmax f (x)eiσx dx (4. β. β. and a similar approach can be followed with (4. and σ = 0. The latter assumption will be considered in future work. consideration must be given to the basic definitions Hν Bessel functions J.13) along a finite segment of the positive real axis 1 ≤ x ≤ xmax . where the (4.22) where f (x) denotes a slowly-varying function of order x−1/2 .20) which are valid for |z| >> 1 and |z| >> ν. This procedure is robust provided the parameter xmax is sufficiently large to satisfy the inequalities ≤ αxmax and m ≤ βxmax .13a).

with the same integration algorithm and different integrands.23-4) numerical integration is practical using adaptive Romberg quadratures to ensure a specified tolerance of accuracy. when σ < 0.23) Conversely. and also in the integrals (4.13a. It is computationally efficient to evaluate all three integrals (4. The length of each subsequent segment is increased in a linear manner. This precludes the possibility of false convergence for one particular integrand. and permits the simultaneous recursive evaluation of the required Bessel and Hankel functions of all orders.1.23-4) where the arguments are in the first quadrant.22) is replaced by ∞ xmax f (x)e −i iσx ∞ ∞ dx = xmax ∗ f ∗ (x)e−iσx dx −iσx+σy ∗ ∗ = (4.∞ xmax f (x)eiσx dx = i exp(iσxmax ) ∞ 0 f (xmax + iy)e−σy dy. apart from a multiplicative exponential factor. In the program this procedure is followed for the complete set of required integrals. first within each finite segment to determine that the order of the Romberg quadratures is sufficient. The parameter xmax is set equal to the largest value of the ratios /α or m/β. the contour of integration may be deformed in the fourth quadrant along a similar contour parallel to the negative imaginary axis.c) together.13). n). In both the finite integral along the real axis and the semi-infinite integrals (4. for both the integral along the real axis where the arguments are all real. and the conjugate function f ∗ (z) therefore involves the same integrands except that the Hankel functions of first. of all combinations of the orders . Typically a tolerance of 10−8 is used.b. For programming purposes it is convenient to modify these integrals so that in all cases the contour of integration is in the first quadrant. the length of the first segment is set equal to four divided by the maximum value of the exponential factor σ. These will be described separately below.and second-kind are reversed. Convergence tests are applied to all members of this set simultaneously. Two convergence tests are required. xmax is set equal to one and the integral along the real axis is skipped. (4. with absolute accuracy specified if the integral is smaller than one in absolute value. by the integrands of (4.18-19) and for all three of the integrals defined in (4. m. if σ < 0. except that if the largest ratio is less than 1. based on the maximum value of |σ|. and secondly after the (converged) integral in each segment is added to the total integral to determine when the range of integration can be truncated. Thus.24) (σ < 0) 0 f (xmax + iy)e dy Note that the function f (z) is defined. to take advantage of the exponentially diminishing magnitude of the integrand in that segment. n required in (4. and relative accuracy in the converse case. For the semi-infinite integrals in y. proportional to the number of the segment. so that large values of this parameter do not retard convergence. for all required combinations of the orders ( . (σ > 0) (4.13). and the integration of the entire set continues until the convergence test is satisfied for the entire set. The domain of integration is subdivided. 19 . m. Effective subroutines for the Bessel and Hankel functions are required.

pp. equation 9. and these are then combined to form the corresponding Hankel functions. where N is the maximum order required. selecting whichever of these functions has the largest absolute value to avoid instability near the zeros on the real axis. and the Hankel functions are evaluated from the relations J ± iY .1. For the Hankel functions of the first kind. These integrals are defined 20 .46). These ascending series are used in the quadrilateral domain of the plane z = x + iy such that x ≥ 0. 0 ≤ y ≤ 3 and x + y ≤ 8. sin z (Abramowitz & Stegun. In this case it is appropriate to use as the normalization relations the Neumann series for cos.1 and 66. (Abramowitz & Stegun equations 9. suitable for small and large values of |z|. with complex argument z in the first quadrant.1. but the latter can be evaluated directly from the (2) (1) relation Hν = 2Jν − Hν . Normalization is based on the Neumann series with unit value (Abramowitz & Stegun. §6. Hν . (1.25) where Hν denotes any of the three functions Jν . the coefficients in Luke’s Tables 66.13). giving rational-fraction approximations as the ratios of tenth-degree polynomials. The rational-fraction approximations are not effective for the Hankel functions of the second kind. forward recursion is used based on the starting values of order zero and one. the subroutine evaluates the normalized functions exp(iz)Jν (z) and applies an appropriate exponential factor to the final integrand.6 have been extended to n = 10.1 . and corrected in the final evaluation of the integrand. For Jν (x) the backward recursion algorithm of Miller (cf.For the functions with real argument the functions Jν (x) and Yν (x) are evaluated following the general methodology described in Numerical Recipes. Abramowitz & Stegun. For checking purposes it is useful to derive recursion formulae for the integrals (4. equations 9.2) The exponential normalization factors exp(∓iz) are applied to Hν .47-8). To avoid the possibility of overflow. with relative accuracy preserved for x << ν. For this purpose we consider the more general integrals F (µ) mn ∞ = 1 H (αx)Hm (βx)Hn (γx)xµ dx (1) (2) (4.10-11). using the values of Jν obtained from backward recursion. A similar backward recursion algorithm is used to evaluate the functions Jν (z) with complex argument z in the first quadrant. using the same starting value M defined above except that |x| is replaced by |z|. Y1 and the functions Yν are evaluated for all required higher orders by forward recursion. 385-6) is used with the starting value ν = M chosen to be the smallest even integer M which satisfies the inequalities M > 1. To obtain sufficient accuracy in the domain where |z| is large. respectively. Comparison of the two complementary algorithms along the common boundary of the partition indicates that the minimum relative accuracy of this subroutine is 14 decimals.1 and Y0. rational fraction approximations of the form described by Luke (Table 66) are effective. For small |z| ascending series are summed to evaluate J0. Numerical experiments indicate that the accuracy of the results is at least 14 decimals.4. The evaluation of these is based on two complementary algorithms. The series are truncated with a total of 22 terms.36|x| + 24 and M > N + 12. Chebyshev expansions are used to evaluate the functions Y0 . For larger values of z outside the quadrilateral domain.1. or Hν .

