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January 19 Aesthetics - The study of everything within the art piece. It’s a branch of philosophy.

What makes a good work of art a good piece? How we judge a work of art. There are objective aesthetics in which there is a comparison between the piece and an ideal. Style – Everyone has a different personality, and every artist has a different style. A characteristic of handling technique, form, and design. (i.e. contrast, color, shapes, lines, figures, brushstrokes). A consistent handling of design. Some groups have a style as a whole (i.e. analytical cubism). Form/content – Form is what you see. Content is the meaning of what you see. Form is made up of light, shadow, composition, brushstrokes, etc. Abstract – Anything that is distorted in someway apart from reality. Sometimes non-objective art is abstract because there is nothing in our world that looks somewhat the same. Mass/volume – Height, width, depth. The three-dimensional piece takes up space. Positive and negative space. Positive is the solid object within an art piece. Negative space is the nothingness around the piece. They can all work together. Picture plane – A two dimensional surface (height & width). Imaginary depth is when we divide the picture up into different planes to give a look of depth without true depth. Perspective – Smaller in the background, bigger in the foreground. Foreground - Linear perspective contains overlapping. Sharp images. Middle ground – Usually the main focus, between the foreground and background Background - Atmospheric perspective is when farther things look hazy and less detailed. Foreshortening – Showing an angle receding into space (modern art rejects this). January 26 Background to Modern Art Louis the XIV (the sun king) ruled France in the Brouque Period (1600s) Style, fashion, wealth, sophistication, elegance, control He built the Royal French Academy of Art in 1648 (classicism) The aesthetics of Louis XIV were shown through Greek statues Nicholas Poussin is a painter in the French Brougue Period “It’s all there, and yet it isn’t” Crisp, clearn, defined, bold, intellectual standpoint Ruben “Garden of Love” 1650 Sexy women and men, cupids, flirting and falling in love Dreamlike, fuzzy, emotional standpoint Rococo Period (1700s) Party period after Louis XIV’s death Dangerous Lerazons (Movie about the 1700s) Anton Watteau (1800s) Any stringed instrument being played means love and flirtation Dreamlike landscape and atmosphere, John Fragonaid began as a court painter and painted a lot for mistresses He was extremely wealthy, but dies alone, povershed, and poor Swing is symbolic of women because women “swing” and change their mind Love, flirtation, sex Elizabeth Vigee-Levrun was a woman artist, which was rare She was born into an aristocrat family Her self portrait is modest, but shows herself in the workplace as a painter Official court painter for Marie Antoinette (last queen of France) Two vicious rumors: “Let them eat cake” and molested 7 year old son She gambled, she bought beautiful things, didn’t understand government Louis the XVI wanted a constitutional monarchy, but Marie said no The Romantic Period (1760-1850) Neoclassicism and Romanticism – feeling something truthful, real, and moral Neoclassicism (new classicism) – no brush strokes, paintings look like photographs Fuseli “Nightmare” 1799 Wincleman was a German anthropologist, archeologist, and scholar Benjamin West was an American painter “Death of General Wolf” (1771) Lived most of his adult life in Europe. Angelica Kuffman (1741-1807) a woman artist, born into an art family “Myself with the Muse of Music” Equally talented in music and in art “Cornelia Showing Her Children as Her Treasures” (1785) very warm color tones, Cornelia is wearing white – purity, family morality, balanced, stable, organized, rational, idealized figures Jacques Louis David “Death of Socrates” (1787) 2 years before the French Revolution

idealized. When edges are not finished. Used a dry brush for rough edges. increased the harshness of the image. Did oil paintings and sketches of the dead bodies in the morgue. light. truthful. Realist) “Rou Transnonain” (1834) was a print depicting a man shot dead in his bed by policemen/soldiers “Third-Class Carriage” (1863-1865) shows the crowded mess of people traveling Courvet was outspoken and painted real people within the context of their real existence His aim was to “create a living art” and “must contain only things that are real and existent” “Show me an angel. long broad brush strokes. can’t see eyes “Sower” (1850) is a dark painting. sinister. can’t see eyes. man against the elements. mundane. evil. protest to Romanticism Millet was apart of a group of painters called the Barbason School (small town outside of Paris) “The Washer Woman” (1861) is real. and sculptor. motion is implied John Ingres – head of the World French Academy of Art Self-portrait: wants us to know he’s a confident artist with good looks and sophistication He was archenemies with Delacroix (sophisticated artist vs. Represented urban poor. surrounded by his nightmares. Explain Yourself” (1857) criticizing the judicial system Battle it out in the streets of Paris paintbrush vs. It’s a two dimensional art. very far from classicism Distorted figures give viewers the feeling of how the subjects must have felt What would you fight and die for? Goya “The Black Paintings” (1819-1823) Goya suffered from PTSD. he ate them. printmaker. takes up the whole canvas (that person is important) “Gleaners” (1857) is a form of social welfare: after fields are harvested. “You have the Floor. avant-garde artist) Constable “Haywain” (1820) Emphasis on the beauty of nature William Turner “The Slave Ship” (1840) Master of atmosphere. So. and time devours us all. mysterious Delacroix “Death of Sardanapalus” (1826) Delacroix – naked woman lying No sharp edges. painter. “Saturn Devouring His Children” (1820) Saturn (Chronos) was told he would be overthrown by one of his children. and I’ll paint one” What is the reality of painting? A surface upon which color is applied. dark. lived alone. “Portrait of Charles Baudelaire” (1848) . pencil (Romantic vs. We are all children of time. the poor can pick up the remainings Daumier was a cartoonist. women are weeping “Death of Murah” (1793) Robespierre was a psychopath who was handling the revolution February 2 Romanticism – more emotional (and darker) than neoclassicism Goya “3rd of May 1808” or “3rd of May” (1814) French troops are executing Madrid peasants Believed that Goya actually witnessed this execution The white shirt on the man being executed brings your eye straight to him Light around the figures. sometimes he becomes very abstract February 9 The Realist Movement (And Responses to it) The Avant-guarde and the Traditional in the Mind-19th Century The grim and harsh reality. Zeus was the one that escaped.Socrates is a Greek philosopher who called into question the methods of government He was arrested because of his criticism of the government “Herashia” (1784) swearing on swords. dark colors. survived by cannibalism. Frans Hals “Male Babbe” (1630) Theodore Gericault “Mad Women” (1822-23) The Industrial Revolution (Age of Science) 1800s Mentally ill were horribly mistreated in Pedlams (the institutions where they lived) Gericault “The Raft of Medusa” (1820) Story of bedrail. Gericault “Portrait of Eugene Delacroix” Sense of awe. But. Tried to paint out his worst fantasies.

but not practical things because the cost was higher “Ophelia” by Millais “King Cophetua & the Begger Maid” by Burne-Jones Academic Painting Bouguereau is conservative. one-of-a-kind things) Believed the Industrial revolution was dehumanizing Produced beautiful things.“The burial at Ornans” (1849) is a painting of Courvet’s grandfather’s funeral salon – an art show in which the winners painting would be displayed “The Encounter (Bonjour Monsieur Courbet)” (1854) “The Stone Cutters” (1849) The dignity of laborers “The Artist’s Studio: A Real Allegory of Seven Years of My Life as a Painter” (1854) February 16 Manet was conservative and wanted to win the French Medal of the Legion of Honor “The Spanish Guitar Player” (1860) “Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (The Lunchin on the Grass)” (1863) Most insulting and difficult paintings because it is a very sexual painting “Olympia” (1865) The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Arts and Craft movement was a response to the Industrial Revolution (producing hand-made. but academic .