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1. Universal literacy. = ∞ 2. Local control. = φ 3. Public education. = ¶ 4. Comprehensive education. = © 5. Secular education. = ± 6. Essential or basic subjects.

= π
The symbols on near each event and person represent which theme(s) they contributed to or represented in history.

In the 17th century many came to America searching for religious freedom.

Religious freedom

The search for religious freedom led to many people learning how to read the religious scripts, and then to the creation of schools.



Literacy created the ability to teach kids the ability to understand and read Latin.

With the new push for education many found it essential for there to be mandated schools, and thus the Old Deluder Satan Act and Massachusetts Act of 1642 were created to mandate towns to have public schools.

Old DeLuder Satan Act (1647)

Massachusetts Act of 1642


Grammar schools were created to provide a precollege education.

Schools started to focus on more than just the Bible, but basic skills such as reading, spelling and aritmetic. Men and women could teach, and both boys and girls were given an education in Dame schools.

Reading, spelling and the Bible

Education becomes a civil responsibility of the state

The first time control of education is mentioned formally.

Important People of the Colonial Period

Ben Franklin
Developed practical curriculum where students learned skills applicable to different trades.

Thomas Locke
Tabula Rasa

Elias Neau
Provided Education for African Americans and Native Americans

The Puritans Quakers
Philanthropic schools of thought Created the first public schools

Proposed a movement away from secular education.

Believed children were blank slates and needed to be taught, and formed into good citizens.

Opened many schools for African Americans and Native Americans in the North.

Was one of the first groups to mandate attendance at schools

His schools were sponsored by the Church of England

Led to the first Supreme Court case of segregation

Forced many parents and guardians to pay the teachers of the local school

This period was marked by progessive education. Many ideas were centered around what was interesting to the individual.


Education had such positive reactions and support that many were able to become educated during the golden ages of the Roaring ‘20s, following their own interests in school.

After World War II the dynamic of education shifted dynamically. The progressive era started to die off, as schools no longer had the funding to teach to each individual's interests.

World War II

Laboratory Schools

Laboratory and Montessori schools especially focused on individual’s interests, special needs and development .

The United States fluorished during the 1920's and 1940's which attracted many immigrants to the country, a main focus of schools was to assimilate them into American culture. After WWII, Roosevelt passed a law giving veterans tuition to attend schools.


G.I. Bill of Rights

Montessori Schools

Important People of the Global Presence and Immigration Period

John Dewey

Maria Montessori
Created developmental schools for young, developing children

Franklin D. Roosevelt
President during most of World War II, and created many jobs during the Great Depression

Mary Bethune
She advocated for equal education for African Americans and the rights they had to public education.

Created laboratory schools with his wife

Laboratory schools were child centered and committed to following students' leads and interests

She used materials and exercises to develop an interest of learning in children, allowing them to become confident in their skills

Signed the G.I. Bill of Rights that gave veterans money for tuition, to attend colleges and become educated.

Created schools for African Americans. Especially focusing on the education of African American girls.

Important People of the Modern Period

Martin Luther King Jr.
Was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement

Bill Gates
Owner and founder of Microsoft Computers

Lyndon B. Johnson
Was president during most of the Civil Rights Movement and advocated for a "Great Society"

John F. Kennedy
Was president during the Space Race

His influence led to social reforms throughout the country and led to universal education in the US

Computers allowed for educational ideas and philosophies to spread throughout the world

The Great Society saw many social reforms. Gender, race and disability laws were all put into place to ensure equal rights

His demand for schools to focus on science and math led to many technological inventions, such as space ships and computers

The civil rights finally brought guaranteed comprehensive education to the youth of America.

Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement didn’t only spark social reform but also sparked a revolution in education. With desegregation, technology and philosophies coming into play.

During the same time, the "Great Society" was reforming social standards and Americans were racing to out smart the Russians in science.

The Great Society

A Nation at Risk

Race to the Moon

From the "Great Society" we received new laws about gender and race in schools. And with the Space Race came a focus in math and science.

Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Title IX

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

Math & Science

We have reached modern times of computers and smart phones where we still focus on comprehensive education, knowledge of basic subjects and universal literacy, FOR ALL.