m. In particular.m.m.n+1 ] 2 2m 2n (4.m.m−1. Integrating the derivative of the integrand and employing the formula Hν = Hν−1 − (ν/z)Hν to differentiate the integrand in accordance with the chain rule.m.n + γF . and that the triple product of Hankel functions H (α)Hm (β)Hn (γ) which appears in (4.n +βF .m.n + γF . it follows that −H (α)Hm (β)Hn (γ) = αF (µ) (µ) (µ) −1.13b-c).m.m.n + F .n ] = [F .n F .m.n+1 = 2n αF γ( + m + n − 1) −1.26) Using the recursion 2νHν /z = Hν−1 + Hν+1 to evaluate the last term in (4.m−1. with the index ν replaced successively by . as is required in (4. three relations are obtained as follows: F (µ−1) .28c) + H (α)Hm (β)Hn (γ) − F .m.m.m.n = α (µ) β γ (µ) (µ) (µ) (µ) (µ) [F −1. The only requirements here are that the starting values for the recursion are evaluated for the appropriate combination of Bessel and Hankel functions. including the Hankel functions of the first and second kind.n + F +1.n + βF .m−1.n−1 (4. m.27) Combining each of these alternative relations with (4.m.28a) + H (α)Hm (β)Hn (γ) − F −1.n ] = [F .n−1 (4. n.28) 21 .in the ordinary sense for µ < 3/2 (assuming the sum of the wavenumbers is nonzero).28).m−1.m+1.n +γF .n + βF .n F .n−1 −( +m+n−µ)F (µ−1) .n = 2m αF β( + m + n − 1) −1.13).m.n−1 The relations used here for differentiation and recursion of the Hankel functions apply to any linear combination of Bessel functions of the first and second kind. Thus the same generality applies to the relations (4.m.n + γF .n = 2 αF α( + m + n − 1) −1.28b) + H (α)Hm (β)Hn (γ) − F .m−1. one of the Hankel functions may be replaced by the Bessel function Jν .m.m.n + βF .26) and setting µ = 1 gives the desired relations F +1.n−1 (4.n (4.m.m+1. and will be applied ultimately with µ = 1.n−1 + F .m−1.

Berkeley. However the inhomogeneous terms in (4. I.b.28) for . Kim.-H. More importantly. Lee. Monochromatic incident waves. G. for large values of α.13). 1990 ‘Second-order sum-frequency wave loads on large-volume structures.’ J.. Washington and Dover. Fluid Mech.) The recursion relations are nevertheless useful to check the subroutines used to evaluate (4. Government Printing Office. First. n in (4.. and Mathematical Tables. 010. New York. 22 .28) can be used to evaluate the integrals F . γ the recursion relations are unstable with substantial cancellation error occurring over several successive values of the integers.-H. γ = O(1). M. M. Kim.18-19) up to the maximum order M = 32. 1983 ‘Second-order hydrodynamic effects on ocean platforms. 1989 ‘First. However this procedure has two important disadvantages. Ship Research.’ J. 110. to appear. Ocean Research. D. and numerical tests indicate that there is a substantial loss of accuracy in the use of (4. to appear. 557–593. & Newman.28) appear to be important in this context. 001. 002.13) are required in (4. & Stegun. Graphs. 020. n) ≤ M it is sufficient to evaluate the eleven starting values where the three integers have the values 000.is likewise replaced by the corresponding product of the appropriate Bessel and Hankel functions. F.e.-H.’ J. Fluid Mech. i. M. REFERENCES Abramowitz. m. 011. Bichromatic incident waves and body motions. 235–264.’ International Workshop on Ship and Platform Motions. to evaluate only the required ‘two-dimensional’ combinations of . K. 211. P. Collectively the three recursion relations (4. M. D. provided suitable starting values are available. J. 200.13a. m. m.19) it is not efficient to evaluate the ‘three-dimensional’ combinations as is required in the recursion relations.and second-order wave effects on a submerged spheroid.18) and (4. Extensive tests have been made in this manner.c) evaluated at the lower limit of integration. T. β. H for any combination of the three orders . β. 200.. 111. Ogilvie. n. To proceed in this manner throughout a three-dimensional cube 0 ≤ ( . 101. with a specified Romberg tolerance (typically 10−8 ) the differences between the left. C. 1990 ‘The complete second-order diffraction solution for an axisymmetric body Part 2. (Since forward recursion is stable for the Hankel functions it was originally thought that this problem would not be serious. n > O(10) unless the parameters α. 1989 ‘The complete second-order diffraction solution for an axisymmetric body Part 1. K. A. N. 5. 1964 Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas.-H. the integrand of (4. throughout the two-dimensional space where the three integrals (4. & Yue. P. Kim.and right-hand sides of the recursion relations (4. m.’ App.28) are consistently smaller than this tolerance. & Yue. 100.