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Permit number: midterm : 217480 finals: 217481


1. Define the following: a. Concepts - the basic unit in language of theoretical thinking is the concept. Concepts are words that present reality and enhance our ability to communicate about it. b. Theory - is composed of a group of concepts that described a pattern of reality. A theory is a statement that explains or characterizes a process, an occurrence, or an event and is based on observed facts.

2. What are the uses of theory in Nursing? 1. The primary of purpose of nursing theory is to generate scientific knowledge; nursing theory and nursing research are closely related. 2. Provide direction and guidance for structuring professional nursing practice, education, and research and differentiating the focus of nursing from other profession. 3. In practice, assist the nurses to describe, explain and predict everyday experiences. 4. Serve to guide assessment, intervention and evaluation of nursing care. 5. Help to establish criteria to measure the quality of nursing care.

3. Describe the relationship of theory, research and nursing practice. In research, theory serves as a framework for generating knowledge and new ideas. Also in assist discovering knowledge gaps in the specific field of study. As well as offer a systematic approach to identify questions for study, select variables, interpret findings and validate nursing interventions. In practice, it helps build a common nursing terminology to use in communicating with other health professions. Ideas are developed and words defined. It also offers a systematic approach to identify questions for study, select variables, interpret findings and validate nursing interventions. 4. The Nursing Process is an important tool utilized to provide efficient nursing care. a. What is the nursing process? Nursing Process is the systematic, rational method of planning and providing individualized nursing care. Its purpose is to identify a client s health status, actual or

cultural background. organizing. b. Assessing is collecting. Using the acceptable definition of nursing and appropriate laws related to the practice of nursing. Successful outcomes of nursing care are based on the speed with which or degree to which the patient performs independently the activities of daily living. taking into consideration strength. sick or well. Carrying out treatment prescribed by the physician. Implementation based on the physiological principles. c. age. emotional balance. diagnosing. v. Assessing. Cite two relevant nursing theories and one non-nursing theory that you can apply per step of the nursing process. will or knowledge. i. The quality of care is drastically affected by the preparation and native ability of the nursing personnel rather that the amount of hours of care. Evaluating is assessing the client s response to nursing intervention and then comparing the response to the goals or outcome criteria written in the planning phase. Implementation: Documenting how the nurse can assist the individual. iii. Watson s theory and nursing process . validating and recording data about a client s health status.potential health care problems or needs. Diagnosing is a process which results in a diagnostic statement or nursing diagnosis. intervention or implementation and evaluation. and to deliver specific nursing interventions to meet those needs. planning. Evaluation: Henderson s 14 components and definition of nursing. Nursing process: ASSESSMENT: Diagnosis: henderson s 14 components and definition of nursing Henderson s 14 components analysis: compare data to knowledge base of health and disease Planning: Identifying individual s ability to meet own needs with or without assistance. iv. and the intellectual capacities. ii. Implementing is putting the nursing care plan into action. What are the components/ steps of the nursing process? The nursing process consists of five components pr phases. to establish plans to meet the identified needs. Planning involving series of steps in which the nurse and the client set priorities and goals or expected outcomes to resolve or minimize the identified problems of the client.

identification and review of the problem. Also. it includes the collection of the data. b.Watson points out that nursing process contains the same steps as the scientific research process. Both provide a framework for decision making. It is the direct action and implementation of the plan. Planning: . Also includes and conceptual knowledge for the formulation and conceptualization of framework. defining variables that will be examined in solving the problem. It may also generate additional hypothesis or may even lead to the generation of a nursing theory. use of applicable knowledge in literature. the degree to which positive outcome has occurred and whether the result can be generalized. Identifying the individual s most important need where the nurse can decide which among the presenting problems must he or she attends first. Diagnosis: Planning: Implementation: Evaluation: Abraham Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs) and nursing process Assessment: Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs: a. and the formulation of hypothesis. It determines what data would be collected and how on whom. Analysis of the data as well as the examination of the effects of interventions based on the data. Diagnosis: Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belongingness needs Self-esteem needs Self-actualization needs Comparing the data collected in each level of needs with the data and knowledge in the nursing practice. c. They both try to solve a problem. Includes the interpretation of the results. d. includes a conceptual approach or design for problem solving. e. It helps to determine how variables would be examined or measured. Watson elaborates the two process as: Assessment: Involves observation. Using the variables gathered from the assessment to prioritize the health care needs of the patient.