No Child Left Behind Act

Education for All Handicapped Children Act



Important People of the Late Nationalization Period

Abraham Lincoln
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)

Andrew Carnegie
A philanthropic owner of steel factories

Justin Morrill
Encouraged the growth of higher public education as the country grew west

Booker T. Washington
One of the first very well educated African Americans, became the first African American professor.

Gave freedom to the slaves after the Civil War leading to oppurtunities of comrehensive education and universal literacy in the United States.

Created funding for many public libraries throughout the United States, also developing literacy and supplementing comprehensive education.

Created the Morrill Land-Grant Act which gave states the ability to rent and sell land to fund agricultural and mechanical public colleges

Created the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, supporting comprehensive education throughout the US and especially in the South

With the end of the Civil War, the nation started to unite again, and with this developed new ideas leading to the Industrial Revolution.

Civil War

Approaching modern times, ideas and systems are starting to synthesize into the organizations and systems present in our current educational system.

With the uniting of the North and South after the Civil War, came the ideas and technologies that connected the West to the East, accompanying were new ideas and organizational methods for education.

Industrial Revolution

Emancipation Proclamation

Westward Expansion

We start to see resources for people outside of schools, urban communities create school systems around work environments, the beginning of education for all races, and new state funding of public colleges.


Factory Schools

Education for African Americans

Morrill LandGrant Act

The Late Nationalization period brought about a focus of comprehensive education. Education for all races, ages, and specialties. It also shifts some power back to the federal government with the formations of the committies of Ten and of Fifteen.

Universal Literacy


Tuskegee Institute

State Funded Colleges

The middle nationalization period was marked by the movement towards state supported schools.

Common Schools

With common schools we see a strong push for the teaching of essential and basic subjects throughout a child’s schooling.

Horace Mann led the charge to create a more effective public school system. New inventions like McGuffey's Readers helped develop the students abilities in these new public schools.

Horace Mann

Child Centered Education

McGuffey's Readers

The readers promoted universal literacy in all ages.

The local control shifts more towards the new school districts but still is highest with the states.

Normal Schools and more efficient teachers

Advanced Public Education Systems

Pestalozzi, Herbart and Froebel

The 3 men mentioned turned the focus of education from educating the masses to focusing on the individual.

Important People of the Middle Nationalization Period

Horace Mann
Proposed the idea of common (public) schools and school districts

W. H. McGuffey
Created the McGuffey Readers for reading levels 1st-6th grade

Pestalozzi, Herbart, Froebel
Pestalozzi focused on teaching to a learner's intuition and moving from essential and basic concepts into complex ideas interesting to the learner.

Catherine Beecher
An advocate for normal schools where teachers were taught how to instruct more effectively in their classrooms.

Published journals and reports about his educational beliefs and observations he had made in other countries

Taught both adults and children how to read as well as develop good study habits

Herbart declared that formal and rigorous education is the best way to form productive citizens.

Froebel created the first kindergartens and focused on the importance of activity and play in a child's learning.

Also advocated for equal gender opportunities in education, learning and teaching

Important People of the Early Nationalization Period

Thomas Jefferson
His philosophy paved the way for free public education for all whites.

Benjamin Franklin
Developed academies that accepted students without regard to their religious beliefs.

Sarah Pierce
Created academies for women to develop their skills as wives and homemakers

Noah Webster

Created the first dictionaries

He also worked to develop the University of Virginia

Called for the education of essential and basic subject matters

Paved the way for female seminaries where higher education was possible for females

Created a more literate generation who was able to fully understand the English language

The early nationalization period was characterized by the American secession from England.

American Independence

Took place in the eastern part of the United States during the 1770’s.

With the new independence came new schools of thought and the need to implement educational systems and orginizations.

Educational systems


Religious texts were no longer the most prominent reading material in schools.

New, more effective forms of educational opportunities and tools were being invented to increase intellectual abilities.


Public Schools


Independence gave way to a new revolution, an educational revolution

Non-Secular Public Instruction

Wide Range of Subjects

Free Public Education for all white children

Created a broader spectrum of literacy