the more likely healthpromoting behaviors are to be maintained over time. 3. 4. Situational influences in the external environment can increase or decrease commitment to or participation in health-promoting behavior. the probability of commitment and action is increased. The HPM is based on the following theoretical propositions. a. 2. Nola Pender s Health Promotion Model Theoretical Propositions Theoretical statements derived from the model provide a basis for investigate work on health behaviors. Evaluation: 5. which can in turn. peers and health care providers are important sources of interpersonal influence that ca increase or decrease commitment to and engagement in healthpromoting behavior. 7. Persons commit to engaging in behaviors from which they anticipate deriving personally valued benefits. 6. a mediator of behavior as well as actual behavior. independent and collaborative nursing care in terms of their immediate relative importance as to the needs principle. 10. When positive emotions or affect are associated with behavior. . Greater perceived self-efficacy results in fewer perceived barriers to a specific health behavior. Prior behavior and inherited and acquired characteristics influence beliefs. affect and enactment of health-promoting behavior. 9. Families. The greatest the commitments to a specific plan of action.efficacy. Enumerate 2 nursing theories and their proponents. Carrying out treatment prescribed by the physician. expect the behavior. Perceived competence or self-efficacy to execute a given behavior increases the likelihood of commitment to action and actual performance of the behavior. Describe each as to their framework and propositions. Persons are more likely to commit and to engage in health-promoting behaviors when significant others model the behavior. Perceived barriers can constrain commitment to action. 5.Implementation: Implementation based in Maslow s needs principle. 11. 1. result in increased positive affect. 8. Identifying the relative effect of the implemented care and the comparative analysis of client s present condition with the norms in Maslow s hierarchy of needs. Positive affect toward a behavior results in greater perceived self.

human being has three fundamental needs: a. Direct and indirect effects on the likelihood of engaging in health promoting behaviors. growth and development will be enhanced. which include: 1. The need for care when human beings are unable to help themselves . transaction will occur. Prior related behavior 3. and to make decision. set. 14. If transactions are made in nurse-client interactions. According to king. Individual characteristics and experience 2. 4. Human Being/person: is social being who are rational and sentient. Theoretical Framework 1. think. Proposition continue. If nurse with special knowledge skill communication appropriate information to client. Frequency of the similar behavior in the past. choose. If nurse and client make transaction. 3. If role conflict is experience by nurse or client or both. 5. The need or care that seek to prevent illness and c. 8. b. transaction will occur. satisfaction occur. 2. mutual goal setting and goal attainment will occur. feel. Commitment to a plan of action is less likely result in the desired behavior when other actions are more attractive and thus preferred over the target behavior. select means to achieve goals. affect and the interpersonal and physical environment to create incentives for health actions. Theoretical framework: 1. If goal are attained.12. Person has ability to perceive. 13. Imogene king s Theory of Goal Attainment Theoretical Propositions From the theory of goal attainment king developed predictive propositions. stress in nurse-client interaction will occur. Commitment to a plan of action is less likely to result in the desired behavior when competing demands over which persons have little control require immediate attention. goal will be attained. If perceptual interaction accuracy is present in nurse-client interactions. 7. 6. goals. If role expectations and role performance as perceived by nurse and client are congruent. The need for the health information that is unable at the time when it is needed and can be used. Persons can modify cognitions.

He placed emphasis on choice. values. acquisition of peak experiences. and believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity were more important than objectivity. He is famous for proposing that human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs. all distinctively human qualities. and self-actualization. The purpose of learning is to bring about selfactualization. Health. Internal environment transforms energy to enable person to adjust to continuous external environment changes. State one non-nursing theory that is relevant to the nursing practice.2. He regarded spectator. For Maslow. realization of life as precious. including discovery of one's vocation or destiny. which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in the internal and external environment through optimum use of one s resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living. and grappling with the critical existential problems of life. self-realization. External environment involves formal and informal organizations. development of human potential. Maslow. or scientific. According to King. dignity and worth are ultimate concerns. developing choice. Further levels include belonging and love. impulse control. Learning contributes to psychological health. . knowledge of values. 6. the drive to learn is intrinsic. Nurse is a part of the patient s environment. Maslow's theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary phenomenon in the study of human learning and behavior. Define the provisions of this theory. creativity. Environment: it is the background for human interactions. From Maslow's perspective. health involves dynamic life experiences of a human being. Maslow proposed other goals of learning. satisfaction of psychological needs. 3. It involves: a. Maslow's theory of learning highlighted the differences between experiential knowledge and spectator knowledge. Abraham H. (1908-1970) Theory Abraham Maslow has been considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology. sense of accomplishment. awareness of beauty and wonder in life. knowledge to be inferior to experiential. self-esteem. The lowest level of needs are physiological and survival needs such as hunger and thirst. b. and the goals of educators should include this process.

from empirical evidence. Examine the meaning or significance of the theory. It is also a determinant of the weakness and strengths of theory. Theory analysis provides a means of combining concepts and statements in a new way that could offer insights and provide new hypothesis. Theory synthesis results lay bares the conceptual structure and linkages of extant knowledge about phenomenon. Theory formulation can be an important contribution of every nurse practitioner to the field of nursing.7. a. and theory synthesis. theory derivation. an interrelated system of ideas. c. b. Discuss the three major steps in theory construction. To determine the origin of the theory. Theory Derivation. ii. . Theory derivation is very useful because somehow it serves as guidelines for another people to improve theories about it. The guidelines to keep in mind for this step: provides a concepts or a new structure for the concepts that might produce an interesting new unifying idea. Theory analysis truly understands the meaning of one framework. Theory Synthesis is a systematic aimed at constructing theory. The three major steps in theory constructions are theory analysis. Meaning it provides another answer or an intelligent guess. iii.

as described by Freud. This theory was introduced by Harry Stack Sullivan. if a child sees that a certain individual feels pain when getting injected. He says that it happens when an animal or human learns to associate a neutral stimulus (signal) with a stimulus that has intrinsic meaning based on how closely in time the two stimuli are presented. are the fear of abandonment by or the loss of the loved one (the object). the researchers will also base this study on the Learning Theory by Ivan Pavlov. Anxiety is caused by exposure to early life fearful experiences. It institutes that anxiety is the appropriate mechanism of defense against certain danger situations. As he gets older. character and impulse disorders. anxiety results when the individual doubts his or her ability to cope with the situation that causes him or her stress (1996). Another theory is the Behavioral Theory that says that anxiety is a product of frustration. . The stress brought about by his lack of confidence consequently turns into anxiety. and perversions. the risk of losing the objects love. Pavlov mentions Classical Conditioning. Thus. In addition. and finally the hazard of reproach by the superego. There is also the Interpersonal Theory that states the cause of anxiety is fear of interpersonal rejection. Under this theory. as well as sublimations. anxiety is seen both as a response to learned cues and as a drive. symptom formation. For example. represent compromise formations different forms of adaptive integration that the ego tries to achieve through more or less successfully reconciling the different forces in the mind. One of them is the Psychoanalytic Theory discovered by Sigmund Freud. These danger situations.Theoretical Framework The researchers will base this study on a number of theories. or motivator of behavior. the danger of retaliation and punishment. According to hardy et al. In Learning Theory. It holds that personality development and mental disorder such as panic disorder are determined primarily by the interplay of personal and social forces rather than constitutional factors in the individual. he would feel anxious when he sees a syringe because he associates it with pain through what he witnessed when he was younger.